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Permaculture Design Report

May 2012

Supported by:

The aim of this report is to collate the lessons and learning from the Somerset Land and Food Project as a way of supporting the design and building of a sustainable local food system in Somerset. In November 2011, at the end of year two of the project, I was recruited to cover the maternity leave of one staff team member. Having completed my permaculture design course in 2009 and currently undertaking the diploma, it was logical to seek to apply the principles of permaculture to my work as a part-time Project Officer. About the Somerset Land & Food Project The Somerset Land & Food Project is a three year project, launched in 2009 and funded by the Big Lottery. It is managed by local charity, Somerset Community Food a grassroots charity in Somerset which aims to re-connect people with the social, health and environmental effects of growing, buying, preparing and eating local food. The project involves two paid staff members Linda Hull (full time) and myself (part time) as well as four trustees acting on a Project Management Group (all volunteers). The main project aims are to: Match available land with local community groups interested in growing food. We do this by organising conferences and events, as well as through mapping demand and availability of land on our website foodmapper. Develop the range of skills that will enable many more people to access affordable, locally grown and healthy food. We do this through our growing training and support for projects where people can learn these skills. We aim to capture local skills through our knowledgebank. We have the ambitious target of converting 100 hectares of land around 10 market towns into community food production by the end of 2012.

About Food Mapper Food Mapper is a digital mapping tool developed as part of the Somerset Land & Food Project with company Geofutures. It is designed to capture and utilise local knowledge to map supply and demand of land for the community based production of food. Registration is free and users can add the following to the map: Potential land for community use Land in community use with a waiting list (for example an allotment) Land already in community use Groups looking for land Local food initiatives (such as food co-ops, seed savings groups, horticultural societies)

Local food initiatve events (such as plant swaps) Local food producers

What is Permaculture?
Permaculture is a process of design based around principles in the natural world, of cooperation with people and landscape, the creation of mutually beneficial relationships, and translating these principles into actions. Natural systems are self-making, self-organising, highly resilient and adaptable, which is why we try to apply their principles to our gardens and systems that we are managing for our needs. Permaculture Ethics Three core ethics lay the foundation to every permaculture design and inform every decision in the design process: Earth Care: Permaculture is about working with nature not against it, systems should be designed so that resources are used sustainably. All species need to be considered and designed for in designs. People Care: People care is about caring and acting for future generations as well as each other. Self-reliance, co-operation and mutual support should be encouraged. Systems also have to be designed to meet human and social needs. Fairshares: Fair shares means limiting consumption and working for everyone to have access to the fundamental needs of life. Surplus should be equitably distributed. Permaculture Principles Permaculture principles are formed from observations of natural systems and successful human communities, they include:

Work with Nature: Work with the elements, climatic factors, native species and natural processes so that we assist rather than impede natural developments. The problem is the solution: Everything works both ways in nature, we can use elements to our benefit e.g. a wind can bring coolness. Make the least change for the greatest effect. The yield of a system is theoretically unlimited what limits our gardens and systems is only our knowledge and imagination. Everything gardens everything effects its own environment. Multifunction everything in nature has multiple functions, so every component in the design should function in many ways. Produce no waste nothing is wasted in nature, everything is food for everything else.

Non land-based designs Originally permaculture, also known as permanent agriculture, was mainly develop as a system of sustainable land use. However the principles gained from permaculture that is the study of natural systems and indegenous knowledge basis are increasingly finding useful application for non land-based designs. People are applying the principles to everything from self development to business planning.

Incredible Edible Somerset Design Process

Overview of the Design Process To prepare this design I have used the common permaculture design tool called SADIMET: o Survey: This relates to the first permaculture principle of observe & interact. For this project the survey element relates to: Mapping the supply and demand of land for community food production using FoodMapper Undertaking an extensive survey of Parish Councils in Somerset Collating observations from year 1 & 2 of the Somerset Land & Food Project Undertaking a general public survey using Survey Monkey Undertaking a literature review Analysis: This involves looking at all of the information collected above and systematically analyzing it so we can better decide the placement of components and their relationships. A key part is looking at functions, systems and components and the links between them. Design tools used in this stage have included: Identifying the unique functions of bioregional ecological systems and their potential correlation with Incredible Edible Somerset Identifying key factors in landscape ecology and their application to the Incredible Edible Somerset Design Applying David Holmgrens developed permaculture principles to the context of Incredible Edible Somerset Creating a problem is the solution table to search for solutions Undertaking a STEEPLE Analysis

Design: Through analysing our observations we can identify what we are trying to achieve with the design and we look at what systems and elements can fulfill our desired and needed functions. In a land-based consultancy, concept plans would be drawn which are then discussed and reviewed together with the client. In this design project, a proposal was made to my colleague and Project Management Group which was then further discussed and then implemented. There have been several design phases within this project: Phase 1 Design of SLAF year three Phase 2 Design of grant application for year four of project & re-design of year three pattern to accomodate Phase 3 Design of Incredible Edible Somerset beyond Big Lottery funding Implementation: The implementation of this design is documented in the appendices following implementation plans created in the design process. Maintenance: In a land-based design the maintenance aspect may involve a number of things, for Incredible Edible Somerset that has related to ongoing necessary tasks to keep the system functioning e.g. updating the website. Evaluation: Our evaluation of this design has been undertaken in a number of formats: Quarterly reports for the Big Lottery Observation at events Project Management Group Meetings

Tweak: Every design can be tweaked for maximum yields. When managing a community project, so many factors are at play that tweaking is an inevitable part of the process.

Collating Observations I was very fortunate that when I joined the team, my colleague Linda had undertaken an amount of evaluative work before the commencement of my role, including: o o Connecting the dots some initial thoughts & priorities for year 3 (link) Progress summary by outcome (link)

It was with these documents that I collated the observations and made suggestions for redesign protential below:

Area of Work Statutory provision of land

Observation Waiting lists are not always robust indicator of demand for land

Re-design Potential Can we develop an complementary set of indicators? Or work out from population density what social need would be? Encourage new sites to develop half or third size plots Support community gardens vs allotments Support development of gardenshare or allotment share projects - Lobby for changes in food policy to ensure that land is still protected for food growing - Work with housing associations & providers to design for food growing spaces Make a register of landowners will to consider leasing land for community use - Promote benefits of this at special landowner events - Promote cash models e.g. CSAs that can formally lease land - Public outreach can heighten awareness of the importance of food growing - Encourage community garden models that benefit the community more widely e.g. children & families - Organise looking for land public events as a way of gaging demand - Develop relationships with parish councillors SCF does not have capacity to campaign, IES if independent could play this role locally to agitate for protection of county farms As above, IES could lobby for a

Statutory provision of land

Some councils cite quick turnover of new allotmenteers

Statutory provision of land

Councils are in competition with housing & retail developers for land, making prices unrealistically high for leasing for food growing

Statutory provision of land

Some councils do not have the cash to buy new land, nor is land available to be bought near enough to where people want it.

Statutory provision of land

Parish councils told us they can find it hard to justify to the rest of the electorate why so much should be spent on meeting the needs of one small section of the community

Statutory provision of land Policy & Planning

Parish councils often control waiting lists and it can be difficult for a third party to reach those on the list. Sell off of county owned farms

Policy &

Lack of food policy on local council or

Planning Local infrastructure

county council agendas There is an absence of shared knowledge or collated information on active projects & organisations. There are no distinct federations of allotments site associations. Voluntary & unsupported individuals driving forward action are frequently faced with issues that demand specific expertise to overcome Community groups often face planning challenges that require specialist knowledge & often incur expensive costs

beneficial, enabling food policy Complete survey using foodmapper. Make food webs visible through IES ning & foodmapper. Organise a training weekend with Alan Cavill? Prepare an access to land course for community groups Develop community land advisory service or similar model Capture people through knowledgebank that are able to help with planning applications

Skills & Resources

Policy & Planning

Creating a Base Map Mapping the supply and demand of land for community food production using FoodMapper The key beginning of any permaculture design is creating a base map, which maps any relevant information that will be useful later on in the designing process. Through the creation of Food Mapper, Somerset Community Food has effectively been able to create a base map for Somerset. While there are still gaps in data, it is still a comprehensive survey of provision and demand for land in Somerset. From January until May 2012, a comprehensive survey of allotment provision was undertaken by Linda Hull, who painstakingly called every Parish Council in Somerset to gauge availability and waiting lists for allotments. This was undertaken on a district-by-district basis and you can see the results of the survey in the appendices. This process has given us a unique picture of access and demand for land across the County. The results of which can be summarised in in this diagram developed by Geofutures. In combination with the survey of allotment provision, for each district a handout was designed for each event listing opportunities to get involved in local food, such as community gardens, food coops and so forth. This was a surveying process in itself and helped us to gauage the health of the grassroots. See the handouts in the appendices also. Undertaking a survey of the general public (marketed to Glastonbury Residents) In the summer before working formally at Somerset Community Food, the Transition Glastonbury Food Group that I organise with undertook a survey as to guage what would be the most effective placement of our efforts. This also informed the pattern for Incredible Edible Somerset.

Literature Review Another big part of designing a county-wide community food project has been learning from other food projects, permaculture initiatives, food sovereignty social movements and more. In my resource review (link) for this design you can see the numerous resources I have used and integrated into my design thinking that I refer to throughout this document.

Bioregional design approaches In approaching the design of a county-wide land & food project, I have aimed to explore models of regional approaches that are broader than small scale systems. What is a bioregion? According to the Insititute of Bioregional studies, a bioregion, or "life region," is: The basic geographic unit that integrates human governance within ecological law. It is an area of "soft perimeters" characterized by similar flora and fauna, climate, geology, human language and culture, and drained by a cohesive system of watersheds. As an emerging way of thinking and being in the world, learning to live within the limits of the place we inhabit in a sustainable manner teaches us to value the local and regional. Rooted in ecological wisdom, the bioregional movement synthesizes permaculture, watershed management, and home ecology as practical skills, to be used alongside more philosophical efforts that forsee the revitalization of places, people and local cultures. Somerset as a county clearly does not necessitate bioregional boundaries due to its vast distances and diverse growing environments, however, bioregionalism is still a useful concept providing an established body of work that can be used to compliment the design of broader geographic initiatives beyond local projects. Somerset as a county has a unique regional identity with many similar land and food related elements across the county, such as orchards. Food Sheds Foodsheds have been described by Jack Kloppenberg as self-reliant, locally or regionally based food systems comprised of diversified farms using sustainable practices to supply fresher, more nutritious food stuffs to small-scale processors and consumers to whom producers are linked by the bonds of community as well as economy Therefore in designing Incredible Edible Somerset it has been essential to undertake a systemsorientated design approach, as we are designing at multiple scales in multiple systems throughout Somerset while also designing for Incredible Edible Somerset as a system itself. What is the role of the regional network or umbrella group?

With so much emphasis on local, small-scale diversified systems, it begs the question where does that leave the role and tasks of a regional group. The most common use of the term ecosystem is in a localised sense referring to a distinct and coherent assemblage of organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. It is supposed to represent a bounded, self-maintaining system of varied, living and non-living, interacting parts (Brunckhorst, 95) . However in landscape ecology there is a broader variety of processes and dynamics. The functions of elements at a bioregional scale could include: Table 1: Unique functions of Bioregional Ecological Systems and potential correlation with Incredible Edible Somerset Ecological Systems Diversity Reproduction Between species & gene pools. Related to the above, landscape scale spaces are needed for genetic diversity from reproduction & crosspollination. Nutrients are cycled on a landscape (biospheric!) scale e.g. salmon returning to the forests Nutrients are captured e.g. in the soil, or lacking elsewhere. Movement of energy from high to low areas of pressure. All wild species that need to move for survival, reproduction etc need corridors in which to travel which is why habitat fragmentation has had such negative impacts on wildlife populations Within a bioregion there are diverse habitats from meadows to coastlines to woodland edges, each with their own species assemblies Incredible Edible Somerset Way of showcasing diversity of local projects & meeting diverse needs. Cross pollination of ideas. Groups may lack certain skills that others may meet. There are also nutrient flows within the county e.g. people moving from the country to the city, skills & knowledge flowing out of the region. Nutrients e.g. human ability, resources, time, money may be found in sources e.g. towns with rich local culture & many supporters, and could then flow to sinks e.g. deprived areas IES can provide the corridors and linkages (connecting the dots) between fragmented groups & projects

Nutrient flows

Nutrient & Energy sinks & sources

Linkages & corridors for transport & flow

Diversity of habitats

There is no one size fits all methodology. Somerset has unique social, economic & ecological habitats that will need diverse approaches & differing support. Likewise there are different local identities.

Table 2: Factors in Landscape Ecology and their application to the Incredible Edible Somerset Design Landscape Factors Limiting Factors Ecology Ecological factors that control the growth & succession of a plant community e.g. available moisture, available nutrients, climatic limits Natural phenomena that usually trigger a sudden major shift or change in an ecosystem e.g. fire, flood or drought Dominating factors in ecosystem setting that may determine ecosystems succession e.g. soil Represent the connectivity of subsytems of a landscape e.g. edge effect Applied to IES design What are the limiting factors to supporting people to grow? How can these be designed around? E.g. time, energy, money, land What trigger shifts could be expected in coming years? E.g. peak oil, economic collapse, how can we design for these? We must remain aware of dominating factors in the development of projects we support e.g. socio-cultural & economic backdrops Umbrella groups can create opportunities for connectivity between different projects

Trigger Factors

Conditioning Factors

Integrating Factors

Therefore it is clear that an effective regional or umbrella orientated organisation plays the following roles: Supporting nutrient flows: that is organising to enhance the flow of resources including time, money, skills & knowledge to sink areas. Supporting diversity: allowing cross pollination of ideas & solutions to areas beyond those of local projects. Through identifying diverse enterprises Providing corridors: becoming the connectors between different elements e.g. project to project, or landseeker to landowner Playing a successionary role: that is, like in plant communities, creating the right conditions for growth e.g. recognising determining factors (such as access to land) and enhancing these

Applying Permaculture Principles Following an exploration of regional models, I then wanted to use the permaculture principles developed by David Holmgren as a lens with which to view Incredible Edible Somerset. Permaculture Principle 1. Observe & Interact Meaning By taking time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation. Applied to Incredible Edible Somerset - Full survey is neccessary e.g. foodmapper - Need to collate all observations from SLAF experience & those of case studies - Any interventions need to undertaken with care, creativity and efficiency - In year 3 of SLAF we need to catch & store all of our resources used throughout the project e.g. contacts, handouts, local knowledge - Saving energy as organisers - how can we maximise impact through least work? - Knowledgebank is capturing knowledge & contacts for use in times of need - Are there areas of work that better honour natural capital (like soil) which would leverage our efforts e.g. Is working with broadscale farmers more beneficial than a community garden? - How is IES going to be funded? How can we get paid for this work so that it is sustainable & takes priority in our lives? - What yields can we capture from SLAF in year 3? E.g. skills directory, local food guides - How can we be sure were obtaining a yield e.g. number of projects? - Is there a way we can not be dependent on grant funding in future ? - How can we integrate self-auditing processes so that we can re-design for our work to be most effective it can be?

2. Catch & Store Energy

By developing systems that collect resources at peak abundance, we can use them in times of need.

3. Obtain a Yield

Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing.

4. Apply selfregulation and accept feedback

We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well.

5. Use and value renewable resources and services

Make the best use of nature's abundance to reduce our consumptive behavior and dependence on non-renewable resources. By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste.

- What passive functions can we embrace e.g. by creating a ning people will be updating the site themselves saving the team work. - How can we design for longevity both for the project and its outcomes? - We need to recognize where we are bleeding so we can make beneficial design decisions to keep energy and resources within the system e.g. time spent on unneccesary admin - Where in Somerset are we bleeding too? E.g. labour loss to out of county - See IES in its wider political, social and economic contexts (see PESTLE analysis) - Look at regional relationships - Look at broader vision before designing workplans In permaculture systems each element should perform many functions (at least three is a common approach) and each function should be supported by several elements. With IES how can we make our work multifunctional? - How can we work in partnership with others? - How can we not repeat our work & use the resources created by others? How can we keep IES as grassroots as possible so that we are close to the ground in terms of local knowledge, land, resources? Is a worker bee model a potential for beyond SLAF? - How can we work with diverse partners? How can we maintain diversity in our approach to meet the different niches of Somerset? - What is our own niche amongst the numerous community organisations in the county or national land related groups? - We need to embrace the different cultural edges of Somerset e.g. rich &

6. Produce no waste

7. Design from patterns to details

By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go. By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other.

8. Integrate rather than segregate

9. Use small and slow solutions

Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and producing more sustainable outcomes. Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides.

10. Use and value diversity

11. Use edges and The interface between things value the marginal is where the most interesting

events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system.

poor, town & country, alternative & conservative - Where can we work at the edges? - How can we maximise our own edges so that we support diverse projects & systems? - IES needs to plan not just for current needs but for different outcome scenarios e.g. climate change - How can we design for the very long term & make our work regenerative?

12. Creatively use and respond to change

We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing, and then intervening at the right time.

Problem is the Solution Analysis In reading Lindas evaluative documents, a number of problems where surfacing that were acting as background challenges to making the project a success. I therefore looked at these in closer detail with a problem/solution analysis.

Problem Sparsley populated rural county

Solution See as a positive - rural county means better ability to feed ourselves - More support for rural food growing e.g. farming initiatives vs community food projects

Disconnect between people & food Public education generally Celebrating food & supporting food cultures e.g. harvest shows, shared meals, markets, open gardens etc Underestimation of time, skill & energy required to grow food succcessfully - Prioritise support to those really wanting to grow & who could feed Somerset in future e.g. market gardeners, CSAs - Enhance skills & training efforts so people feel more confident - Support garden share schemes that overcome time & energy barriers - Mimic supermarket model e.g. Peoples supermarkets - Support local retailers to be more diverse in opening times - Provide evidence for local food being more affordable - Promote social benefits of growing your own & supporting local food - Support local campaigns to oppose supermarket developments

Enduring power of the supermarkets to meet our food needs very conveniently & cheaply as we go about our hectic modern lifestyles

- Support local groups to create local food guides

Sector Analysis In permaculture designers, sector analysis looks at all of the energies that are external to a system to see how they effect the system and how they can be designed around. I have used the STEEPLE analysis tool to recognise the sectors in this non land-based design. STEEPLE analysis is a tool used for recognising societal changes, through exploring these elements we can ensure IES is designed to be resilient and needed in our changing climate.

Factors included Social Culture, health consciousness , population rates, age distribution, social attitudes

Analysis for IES *Supermarket culture of convenience *Massive consumption in convenience, fast & highly processed foods *Obesity challenges & diet related health conditions e.g. diabetes, heart disease *Ageing population including only 3% of farmers being under 35 *Positive social attitudes towards growing your own food but still of the tokenistic/feel good approach *Horticulture/farmin g still not valued as a profession

Opportunities *Health care trusts may wish to invest more money in disease prevention e.g. encouraging healthy cooking, more vegetables etc. *Grow your own culture is a positive trend that can be useful for marketing *Ageing of farmers may bring new wave of growers who are more interested in mixed farms & agroecological practices *Value of growers may esculate, as seen in Cuba *IES can use the internet to increase social

Threats *Local food retailers cannot match supermarkets in terms of convenience or variety *Many farms could simply be sold off following retirement


Research & development, technological

*Threats include genetic modification & new biotech

*Food crises may push GM up agenda & apply it without community

landscape of food production, the internet, mobile phone use

technologies *Food distribution network heavily dependant on automated, computer-controlled systems *Increased use of the internet by all areas of society however there is still inequality in access & competence *Mobile phone applications are becoming used to source food outlets, read criteria of food, identify local producers etc.

visibility *Producers can access markets through online platforms *Mobile phone applications could make finding local outlets/produc e easier for many *If supermarket distribution systems crash even temporarily, many will be awoken to the need for local food *Economic pressure may push people to start growing more of their own/create demand for land *Food based enterpises could be promoted as a solution to unemployment crisis *Alternative models to meet food needs may be strengthened e.g. Food coops, CSAs in money-poor economies

support which will threaten growers & biodiversity *Supermarkets have the most to invest in technologies, local projects would be unable to compete


Economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates, inflation, general economic climate

*Current UK recession affecting the ability of business to access capital for start up or for growth *Wider economic pressures e.g. EU causing financial instability *Growing inequalities placing strain on the financial system for reform *Climate of austerity affecting markets *Those in most economic deprivation are largest market for industrial foods *Growing unemployment especially among

*Small local businesses that are integral to the food system may not survive *Austerity budgeting at a household level may effect niche growing markets/increase money spent at supermarkets *Costs of land make private growing inaccesible to most *Costs of living & renting in agricultural areas is disproportionate to wages

young Environmental Weather, climate change, soil erosion, land use *Climate change threatens global food supply *Supermarkets dependent on global markets & other climates *Industrial agricultural practices accelerating soil erosion & habitat destruction *Climate change may ignite growing environmental concern & awareness of industrial systems vulnerability & lead to more people seeking to grow their own food *Degraded farm land may sell for less *New crop options *May be funding opportunities under big society banner *Local green & independents may be more proactive in terms of food policy *GM/biotech will try to show they are solutions to climate change *Price of land may rise even further *Local growers will be affected by changing climate e.g. crop failures, traditional varieties no longer tolerating local conditions


Government interventions, infrastructure, political climate

*Big society push by national government while major cuts in public services *Local government in Somerset no longer supportive of transition *Local green party & independent councillors becoming elected *Planning legislation & application processes have large effect on growing projects & retail outlets *Health & safety legislation *Food policies

*Governments may be more supportive of corporate food business e.g. corporate farms, supermarkets etc. *Local councillors have limited powers


Laws & policies

*Lack of current food policy means it could be influenced by CF movement *Changes in planning legislation may enable new growing enterprises to start

*Legislation heavily weighted in favour of supermarkets/corporate growers *New health & safety legislation could affect small scale growers e.g. like in US *New growing projects could face planning challgenges & NIMBY resistance e.g. allotments


Business ethics, community ethics & attitudes, corruption risks

*Large retailers notoriously undercut suppliers, put local businesses out of business & have disturbing ethical histories in relation to social responsbillity, exploitation of labour etc. *Industrial agriculture/corporat e owned farms also act unethically *Many large corporations can pay off/bribe local councils as they can afford to meet other criteria

*Local food promoted as the ethical alternative, strong marketing angle *Local food enterprises may be more resilient in long term due to having more community support *Local activism is affecting supply chains as retailers have to meet higher standards

*Local producers struggle to compete with corporate prices who force labour costs down etc & dont account for ecological/social effects. *Local campaigners face challenges in relation to planning applications especially when councils are struggling economically

Zone Analysis Zoning is a common tool in permaculture design. The zone system is a conceptual tool to help place elements in the system to save time, energy and labour1. In Gaias Garden2, Toby Hemmingway articulates that zones are based on dynamic relationships. This means to use zoning as a tool to design Incredible Edible Somerset, I have needed to look at the relationships between different elements that make up a community food system. This has given the impression of a nested system, which are common in ecosystems, and I have used the zone model to identify the projects interaction with elements at different levels: Zone 0 1 3 4 5 Food-related activity Diet Gardens Community District County Incredible Edible Somerset role Supporting people to buy local food, resources on how to grow & cook Enabling access to land via growing projects such as allotments, re-skilling in food production Shared resources such as apple presses, farmers markets, seed swaps, CSA projects Lobbying for food policy, transport & distribution routes to market, regional resilience in food supplies Knowledge transfer, support systems for establishing projects, landscape scale projects & awareness

SWOC Analysis SWOC strengths, weaknesses, opportunities & constraints is a useful tool for comparing organizations and approaches. I have used it to analyze the differences between charity, Somerset Community Food and the potential of Incredible Edible Somerset. By identifying areas that SCF do not have the resources or desire to support or facilitate, Incredible Edible Somerset may be able to fulfill a needed niche in Somerset. Strengths Local history Paid, dedicated, trained staff Great for public contact Acceptable budget Developed network & contacts database Weaknesses Dependent on grant funding to continue Charity status disallows campaigning or political action Workload reliant on small staff team and rare volunteer energy Dependent on Trustee support New project, no local history Would be dependent on grant funding initially Workload reliant on small staff team and volunteer energy Opportunities Reputation is a brilliant resource for general awareness raising & press work Grants scheme can offer useful service to local projects Dedicated staff means things can get done Media & engagement opportunities through brand Ability to campaign e.g. county farms, lobby for food policy, be publicly supportive of food sovereignty actions & broaden the scope Constraints Continuity how can the project be continued post-funding? How can resources gained be shared? Mainly local in effect

Somerset Community Food (Charity, paid staff)

Incredible Edible Somerset (Not for profit limited company, potential paid staff otherwise grassroots/DIY effort)

Well known brand from Todmorden More freedom for campaigning activities Many contacts & resources transferred from SLAF project Baseline research already established through SLAF & Food mapper Trustee support/approval not needed

Funding Local engagement may still be the usual suspects, lack of local take up Wider social/ economic/ political forces may be too great