COVER: A contemporary painting pictures Marines of the lst Battalion repelling a Spanish night attack on their position. Searchlights and naval gunfire from the cruiser ass Marblehead support the troops ashore. (Photo courtesy of the National Archives, 127-N-521285)

MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 1895-1899 Anthology and Annotated Bibliography

Compiled and Edited by Jack Shulimson Wanda J. Renfrow Lieutenant Colonel David E . Kelly, U .S . Marine Corps Reserve Evelyn A . Englander

PCN 19000314400


and Lieutenant Colonel Davi d Kelly. is the result of a team effort . selected the articles and mad e the necessary revisions . Mrs . The editors are indebted to the personnel of the Editing and Design section . Mr . Because of their length. like almost all of the works publishe d by the History and Museums Division. the History an d Museums Division decided to take another look at this so-called "Splendid Littl e War" which had such large implications. While the editors altered none of the text in the published articles to confor m with division guidelines. Cathy A . . prepared the selected bibliography of the war and collected most of the illustrations . a member of Marine Corps Reserve Individual Mobilizatio n Augmentee Detachment. Ms . they made certain stylistic revisions for clarity in som e of the unpublished material . Jac k Shulimson. This anthology.Foreword In this the 100th anniversary of the Spanish-American War. not only for the nation at large. who heads the History Writing Unit. Evelyn Englander. W . but als o for the Marine Corps . Wanda Renfrow of the History Writing Unit cop y edited the material and prepared the text for printing . Robert E . the librarian of the History and Museums Division. Kems. USMCR. Rather than another history. Ms . Lieutenant Colonel Kelly also prepared the chronology and listing of the Medal of Honor recipients . both the Commandant's Annual Report for 1898 and James Holden-Rhodes' chapter on the Spanish American War were much condensed . Stephen Hill for thei r assistance and advice in the final preparation . Struder. and Mr . Air Force Academy Cade t First Class Craig Prather assisted in the preparation of the chronology and participated in the final review . Dr . the Division decided to mak e available in one volume some of the rich historical literature about the Marin e participation in the war .


The modem Marine Corps owes its genesis to the Spanish-American Wa r when the United States entered the world stage . In this the 100th anniversary year of the war with Spain, the History and Museums Division decided upon a new publication about the Marine Corps participation in the conflict . At first, the thought was to write a new history, but upon examination of the historical literature of the war, we discovered a trove of new writings (and some old) that de served further exploitation . The upshot is this anthology . The Director Emeritus of the Division, Brigadier General Edwin H . Simmons, Jr ., USMC (Ret), in his revised history, The United States Marines : A History, 3d Edition, U.S . Naval Institute Press, 1998, provides a brief overview o f the Marines in the Spanish-American War . In the chapter reprinted here, "The Spanish-American War," Simmons opens his narrative with the sinking of th e U.S. battleship Maine with Private William Anthony, the Marine orderly, entering the cabin of Captain Charles Sigsbee, saluting smartly, and then stating, "Sir , I beg to report that the Captain's ship is sinking ." The author covers succinctl y the formation and deployment of the 1st Marine Battalion, Marines with Dewe y in the Philippines, the 1st Battalion at Guantanamo, the defeat of the Spanish fleet in Santiago Bay, and the taking of Guam . He then ends with Admira l Dewey's lament that only if he had 5,000 Marines he could have capture d Manila . Lieutenant Colonel David Kelly, USMCR, a member of the Marine Corp s Reserve Individual Mobilization Augmentee Detachment, and a high school history teacher in civilian life, is the author of "The Marines in the Spanish American War, A Brief History ." This was originally to be published by itself , but now has been incorporated into the anthology . In this study, Kelly provides a descriptive account of the Marine participation in the war from the steadiness o f Marine Private William Anthony on board the Maine to the final review of the Marine battalion as it paraded before President William McKinley in Washing ton . He touches in passing upon the heroics of the Marines and sailors involve d in the cutting of the cable south of Cuba, the taking of Cavite Island in the Philippines, the role of Marines on board ship, and especially emphasizes the rapi d deployment of the Marine battalion and its establishment of an advance base fo r the Navy on Guantanamo . According to Kelly, "The War with Spain gave th e Marines the opportunity to show the Navy and, more importantly, the nation, th e many roles that Marines were in a unique position to fill as the United States be came a world power." Colonel Allan R . Millett, USMCR (Ret), the General Raymond E . Mason, Jr. Professor of Military History at The Ohio State University, in his seminal history, Semper Fidelis, the History of the United States Marine Corps, provides a more analytical account of the war . According to Millett, the Navy had a n excellent idea of the requirements it needed in a war with Spain, but the role o f the Marine Corps was not so clear . He also disputes the claim of the Marin e v

Corps Commandant Charles Heywood that Marines manning the secondary gun s on board the Navy warships played a vital role in the two major sea battles, Manila Bay and Santiago Bay . Still, the Marines were there on board ship durin g these actions . Marines also helped in destroying cable stations and cutting cables, capturing a lighthouse, and taking Cavite in the Philippines, Apra in Guam , and Ponce in Puerto Rico . All of these activities received a favorable press an d the Marine Corps basked in its public approval . Moreover, while the Navy wa s initially unsure how it was to use Huntington's Marine battalion, it was ready fo r action when the call came . While the battalion's action at Guantanamo may hav e been "a minor skirmish of no consequence to the course of the war," it woul d have "incalculable importance for the Marine Corps," especially at a time when the Army was still in Florida . Even more significantly, the experience of the battalion "suggested to some Navy and Marine officers that the Corps might indee d have an important role to play in the New Navy ." Dr . Jack Shulimson's "Marines in the Spanish-American War" first appeare d in James Bradford, editor, Crucible of Empire, published by the Naval Institut e Press, 1993 . This article, based upon Shulimson's larger work, The Marines Search For A Mission, 1880-1898, Kansas University Press, 1993, focuses o n how the war with Spain delineated the Marine mission and its future relationshi p with the Navy in the new century . Like Millet, Shulimson, who heads the History Writing Unit at the Marine Corps Historical Center, notes the detailed Nav y war plans against Spain and also emphasizes the vagueness of the Marine mission . Most of the wartime emergency funding of the Marine Corps reflected th e traditional Marine roles, yet the Navy very quickly called for the formation of a Marine battalion to serve with the fleet . While treating the general scope of th e war, including service legislation and the integration of new officers, the mai n theme becomes the newly formed Marine battalion and its establishment of a naval advance base at Guantanamo . In some variance from Millett, Shulimson views the Guantanamo campaign as having more significance than a "mino r skirmish ." Until reinforced by some Cuban troops and guides who provided much needed intelligence, the Marine battalion at one time even considere d abandoning their position and reembarking . The seizure of the Cuzco Well wit h the aid of the Cubans secured the advance base . Shulimson also stresses the major differences between the Navy and Army at Santiago about attacking th e Morro and Socapa Heights overlooking and commanding the entry into Santiag o Bay . The Navy wanted the Army reinforced by Marines to make a ground assault on the heights ; the Army wanted the Navy ships to run pass the heights an d support the Army campaign against Santiago City . While the destruction of the Spanish fleet and the surrender of the Spanish Army garrison at Santiago mad e this a moot point, Navy commanders took as a lesson from this experience tha t they could not depend upon the Army to secure land-based sites for naval purposes . For this the Navy required its own land force which it already had in th e Marine Corps. Dr. James F . Holden-Rhodes, Senior Policy Analyst in the Office of the Secretary, Department of Public Safety, State of New Mexico, is the author o f "Crucible of the Corps" which is condensed from his uncompleted biography o f vi

Henry Clay Cochrane . Cochrane as a major served as the executive officer of th e 1st Marine Battalion on Guantanamo . Like Shulimson, Holden-Rhodes hold s that the struggle for Guantanamo was a near thing . He refers to Bowman McCalla's autobiography and Henry Cochrane's diary to support the contentio n that the Marines were ready to evacuate their foothold on Cuban territory . Holden-Rhodes believes that the Guantanamo battle was the linchpin for the en tire Cuban campaign . He asserts that if the Marine battalion had been forced of f Guantanamo there would have been much larger consequences including the de lay and possible abandonment of the Army's larger Santiago operation . Trevor K . Plante, an archivist with the National Archives, is the author o f "New Glory to Its Already Gallant Record, The First Marine Battalion in th e Spanish-American War," published in the Spring, 1998 issue of Prologue, the Journal of the National Archives . Plante also insists upon the importance of th e Guantanamo campaign and like the previous authors observes that the 1st Battalion was a glimpse of the Marine Corps of the future . While providing a more or less traditional interpretation of the battalion experience, he does employ som e new documentation from the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Record Group 24 an d Records of Naval Operating Forces, North Atlantic Station, Correspondenc e with Commanders of Vessels, 1897-99, Record Group 313, all in the Nationa l Archives . Novelist Stephen Crane's impressionistic eyewitness account "The Re d Badge of Courage Was His Wig-Wag Flag" describes the Marine attack on th e Cuzco Well . During the course of the advance, a "spruce young sergeant of Marines, erect, his back to the showering bullets, solemnly and intently wig wagging to the distant [U .S. Navy warship] Dolphin" directed naval gunfire sup port for the Marines . The Marines gained the high ground and took the Spanis h troops under a deadly crossfire . After the successful mission, the Marines re turned to their original lines where they were met by the Sergeant of the Guard : "Sergeant of the Guard! Saintly man! Protector of the Weary! Coffee! Hard tack! Beans! Rest! Sleep! Peace! " One of the most important primary sources for the Marine experience in th e Spanish-American War is the 1898 annual report of the then Colonel Commandant of the Marine Corps, Charles Heywood . The excerpts of Heywood's rathe r voluminous report reprinted in this volume include the organizing and outfittin g of the Marine battalion, the limited wartime expansion of the Corps, and a description of the role of Marines on board ship . Additionally there are copies o f correspondence from Lieutenant Colonel Robert Huntington, the commander o f the Marine battalion, and Marine Captain George Elliott, who led the attack o n Cuzco Well, as well as comments by Commander Bowman H . McCalla, th e naval commander at Guantanamo, relating to the actions ashore . While obviously pleased with the success of the Marine battalion in Cuba, Colonel Hey wood still placed a heavy stress upon the Marines serving with the secondary batteries on board ship which he still viewed as the primary mission of th e Corps . The final article in this series is the unpublished report by Colonel Robert R s.Hul,USMC(Ret)aformsnicuatofer,whdscib vii

Millett . USMC (Ret) . Professor Alla n R. an d the University Press of Virginia for their permission to publish the articles in thi s anthology . The editors and the History and Museums Di vision wish to thank the Naval Institute Press . there are three appendices : a select bibliography. James F . Brigadier General Edwin H . Dr . hi s group reached a consensus on the location of the principal areas occupied by th e battalion including Elliott's route to the Cuzco Well . Simmons. Director Emeritus. a chronology of the war. Trevor K . and a listing of Spanish-American Wa r Marine Medal of Honor holders . vi" . Simon and Schuster. History and Museums Division . Plante .1997 visit to Guantanamo and the results of his team's field research at the scen e to identify the key sites and terrain features of the 1898 activity there . According to Hull. University Pres s of Kansas. with the use of metal detectors and a close study of the ground. USMC (Ret). Colonel Robert R . Hull. Holden-Rhodes . In addition to the articles listed above.

Plante The Red Badge of Courage Was His Wig-Wag Fla g Stephen Crane Report of the Commandant of the United States Marine Corps . Kelly.Table of Content s Foreword Introduction The Spanish-American War Brigadier General Edwin H . Hull. USMC (Ret) Appendices Chronology of Events. 1898 Research Trip to Guantanam o Colonel Robert R . USMCR The Spanish-American War Allan R . Millett Marines in the Spanish-American Wa r Jack Shulimson Crucible of the Corp s James Holden-Rhodes New Glory to Its Already Gallant Record : The First Marine Battalion in the Spanish-American Wa r Trevor K . USMC (Ret) Marines in the Spanish-American War : A Brief History Lieutenant Colonel David E . Simmons. June 1895-May1899 Medals of Honor Selected Annotated Bibliography 14 8 15 3 154 iii v 1 4 31 43 67 79 98 104 12 9 ix .

3 3 .xi 12 8 8 .9 143 x .Illustration s The First Months of the War The Marine Battalion at Guantanamo Victory on Land and Sea Map s Contemporary Map of Guantanamo Bay Marine Battalion at Guantanamo i .

Marines In The Spanish-American War

Map courtesy of National Archives

The contemporary map shown above carried the following handwritten inscription : "The original survey appears hereon but as corrected by the survey made by the 'Columbia' in 1894." This chart was published in June 1898 .

Excerpted from The United States Marines : A History, 3d, Edition, U .S. Nava l Institute Press, 1998, and reprinted with permission of the author and publisher .

The Spanish-American War by Brigadier General Edwin Howard Simmons , USMC (Retired ) Director Emeritus, Marine Corps History and Museum s
There was a sharp report and then a heavier explosion deep in the bowels o f the armored cruiser Maine as she rode at anchor in Havana's harbor on the night of 15 February 1898 . Capt. Charles Sigsbee, interrupted in the writing of a letter to his wife, left his cabin, went out into the smoke-filled passageway, an d stumbled into his Marine orderly . "Sir," said Pvt. William Anthony, drawing himself up to attention an d saluting, "I beg to report that the Captain's ship is sinking ." The Maine had come into the harbor on 25 January . Spanish reception had been cool but correct . Now 232 seamen and twenty-eight marines were dead . 1st . Lt. Albertus W. Catlin, the senior marine, was unharmed . Like his captain, he had been in his stateroom writing a letter home when the explosion occurred . Although no definitive evidence, then or now, connected the Spanish with th e sinking, the cry went up, "Remember the Maine!" On 19 April, Congress passe d a resolution of intervention . Three days later, President McKinley informed th e neutral nations that a state of war existed between the United States and Spain . On 27 April Col . Cmdt. Heywood ordered a Marine battalion formed, an d five days later it sailed from Brooklyn for Key West aboard the ex-banana boat USS Panther. The five rifle companies had the new Lee rifle, a bolt-actio n .236-caliber weapon using smokeless powder . There was also an artillery company equipped with a battery of four 3-inch landing guns . The commandin g officer was Lt . Col . Robert W . Huntington, who had been with Reynolds as a lieutenant at First Manassas and in the Carolinas . In the Pacific, Commodore George Dewey, commanding the Asiati c Squadron, caught Adm . Patricio Montojo's elegant but antique squadron at anchor off Sangley Point, the southwestern lip of Manila Bay, as dawn broke 1 May . He gave his famous order to the captain of his flagship Olympia, "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley ." Battle stations for the marines in Dewey's five cruisers were the rapid-fir e guns of the secondary batteries . For two hours the Americans blazed away , retired for breakfast, then came back and finished the job. Seven Spanish ships were destroyed, three land batteries silenced, 381 Spanish sailors were dead an d many wounded. Dewey had two officers and six men, none of them marines , slightly hurt .

Pascual Cervera in Santiago de Cuba . of the House Naval Affairs Committee . On 14 June. Lean. on 3 May. forty miles from Santiago . "Yes. cadaverous Sgt . Admiral Cervera elected to come out of Santiago . 2 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Two days later. plus a wartim e augmentation of forty-three lieutenants and 1. Dion Williams. Lt . occupy as a coaling station?" asked th e secretary of the Navy . on 21 June. but he needed an advance base close by from which to coal his blockaders . the Spanish water supply (water supply at semiarid Guantanam o has always been a consideration) .580 men . Quick went up on a ridge line to wigwag an adjustment . Elliott . and later chairman. Huntington sent out two companies of marines. landed and raised the flag over Cavit e station .073 men. Rear Adm . The estimated five hundred Spanish defenders were routed. One of the ne w lieutenants. In the Pacific. But there were still thirteen thousand Spanish troops in Manila itself an d a kind of uneasy standoff was maintained until sufficient Army troops coul d arrive to take the city . George F . the Naval Appropriation Act brought the Marin e Corps up to a permanent authorized strength of 3. There was no further fighting of consequence at Guantanamo . Some of Sampson's fleet marines had gone ashore t o reconnoiter . The dispatch boat Dolphin was t o provide naval gunfire support . On 10 June. he had . Sampson ha d bottled up the Spanish fleet under Adm . Sun and heat caused more casualties than Spanis h bullets and command eventually devolved upon Capt . Huntington's battalion landed inside Guantanamo Bay . Cervera's four armored cruisers and three destroyer s were no match for Commodore Winfield Scott Schley's five battleships an d armored cruiser. The marines counted up and foun d their own casualties to be six killed. age 18 (or maybe 16—there is a suspicion that he added tw o years to his age). the Marine detachment from the protected cruise r Baltimore. along with sixt y to seventy Cuban guerrillas. William T. Every Spanish ship was sunk or surrendered ." On 7 June the Panther chugged out of Key West with Huntington's battalio n on board . There was no opposition at the beach. The Dolphin's shells began dropping on the marines' position . to take the well . on 4 May. A Spanish officer came out in a small boat with apologies . "Send me Huntington's Marine battalion . In Washington. the protected cruiser Charleston had approache d Guam and fired twelve rounds with its 3-pounders at old (and abandoned) Fort Santa Cruz . by the end of May. The victory was even mor e lopsided than Manila Bay . Butler. Crux of the matter seemed to b e Cuzco Well. under 1st . In the Caribbean. was a Pennsylvania Quaker named Smedley D ." said Sampson . His father wa s a member. losing his men by ones and twos . Meanwhile. sixteen wounded . He had an inside track to the new commissions . the protected cruiser Marblehead was shellin g Guantanamo. John H . defended by a single decrepit gunboat and a reported seven to nin e thousand Spaniards . First Spanish reaction came at midnight and for the next three days Huntington was sniped a t and harassed. "Can you not take possession of Guantanamo. commissioned on 20 May. On 3 July .

Years later. . Lt. Admira l Dewey said that if he had had five thousand marines embarked with hi s squadron at Manila Bay he could have taken Manila on 1 May and the Philippin e Insurrection might have been avoided. John Twiggs ("Handsome Jack") Myers took the Charleston's marines ashore and th e amenities of surrender were observed . Hostilities ceased on 12 August . in testifying before the House Naval Affairs Committee. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 no powder with which to return the "salute." and had to be informed that a stat e of war existed between Spain and the United States . On 13 August (the apparent extra day was the consequence of a cut cable and the international date line) the America n Army came out of the trenches it had thrown around Manila and entered the city . 1st .

Professionalism grew. Kelly. however. 4 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Marines in the Spanish-American War : A Brief Histor y by Lieutenant Colonel David E . Although neither U ." and that he . with exploits of its heroes emblazoned in newspapers. DeLome said among other things tha t McKinley was "weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd. William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal published on its fron t page an intercepted letter of the Spanish Minister to the United States. and many Navy reformer s questioned the utility of Marines on board naval vessels . the small United States Marine Corps o f 3.S . Despite the discord. more importantly. by the beginning of 1898. William McKinley . President McKinley believe d that his efforts to defuse the situation had borne some fruit . however. The Navy was modernizing its fleet. still hoped for a Spanish military victory over the rebels to save Cuba . including seven future Commandants. an d funding to expand to over twice its 1890 size and at the turn of the centur y would begin to deploy units of regimental size to new colonial outposts in both hemispheres . A strident U . impinge d upon the relations between the United States and Spain . again threatened the Spanish-American relationship . By the end of the war.S . The breakout of a new revolt in 1895." fueled b y the rivalry between the Hearst and Pulitzer newspaper empires aroused American public opinion against Spain with vivid accounts of Spanish "war crimes " and Concentration Camps . would form th e nucleus of a senior officer corps that would lead large combat formations int o the battles of World War I and supervise the development of the Fleet Marin e Corps and modern amphibious warfare . President Grover Cleveland nor his successor. enlisted men. the Marine Corps would enjoy the most public recognition since it s founding. the nation. and many young officers who fought in battles against the Spanish. USMCR Prelude to the Wa r On the eve of the Spanish War.500 men and officers was involved in efforts to justify its traditional roles in a changing world . Spain had relieve d its notorious General Valeriano Weyler and repudiated his reconcentration policy as well as promising some sort of autonomy for Cuba . In the letter. the festering Cuban situation. The War with Spain gave the Marine s the opportunity to show the Navy and. Throughout much of the 19th century. an d popular books . "Yellow Journalism. On 9 February. periodicals. would dash these newborn hopes . The American president was hopeful that diplomacy would end the bloodshed . Enriqu e Dupuy DeLome to a friend . DeLome. wanted war with Spain. Two incidents in early 1898. The Corps would gain additional officers. the man y roles that Marines were in a unique position to fill as the United States became a world power. events outside of their control disturbed the precariou s peace between the two nations . entailing recurrent revolts followed by the inevitable Spanish repression.



for the mother country . A week later, the Spanish government announced De Lome's resignation and issued a formal letter of apology to the United States, bu t by that time, an explosion had ripped apart the U .S . second class battleship US S Maine in Havana Harbor . The sinking of the Maine provided the spark that ignited the war. The McKinley administration intended the visit of the ship to Cuba as part of an effort to relieve the tension between the two countries . When the Maine arrived in early February, 1898, the populace of Havana greeted the ship, sailors of Spain and the U .S . mingled ashore, and the officers attended a bullfight . Then on the evening of 15 February, two distinct blasts roared through the ship at anchor i n the harbor . Captain Charles Sigsbee, USN, had been alone in his cabin writin g letters when the explosions occurred . His orderly, Marine Private William Anthony, collided with him in the smoke-filled passageway outside his cabin, an d informed him that the ship was sinking . When the two got above decks, they sa w a tangle of twisted metal, and Sigsbee ordered the survivors into the water . More than 260 sailors and Marines perished with the sinking of the ship . When word of the disaster reached the United States, the "Yellow Press " went wild with accusations against the treachery of the Spanish . Both the U .S. Navy and the Spanish convened separate boards to investigate the sinking . De spite McKinley's rejection of Spain's offer for a joint investigation, Spanis h authorities in Havana allowed U .S . divers and armor experts to examine the ship . The Spanish board eventually concluded that the sinking was due to internal ex plosions . The U .S . Navy board, however, determined that the blasts had bee n triggered by an external explosion, but assigned no blame . No evidence of an y external explosive device was ever found, but the American public and politicians saw the event as another act of Spanish treachery and clearly blamed Spain for the catastrophe . (A 1976 investigation of the explosion by Admiral H . G. Rickover, USN, concluded that the explosion was actually due to a spontaneou s ignition of bituminous coal dust in the coal bunkers on board, located adjacent t o 1 the Maine forward ammunition magazines .) With Congressional and public pressure demanding action, McKinley gav e the Spanish government until 15 April to take action on general affairs in Cuba . In the interim, Congress appropriated 50 million dollars for the emergency, 3 0 million of that sum for the Navy including the Marine Corps . Colonel Charles Heywood, the Marine Corps Commandant immediatel y took several steps to prepare his Corps for war including the continuing distribution to Marines of the new Winchester-Lee bolt-action, "Straight pull" 6mm , 5-shot, magazine-fed rifles and the necessary ammunition for the weapons . There was also discussion about the formation of Marine expeditionary battalions . While the mission of any Marine battalion was still not specific, on 13 April , Captain William T . Sampson, USN, commanding the North Atlantic Squadron a t Key West, Florida, observed to Navy Secretary John D . Long that if the Navy was to establish a blockade of Cuba, "it will be necessary to hold certain smal l places" and recommended "a battalion of Marines of 400 men, ready to land,



and hold such places ." Sampson wanted this battalion together with its transpor t and supporting field pieces by 20 April . He also asked for the formation of a sec2 ond Marine battalion for the same purpose . After Heywood received verbal orders from Long on 16 April to organize a battalion for expeditionary duty with the North Atlantic Squadron in Caribbea n waters, he stripped the East Coast Marine stations and barracks of men to form a Marine battalion at the Brooklyn Navy Yard . Marines from the barracks a t Newport, Rhode Island ; Washington, D .C.; League Island (Philadelphia) ; Nor folk, Virginia; Annapolis, Maryland ; Portsmouth, New Hampshire; and Boston , Massachusetts; and all receiving ships on the East Coast assembled at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Robert W . Hunting ton, a Civil War veteran . Originally this "First" Battalion was to have totale d about 400 officers and men, but Commandant Heywood received orders fro m the Navy Department to add two companies to the battalion to create one battalion of 623 enlisted Marines and 23 officers rather than two 400-man battalion s as originally proposed by Sampson . A second battalion was never formed as th e manpower required to build the one battalion left only 71 Marine guards on th e .3 East Coast Lieutenant Colonel Huntington formed his First Battalion of Marines into five infantry companies of approximately 100 men each (A, B, C, D, E) and on e artillery company equipped with a battery of four 3-inch rapid fire landing guns . Each company consisted of one first sergeant, four sergeants, four corporals, on e drummer, one fifer, and 92 privates, led by one captain and two lieutenants .4 No t all of the men were seasoned veterans . Many had enlisted in the Maine-induce d war fervor, and were just beginning to learn the basics of military drill and discipline . Roughly one-third enlisted after the beginning of 1898 .5 One enlisted new Marine with the battalion, Frank Keeler, recalled that onl y a few weeks before he had visited the Charleston Navy Yard in Boston Massachusetts, and was impressed with the Marines at drill in their "neat uniform s [and by] their manly appearance ." He later asked a Marine sentry "if more Marines were wanted," the guard replied "Why my boy they want all they can get a t present . Don't you know they are inlisting (sic) them for the War?" In short or der, Keeler had become a Marine . His training consisted of drill and police work , with weekends off for liberty . According to Keeler, a short time later, he and 3 3 other Marine privates, 4 corporals, and 2 sergeants received orders to move fro m 6 Boston to the Brooklyn Navy Yard. For a few days, the battalion remained at Brooklyn going through its initial "shakedown" phases . While many of the Marines were new recruits like Keeler , who himself had only a little over three weeks in uniform, a number of veteran troops provided some leavening for the battalion . On 22 April the battalion loaded stores on board the USS Panther and late in the afternoon marched through the streets outside of the Navy Yard to the accompaniment of the Navy Yard band playing the popular tune "The Girl I Left Behind Me" before embarking on board the Panther. The Panther, formerly the Venezuela, had originall y been outfitted to transport a battalion of 400 men, and in the two days prior t o sailing, hasty arrangements had been made to handle the additional 250 souls .



The Panther sailed south, bound for Key West, Florida, with a stopover on 23 April at Hampton Roads, Virginia . The Panther left Hampton Roads on 24 April, under convoy of the USS Montgomery, and arrived at Key West, Florida , on 29 April . En route, Lieutenant Colonel Huntington provided Marines to the ship fo r signal duty, lifeboat crews, and anchor watch once at Key West . He also con ducted instruction in loading and firing the Lee rifles while underway at sea , each Marine firing ten rounds . For many recruits this was the first time that the y been able to fire a rifle . The four-gun artillery battery also received similar instruction, each of the 3-inch naval landing guns firing one round . By the time the Panther arrived at Key West, the United States was at wa r with Spain . After no satisfactory reply from Spain, on 11 April, Presiden t McKinley finally sent a message to Congress asking for the authority to us e military force, perhaps still gambling that the Spanish would finally back awa y from war . On the 19th, Congress approved a joint resolution that recognized th e independence of Cuba, including the Teller Amendment prohibiting the U .S . acquisition of the island, and the authorization for the President to use any mean s necessary to carry out this policy . Five days later Spain answered with a declaration of war against the U .S . The U .S . Congress then passed its own declaratio n of war retroactive to 21 April . By this time, the United States fleet had established its blockade around Havana, and soon became obsessed with discovering the location of the Spanis h squadron of Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete, which left European waters a t the end of April and headed west . The uncertainty about the location of Cervera' s squadron postponed for the time being any landing of American troops includin g the Marine battalion . With Dewey in the Philippine s While the fleet in the Atlantic waited for Cervera, the Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey had already taken the offensive . As early as 2 5 February, the then Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt ha d warned Dewey about the possibility of war with Spain and directed him to b e prepared to undertake "offensive operations in the Philippine Islands ." On 22 March, the USS Mohican arrived at Honolulu, Republic of Hawaii, with ammunition for the batteries of the USS Baltimore and the ships of Dewey's squadron . Three days later, the Baltimore, fully coaled and carrying an extra supply of fue l on deck, with a Marine detachment of 52 on board, under Captain Otway C . Berryman, USMC, and First Lieutenant Dion Williams, USMC, left Hawaii to joi n up with the bulk of Dewey's squadron at the British protectorate of Hong Kong . Arriving there on 22 April, the ship searched for the U .S. squadron, recognizin g it only by the United States flags the ships flew . Dewey's squadron sported the new war color, a dull gray . The Baltimore immediately went into dry dock t o have its hull scraped and the entire upper works painted war gray, and two additional rapid fire guns mounted to increase its firepower. When the work was

Proceed at once to the Philippine Islands . Ther e was little doubt where Britain's sentiments lay. 7 Another message advised Dewey to wait for the arrival of the American Consul at Manila. Mr. There are also batteries on heavy guns at Manila and on Sangle y Point near Cavite . Mr. Dyer. The most important read : War has commenced between the United States and Spain . Williams arrived on 27 April. 24 April. He would use both ships to help sustain his fleet . Williams. Dewey received valuabl e military intelligence from Consul Williams. the collier Nanshan and the supply ship Zafiro during his wait in Hong Kong . who had recently left that city and woul d arrive at Hong Kong with an update on the conditions there . You mus t capture vessels or destroy . 8 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R complete on Sunday. as Dewey had recently purchase d two English ships. and the disposition of the shor e batteries guarding the entrance to Manila Bay . Dewey faced a daunting task . A long siege in the Philippines was out of the question. On 25 April a tug brought cable messages out to Dewey . He was 7000 miles from home port in Sa n Francisco and none of his ships had sufficient coal to steam there from Hon g Kong. we are going t o fight under the Stars and Stripes--the flag of th e greatest nation the world has ever seen--and we are going to win . Every one of you has his dut y to do and must make every shot tell . and Dewey's squadron was requested to leave Hong Kong waters . USN. In Lieutenant Dion Williams ' notes of the meeting : There are batteries on Corregidor Island a t the entrance to the bay and on the mainland on both sides of the entrance . and the squadron left that afternoon for Manila . and Captain N . of the Baltimore first read to hi s crew the inflammatory war proclamation of the Governor General of the Philip pines and then addressed them : We are going to Manila to capture and destroy the Spanish ships there . particularly against the Spanish fleet . including the size and number o f Spanish ships present when he departed Manila. the squadron had reached the northern end of th e island of Luzon. F. so the challeng e would be to meet and defeat the Spanish fleet there . 8 By the evening of 27 April. Use utmos t endeavors . Commence operation at once. M. the British Neutrality Proclamation had gone int o effect.9 . O .

shots of the war . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 Ships prepared for imminent action during these last days in April . Both he and Captain Dyer of the Baltimore had served under Admiral Farragut's command when the admiral steamed past the batteries and "torpedoes" at Mobile Bay during the Civil War . Dewey's fleet made three passes to the west across the front of Cavite. the fleet was west of Manila. ships . the Olympia thre e times. and the Boston once . an 8-inch gun on the poop . searching for Spanish ships . Once the ships ha d withdrawn north from the vicinity of Cavite. ships. who had been at battle quarter s throughout the night without rest or food .S . the Reina Christina . including the flagship. At this point Dewey gave orders to serve breakfast to crew members. he learned that not even half of th e ammunition stores of the ships had been expended . with running lights extinguished . By 23 :30 the fleet had reached the channel south of Corregidor Island at th e entrance of the bay and a signal rocket from shore announced that the ships ha d been spotted . Dewey met with his captains and told them that they woul d go directly into Manila that evening. Dewey signaled the fleet to withdraw from action . the Spanish battery south of the channel fired a shot. the Petrel and Boston reconnoitered the coast north of the is land of Luzon while the Baltimore sailed to Subic Bay to search for Spanish vessels . and the Olympia fired the first U. The fleet then turned starboard at around 05 :00 to approach the Spanish naval station at Cavite in the southern part of the bay . Later he explained that he had received a report that most of his ships were down to onl y five rounds of ammunition remaining for each gun on all of his ships. This was not very surprising for a leader like Dewey to come to such a decision . Within two hours. They would sail in a single column of the six fighting ships spaced 400 yards apart. One large concern was makin g every round count. and h e wanted to redistribute ammunition and confirm the report . the Marines manned three main batter y guns: Number 1. Finding none. Despite reports of "torpedoes " (19th century term for underwater mines) in the entrance to the harbor. On the Baltimore. .S . As dawn broke. a 6-inch waist gun on mai n deck.S. At 07 :35. At 00 :15 on 1 May. The wood paneling of ships' wardroom areas was torn out and thrown overboard t o lessen injuries from shattered wood and fire from enemy gunfire . and ceased after firing a few more shots and being fired upon by the U . Although Spanish fire was generally inaccurate. an d two to the east . Number 3. and Number 5. On 30 April. Dewey's squadron had only the ammunition that it had brought along wit h it and was thousands of miles away from any resupply . for if several engagements with the Spanish became necessary. the Baltim ore was struck six times and several officers and men wounded. By 02 :10 the fleet was well within the bay and Dewey give the order t o turn on running lights . Dewe y determined to get into the harbor as quickly as possible to confront the Spanis h fleet . and all Navy and Marine gun crews drilled incessantly . several Spanish ships were o n fire. Sailors an d Marines wrapped ships boats at the davits in heavy canvas to prevent damage t o help protect them from shell fire fragments. Spanish ship s began firing on the U . an 8-inch forecastle gun . running the forts at the entrance to the ba y at night .

two ships went to the entrance o f the bay and demanded the surrender of Spanish forces manning the batterie s there . the Spanish ship Castilla exploded from a fire that had been starte d by a U. The Marines found many dead Spanish in the area. th e first raising of the U . the American fleet kept a close watch during the night of 1 May to insure that no small Spanish torpedo boats approached in the darkness . and that any attack on the fleet or city would be preceded by a reconnaissance. soldiers. and First Lieutenant Dion Williams went ashore with a detachment o f Marines from the Baltimore to take charge of the Arsenal and town and protec t property there .S . The Spanish had evidently believed that any American action in th e Philippines would begin with a blockade of Manila Bay and other importan t ports. Dewey's aggressive actions gav e him the initiative . One hour later. and in the houses of the officers everything is in confusion .10 . They had adopted a defensive posture from the moment Dewey steamed into the harbor . . and Marines found in two buildings in the town . . most of the Spanish ships were on fire and were being abandoned by their crews . flag on Spanish soil . The following day. thes e doors were closed and sentries put over them to prevent accidental explosions . In the offices papers and records are strewn over th e floors. as Dewey did not wish to be burdened with caring for prisoners of war . On 3 May. . (This flag was later sent to the U . The element of surprise had worked to Dewey's ad vantage .S.S . At a range of 3. Naval Academy) . 10 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R At 0900.000 yards the Baltimore fired on the battery and also at the Don Antonio de Ulluoa behind Sangley Point . The Spanish also had several ships undergoing repairs and were not abl e to move them into the harbor proper . After destroying the Spanish fleet. Sergeant James Gran t and Corporal Joseph Poe hoisted the United States colors over the arsenal. and sen t for ships' surgeons to help care for wounded Spanish sailors. Many of the remaining Spanish ships had withdrawn behind Bacoor Bay . By noon. Many of the wounded were sent b y ferry to Manila where they could be attended to by their own doctors . The Spanish officers and men surrendered and were transported to Manila . The powder and shel l magazine doors stood open and loose powde r from torn bags was strewn over the floors . In his diary Williams noted : I went through all the buildings of the navy yard (Arsenal) to inspect the conditions and everywhere could be seen the evidences of the hasty departure of the former garrison . shell . Dewey learned that the Spanish had abandoned the Arsenal a t Cavite. After the Marines established order ashore. the Baltimore was in position to fire at the battery a t Sangley Point and received permission to engage it .

. little thought had been given about how to deal with the Spanish land forces remaining in and around Manila . and few in the United States knew tha t there had been a separate independence movement taking place in the Philip pines under the leadership of Jose Risal and later Emilio Aguinaldo .000 yards off the Colorado Point lighthouse. and si x Marines selected for their marksmanship abilities) and one sailing launch (with a 12-man crew. Dewey's orders had been fairly clear about wha t to do to the Spanish fleet (to "capture or destroy"). Each ship provided one steam cutter (wit h a five-man crew. which ran south. Anderson of the Marblehead told the men. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 The town seemed like an old time "navy-yard town" to the Marines. On 11 May. Florida. with plentiful liquor shops and other places of "amusement. "I want you to understand that you are not ordered to d o this work. naval vessels also had the task of searching for and destroying the underwater communication cables. on the east side of th e entrance to the harbor of Cienfuegos. but that having been accomplished in a lightning strike on 1 May. " On 4 May. A . Early that morning. With the Atlantic Squadron and the First Marine Medals of Hono r While the news from Dewey's squadron electrified American public opinion . but Dewe y would later allow the arming of some of the Filipinos to harass the Spanish .S. and a Marine detachment from th e Olympia relieved the Baltimore's Marines. drinking and noisily firing captured Spanish weapons into the air . Lieutenant E . all went to Ke y West. which connected Cuba wit h Spain. and the rest of the world . the Navy sent out a small force to cut the cables. P .S. to eliminate service at that terminal junction . the Marines went into the town of San Roque. Cables from Havana. on the land end o f the causeway that connected Cavite with the mainland . USMC. a city on the south coast of Cuba . Also that morning Captain W . nearly the entire crews of two ships on duty off the harbor. The U . On 6 May. the Atlantic Squadron continued its blockade of Cuba with still no sign o f Cervera's fleet . Raleigh and Boston. coxswain and chief carpenter's mate and blacksmith armed wit h rifles and revolvers) ." The Marblehead took a position about 1. Dewey sent a dispatch boat t o Hong Kong to cable the news of the naval victory to Washington . no weapons exchanged hands. three additional men for the one-pound Hotchkiss gun. The war ha d begun over Cuban independence issues. Baltimore. so it was easy for the U . Soon leaders in the United States and Spain would make decisions which would eventuall y lead to the Philippine Insurrection . Cuba. volunteered for the adventure . and for the next several weeks guar d duty at the Arsenal was performed by the Marine Detachments of the Olympia. That morning several Filipinos claiming to be members of the "Risal Army" approached the Arsenal gate and asked to b e armed with captured Spanish weapons so that they could press the fight against the Spanish in Manila . The other cables were on the southern regions of Cuba . At that time. and do not have to unless you want to. the Marblehead and the Nashville. out of the harbor of Cienfuegos. The native Filipino s were celebrating the departure of the Spanish. Biddle.

when under a heavy fire and one of the crew badly wounded . Some did make their mark. until ordered t o stop. and this forced many of the Spanish soldiers to break an d move to positions further from the waterline behind the lighthouse . however. machine gun and one-pound Spanish gunfire . the small cutters and launches continued to be hit by the Spanish gunfir e from shore positions. The crew continued its business in a determined workmanlike manner. and the crews began to work o n the third cable . and mor e crew members fell . continued to work. and the first sailor wounded fainted shortly after being hit by a Spanis h bullet . a six-inch armored cable. Finally the second six-inch armored cable was cut. but these were in use in the north ern part of the island nearer Havana .12 The larger supporting Navy ships began to fire shrapnel at the shore are a near the lighthouse. the crews grimly kept hacking at the last stubborn cable . The Marines in the stern of the boats fired carefully at targets ashore . and the crews had to begi n bailing water that leaked into the launches . The Navy succeeded in destroying a cabl e house and barracks on the shore .000 Spanish rifles and guns were firing. The crews successfully cut a boat length out of the first cable they found. They worked intelligently and cheer fully at the exhausting labor of picking up and cutting the heavy cables. Unfortunately. and even though more and more sailors and Marines wer e wounded. without confusion. 12 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Cable stations along the Cuban coast were usually protected by a series o f defensive trenches so that anyone trying to grapple for the cables in shallow water would have to face rifle. It was estimated that nearly 1. ranges were taken and measurements mad e so that the cables could later be made functional if needed . Navy oarsmen kept the vessels in position. It was at this point that the Spanish fire reached a crescendo . and Spanish soldiers abandoned the positions hidden by thick grass . and. As each cable was cut. and began to grapple for the next despite the increasin g enemy fire . an d those wounded did not call out in pain : The conduct of the men was worthy of al l praise . The Navy did have specialized cable cutting ships. the Spanish moved back into their positions and opened fire on the open boats . The Spanish began to fire lower in an attempt to damage or sink the cutters. and many shots fell harmlessly short . As sailors found and grappled the first cable into the launches and bega n to saw and hack at it with makeshift tools. The Marblehead and Nashville began a shelling of the shore area near the lighthouse. The four small boats approached the shorelin e and at about 200 feet from land the steam cutters stopped and the launches continued to row toward shore while sentries looked into the green water to find th e cables . Finally after a half hour of this intensified fire. Running in close to the shoreline exposed everyone in the open boats to danger . Lieutenant Anderson gave the order to move .

These factors led to the eventual movement of Huntington's First Marin e Battalion from Key West to seize the harbor at Guantanamo. Sergeant Philip Gaughn) and the five from the Marblehead (Private Herman Kuchneister. Thus. As an eager nation waited for sightings of the main Spanish fleet. Private Daniel Campbell) . Sampson learned that Cervera's squadron had reached Curacao the previous day . Navy until he entered the safety of the harbor at Santiago de Cuba on 19 May . West. the report s of this heroic action filled the newspapers in the United States . two men lay dea d in the launches. For thi s action the Navy crews of the launches all received the Congressional Medal o f Honor. Private Michael L . Cervera successfully evaded further detection by the U . Why Guantanam o Once the Navy located the Spanish squadron. After an ordeal that lasted a total of two and a half hours. the Marine battalio n had remained on board ship until receiving orders to go ashore hastily on 24 . The Navy could coal at sea in 1898. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 13 away from shore and this cable was dropped partially intact into the water.S. The Navy Department ordered Commodor e Winfield Scott Schley's "Flying Squadron" from Hampton Roads to scout south east. Private Joseph F . the distance to Key West (610 nautica l miles) had ruled that Florida town out as a support base for the naval operation s off Santiago . but it required calm seas and an area safe from enemy incursion. On 15 May.S. and manned lookout positions on ships patrolling to establish the position of Admiral Cervera's squadron . Guantanamo would serve as the "advance naval base" for th e Navy to support the larger naval and land operations in and around Santiago . Private Walter S . as did the seven Marines from the Nashville (Private Frank Hall. Sampson and his ships headed to Puerto Rico to search for Cervera . two fatally and four others seriously . At Key West. Private James Meredith. fleet in the southeastern section of Cuba . while th e Navy would keep the Spanish squadron bottled up in the harbor . Private Patrick Regan died of wounds and Private Herman Kuchneister wa s wounded severely through the jaw . an d offered a harbor large enough and protected from the weather to support the U . Private Pomeroy Parker. Field. Private Os car W. Admiral Sampson looked for a place nearby to serve as a base of operations and a place wher e ships could coal . Marine ships detachments drilled on their secondary batteries. The Navy and the Marine Corps shared in the glory earned by the heroes of this expedition . Privat e Joseph H . Private Edward Sullivan. the War Department decide d to land the Army expeditionary corps to capture the city of Santiago. while recently promoted Rear Admiral William T . Kearney. where the Marine s would be used to establish the advance base . six were wounded. as the ships involved in a coaling operation would come to a stop and transfer the coal from a collier to the warship in canvas bags . Scott. Given the limits on the steaming range o f the coal-fired ships engines of the time. Franklin. bu t Spanish communication with Cienfuegos had been greatly disrupted by the mission . Throughout this time. The harbor of Guantanamo was 40 miles east of Santiago.

cutting cables that connected Guantanamo with Mole St . checking for a suitabl e landing area on the eastern shore area and destroying the cable station at Play a del Este. On 7 June at 22 :00. These ships drove the Spanish gunboat Sandoval back into the 12-mile-long inner harbor . on 6 June.S . the Marines performed the first successful armed landing by U . . known today as McCalla Hill . 14 In the meantime. and the expense of pro curing commissary stores and fuel . and 20 Marines from th e Marblehead (under Sergeant Samuel Mawson) ashore. and detailed a guard of 33 men into Key West for the protection of public property and the naval station . Dickens and Lieutenant Austin Rockwell Davis). Huntington established camp. While Sampson kept the Spanish squadron bottled up at Santiago. and Yosemite. forces in Cuba . the fleet Marine officer on board Sampson' s flagship the New York. Huntington's battalion had reboarded the Panther and left Key West. finally arriving at 13 :00 . While at the camp. and the auxiliary cruiser Yankee into Guantanamo Bay. businesslike uniform excited favorable comments from Army an d Navy officers who came in contact with the battalion . He had already expressed concern to Commandant Heywood concerning the health of the men at Key West due to limited supplies of clean water . On 7 June . " . another 40 Marines from the USS Oregon (under Captain Franci s W . 10 June. 14 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R May. Commodore George Collie r Remey. then sailing t o Guantanamo. Captain Charles McCawley reported that. ordered Huntington to leave on board the ship half of his 6 millimeter ammunition (225. the swampy and unhealthy conditions at the camp area. . allegedly to serve as ballast for the Panther. Captain Mancil L . They also drove Spanish defenders from a blockhouse on the hill above Fisherman's Point on the eastern shore of the harbor. and one-half o f his 3-inch ammunition (18 boxes) needed for the Panther's three 3-inch guns . The Battalion's quartermaster. One hour later. McCalla. Louis was in the harbor." The Marines at the cam p felt that the training provided by Huntington was better preparing them to fight . Huntington attempted to offload all supplies and ammunitio n overnight. Texas. Commodore George C .000 rounds). USMC. captained by Commander Bowman H . as the Panther was needed to tow the monitor USS Amphitrite to blockad e duty off Havana . The auxiliary cruiser St. but the captain of the Panther. Sampson had bombarded the defensive work s at Santiago to unmask their batteries and also sent the cruiser Marblehead. Goodrell. modified the order so that Huntington was able to take all of his 6 milli meter ammunition ashore with the battalion . The commanding officer of the base at Key West. and they were anxious to go to Cuba and meet the Spanish "Dons" in combat . the 23 officers and 62 3 enlisted men of the battalion began moving ashore under the watchful guns o f the Navy ships Marblehead. arriving off Santiago de Cuba early on Friday. Once ashore in Key West. Reiter. brown linen uniforms arrived from the Quartermaster in Philadelphia . These cables were Guantanamo's last underwater cable connections with the outside world . The move was . Resolute. Nicholas in Haiti to the east and with Santiago de Cuba to the west . the appearance of the men in thi s comfortable. led a small landing party composed of 20 Marines fro m the New York.

D . the camp received many attacks from several directions . and the two Marines on the post . using two signal lanterns placed at the top of the hill . but remarkably. honoring Commander McCalla. under the cover of the guns on boar d the ships . commande r of the Marblehead and of the local naval expedition . Spanish regulars and Cubans loyal to Spain forme d the bulk of the opposition forces in the Guantanamo area . Draper. Color Sergeant Silvery raised the Stars and Stripes over the camp . When the Marblehead signaled to shore. the land signal lights had to be exposed to acknowledge and return messages . The fact that mosquitos spread yellow feve r and malaria was still unknown . Bullets from the Spaniards' Mauser rifles filled the air . were later found dead of rifl e wounds. filthy conditions found i n tropical areas caused the disease . Marines of the battalion brought food and sup plies ashore and hastily stacked them . (This flag is currently on display at the Museum of the Marine Corps Historical Center in the Washington Navy Yard. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 15 made in whale boats and steam cutters without opposition from the Spanis h regulars and Cuban loyalists in the area . since medical theory at the time held that the wet.17 After nightfall. The battalion adjutant. Huntington re named the hillside Camp McCalla. This became the pattern for the next two nights ashore . none of the signal men was wounded during an y of the night time fighting . but after the first night ashore heated up quickly .16 After nightfall. the Marines continued to communicate with the ships i n the harbor. while one of the signal men had to stand up and expose another light to answer or send a message from shore to ship . The burning was done partially to avoid the possibility of yellow fever. the .15 The Marine battalion burned huts and shacks at the small fishing village in the area and quickly established a camp and outposts near th e top of the hill selected by Captain Goodrell. Fifty Marines then went to work wit h picks and shovels to begin digging trenches while others erected tents in th e camp that measured about 150 by 25 yards on top of the hill . one alarm was sounded but no actual attack took place . Skirmishers landed to protect the unloading operations. Things had begun quietly with the unopposed daytime landing. Washington. L . Privates James McColgan and William Dumphy. At 17 :00 on Saturday . At about 01 :00 on Sunday.C. The Spanish would attempt to use the lights as an aiming point. During the first night ashore. During day light hours there were four Marines ashore who were adept at the "wigwag " according to the dispatch filed by novelist Stephen Crane of Red Badge of Courage fame and now a civilian war correspondent working for Pulitzer's New York World. 11 June. One lantern remained stationary on top of a cracke r box. a fire fight broke out near an outpost. Lieutenant H . the Spanish forces had learned how to fight like the Cuba n insurrectos in their years of attempting to put down the revolt by those seekin g independence from Spain . used the famous author Crane as an assistant to relay messages to th e signal men to send to the ship .) . Huntington established a picket line along a pat h about 500 yards from the camp for security . Communication between the Marines ashore and the Navy in the harbor depended upon visual sighting by use of "wigwags" with signal flags . 12 June. According to Stephen Crane.

16 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Spanish made a combined attack from the south. with the roar of th e Marblehead coming from the bay. and. With a thousand rifles rattling . the infrequent bloody stumbling an d death of some man with whom. with the field guns booming in your ears . the knowledge from the sound of the bullets that the enemy was on three sides of th e camp. none were so hard on the nerves. none strained courage so near the pani c point. and two more Marines wounded . of al l the actions of the war. The noise. with Mauser bullets sneering always in the air a few inches over one's own head. and the more terrible weariness o f the mind. with the diaboli c Colt automatics clacking. to attempt to suppress the Spanish rifle fire . perhaps. the impenetrabl e darkness . at least some of the men did not com e out of it with their81 nerves hopelessly in shreds . one company an d the Artillery Battery lower base at Fisherman' s Point and the remainder of the battalion wa s scattered in lots of 20 to 30 men at different places on outpost or in the trenches . Navy surgeon John Gibbs received a fatal shot while standing outsid e his tent during one of these nighttime engagements on the night of 11-12 June . last . Crane left a vivid account in his dispatches from the fighting : It was my good fortune--at that time I considered it my bad fortune. " Another eyewitness account. and with thi s enduring from dusk to dawn. At times . described the defenses of the camp : Four colt machine guns with three-inch fiel d guns and 50 men were on the left of the hill. on e had messed two hours previous . it is extremely doubtful if any one who was there was able t o forget it easily . H . Sergeant C.S . The Marblehead and the Dolphin both used searchlights to illuminate the brush and bombarded the surrounding area with their guns. Clifford. indeed--to be wit h them on two of the nights when a wild storm o f fighting was pealing about the hill . U. Lieutenant Colonel Huntington decided to move the camp off the hill to a more easily defensible are a closer to the bay that afternoon (12 June) . and. southeast. and southwest. especially on the flanks of th e battalion. that of Private John H . as those swift nights in Camp McCalla . 7 5 men were on out-post duty. Smith was also killed. the wearines s of the body.

(Elliott rapidly rose in rank after the war. Army forces. With the approval of Commander McCalla. 50 Cuban insurgents under the command o f Lieutenant Colonel Enrique Tomas reinforced the Marine camp and helped t o clear brush from the front of the Marine positions to deny the enemy concealment enjoyed for the previous two days . as a source of fresh water was essential for the Spanish forces to continue their harassing attacks . fro m major in 1899 to brigadier general commandant in 1903 . This Spanish base at Cuzco therefore posed the mos t direct threat to the Marine camp on the bay. departed Camp McCalla at 09 :00 on Tuesday. as well as sailor s from the collier ship Alhambra and the transport Panther also came ashore to assist the Marines in the defense of the camp . Commander McCalla had also kept his ships' crews at General Quarters each night of the at tacks to support the Marines ashore who were there ostensibly to protect the ba y for him . Spicer. the n being readied in Florida for the invasion of Santiago. Company C under First Lieutenant Lewis Clarke Lucas and Company D under Captain William F . 22 Fifty-two year old Captain George F . On the morning of 12 June. Laborde estimated that approximately 400 Spaniards operated out of the valley . about two miles southeast of Fisherman's Point . three Colt machine guns also accompanied Captain Spicer's . The Spanish renewed thei r assaults at about 0800 on 13 June. The nex t nearest fresh water source was nine miles away. which had fought nearly nonsto p for four days by this time . Huntington received intelligence reports from recently landed Colonel Alfredo Laborde of the Cuban insurgents that th e Spanish force attacking the Marine Camp had its headquarters in the vicinity o f the well of Cuzco. 14 June to destroy the well at Cuzco and force the Spanish there to with draw towards the port town of Caimanera . The dispatch boat USS Dolphin was assigned to provide gunfire support for the attack. the Spanish again attacked that night and acting Sergeant Major Henry Good an d Private Charles Smith died in this night of fighting . and again at about the same time the nex t morning . Huntington could not expect relief from any U . Huntington also had a trench and barricade constructed around the relocated camp for better defensive protection fro m attack. Elliott was placed i n command of the little expedition . Ships guards from both the Texas and the Marblehead. Despite these actions.21 The Marblehead sailed to bombard the well at Cuzco .20 Lieutenant Colonel Huntington estimated that about 160 enemy were en gaged at the first nighttime fire fight . closer to the Spanish garrison i n the Guantanamo City area . According to Private Clifford's account. nor did he have any mor e Marines to replenish his exhausted battalion.) Two companies of Marines totaling 160 men. Huntington decided to destro y the Spanish water source at Cuzco Well and relieve the Spanish pressure o n Camp McCalla .S . Huntington and some of his older company grade officers were nearing the point of exhaustion from the nightly fighting . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 17 the cooks of the companies did their share wit h the rifle . and 50 Cubans unde r Lieutenant Colonel Enrique Tomas.

this move by Magill enabled the Marines and their . but around this time it was discovered that Lieutenant Magill's platoon had crested the ridge at the northern end of the valley an d was now directly in the line of the Dolphin's 5-inch gunfire ! Hearing the fighting in the valley. and he sent one of his men to report this to Captai n Elliott . a redheaded "Mick " named Clancy responded . Altogether they traveled about six miles. Evidence points to a Private John Fitzgerald as the "red-headed mick" of Crane' s tale . and also by the Spanish! Crane did not know the Marine's real name. commanded by Commander H . The Dolphin began firing into the valley with some effect. in part because the correspondent had left the area when th e battle was over on a newspaper dispatch boat and sailed to Haiti to file his famous newspaper account of the battle. 18 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Company C . It wa s necessary for the signalman to climb to the top of the hill where he could b e clearly seen by the ship. while a smaller platoon-sized force from Company A under Second Lieutenant Louis J . W . without response. due to the heavy vegetation on the hillside that faced the sea . but not until 3 December. Lyon. The Marines were armed with their Lee rifles with firepower much like that of the Spanish Mausers . On the approach of the Cuban guides. Second Lieutenant Magill and his platoon from Company A had moved to the "sound of the guns" to support the engage d forces to his south . USN. Fitzgerald eventually received the Medal of Honor for gallantry at Cuzc o Well. on a torturous footpath through the dense cactus and thorny vines ." that appeared in The New York World on 23 June 1898 . Elliott also wanted the Dolphin to shell the blockhouse that had been used as the Spanish headquarters at Cuzco . The plan called for the two companies under Elliott to approach the valley along the cliffs by the sea (to the west of the well). The Marines and the Cuban insurgents poure d fire into the valley .23 The only other Medal of Honor for actions at Cuzco would go to Sergeant John Quick . to begin firing into the valley at the Spanish . The Marines and Cubans moved generally southwar d as the morning quickly grew hotter. his former company commander had become to Commandant . The Marine attempted to signal the Dolphin. when Elliott. 1910. Stephen Crane accompanied Elliott and would soon write the dispatch that immortalized Sergeant John Quick for his "Wigwag" signal to th e Dolphin later in the battle . His platoon crested the ridge to the left center (northern section) of the horseshoe ridge. With the Spanish firing from well-hidden positions in the heavily-vegetated valley at the well. Magill would advance on Elliott's left flank along an inland valley and hold a picket line for the main force to keep open a route back to Camp McCalla . when Elliott called for a signalman. the Spanish battalion in the valle y opened fire and the fight was on . They reached the horseshoe-shaped valley at Cuzco about 11 :00. This would force the Spanish to move and reveal thei r positions to the Marines and their Cuban allies . According to Crane. racing to reach the crest of the ridgeline overlooking the valley before the Spanis h in the area could . Companies C and D moved into position under heavy fire from the Spanish in the valley . "The Red Badge of Courage Was Hi s Wig-Wag Flag. On the positive side. Captain Elliott called for a signal man to communicate with the Dolphin.

and he looked sharply over his shoulder to see what ha d it. but its shells had been effective in moving th e Spanish forces from hiding . First Lieutenant James E . Sergeant Quick responded and tied a large blue polka dot scar f to his rifle. While the battle raged. The Marines and their Cuban allies continued t o pour rifle fire on the fleeing Spanish . It was improbable that the ship' s commander should know of the presence o f Magill's force. went to the top of the ridge and turned his back on the Spanish below to begin signaling to the ship off the coast to the south . he called for another signalman to relay a cease-fire messag e to the Dolphin . As he swung his clumsy flag to and fro. In Crane's account : He was the very embodiment of tranquillity in occupation. He gave the flag an impatient jerk . and the whistling snarl of the bullets. and he did know from our line o f fire that the enemy was in the valle y . He looke d annoyed . Elliott estimated that he was opposed b y four companies of Spanish regulars and two companies of Cuban loyalists. and shortly after 15 :00. the Dolphin an d Elliott did not immediately know that there would be a friendly force at this lo cation of the ridge right in the line of fire of the Dolphin's guns. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 19 Cuban allies to get many of the Spanish in a deadly crossfire and greatly de creased the volume of Spanish return fire . and wig wagged whatever he had to wigwag withou t heeding anything but his business . Elliott . the crack of rifles .24 When Elliott realized that the naval gunfire was now firing on the Marin e platoon to his left. Mahoney and First Lieutenant Clarence Ingate with 50 Marines each were dispatched . . Some of the shells were beginning to overshoot the blockhouse and land near Magill's littl e force. Lieutenant Lucas and 40 Marines moved down from the crest of the hill into the valley and destroyed the well and house recently occupied by the Spanish . Colonel Huntington back at Camp McCalla sent tw o more strong parties to help Elliott's force and provide protection should a withdrawal from Cuzco be necessary . I [never] saw Quick betray one sign of emotion . The Spanish began a straggling retreat around 14 :00. 25 The Dolphin ceased its firing. According to Stephen Crane . On the negative side. . totaling 500 men . He stood there amid the animal like babble of the Cubans. It was no extraordinary blunder on the part o f the Dolphin . There wa s not a single trace of nervousness or haste . an en d of it once caught on a cactus pillar.

and gratefully received distilled water from the Navy ship . The Marblehead. now providing the Navy a protected bay for minor shipboard repairs and coalin g operations . the forc e began its return march to Camp McCalla that afternoon and arrived about 19 :00 . driving Spanish troops from their positions . Freshened with the precious water. Huntington estimated that 100 men had occupied th e position the day before. the lighthouse tender Armeria . First Lieutenant James E . These Spanish infantrymen were there to guard the minefiel d in the harbor . via Cayo del Toro and Caimanera . the small steam launches and cutters were fired upon by 25 0 Spanish soldiers on Hicacal Beach. joined by the Texas and the Yankee. Neville fell on the hillside after the fighting was over and injured his hip and leg . Dolphin. and 17 Spanish enlisted men and one office r were captured . while the battleship Iowa and the auxiliary cruiser Yankee were peacefully coaling in the bay . along with 12 Marines in Elliott's account (ac cording to Commander McCalla's report. When Admiral Sampson visited the base in his flagship New York on 1 8 June. In the darkness they crossed the bay in 15 small Navy boats. Captain Spicer. Spanish forces began to add t o the earthworks on Cayo del Toro (the peninsula that jutted into the channel that connected the upper and lower portions of the bay). During the sweeps. and at a bluff south of Caimanera . For the first night since arriving in Cuba.S . discovere d when the Marblehead brought up what it thought to be a buoy fouled on a propeller. Huntington 's battalion slept without interruption . on the western shore of the bay opposite th e little Marine camp . Mahoney' s Company E arrived aroun d 16:00. On 25 June. Lieutenant Magill also captured a heliograph outfit and destroyed the signal station near Cuzco . Huntington prepared to rout this Spanish force with two companies of Marines and 60 Cuban rebels . bu t on arrival on the western shore discovered that the positions there had been abandoned by the Spanish . too late to participate in any of the battle . The Spanish on the eastern part of the bay withdrew northward to Guantanamo City. none of which exploded. commanding officer of Company D was overcome by th e heat and was sent to the Dolphin. He took Companies C (under Captain Elliott) and E (under Lieutenant Mahoney) at 03 :00 and left camp for the other side of the bay . the Navy brought up 14 Spanish mines. the hospital ship Solace. 23 were taken on board the Dolphin due to heat prostration) . and three colliers lay at anchor in the bay . due to mechanical faults and fouling caused by barnacles and growths . Lieutenant Wendell C . the Marines were firmly established ashore. In the next few days. By 07 :30 the force reembarked and went back to their . The buoy turned out to be a Spanish mine that had failed to detonate . bombarded these threatening sites on 16 June. 20 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R reported some 60 enemy killed. and two Cuban s were killed in the action . The advance base was operational . Panther. Colonel Huntington and his force now had a new mission : to clea r the area near Hicacal Beach of Spanish forces so that the mine clearing coul d continue and U . One Marine was wounded slightly. Th e Yankee ships had unknowingly sailed through Spanish mine fields. The Marblehead. The Marine s sent their canteens down from the crest to the Dolphin. ships could use the bay without disruption .

C. two companies of Marines would go down t o the beach area to wash their clothes and themselves . heavy. USN. Fifteen messengers who tried were executed 27 as spies . black braided uniforms . They came upon a group of grizzled . Operations at Santiago In the meantime. General Pareja had no knowledge of events tha t would soon take place when the U . Th e Naval forces under Rear Admiral Sampson. fresh from a hasty weeks-long indoctrination at Marine Barracks. "Eighth and I. In early July the battalion received some "reinforcements" in the form of three newly minted second lieutenants. When they asked the unkempt men where Lieutenant Colonel Huntington was. Army made its assault on Santiago in July . and a full company of 100 Marines and its officers went on watch durin g the nights . The other two were Second Lieutenants George Reid and Peter Wynne . and the Army V Corps under . After the Navy cut the underse a cables. the men drank only distilled water provided by the Navy.000 Spanish troops at Guantanamo City under General Felix Parej a had been directed to hold that city at all costs . and specified areas se t aside for "head " facilities . not yet 17 years old and son of a Pennsylvania congressman . the Army had made an unopposed landing at Daquiri . one of the old men responded that Butler was talking to the Colonel at that moment! The young officers were quickly put to work learning how to perform nightly inspections of th e picket outposts . Cuban insurgents surrounded Guantanamo City. D . Cuba." in Washington. Fifteen Marines served as pickets during dayligh t hours. Navy mine clearing operations could proceed unhindered in the lower bay . However. Food was properly prepared. Under guidelines set forth by Commander McCalla and stringently enforce d by Lieutenant Colonel Huntington. dusty and dirty old timers sitting on some boxes. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 21 camp. but had no more engagements with the Spanish forces . and not one Spanish messenge r successfully made it out of the city . The battalion would maintain this vigilance until its departure fro m Camp McCalla . The 7. One of these earnest young officer s was Second Lieutenant Smedley Darlington Butler. The three were some of the new officers that Commandant Heywood had been able to enlis t from civilian life for the duration of the war . and demanded that these "ol d salts" address them with the proper respect due officers . and had launched a ground campaign against Santiago . Butler and his two compatriots struggled up the hill at Camp McCalla looking for the commanding officer of the Marines .S. the Marine camp employed field sanitatio n measures that resulted in a very light sick list. patrols an d local pickets in the area surrounding Camp McCalla. on 22 June. Daily. Dressed in their hot. Huntington's men settled into a routine of continued vigilance. the only communications with other regions of Cuba would have been by overland messenger.26 The land threat now eliminated on the western entrance to the harbor .

USA. which are already ver yheav Early on Sunday. Shafter. squadron in Sampson's absence. Admiral Cervera led the escape attempt in his flagship.2"8 men. where Theodore Roosevelt 's famed "Rough Riders. and dysentery . the Spanish squadron began its daylight dash ou t of the harbor of Santiago .S. Shaffer wrote to Admiral Sampson.. Marine Private Joseph O' Shea fired the first American shot from his six-pound gun o n board the USS Oregon . overtaxe d and disorganized supply lines. Shafter's V Corps fought battles outside of Santiago at El Caney and San Juan Hil l (more properly Kettle Hill). "Terrible fight yesterday . the Maria Teresa . typhoid.S. but was the first of a barrage from the U. to confer with General Shafter over plans to attac k the Spanish forces in the city.S. His force had suffered casualties of about 10 percent killed or wounded . (The Oregon had recently completed its 66 day das h from Bremerton. and neither officer was in overall command o f the operation there. This shot missed. squadron which resulted in the complete destruction of another Spanish squadron by the U . squadron at Cuba. Captain Francis William Dickens . poor sanitation measures. while the alacrit y with which they ever sprang to their post s showed that they were all animated by the spiri t that has given the Marine Corps its reputatio n for bravery and faithfulness for a full century . the Army fought the elements as wel l as the enemy . . 22 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R General William R . of the Oregon's Marine detachment commented: Every man on guard had an exposed station . On 24 June. Later. while Admiral Sampson went ashore 10 miles eas t of Santiago. al most half the force was also suffering from malaria. had differing perceptions as to how to attac k the Spanish positions at Santiago. Also. on 1 July. USMC. Suffering from the heat. the American crews needed to kee p the engines stoked and full of coal . Shafter paused to consolidate the positions there and move the rest of his force towards Santiago . yet feared a Spanish counterattack. and its Marines had participated in the first landing s at Guantanamo in June) . USN. Commodore Winfield Scott Schley of the Brooklyn directed the action of the U . and illness. near Siboney. said of the Marines of the Texas : . Navy in two months . an Army division sustained casualties of 16 dead an d 52 wounded at Las Guasimas against Spanish regulars . Washington around the southern tip of South America to joi n the U. 3 July. and the only reluctance ever shown by any o f them promptly to obey was when ordered to take shelter behind the turrets. At 9 :29 a . 29 During the pursuit of the Spanish ships. " fought as dismounted cavalry . Captain Philip.S . After these two victories.m. The exhausted soldiers lay within sight of Santiago. I urge tha t you make every effort to force the entrance to avoid future losses among m y . .

and the Indiana (Captain Littleton W . lost no one to gunfire from the Spanish . 1. as Admiral Sampson still hesitated to enter Santiago Harbor due t o the threat of the land based batteries of the fortress El Mono guarding the entrance and the potential threat posed by other Spanish shore batteries and underwater torpedoes (mines) .78 2 were captured. examination of four Spanish cruisers showed only 12 0 hits. I directed Lieutenant Radford (USMC) t o detail fifteen or twenty men to go in the fir e room to shovel coal . the flagship New York (First Lieutenant Rufus H . The main battery having already been drawn upon for this extra work. Oquendo. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 23 Besides their work at the secondary battery in all engagements. Lane . The sheer volume of fir e and speed of pursuit was probably more responsible for sinking Cervera's squadron than Marines manning the secondary batteries . U . Waller's gun crews reportedly got off 500 rounds from their 6-inch gun s in the 61-minute melee. At day's end. I desire to call attention to special instances : During the chase on July 3 it was reported to me that the firemen and coa l heavers were giving out. As events turned out in Santiago.31 Commandant Heywood later tried to emphasize the effectiveness of the fire of the Marine-manned batteries. as exemplified in the landing a t Guantanamo . forces entered the city on 17 July. USMC). 30 Marine officers in command of ships detachments on the Brooklyn (Captai n Paul Murphy. The feud would have long lasting results since the Navy saw only inherent problems in working with the Army forces without a clear overall commander of an operation .150 men. and with a rush to be first. The channel entering the harbor was also partiall y obstructed by the USS Merrimac that had been purposely sunk by the Navy in a n attempt to bottle up the Spanish fleet . Pluton. T . and Colon were either aflame or scuttled near the shore . The stunning naval victory did not end the friction between the Navy an d the Army. the Spanish Army.S .S . USMC). and the engineers de sired more men from the deck . Immediately. but neither the Navy no r Marines had exceptional accuracy with ships' batteries . Of Cervera's 2. Furor. negotiate d a surrender of forces in the city to General Shafter's forces . all the Marines started for the fire room to aid the Texas to maintain her spee d in the chase .000 shells fired by Sampson's fleet. short on foo d and without hope of naval resupply now that the fleet was destroyed. Viscaya. Waller. USMC) gave similar reports. . the Maria Teresa.3. Of the some 8. The U . Working with Marine landing force s was much easier for naval officers to coordinate. General Shafter had wanted the Navy t o bombard the city of Santiago from the harbor while his forces would approac h from the southeast on land .

Miles believed that the U . partly because Ponce was suitable for landing his forces and also becaus e he thought that the Puerto Ricans in the area would welcome the Americans . When Puerto Rico had been sub3 dued. received the surrender of the port . flag.S .32 He had disagreed with the Secretary of War. and felt that the unhealthy climate of Cuba during the rainy seaso n would be ruinous to the army . General Miles received permission to assemble his invasion forc e and. Miles insured that the haphazard landings and rash movements that characterized Shafter's Santiago campaign would not be repeated. on 21 July. Lieutenant MerriDMamr. During the night of 26-27 July. and mounted a Colt automatic gun o n t. Haines. USN. a large invasion force could then move on to Cuba after the rainy season . and Gloucester entered the harbor at Ponce. of the Dixie went ashore under a flag of truce to demand the immediate surrender o f Ponce . Wasp. This landing spot was on the opposite coast of where the reinforcement s were to land. Navy ships . An Army brigade landed near Guanaco on 25 July under the watchful batteries of U . al though entitled to pass on all Army orders cojointly with the Secretary of War . Ponce had formally passed into American hands an d the next morning General Miles began landing his forces without incident .S.nfoelxwtcdhby'su r First Lieutenant Henry C . and claimed independent jurisdiction over the Adjutant General's Office and th e Bureau of Inspection .3he4r top of the customs house . and he carefully planned to move men and materials in a more systematic fashion . should proceed at once against Puerto Rico to establish control before hostilities concluded with the Spanish still i n control there . With the fall of Santiago in July. however. and the invasion would continue . and then move inland and northward towards Sa n Juan. a Civil War veteran and fame d Indian fighter. Merri am. USA. a port city in the south of the island. was the highest ranking Army officer in the War Department wit h the title Major General Commanding the Army and had long recommended th e invasion of Puerto Rico . and Lieutenant Greenlief A . Troop transports to Puerto Rico from Tampa and Charleston would be diverted fro m their original landing areas. and the subsequent diplomatic efforts t o end the war.S. He argued that initial land operations begin i n Puerto Rico with its more h ealthful climate . sailed from Guantanamo in a squadron escorted by the battle ship Massachusetts . but Miles justified it by saying that it surprised the Spanish . 24 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R The Invasion of Puerto Rico Major General Nelson Appleton Miles. he commanded no forces. In his position. posted a guard. General Miles decided to begin the invasion of Puerto Rico at Ponce. Alger. The Marines raised the U. the Dixie. during the initial war planning over a joint operation with the Navy at Havana . The town was surrenderuthcoinae70Sps h troops under Colonel San Martin could withdraw unmolested . Annapolis. At 0500 the next morning. He felt that it would take months properly to train and equip a large invasion force. Russell A .

S. Taking Guam The taking of Guam is the one exploit of the war which matches the popular conception of a "Splendid Little War. The Spanish were in the process of moving a small field piec e and readying it for a return salute .S. but had been attacked by a Spanish forc e of 700 or 800 . a military foothold on the island. Twelve shots were fired on the little fort with no response . Shortly after the shooting ended. possession The Army continued its approach to San Juan by land that would give the U . when General Shafter landed near Santiago. They foun d empty cartridge casings. the USS Charleston was convoying three troop ships of soldiers towards the Philippines to participate in actions against the Spanish army at Manila . USN. However. and made him a prisoner of war . had been supplied with arms from the Columbia. However. lacking cable communications . When . During the night of 8 August. and when Cervera made his unsuccessful dash ou t of Santiago harbor. These American sympathizers had fled to a lighthouse on Cap e San Juan . Wha t Glass did not know was that the fort had been abandoned years earlier . the ship was sent to Norfolk fo r needed repairs. ordered the ship's three pound guns to open fire on the fortification . and approached the lighthouse through heavy thickets and woods . Captain Henry Glass. The Cincinnati arrived at Guantanamo on 15 July where i t received word that the Army under General Miles would invade and occupy th e island of Puerto Rico and that it would rendezvous with other naval vessels an d transports near Cape San Juan. during the battles o f San Juan Hill and El Caney. then in U. Juan Marina. At Cape San Juan.S .35 gees to a tug which took them to the Port of Ponce. Spanis h forces attacked the lighthouse which was now guarded by a naval detachment from the American cruiser . joined with a landing party from the USS Amphitrite. The landing party sent the refu. After the destruction of the Spanish Asian squadron at Manila in May. and was absent from Cuban waters while Huntington landed a t Guantanamo. Lejeune and hi s Marine detachment landed. The ship's secondary batteries fired at the approache s to the lighthouse with the aid of its searchlights . meet with Glass on board the Charleston for a conference . a Spanish officer approached the Charleston in a small launch and apologized for a delay in returning the "salute" by th e American ship. In June. First Lieutenant John A . Lejeune's 40 man Marine detachment had grown anxious to participate in fighting while waiting for Cervera to appear in May. the Cincinnat i discovered that inhabitants of the town of Fajardo friendly to the U . was out of touch with events in the war . but no Spanish soldiers . he paroled him at once to take a demand that the Spanish governor of Guam . The Charleston entered Apra Harbor and approached the little fortifications of Fort Santa Cruz on 20 June 1898 . and the Peace Protocol agreement of 12 Augus t obviated the need for further fighting . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 25 On board the light cruiser Cincinnati. after the Cincinnati's arrival. the island of Guam." for it was taken without shots fired in anger in an almost comical manner . Puerto Rico . Captain Glass informed the officer that the United States was at war with Spain. In the morning.

lobster. the battalion marched through Boston to the train station to be dispatched to home . The Protocol suspended operations in the Caribbean. Seeing that he was outgunned and resistance was futile. where the marchers were feted with clams. the battalion formed into parade ranks and marched back to its camp . At four in the afternoon . On 16 September the battalion went into the town of Portsmouth to participate in the "Portsmouth's Welcome to the He roes of 1898" celebration . Glass then took formal possession of Guam.S. and the Navy received word that a Peace Protocol had been signed betwee n Spain and the United States. state volunteer units. ships in the harbor played the Sta r Spangled Banner and the Charleston fired a salute . with no provisions made for occupying Guam . plans began to be formulated t o capture the Cuban town of Manzanillo. washed down with 50 case s of beer and 100 gallons of coffee . Lieutenant William Braunersreuther. Governor Marina ordered the three Spanish officers on his staff and their soldiers to bring thei r arms and equipment for surrender. corn. and mad e plans for going ashore on 13 August to outflank the Spanish entrenchments there. Before the landing could begin. after this strenuous day of celebrations. The ship arrived at Portsmouth on 26 August and the Marines received a he roes welcome from the local citizens . an d local government officials . The four leaders were made prisoners of wa r and brought to the Philippines on board the Charleston when it left Guam . Glass then sailed for the Philip pines. Bands on board U . On 20 September. and the Resolute received orders to sail with its embarked Marines of the First Battalion to Portsmouth. New Hampshire . A company of native Chamorros was disarmed and left on the island . Thi s was the last time that the battalion would mass together . 26 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Marina refused to appear. The battalion marched in a parade through the tow n with local bands. naval battalions from several ships. and bread.36 Somehow. and then brought them to the ships . On 5 August. white flags appeared all over Manzanillo . Final Operations in Cuba and Return of the First Battalio n After the Army's landings and operations against Santiago de Cuba resulte d in the surrender of the Spanish garrison there. While landing preparations were being made. Glass made preparations for a landing party under Marine Lieutenant John Twiggs Myers and 30 of his Marines to join with two companies of Oregon infantry to enforce the demand . A huge clambake followed. Lieutenant Braunersreuther and a landing force of 16 sailors and 30 Marines under Lieutenant Myers went ashore and disarmed the rest of the 102 Spanish soldiers and 2 officers. the battalion was then able to put on a demonstration of military tactic s and a charge up the ramparts of Old Fort Washington located there! Celebration s over. Lieutenant Colonel Huntington embarked his battalion at Guantanamo on board the Resolute. and raised the American fla g over Fort Santa Cruz . ending the hostilities . USN. potatoes. went ashore at Piti and delivered the ultimatum to the governor.

and several prominent Marines including Commandant Colonel Heywoo d and Major Henry Clay Cochrane (a member of Huntington's staff at Guantanamo) believed that a larger Marine Corps should be formed to be sent o n short notice to the new possessions without calling on the Army .200 died from disease.000 men with the attending problems in organizing. detachment of three officers and 164 men marched through a rainstor m and were reviewed at the White House by President McKinley himself . the United States saw that possession of the islands gave it a valuable naval an d trading position near Asia that was strategic both militarily and economically . an d in Puerto Rico . Officer promotions then came quickly. whic h gave the United States possession of Puerto Rico. and raise d the rank of commandant to brigadier general . and training such a force . Emilio Aguinaldo and his independence fighters thought that the United States efforts in the island archipelag o would result in the independence of the self-proclaimed republic . This small military force planted the first American flags in the Philippines. However. 1898.C.055 enlisted men served on 57 of the fighting ships of the Navy .000 to a mammoth force of 200. This contrasted with the performance of the U . The Army had approximately 450 killed in combat.S. Within a year Marines would have three battalions in the Philippines to assist i n quelling the insurrection there. and ships' detachment s participated in all major naval engagements . but would open a new world of responsibilities for the Marin e Corps . In Puerto Rico and Guam the occupations would be fairly peaceful. Thirty received commissions as permanent first lieutenants . The valor of the 1st Marine Battalion at Guantanamo gaine d nation-wide recognition during its 100 hours under fire. Office r accession became more organized under guidelines set up by Heywood . Of the approximately 3. Army.000 enlisted Marines and 201 line officers. D . but another 5. The bulk of the Marine Corps saw action during the war . It went into the war ready to perform its roles for the Navy Department on board ship and quickly organized an efficient fighting force to seiz e Guantanamo . and 35 of the 43 temporary war time lieutenants took the qualifying examination . and the Philippines. a s well as a role in establishing a new independent government for Cuba . and 2. .37 Upon its return to the nation's capital on 22 September. signaled an end to the fighting of th e War with Spain. the Washington. Negotiations in Paris led to the Peace Treaty of December 1898. Conclusio n The Peace Protocols of August. 38 The result was a bill signed into law by President McKinley on 3 March 1899 that provide d for a Marine Corps of 6.000 Marines who served during the conflict. Guam. supplying. over 640 fought the Spanish at Guantanamo. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 stations . Possession of new colonies would provide the need for an expanded Marin e Corps. in Guam. which had swelled from its peacetime size of 28. in Cuba. but the Philippine s would erupt into the Philippine Insurrection .

bettere d the relations between it and the officers of the Navy. Lejeune who saw action in the War with Spain would be leading battalion and regimental size units in the Philippines and Cuba. USN. Sampson to Navy Secretary John Long. U . In March.000 Marines to man the naval station at Cavite. "The Guantanamo Campaign of 1898 . Rickover. Washington .000 man Marine battalion in event of war to defend an advance base in support of a naval campaign i n Asiatic waters . The Journal of Frank Keeler. 1976). Relations with the Navy. Annual Report of the Commandant to the Secretary of the Navy. 3. 3. How the Battleship Maine Was Sunk (Annapolis . It created much greater public awareness of and support for this small force. (Marine Corps Paper Series. passim 2. G . D .Frank Keeler. Number One ) pp. . Wendell C .000 were actually involved in any combat actions before th e Peace Protocols went into effect in August.). Marines. and John A . 6. 222 . Captain W . While these budget and control battles ran into the onset of Worl d War I. "The Guantanamo Campaign. dtd 13 April 1898 (Spanish-American War Files. Admiral H. and learn to work with th e Army and allied forces . 5. Marine Corps. Th e History of the First Battalion . D . MCHC. This growing professionalism would build the foundation for the stellar performance of the Marine Corps in the land battles of Worl d War I. Admiral Dewey requested 1. 24 September 1898. (Privatel y published booklet. 1898 . USMC. 3-4 . Copy of Letter from Captain W . 34-48 .C. hereafter Clifford. and in October 1900 Dewe y signed a memorandum to the secretary of the Navy advocating the formation o f a 400-man Marine battalion to serve as a nucleus of a 1. S . Colonel Charles McCawley. 1930. 1 .)." 4. Washington. Sampson. hereafter McCawley. 28 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R and less than 20. The History of the First Battalion of U . which had sometimes grown acrimonious in th e 1890's improved greatly . p . and created the foundatio n for the professional.S ." Marin e Corps Gazette. pp. The War with Spain signaled a watershed for the tiny Marine Corps . Sep 1916. Neville.C. Philippines.39 Marine officers and their allies in Congress would have to continue to justif y the need for a separate Marine Corps within the Navy Department after the turn of the century. John Henry Clifford. respected force of the twentieth century . vol . USN. MCHC. 1899. No. Notes 1. The Marines had six combat deaths (five at Guantanamo and one off Cienfuegos) and a sick list of less than tw o percent . hereafter Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps. and foster the creative thinkers of the 1920's who would develop the amphibious doctrine used so successfully in World War II . participate in the relie f expedition during the Boxer Rebellion in China. many of the young officers like Smedley Butler.

3Dec 1910 . " The Marine Corps Gazette. 22-23 . The U. A . "How the Navy Won Guantanamo Bay. USN. Chitty. Huntington. op . USN . 1897-1909. H. p . Ronald Spector. Russell.. USMC . McCalla. Planeview. 12. pp .Hagemnds Press. 32. An Illustrated History of Our War With Spain (Hartford. p. 22-23 . 1974). Lieutenant E . 1981).S ." Journal of American Studies. 32-5. op .. Guantanamo. Anderson. McNeal. Quartermaster First Marine Battalion. p . pp ." New York World.S. 21-22. 113 . Cuba. 33-47 . p . "Marines Signaling Under Fire at Guantanamo". 1898 . 1958). Margaret Leech. 24. USMC.) . 29. Crane. Annual Report. Braisted. Commander Bowman H ." USS Marble head. in Report of the Secretary of the Navy. McCalla. pp ." p . A .. S . David F . A. June 16. Nathan Miller. (Books for Library Press. NY) 1976 reprint of 1900 book .. 8.S. 23. John Henry Clifford. "Report of B . Henry B . 15 . 113 . (Austin. 28. 1898.C." 17 June 1898 . SecNav. Heinl. Stephen Crane. 25. p . "Cutting of Cables off Cienfuegos. II. 190 . (New York: New York University . McCawley. Battalion Order No .. cit . Marine Corps Publicity Bureau.5. MCHC. TX. The U. Huntington. p . hereafter Williams. The War With Spain in 1898 ( New York. See also William R . New York 1919). 1898. 1898.." in Report of the Secretary of the Navy. 217 . Stephen Crane. 23 June 1898 ." First published i n McClure's Magazine. Ibid. In Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps . 1898). 21. Captain Chas . W . "Marines Signaling Under Fire at Guantanamo. 224 . J . pp . MacMillan. Ma r 1928. 26. cit . p . Wounds in the Rain . LA. and reprinted in R . Ibid. 15. op . 13. D . 9. 19. p . pp . p . 609 . 12 May 1898. Trask.. Washington. "The Guantanamo Campaign. 11. Harper Bros . Navy. 10. 1896-98. 1964) ." 27 September 1898 . February 1899. 200 . p . 1977). BGen Dion Williams. McCawley. "Red Badge of Courage Was His Wig-Wag Flag. R . 20. " American Naval Preparations for War with Spain. The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane. Admiral of the New Empire : The Life and Career of George Dewey (Baton Rouge. op . L . Stallman and E . 1898." U. Grenville. McCawley. D . USN.. LCdr Herbert P . 18. (Spanish-American War File. Apr 1968. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 29 7. In the Days of McKinley (New York. 1959). 619 . 179 . An Illustrated History (Annapolis. 25 . 17. "Thirty Years Ago. 16. in "Re port to the Commandant. Colonel Robert W . Jun 53. The Story of the United States' Marine s 1740-1919. "Thirty Years Ago" . op cit. p . USN. 149-150 . 14. cit. Clifford. (USNIP and th e American Heritage Publishing Co . Nava l Institute Proceedings. "Report of the Commanding Officer Firs t Marine Battalion. The History of the First Battalion. p. p . Huntington file. USMC. Medal of Honor citation for Pvt John Fitzgerald. 31. Stephen Crane. Navy in the Pacific. Ibid.S . . 14 . (U . John Leonard and Fred F . USMC. 30. 23 . Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. 232 . cit . 27. 118 . 1-24 .. 33. 43 . Worthington & Co . p . 12 . 22.

Frank Keeler. Bernard C . ( NY : Harper & Brothers. p . . Reminiscences of a Marine. (MCHC . 133-134 . University Press of Kansas. 30 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 34. 26 . Marine Corps. Washington. (NY : Arno Press.. The Marine Corps Search For a Mission. 1979). 1959). Ibid . 196-197 . pp . Henry Cabot Lodge. 1880-1898 (Lawrence . Nalty. Kansas. The Journal of Frank Keeler. 37. Lejeune. p .C . The United States Marines in the War with Spain. p . 38. pp . Jack Shulimson. 1898.S . MajGen John A . p . 31 .. 1899). 1993). 9. pp . 39. 36. U. D . The War With Spain. Annual Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps to th e Secretary of the Navy. 35. 210 . 174-176 .

When the battleship Maine blew up in Havana harbor on the night of February 15. worked to the Marine Corps's advantage . officers of the Navy War College and th e Office of Naval Intelligence drew up and then revised a series of war plans for the fleet in case the United States and Spain went to war . most American s assumed that Spanish saboteurs had sunk the Maine and killed 266 of the crew . and th e Spanish government would not end its pacification campaign or negotiate awa y its colonies. the Philippine Islands ." . Twenty-eight other members of the ship s guard perished with their Navy shipmates and became martyrs in the pages o f the American press . by the end of 1897 the Navy Department had a fairly accurate vision of it s 1 responsibilities in 1898 . 1898 . which the Office of Naval Intelligence knew was not a first-rate force . ammunition. The events that preceded the actual declaration of war on April 21. Thus the Maine became a popular casus belli and exceptionally good copy for the bellicose "yellow press . who escorted Captain Charles D . After the renewal of the Cuban insurrection in 1895. a Navy War Board of five senior officers reviewed and revised the basic pla n drafted in 1896 . spare parts . The Free Press . Millett From the time the Department of the Navy first considered a war with Spain. and reprinted with permission of the author and publisher . All three major partie s endorsed freedom for Cuba during the election campaign of 1896. coal. Chapter 5 : The Marine Corps and the New Navy 1889-1909. and maintenance work ships . one of the heroes was a Marin e orderly. 1991. Sigsbee. William Anthony. it assumed that the Navy could quickly enlarge its auxiliary fleet i n order to support its warships with water. while a victory in the Philippines would allow the American government to hol d Manila hostage until a peace was negotiated . hence this planning was prudent. Essentially. to safety from his smoke-filled cabin . the Navy War Board envisioned offensive operations against the Spanish fleet in the Caribbean and in the western Pacifi c near another Spanish colony. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 31 Excerpted from Semper Fidelis : History of the United States Marine Corps . The Navy War Board recognized that without adequate bases near the theaters of operations (which the Navy did not have) th e Navy was more endangered by breakdowns and shortages than by the Spanis h navy. its plan implied that such actions might be necessary . A defeat in the Caribbean would isolate Cuba and blockade the Spanish armies in Cuba and Puerto Rico . stores. Since the Maine had been sent to Havana to protec t American lives and property from Spanish anti-American riots. The Spanish-American War by Allan R . However sound the strategi c concept. USN. it concluded that the new Navy would be the primary instrument with which th e United States would end Spanish colonialism in the Caribbean . While President William McKinley and the State Department attempted to come to terms with Spain. In any event. Although the Navy War Board did not plan any specific operations to seiz e temporary bases.

As for the effect of the secondary batteries. ended by war. 32 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R The subsequent Congressional demand for action centered on the Nav y Department. And Congress. both at the secondary batteries and as messengers an d ammunition-passers . Disappointed when the initial reports of both fleet engagements di d not mention the Marine guards. Heywood asked for more officers and men and received almost all he requeste d in legislation passed on May 4. Heywood. 1898 . the exact number he had requested from the naval affairs committees . it was difficult . The results of the Commandant's investigation an d subsequent studies showed that the Marines had behaved with coolness unde r fire and had carried out all their duties with efficiency. Sampson's combined squadrons pounde d nine Spanish ships into flaming junk with their heavy guns . 1898. Although the secondary batteries blasted away with enthusiasm in both engagements. however. was allowed to recruit 1. Commodore George Dewey' s squadron and Rear Admiral William T . Congressional funding . The Commandant was sure he now had enough men to protect Navy yards. simply because both engagements were decided by the fire of the American main batteries .640 more enlisted men for the war . In two major and decisive sea engagements--at Manila Bay . and off Santiago de Cuba. the Marines of the Asiatic and North Atlanti c squadrons would bear the heaviest responsibility in proving their essential valu e to the battle fleet. July 3--the ships guards had n o opportunity to prove their superiority as gunners. The Commandant dared hope tha t the Marine Corps might have as many as four thousand men even after the wa r ended . and Colonel Heywood suddenly found he could recruit the Marin e Corps up to its full strength of 3. ma n ships guards. Despit e the gross inaccuracy of the Navy's gunners. Moreover. and carry out any other missions the Navy Department migh t assign . raised the Commandant to th e 3 rank of brigadier general . Marines had committed acts of individual heroism. If the Commandant's claims in the ships guards controversy was anythin g more than anachronistic rhetoric. the Commandant wanted a permanent enlargement of the officer corps by 103 billets but receive d permission to commission forty-three second lieutenants for the war only . After three decades of Marine promises that the Corps needed only a war to prove its military efficiency. The manpower drought was over. Secretary Lon g wanted to know how much of an emergency defense appropriation of $5 0 million might be spent on the Marine Corps .073 enlisted men . and new public interest in the Marine Corps .2 With the formal outbreak of war . Heywood queried the ships captains and Marin e officers about what exactly the Marines had contributed to the stunning American victories . it would have been awkward if the War with Spain had not provided new glories to be parade d for the benefit of Congress and the Navy Department . True. not al l of the rapid-fire guns came into action and not all of those that did were manne d by Marines . Whether or not the Marine Corps would eventually profit from it s honeymoon with Congress and its rediscovery by the American people rested a s much with Heywood's scattered ships guards and barracks detachments as it di d with the Commandant in Washington . May 1. in martial good feeling.

Heywood rushed to the Brooklyn Marine Barracks (commanded by Huntington ) to supervise the mobilization. while the others were infantry . the ships guards shared the Navy's public acclaim . the purchasing of supplies. the troops (about 40 percent new recruits) were enthusiastic and th e officers experienced. They fired their guns in th e bombardments of San Juan.4 Yet the ships guards had. Huntington. What Long had in mind i s unclear. although he knew the Panther would be . As it turned out. No other unit of comparable siz e (with the possible exception of the "Rough Rider" cavalry regiment) received a s much newspaper coverage during the Cuban campaign . As it developed. pushcarts. orderlies. however. the troops cheered "Remember the Maine. After a rousing parade . been there during the debut of the ne w Navy. wagons (but no mules). the Panther . In a "splendid " and almost bloodless war for the United States Navy. Secretary Lon g ordered Colonel Heywood to organize one battalion for expeditionary duty wit h the North Atlantic Squadron in Caribbean waters . and Ponce. Drawing Marines from East Coast barracks. Puert o Rico. if more than a trifle superannuated . the officers' wives gave the battalion new flags. as conquests of the United States . Marine landing parties from American vessels destroyed cable station s and cut cables in Cuba. and barbed wire cutters for the expedition . raised the flag in the Spanis h naval yard at Cavite on Manila Bay. the testimony of his own officers showe d that such was not the case . One of the companies was armed with four 3-inch landing guns . made the greatest contribution to the Marine Corps' s reputation for combat valor and readiness . Although Heywood later claimed that the Marine gunners played a crucial rol e in destroying the Spanish squadrons. medical aides. a Navy yard crowd roared with enthusiasm and the New Yor k newspapers hailed the departing heroes . Colonel Heywood himself was please d with the battalion's prospects. shovels. That they had done anything special is not so clear . Although the battalion's initial drills were a muddle. And the experience o f Huntington's battalion suggested to some Navy and Marine officers that th e Corps might indeed have an important role to play in the new Navy . but he or the Naval War Board or Admiral Sampson must hav e contemplated extemporizing a base in Cuba. a single expeditionary battalion of barracks Marines commanded by a bearded ancient of the Civil War. after all. and claimed Apra. and Santiago. On April 16. and the investigators had only the wor d of the Spaniards that the rapid fire guns had disrupted some of their exposed gu n crews and messengers . and Marines also participated in other naval actions during the summer o f 1898 . Lieutenant Colone l Robert W . Puerto Rico. pickaxes . captured a lighthouse. signalmen . messengers. Heywood created a six-company battalion of 24 officers and 63 3 enlisted men . the Marines aboard Sampson' s battleships and cruisers were more often posted as riflemen. Guam." and the battalion marched to the Panther on April 22 . and the outfitting of a newly purchased Navy transport. five days before the war formally began. As th e Marines departed. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 33 to find many hits on the Spanish hulks. Cuba . and ammunition-passers than as gunners . for Marine quartermaster s purchased three months' supplies and wheelbarrows.

Spanish infantry closed about the wear y camp. worn by a 12. Shoved ashore without all their supplies o n May 24.7 The position ashore. and McCalla decided the position was defensible . On June 10 Huntington's battalion started unloading their supplies." As the Marines unloaded. screene d by one company . the Marblehead fired occasiona l shells in the neighboring hills to discourage any lurking Spanish patrols . Miffed by the Marines' reluctance to do chores and anxious to change hi s ship into an auxiliary cruiser. listened to lectures. The basic defensive position atop the hill close to the beac h (selected by the Marine captain on the Oregon) was not wide enough t o accommodate a tent camp for more than six hundred men. This force was then joined by the battleshi p Oregon. Admiral Sampson aske d that the Marine battalion support his naval expedition into Guantanamo Bay eas t of Santiago . killed an unwary two-man outpost. Looking for a temporary harbor for coaling his vessels. But until they received some Cuban guides and established their bas e camp. While Huntington and the ships captain argued whether Navy Regulations for a Marine ships guard applied to a n embarked battalion. Worried b y reports of seven thousand Spanish troops in the Guantanamo area. For the next twenty-four hours the Marines wrestled their gear ashore in the heavy heat . but Huntington raise d his tents anyway along the hill's crest above the main trenches and the outposts . and fired ten rounds each from their new Le e rifles . but it was ready for action . While they toiled. the Marines replied with a blind . Commande r Bowman McCalla. the troops ate in continuous shifts. had the Marines from his cruiser and the Oregon conduct a reconnaissance of a hilly point just inside the bay's mouth . named Camp McCalla. dust y tent camp. The ships guards found the Spanish gone . Huntington's second in command. the ships captain persuaded a commodore at Ke y West to order the battalion ashore . Essentially the battalion wa s supposed to prevent the Spanish from harassing the ships in the harbor with rifl e or artillery fire. the Marines were chained to their hill and three outposts beyond it in th e heavy brush . but McCall a thought that it could be protected by naval gunfire . In the early evening of June 11 the battalion began what Major Henry Cla y Cochrane. and opened night-long harassing fire on the camp . Sampson sent the cruiser Marblehead and two small auxiliary cruisers int o Guantanamo Bay. which could be done with active patrolling and by garrisonin g the hill . Scurrying to their trenches. As Huntington's battalion reloaded on the Panther on June 7 . was not well organized. By May 28 the Navy had locate d and blockaded the Spanish squadron in Santiago harbor in southeastern Cuba . where they shelled and destroyed the Spanish shore position s and chased a gunboat up the bay . captain of the Marblehead and the expedition commander . sweated in the packed compartments. 6 Finally the battalion received a mission .000-mile cruise around South America . 5 The odyssey of Huntington's battalion became progressively less romantic a s the Panther plowed south for the Caribbean . No one had the slightest idea what the battalion was expected t o do. 34 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R overcrowded . called "its one hundred hours o f fighting . the Marines continued training and fought the bugs in their hot.

At ranges up to 1. some tw o miles away . was soon in a state of near collapse . Although the Marines did not surprise the Spanish garrison o f battalion strength. Elliott led two infantry companie s and a detachment of fifty Cuban scouts on a circular six-mile march towar d Cuzco Well . By early evening the Marines were back in their jubilant camp . A Marine platoon went into the valley to coun t bodies. on its own initiative closed of f the head of the valley and caught the enemy in a crossfire. the whiz of Mauser bullets. havin g suffered at least 160 casualties . while the dispatc h ship Dolphin added its shells to the general firing . Harper's Weekly. since th e Marblehead and the auxiliary cruisers had just spent three nights at genera l quarters . a storm of naval shelling. Although the Spanish never closed. On June 14 Captain George F . the action at Guantanamo Bay was a minor skirmish of no consequence to the course of the war. and there was som e question as to who was protecting whom from the Spanish. and the papers served by the Associated Press knew who the Marine s were and that they had won a magnificent victory against overwhelming odds . and burn the camp. they won the foot race to the hill that dominated the Spanis h camp and caught the enemy in the valley . At the cost of four Cuban s and three Marines dead and wounded and twenty heat casualties. and ended the attacks on thei r 9 own camp . After four hours of fighting the Spaniards withdrew from their cul-de-sac. When veteran Marine officers treated their situation with aplomb. it drew a squad of newspaper correspondents. As the first serious fighting by American troops on Cuba n soil. fired without much direction. Much of the battalion. The Dolphin's shells. A newly arrived Cuban colonel had a better idea : send an expedition to destroy the only nearby drinking water and the Spanish camp at Cuzco Well. and Tribune). reported the Cuzco Well battle as an epic of braver y and professional skill that proved the military superiority of the Marines . also drove the Marine platoon from its position until th e shelling was stopped by a wigwag message from Sergeant John H . constant alarms. During the fighting another Marine platoon on outpost duty. the reporters waxe d rhapsodic . By the time the skirmish ended. especiall y 8 Huntington and the older officers. whose reports made it soun d as if Huntington's battalion had been on the edge of annihilation . the Chicago Tribune. among them Stephen Crane. and the action was over . American readers of three big Ne w York dailies (World.000 yards the Marines peppered the Spaniards with rifle and machine gun fire . For the sleepless Marines the next two nights were much th e same. Herald. If . destroy the well. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 35 barrage of rifle and Colt machine gun fire. Compared with the fighting soon to follow in the Army's campaign agains t Santiago. moved his camp to th e beach area in order to protect it from direct fire and ease his resupply problems . but it took on incalculable importance fo r the Marine Corps . The reporters . supplemented by a thunderous naval bombardment. signal lamp s blinking in the darkness. the expeditio n had captured eighteen Spaniards. Quick. at McCalla's suggestion. routed the rest. their fire killed the battalion's Navy surgeon and two sergeants and wounded three others . Obviously the tactical situation had to be reversed. For a start Huntington. and wild riflery into the heavy brush .

. "The Influence of Strategy upo n History : The Acquisition of the Philippines. for another landing . 1898. Ne w Hampshire. Long. C . By the time the battalion disbanded it had spent as much time parading as it had fighting. August 29. The Marine Corps experience is summarized in Bernard C . 10 Having languished at Guantanamo Bay through June and July 1898 . Secretary of the Navy Long. 189 8 (Washington : Government Printing Office. 36 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R the Commandant had staged the campaign for public effect. "LSSN. (New York : Scribner's. 4. Cmdt . 1967) . "LSSN. with Heywood's prompting. D . Chadwick. pp . Nalty. D .529 from the emergency fund.S . R ." RG 127 . Long. Marine Corps Historical Referenc e Pamphlet (Washington : Historical Branch. Col . see Captain French E . L . Cmdt . Heywood to J . HQMC. After the War with Spain the American publi c and. 1898." RG 127 . John A . Navy Department. 2 vols . it could not have been more successful . but it had bee n enormously successful at both . 1898). March 12. and New York . preserved in HQMC Scrapbooks. 1898 . Congress would never again have to ask what a Marine did . "LSSN. and in "Report of the Commandant U . Boston. 267-296 . By the end of August the battalion was back in Portsmouth. But before the battalion could stor m ashore." U . USN.S . by implication. Heywood's position is stated in Col . Spain agreed to an armistice. Th e United States Marines in the War with Spain. . HQMC. competence. T . Heywood to J . 854-862 . 1880-1901. RG 127 . Annual Reports of the Navy Department. The Marine Corps eventuall y spent $106. Long. 3. Detailed analyses o f Marine duties are in Lt . Philadelphia. September 24. 1911) . Meade (Fleet Marine Officer) to Col . The Relations of the United States and Spain : The Spanish-American War. Huntington's battalion was not allowed to fade away." in Politics. Cmdt. The battalion paraded especially for Presiden t McKinley on September 22. 1898. to be disbanded and sent to its home barracks for duty . Col. and devotion to duty. S . Heywood. pp . and September 24. and as quickly as the war had started it wa s over. rev . discipline . Cuba. D . Heywood to J ." RG 127. Huntington's battalion embarked on the Navy transport Resolute and sailed for Manzanillo. Capt . C . announce d that 1898 was the centenary of the Marine Corps's founding and tha t Huntington's battalion had performed admirably as a dramatic reminder of on e hundred years of service . W . ed . Cmdt . 1898. HQMC. Heywood. L . Instead the word " Marine" now evoked an image of bravery. and America n Diplomacy (New Haven : Yale University Press. C . Marin e Corps. Strategy.11 Notes 1. Waller to Col . April 25. 1966). 2. for its conduct a t Guantanamo Bay and its light sick list (only 2 percent) at a time when soldier s were dying in droves in both Cuba and the United States made it a nationa l sensation . HQMC. Throughout the war Headquarters Marine Corps kept extensive clippings on the Corps . C . Grenville and George Berkeley Young. For the nava l campaigns against Spain in 1898. C. Cmdt. and Heywood received requests for more parade s from Omaha. Col.

. and Cmdr . USN. R . and May 25 . 1898 . R . Brown. Huntington to Col . 5. Henry Clay Cochrane diaries entries for June 14 and 15. 1898. The Journal of Frank Keeler (Quantico. 1898 . Cochrane Papers . 1898. Col . 10. 16-18 . HQMC. RG 127 . ed . "Letters Received. January 8 . both HD/HQMC . "Letters Received. : Marine Corps Museum. Heywood. and Cmdr . Huntington. C . USN. " RG 127." RG 127 . 5 (Washington : Government Printing Office." RG 127 . The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane (New York: New York University Press. 1898 . and Cmdr." RG 127 . Part II. R . Heywood to J. W. Capt. H . 1818-1915. Va . 1898. W . August 27. C. entrie s for June 10-11. 9. " RG 127. "Letters Received. extracts fro m the manuscript autobiography of Admiral B . June 17. October 22." RG 127 . W. journal of Marine battalion under Lt . eds . D .S . 1903 . June 17. Novembe r 12. and May 23. C. Cmdt . McCalla. HD/HQMC. Bowman McCalla. Cochrane to Mrs .. Stallman and E . August 15. and Commander "J" (Imperial Germa n Navy). The Correspondents ' War (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. both HD/HQMC . RG 127 . Huntington to Col . Maj . 1900. 140-154. 171-172. RG 45 . " RG 127 . Dolphin) to Secretary of the Navy. McCawley (battalion QM) to Col . 1818-1915. : the author . 1967). September 24. Huntington to Col . C . 8. History of the First Battalion of U. 1898. 1898 . Heywood. 1898. 1898 . August 13. April 30. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 37 September 1. W . entries for April 19-23. C . Cmdt . 1898 . Col . 1898. 1818-1915. Henry Cla y Cochrane diaries. Cmdt. and Maj . Entries for April 17-22. Col . all HD/HQMC. Heywood. USN. Lt . 1898. "LSSN. Long. Col . The Journal of Frank Keeler. Cochrane Papers . 1898. R . Tyson. Cochrane . 5-15 . 1898. Bowman McCalla. W . Sketches from the Spanish-American War. Cmdt . pp . Lane to Col . Elliott to Lt . ANJ. 267-274 . C. July 2. Atlantic Fleet.4 (Washington : Government Printing Office. F . W . June 16. 1964). Col . R. 1899). C . and Carolyn A . journal of Huntington's battalion. Charles H . 279-289 . File OH (Landing Operations) . Entries for June 10-14. C . "Letters Received. to CINC. Henry Clay Cochrane Papers . Cochrane Papers . R . The effects of American gunfir e are assessed in Lieutenant John M . 1930) . N . 1898. entries for June 12-15. Office of Naval Intelligence War Notes No . Cochrane Papers . Elliott. 7. "Letters Received. 1898. H . Office of Naval Intelligenc e War Notes No . and Maj . H . 1898 . Cmdt. June 14. R . Lt. pp . Clifford. Huntington. "LSSN. Atlantic Fleet. H . Col .. W. 1898. Cmdt . 6. R . New York Herald. John H . 1898. 1898 . to CINC. Heywood to J. April 23 and September 24. pp. Henry Clay Cochrane diaries. 1898. Maj . D . September 24. Effect of the Gun Fire of the United States Vessels in the Battle of Manila Bay. C. Marines (Portsmouth. Cmdt . Field Organization Records. 1898. both HD/HQMC . Henry Clay Cochrane diaries. and Maj . June 19. 3-4 . 1898. June 15. 1899). pp . and 1stLt . and ANJ. 1898. Long. 1967). Hagemann. G. 1818-1915. all HD/HQMC. Heywood. Col . and Tyson. 1898. pp . Lyons ( CO. Lt.H . 11. June 19. 1818-1915. and Maj . Heywood.

On 15 February. Portrait of Marine Private William Anthony who served as orderly to the captain of the Maine. Charles Sigsbee. Department of Defense (Marine) Photo 521452 . Private Anthony led the captain to safety as the ship began to sink. The sinking of the Maine on the 15th of February was one of the primary causes of the Spanish-American War.38 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR THE FIRST MONTHS OF THE WAR Photo courtesy of National Archives 11 I-SC-94543 The American battleship USS Maine is seen entering Havana harbor in a good-will public relations mission in January 1898.

In the ensuing battle.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 39 Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center NH95654 Photograph shows Marine recruits being mustered into the Corps at the Charleston Navy Yard. Massachusetts. This photograph originally appeared in Photographic History of the Spanish-American War. Commodore George Dewey is seen on the deck of his flagship. published by the Pearson Publishing Company of New York in 1898. in Manila Bay. Dewey's Asiatic Squadron destroyed the defending Spanish fleet. the cruiser USS Olympia. Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center 100318 .

40 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Photo courtesy of National Archives 127-N-514831 Marine 1stLt Dion Williams is shown with his detachment of Marines on Cavite Island in the Philippines. Lieutenant Williams' detachment at Cavite in Manila Bay established an advance base for Commodore Dewey's Squadron.S. A contemporary illustration shows small boats carrying sailor and Marine volunteers from the U. . Cuba. Navy cruisers Nashville and Marblehead (seen in the background) in attempt to cut the cables south of Cienfuegos.

recreating their cable-cutting mission off Cienfuegos. Cuba. . are seen back on board the Navy cruiser Nashville. These volunteers were all awarded the Medal of Honor for their efforts.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 41 Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center NH79952 Marine and sailor volunteers pose in a small boat off the cruiser USS Nashville at the end of the war. Marine and sailor volunteers who participated in the cable-cutting attempt off Cienfuegos.

Over the protests of LtCol Robert W. .42 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Photo courtesy of National Archives 127-N-515601 Marines from the 1st Battalion are seen just before landing from the Navy transport Panther at Key West. the Marine commander. Huntington. Florida. the Panther's captain insisted that the Marines go ashore.

Headed by Capt . The Navy was also to concentrate on the poorly defended outposts . later observed that the sinking of the Maine "would inevitably lead to 1 war. 1992 and reprinted with permission of the editor and publisher . includin g the heads of the Bureau of Navigation and the Office of Naval Intelligenc e (ONI). the War College. and its aftermath served to delineate the nature of the Marine Corps' mission in the rapidly expanding navy and in the defense o f America's colonial possessions . Based on the consensus of the earlier war planning effort . William T. certain feature s appeared frequently : a blockade of Puerto Rico and Cuba. Sinc e 1895. battleship Maine in Havana harbor in February 1898 galvanized American popular opinion agains t the Spanish . exterior to the hull. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 43 Excerpted from Crucible of Empire. however. the Navy Departmen t reexamined its strategy in the event of a conflict with Spain . McKinley forwarded the Sampson board's findings to Congress withou t comment . President McKinley attempted to defuse the situation by appointin g a board of naval experts to determine the cause of the explosion on the America n warship. the ONI. Despite the differen t formulations of the various American planning documents." While the war fever spread through the country. it recommended to th e secretary that the Navy take the offensive and not be relegated to a passiv e coastal defense role . Long.S. Even as moderate a figure as Secretary of the Navy John D . and a possible naval attack in Spanish home waters . In March 189 8 Secretary Long appointed an advisory war board consisting of Assistan t Secretary Theodore Roosevelt as chairman and three naval officers. a possible lan d campaign against Havana. brief as it was. Naval Institut e Press. The war. The board had the benefit of the extensive ad hoc planning effort that ha d continued through both the Cleveland and McKinley administrations . blamed an internal explosion in the forward magazines for the disaster . the Navy court of inquir y reported on 21 March 1898 that a submarine mine. a blockade or assault against Manila in the 2 Philippines. The publication in the New York Journal of the letter in which Spanis h minister Dupuy de Lome referred to President McKinley as "weak and a bidde r for the admiration of the crowd" and the sinking of the U . edited by James Bradford. and the temporary strategy boards ha d developed several contingency plans for a war with Spain . Sampson.S . Marines in the Spanish-American Wa r by Jack Shulimson I THE U . on the othe r hand. A Spanish investigating team. the board suggested the close blockade of Cuba and extension of the blockade t o Puerto Rico . DECLARED WAR ON SPAIN AT A TIME WHEN THE MARINE CORPS and it s officers were uncertain about their role in the American defense establishment . even if it were shown that Spain was innocent of her destruction . set off th e forward magazines of the Maine . Once the war board was formally established.

44 MARINES IN THE SPANSIH-AMERICAN WA R of Spain's insular empire. In a March communication to the chairman of the House Committe e on Naval Affairs. the Naval Institute Proceedings published as one of its prize articles a piece by Lt . nevertheless. The expenditures included the . The naval buildup also involved the Marine Corps . and all the available officers of the Corps assigned to places in differen t companies . or such light attacks as might be attempted during the temporary . "Two battalions have been made up o n paper.64 under the emergency appropriation . All told. Although not specifically mentioning marines. 5 Florida . acquired several merchant auxiliary ships. On 10 March 189 8 Secretary Long provided Col . the military prepared for what now appeared inevitable . This corps would land in Cub a only after the Navy had established its mastery over the Spanish fleet . Comdr . It purchase d cruisers in Europe.000 to 100. the Marine Corps would eventually receiv e $106. the Marine commandant. War Department planners visualized only a limited mobilization .6 purchase of one million rounds of ammunition for the newly issued Le erifls Although both Secretary Long and Colonel Heywood wanted to expand the Marine Corps to meet anticipated demands. As Secretary Long later explained. As the naval plans took on more seriousness. Charles Heywood." About the same time. Spain's "undoing lay in her possessions in the East and West Indies" . on the other hand. The Army received $20 million. Th e commandant was to incur expenses under the appropriation only after making an estimate of the amounts involved and receiving written approval from Secretar y Long and the president . carried a story on 12 March 1898 indicating that the Nav y secretary had ordered Colonel Heywood to form two battalions ready to deplo y at short notice . The department concentrated th e preponderance of its warships in the North Atlantic Squadron at Key West . Richard Wainwright.000-man peacetime strength to form a n expeditionary corps of 75.000 men . War Department officials failed to stock supplies for a large army because the y 4 simply "did not expect to raise one" in a war against Spain . They expected the National Guard to staff the coastal defenses while the Regula r Army expanded from its 28. Long explained the need for more marines in terms of thei r traditional missions . there Spain was the most vulnerable and would be forced to send scarce men an d ships to shore up its defenses . Wainwright referred to advanced bases as th e first line of defense in conjunction with the fleet. The Navy. used a good portion of its approximately $3 0 million of the emergency appropriation to augment the fleet .529 . According to the account. and converte d several private yachts into gunboats . including the Philippines . Congress passed on 9 March 1898 a $50 millio n emergency appropriation to be shared between the War and Navy departments . its role in any pending conflict wa s still vague . The usually authoritative Army and Navy Journal. which mostly went into the coastal fortificatio n program . The board rejected any immediate operations aimed at the Spanish homeland in favor of a strategy of American se a 3 dominance in the Caribbean and Pacific . He advocated that such base s "should require such protection as is necessary to render the base safe agains t cruiser raids. wit h guidelines on the use of the Navy's share of the emergency appropriation .

George C. At that point th e department decided against the formation of a second battalion . when the possibility of war was much closer . By Wednesday. Planning to mount the first battalion out of New York within the week . ." Huntington allowed. ."10 we would have no troops to occupy the city if it di dsuren Perhaps to rectify this situation. Most had entered the Marine Corps during the Civi l 8 War or shortly afterward and had over thirty years of service . Huntington wrote to Colonel Heywood expressin g his concerns about the officer corps. and support vessels . that "there is of course a possibility that we migh t go to Cuba. Sampson would hav e preferred to attack Havana but admitted "the force of . five infantry and one . the commandant on 18 April departed Washington to supervise the preparation s personally . [Long's] reasoning tha t . he met with the headquarters staf f and sent out telegrams to Marine Corps commanding officers at East Coast nav y yards. asked for and receive d $20. and it was organized into six companies. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 45 absence of the guarding fleet . Huntington speculated in a letter to his son about the mission of the Marines ." Huntington proved right on both counts . but as my view of th e war is. Robert Huntington.9 II By early April the Navy had completed its initial preparations for operation s against the Spanish. He thought that Heywood planned to send him "to Key West to guard a coal pile . Coincidentally. and on e surgeon. Col . under the command of Lieutenant Colone l Huntington.000 out of the emergency appropriation to transport and equip th e expedition . th e Marines increased the one battalion by 200 men . 20 April. reflected the uncertainties of the Marine role and th e questionable readiness of its aging officer corps . At Key West. On 30 March 1898. The following day. I cannot say 1 enjoy the prospect very much. The correspondence of Lt . consisted of three armored battleships. commander of the New York barracks and the most likely commanding officer of any Marin e expeditionary force. consisted of 631 enlisted men." The only obvious readily available source to establish and provide such protection for an advanced base would be the Marin e 7 Corps. Instead. the adjutant and inspector and now acting commandant. the First Marine Battalion. Sampson asked Secretary Long for th e deployment of two battalions of marines to serve with the fleet at Key West . twenty-one officers. a Sunday. however. severa l cruisers and torpedo boats. the Marines had assembled 450 men fro m various East Coast navy yards at the New York barracks . now under the command of Captain Sampson. Back at Marine Corps headquarters. When it embarked two days later. on the same day as the sinking of the Maine. especially in the field grade ranks an d among the senior captains . he and his marines later went both to Key West and to Cuba . the North Atlantic Squadron. Reid. I am willing to take the personal risk . On 6 April 1898 Secretary Lon g ordered Sampson on the outbreak of hostilities to capture all Spanish warships i n the West Indies and establish a blockade of Cuba . Maj . On 16 April Colonel Heywood received verbal orders to make the necessar y arrangements . that it is one of humanity.

Henry Clay Cochrane. Lieutenant Colonel Huntington told the men that they woul d embark and depart that night for Hampton Roads. and then wheeled into the yard through the east gate ." but he believed that "some port near Havana is more likely.. Colonel Heywood observed that the hatches for loadin g freight and two small ventilators in the aft section provided the only ventilatio n for the ship . 1 On Friday. Congress on 19 April passed a joint resolution tha t recognized the independence of Cuba. to the refrains of "The Girl I Left Behind Me." 14 By the time the battalion departed New York.13 The specific mission of the Marine battalion remained unclear . tents. down Flushin g Avenue. headed by the Navy Yar d band . By 8 :00 P . wheelbarrows. pick axes. mobilization forced both the Army and the Nav y to reconsider many of their initial assumptions . barbed-wir e cutters. the uncertainties an d confusion of the general U . disclaimed any intention of the United States to annex the island . Still. morale among the men and officers wa shig . the artillery company took fou r 3-inch rapid fire guns . was not ready. shovels. unlike the Navy. About 5 :00 P . and be at the disposal o f the Commander-in-Chief of the North Atlantic Fleet . docked at the Brooklyn Navy Yard . According to Maj ." the Panther set sail to join the f. after Congress rejected a War Department measur e that would have increased only the Regular Army.S .. the administration agree d with congressional leaders to support the establishment of a Volunteer Army a s well as to expand the regular forces . "the 'assembly' was sounded and th e battalion formed in line in heavy marching order." An hour later. demanded the withdrawal of the Spanis h military forces. heavy and lightweight underwear.1le2t On board the Panther. however. The Navy had purchased the ship to carry a battalion of about four hundred men. 46 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R artillery .M. woolen and linen clothing. a senior officer in the battalion. Acting on the president' s message of 11 April.15 . and are to report. Virginia . armed forces to carry out the policy . At the tim e of the unit's formation. 22 April." In a message to Sampso n on 21 April Secretary Long referred to the Navy Department studying th e possibility of "occupying the [northern Cuban] port of Matanzas by a militar y force large enough to hold it . Furthermore.S . Major Reid wrote that the Marines "are to have n o connection whatever with the army." He later declared that the Marine "battalion wa s organized especially for service in Cuba . The troops greeted the news with loud cheers and song and then formed working parties to assis t sailors in loading the ship . conditions were crowded and uncomfortable . however. and authorized the president to use the U . push carts. McKinley signed the resolution the following day and sent the Spanish a n ultimatum . three-months ' worth of provisions. speculation abounded as to their final destination . the Panthe r (formerly the Venezuela). In addition. no t six hundred fifty . the troops carried on board the equipment an d supplies necessary to sustain them in the field . At the battalion's morning formation. the newly purchased Navy transport. and medical supplies . "Porto [sic] Rico is rumored. the Army ." Among the officers and men of th e battalion. the marines marched out of the navy yard. As war approached. This included mosquito netting .M. In the meantime.

a joint Army-Navy board had earlier in the month proposed the landing of a smal l Army force at Martel. and the seizure of Puerto Rico .1dvis7ble Honda" in the north and the southern city of Cienfuegos. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 47 On 20 April President McKinley held his first council of war . small raids by the Army along the Cuban coast in suppor t of the Cuban rebels. Lieutenant Colonel Huntington reported to Capt . On the afternoons of 24 and 25 April th e infantry companies practiced "volley and mass firing" while all four guns of th e artillery company fired at least one round . bringing the number of officers to the full complement o f twenty-three . Because of his seniority. Huntington took advantage of the short interlude at Fortress Monroe to dril l the troops and hold firing exercises . That same evening the Panther. Maj . with the First Marine Battalion embarked. Miles. t o establish a base of operations against the larger city . a port town about twenty-five miles west of Havana. two of the enlisted men came down with high fevers that developed into pneumonia . Two more Marine officers .19 . Maj. The Navy was to assume the main burden of the war . Gen . In fact. Miles opposed frontal assaults against well-entrenched positions . McKinley approved the imposition of a blockade of Cuba. At this point. joined the battalion a t Fortress Monroe. and limited U . who had served in the Civil War as a major. While rejecting Sampson' s initial assault plans against Havana. Percival C . overruled Long and th e . Arriving there th e following evening. At the meeting. Winfield Scott Schley.S . Major Cochrane was assigned to the battalion staff and. The Army's position surprised Secretary Long and the other naval officers . pulled out of New York Harbor for Hampton Roads off Fortress Monroe . James E . Pope and First Lt . Mahoney. Pope became second in command . "if it is considere d " On 22 April Sampson's squadron left Key West for Cuban waters . in somewhat of a huff. Presiden t McKinley. Like many other veterans of the Civil War. On 21 April 1898 Secretary Long promoted Captain Sampson to rear admiral an d ordered him to "blockade coast of Cuba immediately from Cardenas to Bahi a a. Huntington received orders that the battalion would stay on board the Panther and await a warship that would escort the transport to Key West . Nelson A. reported that the Army would not be ready for any large expeditionary campaig n for at least two months . th e resupply and other logistic support of Cuban insurgents. land operations in Cuba .16 Navy and supported Miles' spoitn The conference enunciated a rather cautious military strategy in th e Caribbean. the commanding general of the Army . Another man fell off a rope ladder and was evacuated to the Army hospital ashore with a fractured limb. wrote i n 18 his diary that he and Pope were unsure of their positions in the battalion . He advocated a blockade by the Navy. the commander of the Navy's Flying Squadron. Secretary Long and his Navy planners ha d expected the Army--in conjunction with the Navy--to prepare for an offensiv e against the Cuban capital before the rainy season began . Although morale remained high.

" Acting o n these orders." In the meantime. th e transport steamed out of port and passed the battleships Texas and Massachusetts and the cruiser Brooklyn of the Flying Squadron." The Marines returned the cheers.20 On the same day. "I can take cit y [Manila] at any time. the two ships arrived at Key West . after a three-day voyage. but not sufficient men to hold . . . which could appear at any time . In the ensuing battle. Dion Williams and a detachment of marines from the cruiser Baltimore occupied the . Major Cochrane observed.S. Although challenge d by a few rounds from Spanish shore batteries on El Fraile Island near th e entrance of the bay. the crews crowded the decks and "sent u p cheer after cheer. As the Panther went by the ships.2"1 III While the U. As he informed Washington. the American naval squadron successfully eluded th e Spanish defenses . Dewey's options to exploit his success were limited . still at anchor . including a somewhat stormy passage aroun d Cape Hatteras." On 29 April. but several of the olde r officers who had served in the Civil War had their reservations . but now we must lie here [a t Key West] for a week. 48 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R The men remained in good spirits when the cruiser Montgomery arrived t o accompany the Panther to Key West. on Tuesday. a seven-ship Spanish squadron under Adm . "some of us felt anything but jolly at leaving behind the beauties o f spring to be replaced by the perils of the sea and the hardships of war . one battleship.000 men . [a] well-equipped force of 5. the Navy Department o n 24 April 1898 informed the commodore that war had begun and that he "was t o proceed . the older Spanish vessels were no match for Dewey's relatively modern cruisers . 1 May 1898 . . The departure of the Spanis h squadron may also have caused the postponement of a Marine landing in Cuba . to the Philippines" to "commence operations at once . which lasted a little more than seven hours. Lying at anchor outside the protection of the land batteries a t Manila. 22 Despite his overwhelming victory in the Philippines. This departur e caused the Army to postpone indefinitely a planned six-thousand-ma n "reconnaissance in force" on the southern coast of Cuba. In letters to his sons and wife. "To retai n possession and thus control Philippine Islands would require . th e American squadron sank or left as burning hulks all the enemy warships . At 8 :05 A . Having forewarned Dewey in late February to attac k the Spanish in the Philippines in the event of hostilities. fleet in the Caribbean waited for Cervera squadron to mak e its appearance. At a cost of nine crewmen slightly wounded.M ." He estimated. the Americans had inflicted more than 370 casualties on the Spaniards. Dewey and his squadron slipped into Manila Bay under the cove r of darkness shortly after midnight on Sunday. 26 April. The Navy simply did not have enough ships both to escort the Army transports and to watch for th e Spanish squadron. Major Cochrane observed that the Marines ha d expected to "land in Cuba last Saturday [30 April]. the Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey had already taken the offensive . and three destroyers set ou t from the Portuguese-owned Cape Verde Islands and headed west . Pascua l Cervera consisting of three cruisers. . Marine 1st Lt . including 161 killed .

Herbert L. the Marine battalion remained on board ship at Key West . idle since the canceled "reconnaissance in force" mission . Even before he officially heard the news from Manila. told Major Cochrane that Sampson stated "h e did not want the Marines to go away to the Army . which had been in Key West for repair. "No large army movement can take place for a fortnight and no small one will until after we know the whereabouts of the Spanish armored cruisers and destroyers . and some Marine Corps ." Huntington' s adjutant. leaving the Marine battalion t o 25 fend for itself. Although most of the officers had several years of service . the Marin e battalion established a campsite on the beach. [He] had use for them. The Navy commander at this time had no orders for the Marine commander. In typical fashion. Draper. until reinforcements from the United States could arrive . in effect becoming marooned a t ." hi s subordinate officers speculated about their mission and about their futures an d the future of the Marine Corps . which served as a base of operations for th e fleet. Forced to disembark in the early hours the following morning." Even Huntington mentioned to his son that the men "have little idea o f obeying orders" and that some were prone to stealing . the Marine battalion settled into a routine of drills. On 30 April Lieutenant Colonel Huntington reported to Sampson on board the latter' s flagship . As Secretary Long informed Rear Admiral Sampson on 3 May. Major Cochrane overheard another Marine office r describe a battalion parade as "a little Army. 1st Lt . President McKinley had reversed his earlie r decision to refrain from a major land campaign against Havana . At Key West.27 Key West without its transpor t While Huntington futilely protested against his forced "grounding. almos t daily disputes with the Navy commander of the Panther. little Navy. back out to the American blockadin g fleet . Admiral Cervera's squadron also remained a wild card . William Shafter. Every morning the ship's small boats took the companies of the Marine battalio n ashore for the drills ." On 3 May Sampson departed Key West with a small task force in the hopes o f intercepting Cervera's squadron off Puerto Rico. Major Cochrane reflected . including Secretary of War Russell A. In a conferenc e on 2 May the president approved an expedition against Mariel that he had rejected at the April meeting. as well as between the Army and Navy . Gen. The vanguard of these forces were to be the troop s encamped at Tampa under Maj . the enlisted men of the battalion were largely raw recruits and required bot h discipline and training . Alger and Major Genera l Miles."24 While the Army and Navy planners examined the feasibility of a Cuba n campaign. Miles still opposed any major land campaign until after the rain y season . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 Spanish naval station at Cavite.2 3 News of Dewey's victory electrified American public opinion and reinforce d the demand for a similar initiative in the Caribbean .26 On 23 May the Panther received orders to tow the monitor Amphitrite. "as the plan of campaign had not yet been completed . The plans for this operation went throug h several reiterations because there were major differences among many of th e principals. Although overruled by the president. and rumormongering .

Cochrane's optimism for favorable legislation had diminished : "When I think that war was declared on the 25th of April . in that it provided for th e appointment of one-quarter of the new second lieutenants from the ranks o f meritorious noncommissioned officers who passed the required examinations . the administration was supporting its own reform program. At the beginning of the crisis. . and did not wan t half-measures attached to the appropriation bill . had its disadvantages ." Most of his correspondence with his wife reflected th e Marines' hopes for new legislation that would increase the Corps and permi t promotions for the officers .29 On 28 March 1898 Colonel Heywood submitted a formal request fo r proposed legislation to Secretary Long for the restructuring of the Marine office r corps . and ready for duty." By late May and early June. it annoys me that so little benefi t comes from it . and that we embarked on th e 22d. in part. Heywood and his staff hoped to obtain fro m Congress a significant increase in personnel and a restructuring of the office r corps . however. promotion for most other senior officers. the committee incorporated Heywood's bill with the reform measure s suggested by the Roosevelt personnel boa rd . This bill contained one new wrinkle. Cochrane's wife noted that the war "should be a n immense advantage to the Marine Corps . and the presidential appointment of all new staff officers in accordance wit h seniority in the staff and then from the list of senior Marine captains of the line . Thi s was due. Congress authorized the inclusion of the 473 enlistments tentatively approved in . the temporary increase of rank for the Fleet Marine Officer. They were more successful in the former activity than the latter . Writing to his wife in early May. Because of the administration' s admonition to the House Naval Affairs Committee. . The recommended bill contained many of the same provisions that th e Corps had pushed through the years : the rank of brigadier general for the commandant. Because of the war. however. to the legislative strategy of the McKinley administration . however . an increase in the tota l number of officers. In it s report." 28 IV As Huntington and his officers vented their frustrations against the Navy an d against their forced inactivity at Key West. Cochrane observe d that the Marines "are not hurrying very much to get to Cuba--unless we can hav e the prestige of being first . Every forward plan is suspended until the Spanis h fleet is encountered . Congress would not conside r the restructuring of the officer corps in the Naval appropriation bill . 50 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR much of this sentiment. Colonel Heywood and his staff i n Washington busied themselves in placing the Marine Corps on a wartime footin g and lobbying for permanent legislation to benefit the Corps .30 The incorporation of the Marine bill with the broader Navy personne l legislation. Secretary Long forwarded the bill to the House Naval Affairs Committee . Congress had been considering reform of the naval officer corps for some time . the Marine Corps realized through the appropriation legislation som e expansion in its enlisted ranks and in the number of temporary officers . equipped. . organized. The commandant was forced to settle for much less than he wanted .

. A jaundiced Major Cochrane provided his wife with advice for a young relativ e who wanted to obtain one of the new Marine commissions from civilian life . This bill no w included the changes that Heywood had forwarded relating to the Marine Corp s officers . and general meritoriousness. naval or social influence that he or his father o r friends may have . "the usual plan should be pursued . Temporary officer appointments were permitted by the appropriation act . Despite assurances from Heywood that the legislation was "sure to g o through. Cochrane's wife replied. the "Arm y would have gotten three colonels and so on with them. and there wa s 3 no major wartime reformation of the Marine officer corps . contained a stipulation that allowed the president to appoint--"if an exigency may exist"--such officers to the Marine Corps as ma y be necessary from civilian life or from the ranks of meritoriou s noncommissioned officers of the Corps ." many Marine officers. according to Cochrane. officers of the Marine battalio n considered the measure to be grossly inadequate . The final appropriation measure ." Cochrane also disapproved making officers of noncommissione d officers. Last-minute efforts by Heywood and his staff to separat e the Marine legislation from the overall naval personnel bill failed. and thirty-six captains . including Major Cochrane. Colonel Heywood miscalculated in his legislative stratagem . ability. however. According to Cochrane. "I cannot see that the condition of the officers in the Corps has bee n improved one bit and it was such a chance to have gotten a really goo d 32 organization . for wha t was not in the legislation. however. and then t o follow that up with any political. Congress was not about to touch the controversial amalgamation and "plucking" issues in the midst of the war when more pressin g matters were at hand . . He believed that." Observing that Secretary Long was from Boston. These officers could serve only through the emergency and could not be appointed above the rank of captain . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 51 March into the permanent organization and permitted the Marine Corps t o recruit another 1. " All the Marines received. writing that their temporary appointments would make them "unfit for their duties after the war . He went alon g with the Navy Department policy to divorce the wartime mobilization from th e permanent reform of the Navy and Marine officer corps . signed on 4 May 1898." The candidat e should first "make written application supported by testimonials . Cochran e suggested that the young man should try to find someone from Massachusetts ." He reserved his greatest criticism." In agreement.640 men for the emergency . so the Marine officer corps did gain a wartime infusion of new blood . The skeptics proved correct .3 1 If Major Cochrane's reaction was typical. in the same situation. were some additional men an d "acting second lieutenants to officer them . remained skeptical . The commandan t apparently believed that Congress would pass the Navy Department-sponsore d personnel bill that would amalgamate the line and engineers . He observed that the new second lieutenants from civilian life would all probably be the "sons o f post traders . Cochrane wrote to his wife i n disgust that "the bill has caused great indignation among the lieutenants in ou r party." who probably had expected to be promoted to captain . from wel l known men as to his character.

and military attribute s and ranked each candidate by merit . Even after receiving an endorsement of both the secretary of the Navy and the commandant of the Marine Corps. forty were from civilian life and three were former noncommissioned officers 36 The selection of the new lieutenants from the enlisted ranks was somewha t different from that of the officers from civilian life . th e candidates had to appear before an examining board . political influence played its role . Sgt . however. wa s the assistant secretary of the Pacific coast division of a prominent internationa l insurance company . "Permission to be examined once secured and the rest i seay The system was not quite as simple as Cochrane described it . The father imposed on Alger to recommend his son for one of the second lieutenant openings . it was not enough to ensure one .189 By early June the examining boards had selected twenty-four men fro m civilian life to serve as Marine second lieutenants . Heywood would then recommend whether or not the ma n 37 should be permitted to take the officer examination . A noncommissioned officer who wanted an appointment had to submit an application through officia l channels to the commandant . C. Frank A. Although influence certainly helped in obtaining a commission.35 created by the Act of May 4 . mental. He came from a comfortable. The elder Kinne had enlisted in the Volunteers during th e Civil War and risen to the rank of colonel . Kinne . Even here. 52 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R who could "in political parlance 'reach' him [Long] . two wer e either the son or nephew of a member of Congress and at least seven were th e sons or close relatives of military officers. while the remainder usually had som e military education or experience . Senato r Hoar. The son was a high school graduate and had received an appointment to the U . Being from Massachusetts and knowing Secretary Long more often worked against an aspirant than for him . His father. Of this number. Military . hardly representative of the Marine enlisted ranks. Although the law actually left the number o f temporary commissions open-ended. On 21 May Colonel Heywood wrote Secretary Long that "the number of candidates already authorized to appear before the board for examination is more than sufficient to fill all the place s . [member of Congress] . the remaining four officers were t o come from the ranks of meritorious noncommissioned officers . was one of the selectees . G . With the completion o f the selection of the officers from civilian life. He was a past master of the Gran d Army of the Republic and knew Secretary of War Alger . the board tested the applicants for physical. To weed out the unfit.34 sardonically. Mason Kinne. middle-class family . The Navy Department and Marine Corps were inundated with young and not-so-young applicants wh o wanted to go to war as Marine second lieutenants .S . "perhaps he can 'reach' Senator Lodge. Eventually the Navy Department raised the quotas so that forty-three officers served a s temporary Marine second lieutenants until the end of the war . After recommending two young Massachusetts men for commissions. moral." Cochrane concluded rathe r . Secretary Long and Colonel Heywood ha d decided on twenty-eight new officers for the time being . Of this total. Secretary Long directed that no furthe r appointments be made from that state . He needed the strong endorsement of hi s commanding officer . or a Boston M ." If the candidate could not obtain someone who knew Long.

Waller. at the time of hi s application. The Marine Corps then used the barracks and school's facilities to indoctrinate th e new officers . the Marine Corps School of Application graduated its class in Apri l 1898 at the Washington barracks and temporarily suspended operations . On 27 May Commodore Schley. On 18 May 1898. an d distributed among the auxiliary cruisers. In his letter of recommendation. "The newly appointed officer s were hurriedly drilled and otherwise prepared for duty as rapidly as possible. Andresen had immigrated to the United States as a young man and enlisted i n the Marine Corps . the various posts. describing the elder Kinne as "a n old personal friend and his statements are entitled to every consideration ."39 now fin dmyself Although the process for selecting the new officers was subject to th e vagaries of political influence. " Colonel Heywood asked that both men be examined at the First Battalio n headquarters rather than called back to Washington . in which he state d that he knew each "to be a worthy and capable noncommissioned officer. he was an acting lieutenant on board the cruiser New York.38 Sergeant Kinne received acomisn The remaining two noncommissioned officers. apparently during a fleet landin g exercise. who was so impressed that he highly recommended Andresen for a commission . were both with the deployed First Battalion befor e receiving their commissions . At Fisher's Island in Long Island Sound. With the possible exception of the noncommissioned officers. As Colonel Heywood observed. Schley's Flying Squadron. Given the large number of candidates seekin g commissions. it still provided objective criteria to determin e qualifications . where I . having eluded both Sampson's North Atlanti c Squadron and Commodore William S . Secretary Alger penned a short note to Secretary Long. For several days the whereabouts of the Spanish fleet remaine d unknown to the Americans . " . Andresen. Andresen wrote : "Without your kindly assistance an d advice it would have been impossible for me to have reached the place. This system rejected more than one candidate with an impeccabl e social and personal background because of physical or mental failings . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 Academy at West Point but had been unable to attend because of illness . most of th e candidates came from middle-class or upper-middle-class families and almost al l had completed high school . Thanking Waller for his efforts. and the First Marin e B. Admira l Cervera and his small fleet had entered the harbor of Santiago on the souther n coast of Cuba . however. Littleton W . he served as first sergeant to Capt . He then joined the Marine Corps and had five years of service ."at4lio0n V By June 1898. Showing an aptitude as a soldier. Robert E . the examining boards had the luxury of selecting only those wh o showed the most promise for a military career . Devlin an d Charles G . he rose quickly through th e ranks . With the outbreak of the war. the Marine Corps battalion's days at Key West wer e numbered . T. Born in Norway. The training of the new officers was quick and pragmatic . whose ships had . Sgt . Andresen came from a much more typical enlisted background than Sergeant Kinne .

" Sampson responded affirmativel y and ordered Schley to maintain the blockade at al lcost . On 2 June Major Cochrane stated at the officers' mess that Marine Capt . who was ill . about forty miles to the eas t of Santiago. the admiral ordered the reembarkation of th e Marine battalion still at Key West and directed the cruiser Marblehead under Comdr. Paul . Sigsbee reporte d that Sampson agreed with his appraisal . On the morning of 10 June. The forced inactivity was causing some discord among the officers and some bad press . By 6 June the battalion was back on board the Panther. apparently concerned that th e latter would not be able to stay off Santiago." Th e occupation of Guantanamo also would prevent the Spanish from placin g "plunging fire" on ships attempting to use the bay for recoaling . the captain of the cruiser St. Sampson informed Huntington that the Marine battalio n was to seize Guantanamo and hold it as a base for the fleet . Long suggested that Schley might want to use the Guantanamo Bay area. On 29 May. two days after first requesting relief. Charles D .42 On 31 May Capt . whether at the urging of th e department or on his own initiative. Bowman H . 41 At the same time that he had cabled Schley. after "th e establishment of the blockade [of Santiago]. Goodrell . recommended to Secretar y Long that Guantanamo be seized. Schley. McCalla to reconnoiter Guantanamo . except for a small guard detachment left behin d and Major Pope. Secretary Long denied the request . M." He believed it "a fine base for operating against Santiago . off Santiago." Lieutenant Colonel Huntington retorted that the New York Herald contained a statement that "Marines would rather eat than fight . The secretary observed that the Navy needed to know if Cervera was in Santiago an d that Schley must surmount the difficulties of refueling . Major Cochrane speculated that they were to reinforce Army transport s in an attack on Santiago . The Panther . Secretary Long also sent a messag e to Sampson at Key West asking him if he could blockade Santiago and als o "occupy [Guantanamo] as a coaling station . According to Sampson. Earlier th e Marblehead had bombarded Spanish positions and landed a smal l reconnaissance detachment under the command of Marine Capt . for a coaling station ." In any event. Goodrell selected a campsite for the Marine battalion on a hill near a n abandoned Spanish blockhouse and then returned to the ship . reported the enemy in port .43 The Marines were more than ready to depart . asked permission to abandon th e quest for Cervera temporarily and return to Key West for recoaling . and the shores garrisoned by United State s troops. Followin g the advice of his Navy War Board. departing Santiago with dispatches from Schley. the Marines still had no idea of thei r mission ." Two days later a telegram ordering the battalion to prepar e for reembarkation broke the tedium of the camp routine . 54 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR just missed sighting the Spanish flotilla earlier. D . George Elliott was s o loud in his clamor for war as to be disquieting . when the Panther joine d the fleet off Santiago. Sigsbee. The Panther sailed to join the fleet off Santiag o the following day to "great cheering" from the crews of the ships still in port . my first thought was to find a harbor which could serve as a coaling station and as a base for the operations o f the fleet pending a decisive action . Commander McCalla would serve as the overall commander of the expedition ." Although their spirits were revived.

some of the company commanders even proposed that the battalion reembark on board . Cochrane called it "the beginning of 100 hours o f f. McCalla sen t Goodrell on board the Panther to brief Huntington on the situation ashore . the first company formed a skirmish line and ascended the hill . The fighting continued sporadically on the twelfth." About eleven hundred yards to th e front was a larger ridgeline that dominated the Marine held hill . Bullets went over my head and . We are all worn out with the tension of fighting the scoundrels all night an d all day and have another night coming on . "we went ashore like innocents an d . surrounded by thickets and dense underbrush. however. First limiting themselves to minor probes. Huntington and his officers were no t too happy with the selection of their base camp .M . "I d o not know why I did not expect a night attack for we had a flurry in the P . The next morning. The Marines entrenched the top of the hill and moved their base cam p to a lower site . but the Marines suffered no further casualties during the day . the Spaniards attacked i n force after midnight . According t o McCawley. . Charles McCawley. rendered our position sunteabl On 11 June. however.. Huntington sent out a patrol. the Marines destroyed most of thi s material and the blockhouse. The Navy surgeon with the battalion received a mortal wound i n the first major attack. They also continued to unload their heavy equipment and move it to their campsite . although not occupying the hill. some personal belongings. Major Cochrane. the enemy struck in force again. . Capt. but overlooking the water. Spanish snipers killed two marines on an outpost. there was no sign of the Spanish except for abandoned equipment . As he later wrote his son.M. killing a Marine sergeant and wounding three others ."igh4tn7 Despite the heavy intensity of firing in the darkness."45 made a peaceful camp and slept well on th etnh Although Marine pickets heard strange noises and saw some lights durin g the night. in occupying this hill wit h . They were in a clearing on top of a hill."48 cannonading and fusilading all around but never close enough t ohurt With the continuing attacks on the afternoon of the twelfth. returned on five occasions during the night .4"6 sharpshooters. As the Marine battalion landed. came up to the Marine camp--now called Camp McCalla in honor of th e Navy commander--with reinforcements from the working parties during one o f the lulls. "had the enemy been at all energetic or possessed of an ordinary amount of military knowledge they could have. but it failed to locate the Spanish ." The enemy. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 55 rendezvoused with the Marblehead on the afternoon of the tenth. the battalion quartermaster. who had been directing the movement of supplies across the beach. According to Huntington. The Marine commander. Spanish troops made thei r presence known . . still felt secure . called the site a "faulty one" from a "military point of view. fearing the spread of disease. Believing the enemy was bringing up more reinforcements. About daybreak. and two old muzzle-loading field artillery pieces . several of th e Marine officers thought that the Spanish would overrun their camp if the y remained . At about 5 :00 P . Cochrane wrote his wife : "We have been having no end of racket and excitemen t . but I did not . Marine casualties wer e relatively low .

As Lieutenant Colonel Huntington observed to his son. but the Marines lost their sergeant major. "You were put there to hold tha t hill and you 'll stay there ." Major Cochrane was more direct. and unnecessary fire . bu t Lieutenant Colonel Huntington remained noncommittal . Deprived of their water supply."52 trouble us and [we] only talk of troublin gthem Following the action of 14 June. Lieutenant Colonel Huntington was ready to take the offensive. Major Cochrane argued forcibly against any such move. 500 nervous troops can waste 10. including novelist Stephen Crane. killing shadows. The Spaniards do no t . 49 familiar with the terrain and area. The Cubans informed him that the enemy numbered some four to fiv e hundred troops and made their headquarters six miles to the south in the villag e of Cuzco. . On the fourteenth. Supported by ship's batteries from below. the Marine s accomplished their mission . the Marines took a heavy toll of the enemy. Huntington sent two companies under the command of Captai n Elliott to destroy the well . More often the headline s spoke of "First in the Fight" and "The Gallant Marines . stating there "was a vast deal of panicky. was particularly friendly to the men of the First Battalion . in a single night. " Crane. The marines als o began to bask in the first publicity of their exploits .000 rounds of ammunition. uncontrolled. Although moving through dense underbrush an d rugged terrain and encountering stiff opposition along the way. In the fighting they sustained three wounded an d lost several men to heat prostration. the Marine Corps battalion spent the rest o f its time at Guantanamo improving its fortifications and camp . . 56 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICANA WA R s. the Americans had little t o fear from the garrison . who represente d the New York World. and not think even then that they have done muc h But the Times article was very much the exception ." The matter of withdrawal soon became moot as about sixty Cuban insurrectionists . With Cuban insurrectionists in control of the countryside. twelve miles to the north ."ho5tin3g the Panther. A few articles were critical . which was estimated to contain three thousand to seven thousand men . 50 At this point. several news correspondents. reinforced the Marine The Spaniards continued to harass the American outposts and lines throug h the night and next day . the reporter for the New York Times observed "that given a free rein with repeatin g rifles." Again casualties were low. The Marines' nearest enemy wa s now the Spanish garrison at the city of Guantanamo. including the capture of one Spanish lieutenant an d 50 seventeen enlisted men . whose well contained the only source of water for the Spaniards . According to the battalion's journal. Reputedly. If you' re killed I'll come and get your dead body . On the second day. the Spanish troops withdrew from th e immediate environs of the Marine Corps camp . to a sniper's bullet . the commander replied. their Cuban allies lost one man and suffere d several wounded . Henry Good. arrived at Guantanam o and began to file their dispatches . "during the night many persistent and trifling attacks were made on the camp in reply to which w e used a good deal of ammunition . There soon developed an unspoken modus vivendi . Huntington reporte d back to Commander McCalla and referred to the possible evacuation of th e battalion . For example.

while Shafter's was the capture of the cit y of Santiago and its defending garrison . and Maj . On 3 July Sampson steamed westward from Santiago on board his flagship. President McKinley directed that Shafter and Sampson meet an d determine how they would cooperate to force the city to surrender . on 26 May. . still remained at Tampa . By the time he reached the scene the battle was virtually over an d the Spanish fleet destroyed . John Quick. They based their decision on the assumptio n that Cervera's fleet had taken refuge there . Gen. but various problems delayed the departure of the Army for tw o weeks . Sampson. Gen ." The novelist told about the heroics o f Sgt . " Crane stated that Captain Elliott's attack on the Cuzco well " was the first seriou s engagement of our troops on Cuban soil . and the fine old colonel" who provided the brave example to hi s men. Cervera 's entire fleet was i n port. on 31 May. the secretaries of War and the Navy. under Major General Shafter. Finally. " When the Navy had determined that. but fell ill and sent Capt . Each wanted the other to act first . the Army had not yet take n Santiago . Sampson asked Shafter for a conference . . realized that Cervera had decided to try to head out and reversed course to attac k the Spanish . in a meeting with President McKinley. ordered Maj . spotting smoke near the entrance of Santiago harbor. Captain Elliott in his report declared that Crane accompanied him on th e expedition to Cuzco and "was of material aid during the action. Crane also had high praise for Huntington." Not lost on the public was the fact that the Marine Corps had landed and fought the Spanish while the Army.57 At the conference with Shafter on 6 July. 54 VI The question of the launching of the Army expedition preoccupied th e military commanders and government policymakers throughout most of May . In order to reach an agreement. carryin g messages to fire volleys. French E . Chadwic k to represent him . William Shafter to embark his troops on Army transports and steam with Navy protection to Santiago. the two leaders were soon at loggerheads . Sampson's main purpose was the destruction of Cervera's fleet. the New York. About half an hour after setting out. the Naval War Board.56 This delay hardly made for harmony in the relations between the Arm y and Navy off Cuba . Nelson Miles. to the different company commanders . Sampso n agreed to meet Shafter at Siboney. indeed. Although Cervera's fleet was no longer a factor. to meet with Shafter at the latter's headquarters . referring to him as the "grey ol d veteran . The victory did nothing to solve the dispute between Shafter and Sampson . Captain Chadwick again presente d Sampson's proposal that the Marines and Army capture the Socapa and Morro . who exposed himself to enemy fire in order to signal a n American ship to cease a bombardment that threatened the Marine advance . the War Department. Although Sampson and Shafter's first meeting on 20 Jun e went well. agreed to a n Army campaign against Santiago . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 57 In an article entitled "The Red Badge of Courage Was His Wig Wag Flag. etc .

There had been some discussion about the battalion joining Major General Mile s and his planned expedition against Puerto Rico . the First Marin e Battalion. he later wrote : "The most difficult part . The Marines maintained their vigil and manned their outposts. Shafter squeezed the vise around the city . The Navy would first shell the city o f Santiago at long range with its large guns . the admiral and Shafter soon reverted to their original positions . Although on 1 0 and 11 July Sampson's ships fired on the city from outside the harbor entrance . At the heart of the question was the feasibility of an assault on the Morro . At the same time. . would attack the Socapa heights ."59 Events. Th e Army said such an attack was not possible and the Navy said it was . The War Department. . . with some qualifications . Under such circumstances an inferior forc e could conduct a defense with success if properly handled but as the army in th e near vicinity had successfully assaulted positions similarly defended I wa s certain that my assault would have been successful also. would be in reaching the crest from the beach through almost impassable maniqua plants . If at the end of the bombardment th e Spanish had not surrendered. For his part. i fundertak . . but Sampson refused to d o so until the ground troops had reduced the artillery batteries on the heights . After examining the terrain following the surrender o f Santiago. overtook the dispute . One of the firs t battalion orders related to basic toilet habits : "Men are forbidden to ease themselves except at the latrine. and will not urinate inside the Fort or near th e ramparts . It was unclear whether Shafter would provide troops to assist in the taking of th e Morro . Robert L . Shafter stil l wanted Sampson to force the entrance of the harbor. . agreed with Sampson. Three of the temporary lieutenants joined the battalion. They nevertheless held to a hig h standard of health discipline. burnin g their garbage. Nothing but a narrow trail reached the crest . Eventually Sampson an d Shafter reached an agreement of sorts. however. Sampso n would attempt to force the entrance with some of his smaller ships . on 15 July. with the assistance o f Cuban troops.500 troops under Majo r General Miles. With continuing Arm y reinforcements from the United States. the Marines established a garrison routine .60 At Guantanamo. VII With the aborting of the campaign against the heights. 58 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R fortified heights to permit the Navy to clear the mines . Marine Maj . remained at Guantanamo Bay until the beginning of August . Finally. but at the same time entered into a more relaxed regimen . after extended negotiations and in the face of overwhelming odds. even after the destruction of Cervera's fleet and the surrender of th e city of Santiago. including 1. however . who was the fleet marine officer and who woul d have commanded the Marine assault force on the Mono. vetoed Marin eparticon . Marines from the fleet. using only distilled water from the ships." On 23 July Major Cochrane observed that "our camp continues . 58 The commanders implemented only part of the agreement . the Spanis h commander of the Santiago garrison agreed to surrender . together with enlisted replacements . Meade. and changing their clothes whenever they could .

. ostensibly to permit the men "to rest and get the malaria" out o f their system. Although Commander Goodrich and Lieutenant Colonel Huntingto n expressed disappointment about not attaining additional glory for American arms. Comdr . the Marine s did not suffer one case of yellow fever and sustained only a 2 percent sicknes s By the end of July. and we are trying to keep it so .500.64 naval gunfire.6"2 care of himself that he might last. the Marine battalion was prepared to depart Guantanamo ." The Navy Department and the press were not slow to compare the 2 percent sickness rate of the Marine battalion with the ravages tha t malaria and yellow fever caused among Shafter's troops at Santiago . Harrington. takes such selfish . later observed that the Americans badly underestimate d the size of the Spanish garrison . the capture of the city of Manzanillo. the Spanish troop s numbered nearly 4. .65 . and there has not been a death by disease since the battalion left for Cuba . for ove r three weeks. however. where the Spanish stil l used ports on the southern coast that were connected by rail to Havana . decided on a small digression ." Huntington stated. Rather than immediately dissolving the Firs t Battalion. and Spicer off the roles of thi s battalion . New Hampshire. none of them being sick. not the 800 that Goodrich and his commanders ha d thought . Actin g on a suggestion from one of the ship captains. other Marine officers were much less enthusiastic . escorted by the cruiser Newark. Although the Navy ships bombarded the city on 12 August. west of Santiago . the battalion departed Guantanamo on board the Navy transport Resolute for the Isle of Pines . the Naval War Board wanted to extend the naval blockade to western Cuba. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 59 r. Caspar F .6at1e healthy. they did not have t o endure the hardships of further strenuous ground combat in a tropical climate . unless somebody kille dhim Fortunately for Huntington and his officers and men. On 9 August. Joined the followin g day by two other ships off Cape Cruz. On 10 September Colonel Heywood visited the Marin e encampment and reported to Secretary Long that "the men are looking very well . Colonel Heywoo d exploited the Marine record in the war to enhance the Corps' status within th e naval and military establishment . th e battalion quartermaster." Lieutenant Colonel Huntington at this point had some private doubts about the capability of the older officers to continue . he kept the unit together at Portsmouth. for th e small vessels which alone could operate in the surrounding shoal water . en route to the Isle o f Pines. Captain McCawley. he ordered." In contrast to the Army. According to McCawley. the news of the signing of th e peace protocol calling for an armistice made the proposed landing of the Marine 63 battalion unnecessary . Elliott. In order to place further pressure on the Spanish in Cuba. Th e board directed that the Marine battalion seize the Isle of Pines off th e southwestern coast as a "secure base for coal and against hurricanes. that "Cochrane . the Marine battalion might have faced an almost impossible tas k Upon the return of the Marine battalion from Cuba. Although reinforced by Cuban forces to the north of the city and by . He believed that another campaig n "would clear Huntington. Goodrich. the captain of the Newark and task force commander.

Waller reported that only about a third of the Marine detachmen t actually manned the guns . of which the Marine Guard forms a division. the ship commander. "They have performed magnificent duty and to you . In his annual report. and permit the United States to occupy Manila until . On the Indiana. but before a large." For the Marine Corps and the nation at large. have done their work in a manner creditable to themselves and their ship . the commandant claimed that th e secondary batteries caused the greatest damage to the Spanish ships at Santiago and that their raking fire forced the enemy to abandon their guns . I wish to personally extend my congratulations for the fin e condition your men arein . agreed with Taylor : "I do not think it desirable to single ou t an individual division of this ship's company for special report . and then appeared only in professional journals and official reports. Evans of the Iowa. Marine Capt . Spain agreed to relinquish Cuba. they still believed that the primary rol e of Marines in the future would be manning the secondary batteries on battleships . pointe d out. however. . "This is the sort of stuff tha t members of Congress will read when they receive the request of [the] Colone l Commandant . Colonel Heywoo d sent out letters to selected ship commanders and to ship detachment Marin e officers to determine the effectiveness of Marine gunnery in the sea battles o f Santiago and Manila Bay. The protoco l of 12 August between the two countries ended hostilities and called for a peac e treaty to be negotiated in Paris . the inadequacies of the aimed firin g during the two sea battles did not come out until several months later. to have an increased allowance of men and money to th e 69 Marine Corps in the next naval appropriation bill . while the starboar d battery was the one engaged . before disbanding in mid-September. was the fact that naval gunnery during the battles of Santiago an d Manila Bay was notoriously poor . Heywood's report containing lists of marines breveted for gallantry in action and accounts of marines in battle both on land and at sea served to satiate the nation's appetite for heroes. President McKinley complimented the men on their appearance and declared. the First Battalion parade d before the president and other dignitaries in Washington . Robley D . T. As Capt . In fact. for example. Taylor. Colonel Heywood. As the New York Times shrewdly noted. cheering crowd." Even more to the point. dressed in their campaign uniforms . the Marines. All the ship' s company. give Puert o Rico to the United States. American naval guns of all calibers average d between 1 to 5 percent hits for ammunitio nexpd . H . . the Marines on the secondary battery fired about half as many as the seame n because the Marines manned the "port battery of 6-pounders. Littleton W .68 Still. Capt ."6 Although the Marine leadership accepted with great satisfaction the publi c acclaim received by the Marine battalion.67 The accounts by both Marines and naval officers were less conclusive than Heywood professed for them . C. neither the public nor Congress was overly concerned with th e technicalities of naval gunfire . the war was over . passed in review to the strains of "Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight" played b y the Marine Corps Band . 60 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Finally. He observed that a large percentage of the guns were manned by Marines . Even before the end of the war on 9 August 1898." Another ship's commander. In a heavy rain.

and it had this in the Marine Corps . The dispute between the Arm y and Navy at Santiago reflected the separate approaches of professional Arm y and Navy officers . it wa s Huntington's battalion that caught the public eye and signaled portents for th e future . In the final Treaty of Paris. The Navy required its own land force. the Spanish ceded the Philippines to the United States . As Colonel Heywood quickly remarked. Despite a somewhat rocky start at Guantanamo. to be used at the discretion of the commanding admiral .70 The Spanish-American War proved to be the crucible for the Marine Corps . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 61 the conclusion of the formal treaty determined the fate of the Philippines . Rear Admiral Sampson's and the Navy's aim was the destruction o f Cervera's fleet. the vital objectiv e was the capture of the Spanish garrison and the city of Santiago . it provided a safe anchorage for Nav y ships. . this battalion' s activities not only received public approbation but also had implications for th e future relationship of the Marine Corps with the Navy. the Marines seized and protected an advance base for the flee t blockading Santiago . the message was that it could not depend upon th e Army to secure land-based sites for naval purposes . Shafter designed an overland campaign to captur e the city and was unwilling to sacrifice men to take the Morro and Socapa heights overlooking the narrow channel into Santiago Bay . the Marine battalion with th e fleet "showed how important and useful it is to have a body of troops which ca n be quickly mobilized and sent on board transports." and thus posed no "conflict of authority " inherent in Army-Navy relations . Although nearly 75 percent of Marine strength was on board ship. For the Navy. the day after the protocol was signed. Althoug h numbering less than a quarter of the active Marine Corps. naval authorities immediatel y ordered the establishment of a Marine battalion with its own transport . American force s captured Manila after token resistance by Spanish defenders . the United States had also formally annexed the Hawaiian Islands . the immediate result of the Spanish-American War was to make th e United States an imperial power in both the Caribbean and the Pacific . The Spanish-American War also had a lasting effect on the Marine Corps . fully equipped for servic e ashore and afloat. their basic conflict remaine d unresolved. Although both commanders attained their desired ends. the First Marine Battalion proved itself in combat . At the same time. Almost completely unnoticed durin g the war. By seizing the heights on Guantanamo. On the other hand." Heywood also pointedly observed that the Marine force stood "always under th e direction of the senior naval officer. For Major General Shafter and his staff. For his part. In effect. Sampso n refused to chance the loss of any of his ships by running the channel . While not fully knowing how they would use it. They quickly realized that Army and Navy officers may have very different and eve n possibly conflicting goals in a military campaign . signed on 10 December 1898 and ratified in February 1899. Thus. Navy strategists and planners also learned another lesson from the war . Ironically. on 13 August.

D ." 2-4 . Naval Force. LSSN 7 :250-52. RG 127. 9. 145-49 . William Kimball. W . Col . 10 Mar . Maj . Annual Report. 1896-98.. entries for 17-22 Apr . 1898." n . Gen . comments on author's draft chapter.S . 1898. A ." reprinted in Appendix to the Report of th e Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. 10. 87-89.d. and Sampson ltr to SecNav. 1967). 13 and 15 Mar. 6 and 11 Apr ." United States Naval Institute Proceedings (Mar. Plan of Operations Against Spain. Annual Report. 13. Lt . R . 7. Long ltr to CinC. "American Naval Preparation s for War with Spain. Robert W . 1903). McCawley. 1898. 11. Mobile. Huntington ltr to Bobby. Charles L . Huntington. The New American Navy. 1898. 1898. Washington. New Orleans. "N. RG 127. and Russell F . Washington. "Our Naval Power. 6 Apr. 19 Apr . Secretary of the Navy [SecNav] letters [ltrs] to Commandant of the Marine Corp s [CMC]. Graham A . National Archives [NA]. MCHC . NA. 6. 33-47 . . Lt . 17 Dec . 1898). Letters Received. War with Spain. 2 vols. OAB. J . Plans of Campaign Against Spai n and Japan.C. 2-4. 1896 . 1898. D . See also Trask. Cosmas. (New York. 1981).-Sept. 1898." RG 127. SecNav ltr to CMC and copy of ltr to C . 12. 1898. Army and Navy Journal (12 Mar . "The Marines at Guantanamo. D . 1898. Genera l Clipping File. CMC ltrs to SecNav. Mar .. 1898. Marine Corp s Historical Center [MCHC]. Cochrane Papers . 171-73 . " RG 127. Letters Received. CMC. Trask. 10 . 19-20 Apr . Maj . 4. CMC. 1898. Fo r copies of some of the original plans see Lt .S . 23 Apr . 266. Naval Historica l Division. New American Navy 1 :165 :66 . Henry Clay Cochrane Papers. 6 and 9 Apr . Huntington Papers. 245-46. David F . Col . 1 :141 . reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation . 8. 252. 82-88 . 3. 4 ." 440-41 . 195-96 . "Marine Battalion at Guantanamo. 2. and Battalion Orders 1-3. McCawley. Col . In the Days of McKinley (New York . Mo . Long. and Tampa. 1898) . Washington . 1990) ." RG 127 .S . "N. 9 Apr. xii-xiv. 1959). 18 and 23 Apr. 83-90 . 7. all in War Planning Portfolio 11. New York Times. 440-41 . 1898. The War with Spain in 1898 (New York. "War with Spain.A . Comdr . Army (New York. MS. "Marine Battalion at Guantanamo. History of the U.. 15 Feb . Letters Received. CMC Itr to SecNav. " 440-41 . Richard Wainwright. 30 June 1897 . MCHC . NA . Trask. Annual Report. 39-87. Trask. 6. 1898. 6. " Marines to Start Tonight. . 1898. Long. 1971). Boutelle. 30 Mar . Letters Received . R . "Marines at Guantanamo. 23 Apr. 1898. 10 Mar . 299 . which went out on 1 5 April [1898]" (Cosmas. "N. 88-90 . Acting CMC ltr to SecNav. 194-95. McCawley Papers . W . in journal of the Marine Battalion under Lt . Weigley. 72-78. War with Spain. 1968). 1898. Grenville. Charles L ." Journal of American Studies (Apr . War with Spain. NA [hereafter Journal o f the Marine Battalion] . CMC Itrs to SecNav. RG 127 . Letters Sent to the Secretary of the Nav y [LSSN] 7 :187. RG 127. Margaret Leech." RG 127 . U ." clipping from Brooklyn Eagle. "Marine Battalion at Guantanamo. An Army for Empire : The United States Army in th e Spanish-American War (Columbia. 1898.C . Huntington ltr to CMC. 5. LSSN 7 :250-52. CMC. Apr . 1898. "N. 22 Apr . 1898. NA . Cosmas observed that the "Marin e mobilization coincides in time with the order for concentration of most of the Regular Army at Chickamauga Park. NARA . John D .C . " 1 Jun e 1896. Trask. 22 Apr. 62 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Notes 1.. 35 . War with Spain. 48 . Graham A . 515 . Cochrane ltr to Betsy.

MCHC . 97-98 . War with Spain. 1898 in Journal of the Marine Battalion . see Cochrane ltrs to Betsy. 1898 in Journal of the Marine Battalion . "Marines at Guantanamo. reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. 26. Trask. Trask. Remey endorsement to CMC. 30 Apr . Cochrane Papers . 1898 in Journal of the Marine Battalion . diary. Cosmas. Gen. Army for Empire. in Maj . 22 July 1898. entry for 3 May 1898. Annual Report. reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. New York Times. entries for 23-28 Apr . Long ltr to Sampson. 4 and 13 May 1898. CMC. 12. War with Spain. 1898. 1967). Trask. U . 24. W . 19. 23. 17. MCHC. "Marines at Guantanamo. 1898. " 8 . New American Navy 2 :5 . 8 Jan . diary. (Washington. and Commodore George C . 15. 24 and 25 Apr . 69-72 . 27 May 1898 . LSSN 7 :210-77. CMC it to SecNav. 6 . 12-13 . Leech. NA . 67. 1898. Modifications continued to be made on the Lee rifles . 30. 198-99 . For examples of this correspondence. Cochrane ltr to Betsy and boys. Maj . Days of McKinley. Entries for 23-26 Apr. 1898. Cochrane Papers. 3 . Congress. "Marines at Guantanamo. 1898. War with Spain. 6. reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. Long message to Sampson. 174 . Col . The United States Marines in the War with Spain. reprinted in Appendix to th e Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. 28 Ma y and 1 June 1898. Bernard C .. McCawley. Letters Received. Cochrane Papers . 163-67 . 1898. War with Spain. 1898. Cochrane Papers . Huntington Papers . Pendleton Papers. 214-16 . folder 51. 162-63 . Huntington ltrs to CMC. Long. Cochrane Papers. Long It to Sampson. See Chief. Army for Empire. 1990) . 1899 . 174-75 . Trask. "N. rev . HR 10403. 28 Mar . Reid it to Pendleton. Cochrane Papers . Historical Section. . RG 127. 23 Apr . 1898 with enclosures. 121-30 . Col. Army for Empire. House. W . 153-54 . 1898. Entries for 23-26 Apr . 153-54 . Nalty . Days of McKinley. 24 Apr . R. Army for Empire. 3 May 1898." 10 . MCHC . 105 . RG 127. 93-102 .. 4 May 1898. Entries for 1-24 May 1898 in Journal of the Marine Battalion . Bureau of Ordnance It to CMC. Cochrane Papers . Huntington report to CMC. War with Spain. 198-99 . R ." RG 127. Cochrane Papers . 12 Apr . Cosmas. 4 May 1898 . Cosmas. diary. 22. Trask.S . Long It to Dewey. 1900. 102-7 . Huntington report to CMC. 150-52 . 366 . NA . Days of McKinley. Leech. Mar . Trask. War with Spain. McCawley ltr to CMC. 1898. Cochrane it t o Betsy. Entry for 30 Apr . 54. 1898. 1898 . 111-12 . and Betsy ltrs to Cochrane. 2d sess. 108. Leech. McCawley. ed . New American Navy 2 :9 . 27. Lt . 68. Lt . 25. Entries for 26-29 Apr . 18. 29. Cosmas observed it was hi s understanding that "McKinley had unofficial reports of Dewey's victory at the time h e began to revise strategy on 2 May" (Cosmas comments to the author. wit h Accompanying Report. Joseph H . 27 May 1898. HR 1375. 21 Apr . Huntingto n Papers. reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. Cosmas. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 63 14. McCawley. George C. 55th Cong. RG 127. Historical Section. 21. War with Spain. 28. 1898 in Journal of the Marine Battalion . 6 . Dewey to Long. Cosmas. 20. and Dewey report to SecNav. NA ." 8-10 . 1898. Huntington ltr to Bobby. Trask. Army for Empire. folder 51. 16. 3 0 Apr . 26 Apr . Long. Reorganization of Naval Personnel. 21 Apr . diary. Letters Received. 114. 1898 . entry for 31 May 1898 . 25 March 1898. 9. Cochrane it to Betsy. Huntington ltr to Bobby. entries for 23-28 Apr . NA . 107 . Letters Received. MCHC . 25 May and 3 Nov . 25 May 1898.

Annual Report. 33. diary. He also mentions the incident in a letter to his wife (Cochrane Itr to Betsy. 31 May 1898. 27-29 May 1898. R . Asst . n .. Taylor Papers. CMC ltr to SecNav. 353. 5 May 1899. House.. One can surmise that his untimely death at Guantanam o prevented his appointment and that the war ended before another choice could be made . 41. General Smedley D . Rear Adm . Huntington Papers . 6 June 1898. Congress. Cochrane was not a . 11 . Ibid . and Betsy it to Cochrane. NA . Cochrane Papers. Congressional Record 31 : 4422 . Huntington It to Bobby. Ky . 4 June 1898 . 1898. SecNav hr to CMC. 308-14. 48. Congressional Recor d 31 :5058-59 . 329-45. 43. 32. 18 June 1898. 42. 11. Maverick Marine. 34. Letters Received. F . 3-4 May 1898. 370-74 . MCHC . 12 May 1898. 19 May 1898. reprinted in Maj . Letters Received. Cochrane Papers) referring to interview s with several other witnesses . NA . entries for 11-12 June 1898 in Journal of the Marine Battalion . H . LSSN 7 :305 . both in Cochrane Papers . Asst . McCawley. 1898. 64 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 31. CMC. C. See als o Hans Schmidt. Cochrane ltr to Betsy.T ." 9 .. 46. "N. folder 51. 1987). Cochrane Papers ." Century Magazine. 12 June 1898. in Journal of the Marine Battalion . Letters Received . CMC . 18 Apr. The Unite d States Marines in the War with Spain. Entries for 11-12 June 1898 in Journal of the Marine Battalion .C .. Entries for 1-7 June 1898. CMC. 886-913 . 36. 44. Cochrane Papers) . 35. McCalla hr to Sampson. 16-17 . A . Huntington ltr to Bobby..W. diary. 1903). NA .S .. 55th Cong . reprinted in ibid . Huntington Papers . Cochrane Papers .S . . 15 . folder 51. NA . Congress. Annual Report." RG 127. 11 . LSSN 7 :415. U . McCawley. 12 and 28 May 1898. Waller Papers.. Annual Report. School of Application ltr to CMC. Alger. 13-18. Capt . Sergeant Henry Good. Lt. 49. MCHC . 29 Apr . Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History (Lexington.. D . folde r 51. Annual Report. CMC. History of the United States Marine Corp s (New York. 1898. 25 May and 6 June 1898. entries for 1-7 Jun e 1898." 15-17 . U . 38. Gen. 39. 47. Historical Section. NA . Willia m T. 24 June 1898. Cochrane Papers . Cochrane Its to Betsy. folder 51. 25 Aug . 1896-1902. Richard S . the sergeant major of the Marine battalion unde r Huntington. The discussion about the proposed evacuation is contained in Cochrane's diary (entries for 11-12 June. L . RG 127. LSSN 7 :372-74. 54-57 . diary. 2d sess . 397-400 . 1898. Collum. Washington. Entry for 4 June 1898. Exchange of messages between Long and Schley. 348-49 . was nominated. 55th Cong . Letters Received. and Cochrane ltr to Betsy. 28-30 May 1898. 1 June 1898. "Marines at Guantanamo. 1898. Andresen Itr to Waller. 20-21. 37. RG 127. RG 127. 12-13 May 1898 . RG 127. entries for 11-12 June 1898. The records do not indicate why a fourth NCO was no t commissioned . C . For the Cochrane correspondence. "The Atlantic Fleet in the Spanish War. Nalty. CMC ltr to SecNav.d . folder 51. 3-4 May 1898. Historical Section. SecNav. diary . reprinted i n Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. 9. Library of Congress [LC] . 1898. 14 June 1898. in Printed Material Folder. and entry. CMC ltr to SecNav. 45. 40. 6. Senate. 19 July 1898. 903. diary . SecNav ltr to CMC. 412-14 . 9 . 19 June 1898. Cochrane Papers . reprinted in ibid . Sampson. Entries for 11-12 June 1898. 5. NA . Exchange of messages. Charles G . 2d sess . 9. Sigsbee It to SecNav. " RG 127. and in flysheet in back of diary for 1898. Annual Report. Harrington. "N. Cochrane Papers . Mason Kinne ltr to Secretary of War. 1898. 398-400 . 7 . see Cochrane ltrs to Betsy. H . " Marines at Guantanamo. 1898. 19 June 1898 . and attached Itrs and ' endorsements.

18 June 1898. Huntington Papers . 293) . diary. 64. 31 May 1898. A . Cosmas comments that from "3 July on . representin g Admiral Sampson. Col . 31-40 . Journal of the Marine Battalion . Mahan. Cochrane ltr to Betsy. 609-10 . Journal of the Marine Battalion . eds. F . 15 July 1898. 3. 397 . Huntington Papers . McCawle y Papers . 23 June 1898 . Clippings "First to Fight" and "The Gallant Marines. Historical Section. 56. 22 Aug ." McClures. 532. In a separate report Commander McCalla only stated : "The mistake of locating the camp between the mai n position and the outpost was corrected . entries for 13-15 June 1898. LSSN 7 :567-68. Long message to Sampson. Cochrane Papers .. Report of Operations o f Blockading Squadron off Santiago. 267-74 . 10 Sept . Entries for 17-21 July 1898. Report of Operations of North Atlantic Fleet.. Cosmas. Huntington it to Bobby. . quoted i n Sampson. Hagemann. Ira Nelson Hollis. [New York.93 . . . however. 52. G . Mar . states that Shafter ha d agreed to attack the Morro (French Ensor Chadwick. 61. . 29 . 353 . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 witness to McCalla's refusal and gives conflicting accounts . Shafter was engaged in his own negotiations with the Spanish commander. 1898. History of the United States Marine Corps. reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. "althoug h for unexplained reasons this aspect of the plan was not made explicit in the minutes o f the meeting " (Trask. Journal of the Marine Battalion . I'm not sure how thoroughly. " n . McCawley. 610 . Army for Empire. "Marines at Guantanamo. reissued in 1968] . R . Annual Report. NA. 58. Entries for 12-13 June 1898. or eve n whether. Letters Received. 55. McCawley. 29 July 1898 . and General Shafter. "The Navy in the War . 50." 43-45 . Capt. W . reprinted in CMC. War with Spain. 62. 172-73 . reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief o f the Bureau of Navigation. 2 :208) . 3 Aug . 13 Aug . 17 June 1898 . Trask. Trask agrees with Chadwick that Shafter agreed to attack the Morro. 179-80 . 63. he kept Sampson filled in on this" (Cosmas comments to author. 1899. War with Spain.d .d. 140-54. 1898. diary. Lt . The Spanish American War. diary. Cochrane Papers . 1898. Rear Adm . entry for 13 June 1898 . Cochrane Papers . 1898. RG 127. Long It to Schley. SecNav. reprinted in Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. Journal of the Marine Battalion . War with Spain. Elliott ltr to Huntington. "Marines at Guantanamo. Bureau of Navigatio n ltr to CMC. 171-72. 1 9 July 1898. McCawley. n . 18 Mar .. McCawley. 27 May 1898. 1911. Trask. " 28. 1964). Taylor Papers . Chadwick in his history. 65. "Marines at Guantanamo. T . General Clippin g File. 350 . 59. 54. General Toral. The Relations of the United State s and Spain. Cochrane Itr to Betsy. Entries for 14 and 19 June 1898. G . Meade ltr to Maj . 301-3 ." 6 July 1898. Report o f Operations. Robert L. Annual Report. New York Times. R. Cochrane Papers .. "The War on the Sea and Its Lessons. Huntington ltr to Bobby. reprinted in Collum." 45-48 . 348-49) . 14 . 57. Goodrich ltr to CinC North Atlantic Fleet. Trask. Ibid. in Printed Material Folder. Chief. 527-34. Cochrane Papers . 8 Aug . and CMC itr to SecNav . W. 1990) . War with Spain. 53. 2 vols . 4 July 1898. Cochrane Papers . 21 June 1898. F . at my suggestion" (McCalla ltr to Sampson. The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane (New York. First Marine Battalion Order no . T . 15 July 1898. looking to the surrender of the garrison . Sampson. 1898. Charles L . 60. n . 1898. 291. 1898. 480 .p . reprinted in ibid . reproduced in Sampson. Stallman and E . 51. "Minutes of a conversation between Captain Chadwick of the Navy.

Taylor Papers. 1898. Capt. Col . RG 127. Correspondence Folder. 18 Sept .S . the Marines were fortunate that th e Guantanamo sector remained dry and bred few of the mosquitos that spread the yello w fever and malaria among the Army troops . Annual Report. Capt . 1898. 1898. 1898 . Waller Itr to Colonel Commandant. Taylor ltr to SecNav. USN. Littleton W . 17 Sept . Printed Matter Folder. 44-45 . Office of Naval Intelligence. 68 . Malaria and yellow fever played havoc with the U . 5. 70. LSSN 7 :84-85. 1898.000 soldier s in the corps were in the hospital and a few days later the death rate reached fifteen pe r day (Cosmas. 1898. Annual Report. 1898. CMC. L . Letters Received. Annual Report. 1898. 66. 1898) : 605-16." Atlantic (Nov . 1898. LC . 27 Aug . R. Army's Fifth Corps before Santiago . T . Army for Empire. 68. more than 4. 251-52) . 1. 66 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR with Spain. i n CMC. . John Ellicott. Army and Navy Journal. 95 .088 . On 27 July 1898. CMC. D . 24 Sept. Although Marine Corps sanitary practices i n part accounted for their low sickness rate. "Record of the Marines.14 . H . 31 Aug . Army and Navy Journal. 1 Sept . CMC to SecNav. 23 Oct . NA . 1899) . Historical Section. Lt. RG 127.13 . Evans hr to Lt . 12 Dec . 67. 1898. Taylor Papers. USMC." New York Times. 69. July-Sept . C. NA . War Note No . Army and Navy Journal. Meade. Informatio n from Abroad (Washington. LC . 1898. R . 1898. Effect of the Gun Fire of the United States Vessels in the Battle o f Manila Bay (1 May 1898).

" which had raced to cover fiftee n thousand miles in sixty-six days. After observing the profile o f the large guns of the Marblehead. McCalla steamed to Sampson' s flagship. the Fleet Marine Officer. a small boat approached the Marblehea d carrying two Cuban insurgents . whose outposts occupie d positions on the coast from the mouth of the Yateras to a point fifteen miles wes t of Santiago . Goodrell. "McKinley's Bulldog. Following the action in the bay. arrived at Guantanamo early on the morning o f the 9th to take on coal from colliers tied up in the bay . The USS Oregon. the Panther and the . They had been sent by General Calixto Garci a (the same Garcia who figured with U ." ' Accompanied by the auxiliaries St . Going ashore with the Marine detachment s from the Oregon and the Marblehead. Louis in the harbor. On board was Captain M . Huntington] ha d re-boarded the Panther. Goodrell reconnoitered the leeward sid e of the bay and selected a site on a hill above the beach at Fisherman's Point . At Key West. New York. USN. C . Upon receipt of his orders. Leaving the St. the three ships arrived on the 7th of June off Guantanamo with the mission o f cutting the cables which linked Cuba with the outside world . . The admira l was briefed by the Cubans and the Marblehead was then ordered to return t o Guantanamo to await the arrival of the Marines . As McCalla finished his reconnaissance of the harbor in the early morning hours. had instructions to fin d a position ashore for the battalion . . Goodrell. which was in blockade position off Santiago . now appeared on the scene . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 67 Published and condensed with the permission of the author from his unpublishe d biography of Henry Clay Cochrane . They agreed with Goodrell' s recommendation and McCalla formally approved the location . Returning to the Marblehead. Sandoval.] Sampson "to send fo r the Battalion of Marines . . Commander. . USMC. Crucible of the Corp s by James Holden-Rhode s Land the Landing Force To Bowman Hendry McCalla. Admiral Sampson confirmed the rumor that had been making the round s aboard the Panther and ordered the battalion to proceed directly to Guantanam o Bay. The Spanish gunboat.S . Goodrell discussed the site with Commande r McCalla and several of the Cuban insurgents . Louis from the harbor . th e First Battalion of Marines [under Lieutenant Colonel Robert W . Louis and Yankee. McCalla asked Admiral [William T . while the field guns on Cayo del Toro attempte d to take the Marblehead under fire without effect . that had driven the St. the Panther was approaching the north coast of Cuba . . Lieutenant Rowan in the "Message t o Garcia") to report the position of Cuban forces. commanding the thir d rate cruiser Marblehead went the duty of reconnoitering Guantanamo Bay . several days earlier. the Sandoval wisely put about and ran back up the channel towards Caimanera. . Entering the harbor on the morning of the 10th of June.

and Major Cochrane were well versed on the strategic aspects of the Cuban campaign. .m. the hut s and the remains of the blockhouse on the crest of the hill were to be burned i n order to avoid the possibility of yellow fever . Cochrane's diary reveals nothing that woul d lead one to believe that the battalion had any solid tactical intelligence prior t o the battle . He had his glasses watching the hills . . 2 In accordance with strict instructions from Commander McCalla." four companies were landed in heavy marching order an d moved quickly to the high ground where one company replaced Goodrell's force . it is less clear to what degree." yelled Neville . remained blind . Cochrane's daily journal reveals that Huntington was stil l suffering from malarial fever and was frequently flat on his back . ] Neville . Bounding through the surf singing "There'll Be A Hot Time In The Ol d Town Tonight. Thus. ashore . . 68 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R monitor Yosemite found everything in order for the landing . Executive officer by default Cochrane felt that the battalion could hav e engaged in signals interception by reading the heliograph message traffic tha t was passed between the garrison at Cuzco and General Pareja's headquarters i n Guantanamo City . tactica l intelligence was available .3 The question of how much intelligence was available to the battalion is a subject of much speculation .. thre e outposts were established near or along avenues of approach to what was no w called McCalla'sHil . Concurrently. Word was given to open fire and for half . The strained relationship between the two men appears to have precluded any interchange--t o include any intelligence matters . While it is clear that Commander McCalla . "Hold on boys. located seventeen miles from an enemy forc e of seven thousand men. [Major Henry Clay] Cochrane. Lieutenant Colonel Huntington. Several volleys were fired by the Spanish forces. Huntington sent his adjutant to the Marblehead with a message that stated that an attack was expected at dawn . . Stea m launches from all ships formed up to tow the pulling boats. . firing broke out to the south--the area assigned to Lieutenant [Wendell C . who had been able to snea k up and surprise the outpost held by Sergeant Smith and Privates Dumphy an d McColgan . who had remained on the Panther with two companies. During mid-afternoon. the 600-man battalion. . "Assembly" wa s sounded and [Captain George F . . noises were heard to the front of the lines . Around 9 p . Nothing was found. loaded with Marines . supervised the off-loading of men and supplies . . don't fire until you get the command. While conversing with Huntington in the Marine camp . Goodrell went ashore with the combined detachments from the Marblehead and Oregon and moved up to the high ground above the beach to screen the landing . while Color Sergeant Richard Silvey raised the flag above the still smolderin g logs of the fort . . Shortly after midnight.] Elliott's C Company swept around the perimeter and through the thick brush as best they could . Lieutenan t Colonel Huntington was joined by the self styled "Colonel" Laborde of th e Cuban insurgents .

Captain Allan C . . Radford. Nonetheless. Cochrane watched part of the B Company line waver and drop back a s the assault hit and then. The night sky which had been heavily clouded. Privates William Dumphy and James McColgan became the first Marine casualties a t "In Many a Fight We've Fought for Life and Never Lost Our Nerve " The battalion was formed into an elongated square that was anchore d on the rubble of the Spanish blockhouse on what was called Crest Ridge . with the 3-inch guns. Company F. R. where Company B and Company C wer e linked . the thick chaparral had not bee n cleared from in front of the Marine positions. . Their first duty was t o form a burial detail . So close was the fighting . Arme d with his service revolver. without command the men stiffened and held . . under Captain F . Harrington.m . Correspondents in the harbor thought it "resembled a transformation scene at the theater . H . . . and fields of fire were nonexistent . formed the eastern flank . the rising moon silhouetted the white tents atop the hill . . . Assaulting in force up the moderate incline. F. that the officers used their pistols . No sooner had this been accomplished then the enemy. he noted that many of the company commanders had gone to ground . was held i n reserve in the center of the camp . At 9 p . Companies C and E. Under sporadic Spanish fire. Cochrane spent the early part of the night "patrolling the camp ." To his grea t dismay. . . Cochrane discovered that the west side of the perimeter had no outposts . turning the reddish soil to sticky clay . the Marine detachmen t of the USS Texas had come ashore to join the battalion .4uantmo an hour a steady firing was kept up. the last shovels of dirt wer e thrown over the two graves . The western flank was held by Captain W . Searchlights from the ships in the harbo r played upon the shore . Kelton's A Company held the foot of the ridge on the beach to protect the battalion stores . he led out a squad of Marines and set them int o position."5 Shortly before midnight . Going into the second night on Crest Ridge. . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 69 G. Spicer's D Company . . R . who ha d isolated the outposts and kept them under heavy fire. Captain B . the attack was slowed and finall y broken by several Marine volleys . . under the command o f Captain Elliott and Lieutenant Mahoney. A steam launch from the Marblehead with a machine gun mounted forward. Russell "stuck to his gun like a leach. driving the Spaniards back . now built up with storm clouds and heav y winds obscured noise and movement . Captain B ." To add to the tense situation a steady rai n began to fall. Under the command of Lieutenant Cyrus S . wa s launched and moved slowly up the bay searching for the enemy . . launched an attack agains t the southwest corner of the perimeter. Russell's B Company held the short but critical southern lines . Spanish elements were able t o reach the lines and in at least one case break through .

. I heard somebody dying near me. The Spanish had broken through the gap between the two companies on th e southwest corner. He breathed as all noble machinery breathes when it is making its gallant strife against breaking. accompanied by Adjutant Draper. Hard. Laborde apparently sho t one of his own men.duringashotl efing. Crane. He was dying hard . Laying where we were. on the other hand. was moving towards the hospita l tent when Gibbs was hit .aslwt o the Marblehead requesting that her surgeon be sent ashore . . The man was lying in a depression within seven feet of me . Crane was : In search of [Surgeon John Blair] Gibbs. McCormack joined the battalion .6 Responding to a report that the southwest parameter had been breached. . The intensity and confusion of the battle is borne out by the fact that Majo r Cochrane thought that Gibbs had been killed by a wild shot from the pistol o f Colonel Laborde who walked the line."8 Evidence lend s credence to Crane. when simultaneous attacks were launched against the Crest and th e outposts : "It was dark and the great growth of bushes prevented us from seein g them getting between us and the main camp . the hospital tent had been erected . Just at the moment of the Spanish assault. I was a child who. For the moment I was no longer a cynic . a book which "set a model for succeeding writers on the emotions of battle. "'Where's the doctor?' yelled Draper . " . It took him a long time to die . . hungry an d suffering from want of sleep. Where's the doctor?' A man answered briskly : 'Just died this minute. although two days later at Cuzco."9 Sergeant Smith had been in charge . Dr . 'There's some wounded men over there. we fought until daybreak . in a fit of ignorance had jumped into a vat of war . breaking . . Climbing the hil l alone and under fire. . shot Gibbs.. but I soon gave over an active search for the mor e congenial occupation of lying flat and feeling the hot hiss of the bullets trying to cut my hair. P . A . M . A series of probing attacks continued against the ridge and the outposts unti l 4 a. . Huntington. Three Spaniards had sneaked to the edge of camp.m . who five years earlier at age 22 ha d become the celebrated author of The Red Badge of Courage. and then ran helter-skelter down the hills when ou r Cuban guide--Colonel Jose Campina--fired upon them. . firing his pistol throughout the fight . by chance." this night became hi s baptism of fire . wrote that. where. with the same pistol . sir'"7. But he was going t o break. So narrow was the crest of the ridge that Gibbs body was left were he had fallen . He was going to break . Sergeant Smith wa s [shot] through the head and died instantly. 70 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R For correspondent Stephen Crane. . The darkness wa s impenetrable .

spades. " . Huntington's intent was now clear . . Newsmen who had spent the night aboard ships in the harbor. As the battalion commander made his way down the hill. . the Marin e detachment of the Texas was forming the honor guard for the burial of Dr . At the moment that Gibbs was laid alongside Marines Dumphy an d McColgan. they slipped into harness and pulled the field guns u p the steep path . the Spanish opened fire on the hill. Arguing that the battalions' position on the hill wa s untenable. McCalla. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 of the outpost at which Privates McColgan and Dumphy had been ambushed . on board the Texas. . . Cochrane wished them well and " . In addition he requested that more Hotchkiss field pieces be brought ashore . Captains Russell and Spice r took Cochrane aside . that. noted Adjutant Draper. 10 Huntington indicated to Cochrane that he was going to the Marblehead to confer with Commander McCalla. . that camp is named for me . After discussing the events of the night with them. Cochrane. . You were put there to hold the hill and you'll stay there! If you are killed. . . " refused positively and advised against the thought of such a thing . At the ruins of the blockhouse." Glancing towards the beach. Half a dozen newsmen were presse d into service when additional field pieces and machine guns were brought ashore . they asked Cochrane to "give u p and reembark on the Panther . The tent s which had been riddled with bullets were struck and trenches were dug . The tents which had been badly shot up were piled u p in front of the trenches as breastworks . and took his leave to talk to th e correspondents . my family would suffer . something. .1"2 out and get your deadbody As the chastised Huntington was returning to the beach. . . but did not mention anything specific . and. a dispatch boat was rushed t o cable" the story . and shovels had bee n brought ashore and were now put to use . . and had barely escaped with his own life . . Never. . Cochran e understood Huntington to agree with him. affectionately known in the service as "Billy Hell" thanks to an incident in which he ha d applied the flat of his sword to a recalcitrant sailor. should have been done on landing " all canvas was torn down . . Such a move he argue d would enable the Marines to make better use of the terrain . that the men were exhausted. . but no one was hit . one hundred yards to the west . H e requested that the battalion be reembarked at once . . Gibbs . . Visiting . began to clim b the hill. Huntington turned to talk to several of the compan y commanders who were waiting nearby . flew into a rage : "Leave thi s camp? No sir. Cochrane saw Lieutenant Colonel Huntington and Adjutant Draper boarding a 1 gig from the Texas . Bowman McCalla heard the haggard Huntington argue that the Marines' position on the hill was untenable . . He suggeste d leaving a strong outpost on the crest and moving the remainder of the battalio n towards Playa del Este. . ." Aghast. Along with the Marines. Now. Cochrane conferred with Huntington and recommended that the main body of the battalion be repositioned . Picks. . his luck had run out . I'll com e .

going the rounds as though night attacks were merely a matter of ordinar y detail . and clothed only in hats and cartridge belts. Venturing forth from the critical northeast outpost. The youngest captain in the battalion wa s George Elliott at 51 years of age . Several of the ships fired a salute and ble w . the gunboat Dolphin took a Spanish [blockhouse] under fire from 2000 yards off the beach . The Spanish waited until a large group had disrobed and gone into th e surf before they opened fire . . may be found in his age and health . The only artillery piece on the hil l the night before had not been used for fear of hitting the outposts .1"3 their steam whistle s The three new field guns were used during the afternoon to shell the enem y who appeared from time to time in groups . . The site was quickly destroyed and the occupants scurried inland. . The question to be considered prior to following the battle into the thir d night. The fact that he had shown personal bravery throughou t the night unlike several of his subordinate officers who had gone to ground . Huntington was of the same generation--old men fighting a young man's wa r against an enemy force at least three times larger in numbers in temperature s that reached above the hundred degree mark throughout their time in Cuba . 72 MARINES EN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R As if to further make his point. he had served as a platoon leader i n Reynold's Battalion during the retreat at the ill-fated First Battle of Bull Run--a n event reported as "the first instance in Marine Corps history where any portio n of its members turned their backs to the enemy. . . At almos t the same time in the harbor. is why Lieutenant Colonel Robert W . ran for cover with rifles i n hand . . Neville moved his men into position and the n assaulted the fort . I am sure six months o f active campaign would clear Huntington. "At 1 :15 o'clock . Surely soldiers never had better examples afforded. Harrington and Elliott and Spicer off . he wrote that. All indications pointed to the Spanish building up for anothe r major attack . Why he faltered when the firing had almost stopped . " ."15 As a Captain he commanded a company during the Panama Expedition of 1885 . and from all the ships in th e harbor came back an answering echo . To those around him during the battle he appeared to be "calm and watchfu l . and remained in poor health throughout th e campaign . . Major Henry Clay Cochrane was 56 . Bluejacket volunteers from the Panther and the collier Abarendas also came ashore . Naked Marines scrambled ashore under a hail o f bullets. Huntington had taken counsel of hi s fear."14 A veteran of the Corps since winning a commission in 1861. During mid-afternoon the men on the ridge were allowed to go to the beach to wash . . Lieutenant "Buck" Neville led his men against a small stone fort near the eastern edge of the bay . He was a staunch member of the Marine reformers . The Marin e detachment from the Marblehead was sent ashore and joined Company D on th e right flank . . Reflecting to his son. . leaving fifteen dead. the American flag was raised . H e had been sick since Key West. The defenders broke and ran. Bowman McCalla sent a flag ashore . . further clouds the question . the first flag that was raised t o stay. Under heavy Spanish fire. Three cheers went up from the battalion.

. at my suggestion . From a tactical standpoint. the application appears to have been somewhat naive or con fused . I can tell you I was bothered how to stand. it appears that McCalla had suddenly decided to place grea t stock in the Cubans. is clear that no consolidated operations order had been issued . . I am not sure about Cochrane because he takes such "16 selfish care of himself that he might last . . . on the 17t h instant. . He also stated that 5. . . Huntington thought that " . no other course was open to us. Huntington wrote : We went ashore lik e innocents . and by firing at every flash or any noise. causing one to wonder if both did not anticipate some type of troubl e from higher headquarters. . the disposition of the battalion followed th e doctrine and teaching of the day .200 yards to the Two days after Huntington had written the letter. ."18 Reading the endorsement.1e"a7 the rolls of this battalion . . they operated as islands in the night . The mistake of locating the camp between the main position an d the outpost was corrected on the 11th instant. The issue of the location of the camp and the lack of entrenchments spark immediate controversy--then and today . the space at the top is very small. something that he failed to do prior to the battles . it. page 2. the position occupied by the Marines ha s been pronounced by Major General Perez. Huntington was not happy with the location selected for the Marin e camp. The Marblehea d was not informed of the location of the outposts . For whatever the reason. The outposts wer e still located at such a distance from the main camp that they could not be reinforced quickly . stating that it appeared as : if ammunition was being wasted for it was t. . both men had seized upon the matter as soon as the fightin g had ended. but more by good luc k than good management. and of other ships as may be here . The night of the 11th we were attacked . from seven different positions . If there was a strategy within the battalion. (curiously the same day that Huntington had registered his complaint) t o be the only tenable position on the bay which could be successfully held by a small force. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 r.1hrou"g9 . . The ridge slope s downward and to the rear to the bay . While Huntington appears to have been firmly based in the concept o f tactics. . . and al l the surrounding country is covered with almost impenetrable brush . . Bowman McCalla wrote a n endorsement in which he also addressed the issue of location and stated that : " . Referring to paragraph 4. we go t Trying to piece the together the sit uation on the night of 12-13 June. . If the marine position is commanded by a mountain ridge. . Again. The positio n is commanded by a mountain. . . In a letter to Commandant Heywood he wrote that: "The hill occupied b y us is a faulty position but the best to be had at this point . then it was one built around creating a wall of bullets . the ridge of which is about 1. . . that mountain ridge is commande d in turn by the ten 5-inch rapid fire guns of the Marblehead.000 Spaniards could not take it . of the Cuban army. in a letter to his son. From first viewing."20 The official after action report addressed that situation. .

Colonel Tomas of the Cuban insurgents arrived in camp and brought with him an additional 80 men . straight up this hill . " Captain George F . whic h had broken during the night were completed . the Gloma r Explorer of her day. . . it was clear tha t whoever could reach the top of the hill first--and hold it--would dominate the valley around Cuzco Well . 74 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R impossible to see anyone to fire at. Although Elliott was not familiar with the terrain. The men charged up agains t the cactus. . so that we knew our salvation was in our own hands . But we all became satisfie d afterwards that the cartridges were wel l expended for it convinced the enemy that w e were well provided with ammunition an d prevented him from attempting to get anywher e near us or in fact to show himself in the smal l open space to our front . Elliott. Admira l Sampson could spare no ships from the blockade to assist us by landing an armed force . Huntington seeing that something desperate must be done to relieve the terrible strain under which his command wa s suffering. "Now men. Direct contact wit h Washington would be possible the next day .We had n o information as to the strength of the force opposed to us but did know that the Spaniard s had 7000 men at Guantanamo. . the advisibility of sending out an attackin g force in the morning to surprise the Spaniards and if possible to destroy thei r well. because I cared for the opinion of others. Cresting . as the Army ha d not even left the United States . . At twelve noon the thermometer stood a t 105 degrees . readily consented to 2 the plan . no one having had any rest or sleep for 100 hours.21 Cuzco Well The day proved quiet . so great wa s the darkness . . and. Attempts at repairing the Colt machine guns. He suggested to Col Huntington " . only twelve miles distant . . The cable ship Adria. . Moving at a quickened pace. I found myself tagging 23 along close at Elliotts heels . . Col . The hill ahead was almost vertical . which project if successful would force them to retreat to Guantanam o their nearest water supply . was selected to lead the force to take the well a t Cuzco . Furthermore we knew that we had no chance of reinforcements. was successful in retrieving and splicing the submarine cable that the Marblehead had cut two weeks earlier . Stephen Crane hear d George Elliott yell." The fight was now in the hands of the junior officers and sergeants . . . . soon to become the Brigadier Genera l Commandant five years hence.

. it became necessary to stop the Dolphin at once . . like pieces of whit e paper . . they discovered that the ridge was no more than fifteen feet wide . Soon it was arranged on a system . as was the well . and turning his back to the Spanish fire. You coul d see the little figures. one corporal. apparently with the intent of launching an assaul t against McCalla Hill . Horseshoe in shape it opened to the sea and commanded the encircled valle y below . . . . called hurriedly for another signalman . . The skirmish suddenly turned into somethin g that was like a grim and frightful field sport . began t o signal the Dolphin . He produced from somewhere a blue polka dot neckerchief as large as a quilt . the Marines and Cubans lay in the noonday sun and poured a stream o f fire into the enemy below . . . a line of Marines was formed into a firin g squad. There were two open spaces which in thei r terror they did not attempt to avoid. Lieutenant Magill with 40 Marines had moved up on the ridge to the left o f Elliotts' position and had begun to pour a flanking fire into the enemy below . the Dolphin had moved towards the beach and again opened fire . and sixteen privates made up th e captured Spanish . Then he went to the top of the ridge. Unbeknowest to her. . The shell s went over the Spanish and crashed into Magill's position . Magill's men were now on the gun-target line . Sometimes we could see a whole cove y vanish miraculously after the volley . Batista revealed that the Spanish force was made up o f six companies of the Siminca and Principe Regiments with two companies of Practicos . When interrogated. . . thre e hundred yards below. Nearby was a thicket of shrubbery wit h large leaves which covered almost an acre . Cursing Marines wen t to ground . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 the hill. One hundred and sixty bodies of their comrades littered th e area . The commandancia of the Spanish garrison was in plain view. Suddenly someone shouted : There they go! See 'em! See 'em! Forty rifle s rang out. . This force had been brought together from Guantanamo City an d Caimanera the day previous. the other was 800 . . . Meanwhile. Sergeant Quick aros e and announced that he was a signalman. . . it was trap-shooting . Going to ground on the razor bac k ridge. At this point . . It did not appear so then for many reasons bu t when one reflects.24 Lieutenant Francisco Batista. Now began one of the most extraordinary games ever played in war . A number of figures had been seen t o break from the other side of the thicket . The Spaniards were running. . He tied it on a long crooked stick. Captain Elliott . . One wa s 400 yards away. .

Its organization was not that of the casual ship's landing party of the 19th century. . Cochrane wrote that there : . the march back to Camp McCall a began . . the battles for Guantanamo Bay marked the end o f one era and the beginning of another . In the Marine Corps classic. . Jr. Marines which would still stand more than half a centur y . was no attack today . for the Panther.2"6 and three war slater Writing in Semper Fidelis. Had the Marines retreated or been driven off by the Spanish. it was a near thing . Al l rest in shoes and clothes and men carry rifles to meals . the action a t . . wrote that : "The operations of Huntington's battalion highlight importan t developments of the new Marine Corps of 1898 . the Army landing at Santiago d e Cuba would most certainly have been postponed . We were red with dirt. Like Reynold's battalion in 1861. . Millett noted that "Compared with th e fighting soon to follow in the Army's campaign against Santiago. In fact. but that of a self-contained unit built around the combined arms team . . Some so tired they could not eat . black streaks from smoke from our guns and our faces and hands covered with sores from th e poisonous weeds we had been laying on . a new generation of Marines was blooded . the battalion was part of the Atlantic Fleet : an embryonic Fleet Marin e Force if anybody in those days had thought of the term . was referred to repeatedly at the time as the Marin e transport. Soldiers of the Sea. by action and not b y theory. Robert Debs Heinl. but the bath made u s feel better any way . Most of the men are worn out an d sleeping . Guantanamo Bay was the linch-pin to the entire invasion of Cub a and the ultimate capitulation of the Spanish government . . specifically fitted for expeditionary operations. 76 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R As the sun began its descent into the west. Forged in the fire of combat. In other words. . After breakfast half the command went to th e beach for a bath. The mission of Huntington's battalion was to land on hostile shores t o seize an advanced base for the fleet . The night was quiet . The Spanish seem t o have been driven off. Precautions continue . using th e weapons of modem warfare employed with tactics that reflected the best thinking of the day. .S . The battles were the crucible in which a new Corps of Marines was shaped . . 25 In Retrospect In the space of four days. Alan R . Colonel Huntington's fleet landing force had set a pattern fo r employment of U . Its mobile base o f operations was an 1898 attack transport. The red dirt wouldn't start with salt water and we had no soap or brushes.2"7 Guantanamo was a minor skirmish of no consequence to the course of the war . . Simply put.

something that was par t of the original war plan . The intensity of the fighting was such that there simply was not time to place pen to paper . Naval Historical Center) . One can safely postulate that the invasion would have been postponed until the end of the malaria season in the fall. 2. If that was the case. a picture was taken of Marines raising the stars and Stripes on the Islan d of Iwo Jima . an assault against an enemy that had jus t driven American forces off a tactical landing in Cuba would have been relooked . would have stiffened their resolve after beating the American "mercenaries . The Navy would have never tolerated a shipmate who turned tail . Marine Corp s Historical Center . 4. For those who question the impact of the near breaking of the First Battalion of Marines. he remaine d silent . inspired by a victory. Bowman McCalla wrote of the affair in his autobiography in later life. Given the confusion of the Army at Tampa and the lac k of planning and preparation for war. repeatedly blind to the honest estimate of the situatio n by men of the caliber of Admiral Cervera would have further locked their shield s together. Notes 1. Henry Clay Cochrane interviewed all Marines who had knowledge of the near debacle and recorded their comments in his journal . would have been lost . Apr-Sep 1898 . Ibid. It was said that that the picture of that flag raising ensured tha t there would be a Corps for another five hundred years . diary entry. it is instructive to note that in the 43 year span of his dail y journal entries. 3. The strategic diversion that the seizure of Guantanamo Bay gave the Unite d States. Henry Clay Cochrane. . naval vessels would have had t o journey to Key West to replenish their bunkers . It would be another thirty-five years before the Marine Corps would finall y seize upon and develop the amphibious mission that eluded it for so long . 5. the "100 hours of fighting" was the only time that he did not record in depth the events of the day . A Marine withdrawal o r defeat--politically one and the same--in spite of the loss of the Spanish fleet . 189 8 that he was able to catch up on his diary entries . It was not until August. New York Herald. then the flag raised by the First Battalion of Marines on McCalla Hill on the 12th o f June 1898 ensured that there would be a Marine Corps . thus further blinding themselves to the facts . 1Jun1898 (McCalla File. Interestingly. A retreat in the face of the enemy would have meant the end of the Marin e Corps." The Spanish government. In 1945. Certainly the loss of Guantanamo Bay would have given the President and the War Departmen t reason to pause .McCalla to Sampson. might well have caused the Spanish hig h command to awaken from its lethargy . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 Without a coaling station for the fleet. and with it the fixing in place of Spanish troops. but neve r called attention to the implications of such an event . 12Jun1898 . Journal of the 1st Marine Battalion. all who had knowledge of the attempt to withdraw remained silent . 12Jun1898. Even when he coul d have used the information in a bid for the commandant 's office. Spanish morale. Cochrane Papers.

. 365 . 17Jun 1898 . McCalla. p . Huntington it to Col Cmdt. Cochrane Papers . NY. 16. 1967. Journal of the 1st Marine Battalion. diary entry. Col Cmdt to SecNav. 12Junl898 . 10. Number One). Hein] Soldiers of the Sea : The U S. 14Jun1898 . Ibid . 1964). Marine Corps (New York. Hagemann. 19Jun1898. 117 . 1997) p .133 . 20. p . 19Jun1898 . Allan R . W . p . Semper Fidelis : The History of the U. Ibid . 24. 8. 1980). Millett. diary entry. 19. . 19Jun1898 (McCalla File. hereafter The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane . R . 12 . pp . p . Stallman and E . (New York. 17. Ibid. 18May1899. Marines Corps. 145 .. 364 . R. Frank Keeler. Col R . 15. pt III (copy in Navy Library. 12. Bowman H .S. Marine Corp s Historical Center . Cochrane. 7. (Quantico. 30-31 . 363. Ibid. 26July1861 as quoted in David M . Ibid . 25. " MS. Marine Corps Pape r Series. Robert D . The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane. eds . Cochrane. The Journal of Frank Keeler. 14Jun1898 . MD. 1775-1962 (Annapolis . NY. Huntington Itr to son. p . 21. 9. Henry Clay Cochrane it to Stephen Crane. 18. VA. The United States Marine Corps in the Civil War--The First Year (Shippensburg. McCalla Itr to Sampson. PA. Huntington Papers. Sullivan. The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane . 27. 26. 22. 13. " Autobiography. Ibid. 11. 14. 78 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 6. 1962). 18Jun1898 . W . New York Herald. p . Nava l Historical Center) . Naval Historical Center) . 23. Huntington ltr to son.

By war's end. seven more died later of wounds . Each company had a . Huntington. The ship was manned by 29 0 sailors. 253 were killed either by the explosion or drowning .3 Although the cause was never established to eithe r side's satisfaction. the First Marine Battalion was enlarged to si x companies—five companies of infantry and one artillery . naval court of inquiry called to investigate the Maine incident concluded that a mine in the harbor had caused the explosion . The cause of the explosion was a source of contention between the Unite d States and Spain . initiall y formed into four companies . The First Marine Battalion in the Spanish-American Wa r by Trevor K. Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration . in preparation for what he believed was an inevitable conflict. five days before war began between the United States and Spain. Instead. 1898. Lt . On March 21 a U . 1898. an explosion sank the USS Maine in Havana Harbor. five were from their unit . Included in this number of killed were twenty-eight enlisted men from the Maine's marine 2 detachment. Colonel Huntington began organizing the battalion. They could also claim that of the six marines killed in action in the Spanish-American War. "New Glory to Its Already Gallant Record" . The job of organizing the First Marine Battalion was assigned to Lt . Huntington was approaching almost forty years of service in the Marine Corps. Charles Heywood. the event eventually led Congress to declare on April 25 tha t a state of war existed starting April 21. and 26 officers . Plant e On April 16.M . Spring 1998 . the First Marine Battalion could boast they had fought in the first land battle in Cuba and had been the firs t to raise the American flag on the island . having been commissioned soon after the start o f . The battalion yielded one Medal of Honor recipient. Secretary of the Navy John D. to organize one battalion of marines for expeditionary dut y with the North Atlantic Squadron . and two of the unit's officers would later serve as commandants of the Marine Corps .S. Long ordered the commandant of the Marine Corps . on the evening of February 15. who had just recently taken command of the Marine Barracks in Brooklyn.4 the CivilWar On April 17. At approximately 9 :40 P . Col . Cuba . Navy a glimpse of the Marine Corps of the future . Of these officers and men. 39 marines. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 79 Article reprinted with permission from the author of this article that appeared i n Prologue.1 The First Marin e Battalion's action in the Caribbean and its favorable press coverage gave th e American public and the U . New York . Robert W.S . A Spanish naval court of inquiry reported the next day that the explosion had been due to internal causes . 1898 . A proposed second battalion was never formed be cause a number of marines were still needed to protect navy yards and installations in the United States .

Mahoney joined the battalion . and E (the infantry companies) drilled in volley and mass firing . 5 Commandant Charles Heywood made mobilizing the battalion his highes t priority . Companies A. The ship's dining room accommodated only two hundred men. both he and the Marine Corps quartermaster made sur e that Charles McCawley. The marine infantry companies were armed with Lee straight-pul l 6mm rifles . C. Colonel Huntington noted the "intense excitemen t manifested by people along the line of march. requiring three mess calls per meal . staying until the twenty-third . B. which was capable of carrying one thousand men and officers . each man using ten rounds each .. 9 The men were overcrowded on the Panther because the vessel was too smal l to hold such a large unit . The color guard comprised I sergeant and 2 corporals . At Key West. had the supplies h e needed or the funds to get them . woolen and linen clothing. It was not long before tension developed on the Panther between the officer s of the navy and the Marine Corps .14 . for the Panther was ill-equipped to defend itself should it encounte r an enemy vessel . mosquit o netting. harbor fron t and shipping . camp equipment. the marine battalion would not see the Resolute until after it arrived in Cuba in June . like the infantry companies. 4 sergeants. The artillery company was equipped with four three-inch rapid-fir e guns . originally the Venezuela. they were supposed to transfer to the Resolute. Navy Yard. shelter 7 tents. For this reason. While at Hampton Roads. the battalion's quartermaster.M . to 4 P . 80 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R complement of 103 men : I first sergeant. the naval band played "The Girl I Left Behind Me" to send off the marines . 1 fifer. From 2 P . James E . drilled in volley and mass firing of the Lee rifles using ten rounds each. On the twenty-sixth the battalion began its first drills o n board ship . 8 At eight o'clock. and surgeon . The battalion was also accorded a quartermaster. boarded the recently purchased USS Panther. but some stemmed from questions regarding the men's required duty and wh o was responsible for discipline . The battalion reached Fort Monroe off Hampton Roads. On April 22 the marines were ready to sail . The men marched down the main street of the navy yard to the dock and at 5 P .6 The battalion quartermaster supplied the unit with ammunition. pushcarts. had been recently purchased and converted to carry about 400 men. the battalion numbered close to 65 0 officers and men . Much of this strain was due to overcrowding . Maj . 1 drummer. On April 18 the commandant went to New Yor k to personally observe preparations. but after the additional companies were added.11 Unfortunately .10 The ship. Percival C . Pope and 1st Lt . D. 4 corporals. as the ship pulled away from the dock.M . adjutant . Virginia. docks. Lt.12 On April 26 the Panther left Virginia accompanied by the cruiser Montgomery . pickaxes. on th e evening of April 23 and waited for their convoy vessel to arrive . Florida. 13 Despite these problems. The marines expected these crowded conditions to be temporary. wheelbarrows. An escort wa s necessary. Next. and 92 privates . and medical stores .M. the artillery company fired one round from each of the four artillery pieces and then . Huntington made th e most of precious time .

and navy As. Navy ships . The officers were watching the men's health very closely. Orders outlined procedures pertaining to water. cooler uniforms came new-style shoes and lightweight underwear. The Spanish gunboat Sandoval soon came down the channel from Caimanera .21 The Panther arrived off Santiago. on board the flagship New York and received orders to report to Comdr . Colonel Huntington also de tailed men to patrol the streets of Key West to guard against men causing troubl e while on liberty . Huntington continued drilling while at Key West. of the Panther ordered the battalion to disembark and set up camp . McCalla had entered Guantanamo Bay on June 7 to clear the outer harbor . Huntington wa s keenly aware of health dangers caused by bad water and exposure to disease . and clothing . the commander in chief of the North Atlantic Fleet. on June 10 . Guantanamo Bay was chosen as a good site for coaling nav y vessels . Guantanamo has both an inner and outer bay. an d any marine struck by diarrhea was to report it immediately to the medical offi. A battery near the telegraph station at Cayo del Toro on the western side of the ba y fired on the U. Reiter. 22 Shortly after the war began. The men were also ordered to change their clothing whenever it go twe While in Key West the battalion sent small detachments to participate in several funeral services held for navy personnel .16 While the battalio n remained in camp for two weeks. at 7 A . and 17 the battalion received daily instruction and target practice with their rifles .20 The long wait wa s over. causing damage to the converted yacht's stern rail . Cuba. Sampson. Georg e C. "Send the Marine Battalion at once to Sampson without waiting for the Army send Yosemite as convoy . during the night of the ninth. and the outer bay offered a good anchorage site for ships because of its depth . No one was to drin k unboiled water. Admiral Sampson established a blockade of major Cuban ports .S. Huntington reported to Adm.19 sistant Surgeon John Blair Gibbs also joined th ebatlion On June 7 the naval base at Key West received a telegram from the actin g secretary of the navy stressing. McCalla of the Marblehead. William T .15 On May 24 Comdr . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 The Panther arrived at Key West.S . cooking. the marines' transpor t collided with the Scorpion. Bowman H . With the lighter. On the voyage south. Sampson sent the marine battalion to protect any ships in the bay from being harassed from Spanish troop s ashore . This action prompted the commandant of the Marine Corps to telegraph Ke y West inquiring why the battalion was unloaded when the Panther was the sol e transport of the marine battalion and had no other duties. leaving behind Majo r Pope sick in the hospital. Cooks were told how to prepare food and water for cooking. commanding at Guantanamo Bay . Water was prepared on board ship and brought to the marines on shore . The marines exchanged their heavie r blue uniforms for new brown linen campaign suits . and that day the battalion finally sailed for Cuba. The unit received a number of Colt machine guns.18 cer. on April 29 . vessels Marblehead and Yankee . monotony was eased by the arrival of supplie s that were more suited for tropical weather . all very popular item s with the officers and men.M . The two U .

and McCalla then sent him to brief Huntingto n on his intended position .200 yards to the rear ." He did not want his men on top of a hill where "the ridge slopes downward an d to the rear from the bay" and was "commanded by a mountain. The battalion began landing at two o'clock. This flag wa s hoisted on the 11th June and during the variou s attacks on our camp floated serene above us . One hundred and fifty feet below the hill where the American flag no w flew. the torped o boat Porter. The U . the collier Abarenda. the Vixen and Panther.S . M . First Marine Battalion. McCalla had ordered the marines to burn the village on Fisherman's Poin t for health reasons. the first company ashore. Navy vessels present were the cruisers Marblehead.24 The marines were ordered to stac k their rifles and begin unloading supplies from the Panther. the gunboat Dolphin . the ridge o f which is about 1. planted the American flag for the first time on Cuban soil. 82 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R opened fire. Lt . flag hoisted in Cuba . Goodrell selected a site for the marine battalion to establish their camp. D . Richard Silvey. Men from Compan y C. The remaining two companies disembarked on June 11 . Herbert Draper raised the American flag on a flagpole for the first time in Cuba at Cam p McCalla. Goodrell led forty marines from the Oregon and twenty marines from the Marblehead. 189 8 My Dear Colonel : I sent you by this mail in a starch box th e first U . the battleship Oregon . but these requests were repeatedly denied. Capt . At .25 Sgt . and Yosemite ."27 The battalion's position was partiall y protected by the navy vessels in the bay . 26 Huntington believed the hill chosen for his camp to be a "faulty position .S .29 Eleven days later.23 The scene outside Guantanamo Bay was an awesome sight on June 10. McCalla ordered marines from the Marblehead and Oregon to conduct a reconnaissance of an area just inside Guantanamo Bay . Several times the battalion commande r requested McCalla's permission to move the marines from this site to a more defensible position.28 Despite this difference. and several private vessels carrying newspaper reporters . Huntington named the marines' position Camp McCalla . were deployed up the top of the hill as skirmisher s to protect the landing against enemy attack . Yankee. silencing the gun battery and forcing the Sandoval to return back u p the channel . On the morning of June 10. Company C . and no one was allowed to enter into any buildings . Four companies disembarked while the other two remained on board to help unload supplies . fo r the outer bay was dominated by ships . houses and huts were in flames. and smoke rose from the small fishing village . Huntington sent this same flag to the commandan t of the Marine Corps : Guantanamo Ba y June 22.

I am very respectfully R. The earthworks were constructed about chest high . On the morning of the twelfth. Charles H . the enemy was making good use of camouflage by covering their bodies with leaves and foliage from the jungle . for both men had received a number o f bullet wounds to the face .33 The smokeless powder of the Spanish Mauser rifles als o made the enemy harder to detect . Sgt . Goode Taurman died during an engagement .30 The bodies were first mistakenly reported mutilated . Eventually earthworks were constructed in the shape of a square. At about 1 A . with the blockhouse in its center . it ha s been illumined by the search light from th e ships . conducted a funeral servic e for the slain marines . Smith was killed . Colonel Huntington. All of these were repulsed . and as many officers and men . I trust you may consider it worthy of preservation. Using a lesson learned from the Cubans. for a moment. Huntington Lt Col Commd'g Bat' n In an attack on the marine outposts. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 83 times.M . trenches were dug measuring about five feet deep and ten feet wide . McColgan suffered twenty-one shots to the head an d Dumphy fifteen .32 Sporadic firing back and forth continued throughout the night . In this assault Assistant Surgeon Gibbs was killed by a bullet to the head . When bullets were flying. It was first lowered at sunset last evening . They helped the marines bring the artillery pieces and Colt machine guns up the hill . A lieutenant and marine guards from the Texas provided the funeral escort . Colonel Huntington moved much of the camp down the hill closer to the beach to a plac e known as Playa del Este . Huntington had the marines entrench their positions o n the crest of the hill . during the darkness. and after receivin g permission from his ship's captain. Severa l newspaper reporters came ashore at the lower camp and offered assistance . The artillery pieces were placed in th e corners of the square. a superior number of Spanish forces made a more combined attack . with suitable inscription. the chaplain from the USS Texas. Pvt . He had heard about the marine deaths. On the outside of the dirt walls. the battalion's surgeon.34 Harry Jones. Privates Dumphy and McColgan o f Company D were both killed . offered his services to the battalion commander . It was hard to tell the two apart. and the sight o f the flag upon the midnight sky has thrilled ou r hearts .W .31 Soon the enemy made five small separate attacks on the marines' camp . and the Colt machine guns were along the sides . Later on June 12. at Headquarters .

35 turned to his launch with tw orepts McCalla ordered the captain of the Panther to unload fifty thousand rounds of 6mm ammunition . Using a blue flag obtained from the Cubans. Henry Good was killed. Sgt . Neville had also been injured descending a mountainside during the engagement. which was the only water sup ply for the enemy within twelve miles . Another attack was made on the camp the next morning . "In the future do not require Col . The service was conducted almost entirely under enemy fire . Huntingto n . Elliott's force had a remarkably low casualty rate . Wendell C. The marines' Lee rifles and Col t machine guns returned fire . the sergeant began to signal the ship with his back to th e enemy and bullets flying all around him . Huntington asked Elliott if he would like to take an officer to act as adjutant. Instead. upon learning that a reporter was accompanying his force. Elliott requested Stephen Crane to act as an aide i f needed . Louis Magill was sent with fift y marines and ten Cubans to reinforce Elliott . When he got back to his feet. Later. The captain declined. Capt . Maj . 84 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R who could be spared from the trenches attended the ceremony . The well. The marine officer later reported that Crane carried messages to the company commander s . "the . Lt . the mission was considered a success because the well had been destroyed . and the USS Dolphin was sent to support the mission fro m set . Only two Cubans had been killed. Near the well they encountere d great resistance from superior enemy forces . two lieutenants with fifty men each were also sent to help Elliott. John Quick volunteered to signal the ship . was close to shore. citing the shortage of officers pre sent for duty as the reason .38 while on thi smion The marines soon engaged in a terrific fight . Elliott set out with Companies C and D and approximately fifty Cubans to destroy the well at Cuzco. the chaplain found that the marines were still standing at parade rest awaiting the ceremony . On the fourteenth. and two Cubans and three marine privates ha d been wounded . Lt. He issued an order to destroy a well used by Spanish troops . Sgt . The chaplain was still being fired on when he re . and at one point Jones dove into a trench t o escape enemy fire . The camp wa s still being harassed by the enemy. Crane's Red Badge of Courage had been published in 1895 . Huntington decided t o take action . Use your own officers andcrew On the night of the twelfth. George F. He was to cut off the enemy's line of retreat but was blocked by the Dolphin's gunfire.39 McCalla offered hi s opinion stating. but not before the marine s inflicted a crippling blow . about six miles from the camp . "I need hardly call attention to the fact that the marines woul d have suffered much less had their campaign hats not been on the Resolute" (the ship had not yet arrived at Guantanamo Bay) . bu t neither participated in the fight . After almost three days of constan t harassment from the enemy either by attack or sniper fire. The Spanish escaped. Twenty-three marines suffered from heat exhaustion and had to be brought back on the Dolphin. McCalla also cleared up some of the confusion regardin g duties by stating in the same order.40 Overall. 37 Upon leaving camp. To help direct the nava l gunfire.3"6 to break out and land his stores or ammo . McCalla stated.

The enemy had been firing on American vessels from this point . On the twelfth.M . after the action. with Huntington in charge of enforcing this order . These men had fought and patrolled with the marines since June 12 .M . arriving with the Spanish prisoners at Camp Long just outside Portsmouth . The thre e ships were accompanied by two press boats. Huntington led a detail of 240 men encompassing Companies C and E of the First Marine Battalion and 60 Cubans under Colonel Thomas .48 The inactivity of the battalion soon led some marines to create their own di versions . On June 29.M . Annapolis. They did . whose body could not be brought back to camp . Marblehead. Those who disobeyed thi s . Navy became responsible for a very larg e number of Spanish prisoners . and the U . Good. The following day. On Jun e 24 the battalion placed headstones over the graves of Gibbs. on the twenty-fifth. Louis woul d be guarded by Capt . The landing party withdrew at about 7 :30 A . Benjamin Russell commanding twenty-one marines fro m the Marblehead and twenty-nine marines and a lieutenant from the Brooklyn . On July 23 a letter from the commandant was read at parade acknowledging receipt of the first fla g raised over Camp McCalla and praising the officers and men of the battalion for their conduct . which took positions close to the beach south and west of the point . Huntington received orders that no reporters or civilians were to be allowed to land near hi s camp or enter his lines without a pass from McCalla . Franklin Moses to join the Harvard . McCalla detached sixty marines from the battalion."41 In fact. 46 On July 3 the Spanish fleet was virtually annihilated during the naval battl e of Santiago de Cuba.S . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 85 expedition was most successful . and Taurman . The landing force went ashore but made no contact with the enemy . At about 3 A . Allen Kelto n and 1st Lt . naval gunfire from the Texas.43 order were to be arrested and taken on board the Marblehead asprisone At 4:30 P . two privates from Company E left camp without . McCalla ordered the harbor at Guantanamo under quarantine. enemy attacks an d sniper fire on the marine camp became almost nonexistent . The force used fifteen boats from the Helena.47 On July 10 the Harvard sailed north for New Hampshire. It was decided to send the prisoners north to Ports mouth. New Hampshire. and Suwane e destroyed the Spanish fort at Caimanera on the eastern side of the bay . and I can not say too much in praise of the officers and men who took part in it . The next day the captain of the Panther received orders from Admira l Sampson to transfer all stores including ammunition and quartermaster stores t o the Resolute. and Bancroft to travel to the other side of the bay . The landing was supported by the Marblehead and Helena.44 The marines had finally received their larger transport . find signs that approximately one hundred men had been in the are a and had left the previous day . Three days later. however.45 McCalla ordered a reconnaissance to determine if Spanish forces still occupied the extremities of Punta del Jicacal on the eastern side of Guantanamo Bay . On July 4 and 5 . on June 20 the USS Resolute arrived and unloaded stores for th e battalion. McColgan . along with marines to guard them . Prisoners on the St. A detail was sent out to place a headstone over the re mains of Sergeant Smith. including Capt . Dumphy.42 Three days later. a large force of about eighty Cubans left camp .

Having orders to shoot anything that moved. In the morning. The transport left Guantanamo Bay four days later for Manzanillo under convoy o f USS Newark to assist in the capture of the town . and the commandant commended all the battalion's officers and men and noted the favorable press coverage of the battalion's first few . the Resolute took on board 275 men from four U . and all ships anchored for the night at 5 :30 P . Another private was caught buying liquor using a Spanish dollar .S . The action was soon broken off.M . white flags were flying over many building s in town. Captain Goodrich allowed time for noncombatant s to vacate the town before beginning the naval bombardment . Burns fired his weapon into th e bushes . "As part of the contemplated plan of operations was th e landing of some or all of the marines of Colonel Huntington's command . The vessels were soon fired upon. and the Newark returned fire . the private gave three verbal warnings to halt . Naval gunfire resumed at 5 :20 A ." Both were disciplined with ten days at double irons . Osceola. Huntington named their new site Camp Heywood in honor of th e commandant of the Marine Corps . arriving at Portsmouth on August 26 . The commander replied that Spanish military code would not allow him to surrender without being forced b y a siege or military operation . Thi s officer's regret at the loss of an opportunity to win additional distinction for hi s corps and himself was only equaled by his careful study of the necessities of th e case and his zealous entrance into the spirit of th entrpis . observing the disappointment of the battalio n commander. One night while on guard duty. Army light artillery battery detachments for transport to Montauk Point. The Alvarado was sent under a flag of truce to demand a surrender from the military commander .50 On August 5 the battalion broke camp and embarked on the Resolute. Hi st. They remained on board for several hours and later were reported displaying "improper conduct . There being no response . Suwanee. Alvarado. Six of the battalion's officers received pro motions for gallantry. and still hearing movement in the bushes.53 After leaving Long Island. the next morning. and th e navy vessels flying flags of truce approached . Goodrich ordered a cease-fire. Resolute headed for New Hampshire.49 Pvt. a sergeant took six men to investigate the situation an d found that Burns had not fired on the enemy but rather had downed a very larg e black pig. and most of the army detachmen t and marines were sick.51 The Resolute.M . and Newark all approached Manzanillo and anchored thre e miles outside town on the twelfth . Robert Burns supplied some of the men with a good story to tell . Long Island . The next day. and when daylight came. A small boat from Manzanillo approached the navy ships and brough t word to Captain Goodrich that an armistice had been proclaimed : the war was over. reported. 86 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R permission and boarded a schooner in the harbor . Naval gunfire started at 3 :40 and lasted until 4 :15. The commandant had person ally chosen this location for the battalion to recover from the tropical heat of th e Caribbean .5"2 On the eighteenth. when it appeared that flags of truce were flying over some of the town's buildings . The captain of the Newark. the private heard something moving in the bushes approximately one hundred yards ahead . the ship encountered rough seas.

four months after his death by naming an army hospital in Lexington . They received favorable press cover age not only because they were among the first to see action. etc . Washington.58 After the battalion was disbanded.S . detachments headed for New York. "It is worthy of note that during the entir e service of this battalion of 25 commissioned officers and 623 enlisted men. McCawley also had had the foresight to purchase empty win e casks in Key West for use as water containers. Cuba .60 The secretary of war honored John Gibbs. Huntington received orders to disband th e battalion. Philadelphia. dysentery. among whom fever."55 The adjutant and inspector of th e Marine Corps also found the men at Camp Heywood in good health . That morning President McKinley informed the commandant of the Marine Corps that he wanted to re view the detachment . fro m April 22. diarrhea. John Quick was awarded the Medal of Honor for "cool and gal .5"7 home fit for duty. increasing the amount of wate r that could be kept on hand at camp .61 Kentucky. 1898.59 Individual honors were bestowed upon Sergeant Quick and Assistant Surgeon Gibbs . Huntington concluded his report by stating. afterhim Although the majority of marines during the Spanish-American War serve d aboard ship fulfilling various duties from ship guards to gunners mates. but because they . the Firs t Marine Battalion received such wide newspaper attention that it dominated th e public view of the marines' role in the war . Remnants of the battalion were led by the U . On September 19. The Washington detachment consisted of 3 officers and 16 4 men who arrived in Washington on September 22 .. when they embarked on board their transport at New York to the pre sent time.."as5ult6ie days in Cuba . Nor folk. On September 18 a parade was held in the streets of Portsmouth . Resolute. Sgt . 98 percent of the battalion was brough t . and "not a single man of the command died fromdisea The men had used only distilled water obtained daily from the Panther. or Vulcan.54 On reporting that he had dispatched marines to their new duty stations . The parade proceeded de spite heavy rains while President McKinley and several officers reviewed th e troops . . lant conduct" in signaling the Dolphin on June 14. there has not been a single case of yellow fever nor death from diseas e of any kind and but few cases of serious illness . In his inspection report the adjutant concluded. when it is considered that these men were the first United States troops to land in Cuba . D . "I believe this encampment has bee n of great benefit to the health of the battalion. the assistant surgeon killed at Guantanamo. and during their entire service they were subject to the same climatic influence s as other troops. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 87 c. a remarkable fact. caused so man y The quartermaster of the battalion reported to the commandant that becaus e of the use of distilled water for drinking and cooking and the sanitary condition s aided by sufficient food and clothing. The excellent health of the battalion can b e attributed to this careful preparation of water . at Cuzco. Marine Band from the Marine Barracks in Washington. and Annapolis left Portsmouth together and passed through the city of Boston .C.

1967). Washington. First Lt . 1898 . the secretary of the navy proclaime d that in the war with Spain the Marine Corps added "new glory to its already gallant record. " Casualties Occurring on the USS Maine. 5."63 The battalion coul d be proud of its accomplishments . John Henry Quick received the Medal of Honor on June 14. The battalion was prepared and displayed something future marines would take pride in—the ability to be calle d and respond at a moment's notice . 3. records in the National Archives will be cited as RG . Recor d Group 24. Neville went on to serve as commandant of the Marine Corps from March 5 . p . John G . to July 8. . The unit dominated what was seen as the Marine Corps role in the war . 4. 1903. Bernard C . Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel." Statistical Report. Th e United States Marines in the War with Spain (rev . Elliott rose quickly through the ranks and went on to become the tenth commandant o f the Marine Corps serving from October 3. 1861 . NARA) ."64 Notes 1. Special Appendix. p . Sgt. The marines would play a vital role. 1930 . 17-18 . The battalion enhanced the reputation of the Marine Corps and showed the American public thei r usefulness as an American fighting force . The Spanish-American War showed the navy that the Marine Corps had a role in their future war plans . the navy was now responsible for actively operating in the Pacifi c Ocean . 7 . Newspapers also reported on the lo w rate of disease and sickness in the battalion as opposed to the high rate found i n army units. to November 30. 2. The navy would need advanced bases and coaling stations if their ship s were to successfully operate in this area . 1898. Annual Report . Reynolds as a platoon leader at First Bull Ru n on July 21. the First Marine Battalion demonstrate d the fast mobilization of the Marine Corps . Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Yea r 1898: Report of the Secretary of the Navy . "Report of the Commandant of United States Marine Corps. Sept . Nalty. 822 (hereinafter cited as Commandant's Report) ." Charles Heywood. See entry 196. Huntington served under Maj . Miscellaneous Reports (1898). In his general order acknowledging the one-hundredth anniversary of the Marine Corps in 1898. Marine Corps historian Alan Millett observe d that for this era the First Marine Battalion " made the greatest contribution to th e Marine Corps's reputation for combat valor and readiness . 1910 . 1898 (1898). 793 (hereinafter cited as Navy Dept. 88 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R always encountered an enemy that had superior numbers . Capt . 1898) . 1929. pp. 1898. Navy Dept. National Archives and Records Administration. Wendell C . With the postwar acquisitions of the Philippine s and Guam. 62 During the Spanish-American War. Georg e F . Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. 24. p. Appendix to Report of Chief of Bureau of Navigation. fo r these bases and coaling stations would need to be captured and held i f necessary . DC (hereinafter . Annual Report. to the secretary of the navy. colonel commandant.

1898. Navy Dept . 8 . 1898. p . bo x 15. Marines (1930). 12–13 . McCalla Report No . Apr . entry 6. Navy Dept . Huntington Journal. 1898. Records of the U . Commandant's Report. McCawley. Telegram #33. n . Jan . entry 153. 1898 . 1884–Jan. 3 . 1898. McCalla. 11. Huntington Journal. 7. 1898. McCawley to commandant.. box 2. Press Copies of Letters. USS Panther. 2 . NARA . 17. p . Annual Report. McCalla. 29. pp .). p . July–Dec . 22. box 1. Line S . RG 45. p .d . Sept . April 23. Area 8 File. 10. 1898. Battalion Order No . p . Apr . 14. p . Telegram s Recvd May 7–Aug 15. Company E. Navy Dept . entry for Apr . 1904. Clifford. 27. p .S . Historical Division Letters Received. File. Chief of Bureau of Navigation to colonel commandant. NARA . NARA (hereinafter cited as Huntingto n Journal) .–Sept . MCHC . Marine Corps Historical Center (MCHC). NARA . 16. 1818–1915. 19. 1898. Marine Corps . hitting the boat. Annual Report. p . North Atlantic Station—Naval Base. Huntington Journal. 885 . box 381. Hunting ton. 5–6 . 24. History of th e First Battalion. Bureau of Construction and Repair." (ms . 839 . Commandant's Report. 1898. 2. Navy Dept . and Huntington to commandant. Commandant's Report.–June 1900 file. " pp . p . Entries for May 12. 1898. RG 313. See entry for Apr . RG 127 . 53 . 21. 1898. 3. 516 . Clifford. Donahue.S . Annual Report. Telegram #107. 11 . 11. Cochrane Collection (PC# 1). Sept . June 11–12 folder. USS Panther. H . 20. 9-10.S . McCawley to the quartermaster. Pvt . NARA . 1898. Navy Dept . 27. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 89 6. Navy Dept ." p . Annual Report. "The Marines at Guantanamo. 884 . McCawley. p . 1898. RG 45. Co . Washington . 8. 23. 27. Jan . Huntington Journal. Feb . Key West. John H. from Red D . Huntington Journal. entry for Apr . Clifford. was sent to the U . Journal. 1–2.S . 1898. Sept . Subject File. and 15. June 11. Navy Dept . RG 127. entry 42. "Journal of the Marine Battalion Under LtCol Robert W . Entry for June 10. 13. 823. McCawley to quartermaster. 15. 1900. NARA . RG 127. 1898 . NARA . Charles L . Commandant of the Marine Corps to the secretary of the navy. 1898. 85. Nov .S. 15. NARA . See Vessels Purchased. 824 . p . Marine Corps. and Annual Report s to the Secretary of the Navy. History of the First Battalion. Records of Naval Operating Forces. 13. . 885-887 . RG 127. Annual Report. 26 . McCawley to the quartermaster. and falling overboard . Endorsements. pp . Edward A . North Atlantic Station—Naval Base. pp . Annual Report. box 46. p . Huntington Journal. Battalion Order No ." pp . Note : The Panther was purchased as the Venezuela on April 19. entry for Apr . McCawley Papers (PC #360). 24. 9. History of The First Battalion of U. 12 . Key West. box 29. p . 58 . "Extracts from the Autobiography of Admiral B . First Indorsement by B . June 19. p . 8. 1899. 1898. p . book 7. DC . U . OH (Shore Operations). 18. Entry for June 10. 12. "Marines at Guantanamo. entry 42. box 1. H . 22. 1898. Army Hospital in Ke y West after fracturing his arm from falling off of a Jacob's ladder. lette r #73. Entry for April 22. 8. 824 . RG 313. 28. 8 . p . and Charles L . 1898. Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Re cords and Library. of Colonel Huntington's report of June 17. Annual Report. Telegram s Recvd May 7–Aug . 13. Folder 2 . April 189 8 folder. box 48.

1898. Annual Report. Area 8 File. 1898. ibid . 1898. 00. June 16. p . entry for June 11. "First American Fortifications in Cuba. 1898. 1898. p . Spears. Commandant's Report. Dieuaide of the New York Sun . Spanish-American War volume. Navy Dept . Annual Report. 1898. June 17. Huntington to Heywood. bo x 2. Huntington to Heywood. 29. McCalla. 1898. Huntington Journal. "Marines at Guantanamo. pp . Playa del Este. M . copied into Huntington Journal . 1898. PC #276. 1902. p . Medical Certificates and Casualty Lists. Elliott to Huntington." p . p ." p . 838–839." The New York Times Illustrated Magazine. 838–839 . 1898. Navy Dept . 267 . RG 45. and Huntington to Heywood. Huntington to Heywood. Squadron Bulletin No . Annual Report. McCawley to Huntington. 26. and Huntington to McCawley. 1898. and Huntington to Heywood." p . Annual Report. Thursday. and Huntington to Heywood. from USS Texas. 1898. Navy Dept . 1898. 39. June 17. Monday. "Marines at Guantanamo. 845 . 1898. 31..13 . 1828–1939. 846. McCalla to Sampson. John R. ibid . June 14 . Chaplain Jones returned t o his launch accompanied by two reporters. 294–296 . 1989. 30. These two letters identify Lieutenant Draper as raising the first flag over Camp McCalla . p . 1897–Dec . Navy Dept . 5 . 15 . 40. Our Navy in the War with Spain. and Squadron Bulletin No . "Marines at Guantanamo. Huntington to Heywood. "Marines at Guantanamo. Chaplain's letter of Aug . 36. p . History of the First Battalion. June 11. History of the First Battalion. p . James McColgan and William Dumphy." Bureau of Medicine an d Surgery. On June 12 McCalla states in report no . ibid . 4. June 17. RG 127. 34. First Indorsement by McCalla of Elliott's Report of June 18. July 21. RG 313. 37. June 12. "Engagements at Guantanamo. June 11–12 folder. NARA . 838–839 . Annual Report. 846 . 9 . NARA . 13 . NARA . pp . 1898—June Folder. 824. 1902. Annual Report.. Clifford. June 11 to 20. Spears.. p . June 15. June 10." p . 270–271 . RG 45 . ibid . Our Navy in the War with Spain (1898). 86 tha t two privates and one sergeant were killed and that their bodies were mutilated . 41. 35. entr y 36A. 13 . 1898. McCalla to Sampson. 42. p . " p . June 20. clippings file. Dec . entry 42. 1898. 845 . June 16.. 32. 838 . 1898. Correspondence with Commanders of Vessels. 15 . Spears. McCalla to commanding officer of Panther. 38. p . box 29. 8 . 28. 1898. Chief signal officer. MCHC . box 3 . p . an d McCalla Report No . 29. War Department. Note : In several sources Dumphy's name appears as Dunphy . 265–266 . McCalla. North Atlantic Fleet. 1898. June 17 . Subject File. pp . 838–839 . McCawley. NARA . "Marines at Guantanamo. NARA . p . p . June 12. 1898. North Atlantic Station. RG 52. 90 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 25. History of the First Battalion. box 47. Clifford. Clifford. Marine Battalion. 1898. pp . Guantanamo Bay . 1898. Nav y Dept . 1898. 1899. June 17. pp . Clifford. 838–839 . 27. Cuba . Marblehead. pp . 1898. July 9. Our Navy in the War with Spain. 4. 12 . 28 . June 17 . An account was published in the New York Evening Sun on July 18 . to the secretary of the navy. 824. Annual Report. June 17. McCawley. History of the First Battalion. Navy Dept . pp . Navy Dept . June 16. box 461. 86. . Records of the Bureau o f Medicine and Surgery. p . 1898. McCalla. 11 . 1898. pp . 33. 838–839 . Commandant's Report. p . Huntington Collection. 798 . George Coffin of the Journal and T . pp .

Army Adjutant-General. 1898. p . 21. 45. 1898. RG 313 .S . Asst . 13. 1898. Huntington wa s promoted to colonel. 27. "Report of Inspection of the Marine Battalion at Camp Heywood. and entry for Sept . Aug . 1898. 1897–Dec . June 21. 27. July. United States Marines in the War with Spain. NARA . Huntington Journal. Huntington Journal pp .H . Correspondence Relating to Cuba. On April 29. RG 313. NARA . Correspondence with Commanders of Vessels. Entry for June 24. 849 . entr y 42. Clifford. 49. Marblehead. New York . copy of letter received from the commandant. On June 28 William F . Almost a year later the bodies were disinterred and buried in the United States . 26–27." in Crucible of Empire. September 14. 60. Historical Divisio n Letters Received. acting secretary. 1899. Seaveys Island . . 1899. 1898. Oct. Nav y Dept. 28 .. Entry for June 25. History of the First Battalion. p . George C . North Atlantic Station . 1898–September folder. 29. RG 127. Elliott advanced three numbers. Extract. RG 45. Surgeon . Millett. Sept . 1898. pp . box 3. joined the battalion as P . Subject File. Lucas to brevet captain. Commandant's Report. 23–24 . N . 1898. Dec . Entries for Aug . box 46. Annual Report. McCawley to quartermaster. George C .S Navy. Huntington Journal. 1898. Huntington Journal. 1899. Order dated Sept . 441–442 . RG 127. entry for Aug ." Maj . and Taurma n buried at Richmond. General Order 504. Huntington Journal. "Marines in the Spanish American War. the remains were buried i n the following locations : Dumphy and Good buried at Naval Cemetery. Order Book No . 1897–Dec. June. 254. pp. Dec . 51. NARA. 18–19. April 15 to September 1. box 3. p . 58. Marblehead. 18. July 12. 54. 1897–Dec . box 3. p . 59. 1898. Area 8 File. Reiter . 46. Navy Dept . 17 . James C . 1898. Entry for June 20. 150–151 . 898–900. 53. pp . 55. pp . and Bannon to brevet firs t lieutenant . Annual Report. 13. pp . U . box 461. Correspondence Relating to the War wit h Spain (1902). Smith buried in Smallwood. Arnold. Saturday. History of the First Battalion. 1898 Muster Rolls. Nalty. 17. Annual Report. 1898. Sept . 134–135 . 18 . p . McCalla to Huntington. . p . June 25. Dec . p . box 47. Jack Shulimson. 1898. Appendix to Report of Chief of Bureau of Navigation. Goodrich to McCalla. 00. 825–826 . NARA . 234 and 240 . 825 . Clifford. Correspondence with Commanders of Vessels. Letters and Telegram s Sent to Officers Conveying Orders ("Order Books"). Marblehead. entries for July 23. 1898. Special Order No . Dec . McColgan buried at Stoneham. Md . 1898. General Order from McCalla. Navy Dept . 9. Mass . See 1898—April folder. 278. NARA . RG 45. NARA . pp . Reid. NARA . 18 . 1898 Muster Rolls. 19. RG 127. Neville t o brevet captain. 28–29 . see p . RG 313. Portsmouth. NARA . Commandant' s Report. 17 . Squadron Bulletin No . Navy Dept . 884–888 . Navy Department. 30. North Atlantic Station. 13. 33 . ibid . . U . p . NARA . RG 127. pp . p . 1898—June 20–21 folder. 50. entry 42. entry for Aug . box 13. 5 and Aug . pp . 52. 40. Memos (three of July 4 and one of July 5) from New York to McCalla. 1898. pp . NARA . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 43. July 7. Correspondence with Commanders of Vessels. Sept . RG 127. 24 . 44. p . ed. Bradford (1993). 47. 57. 31–32 . 61. 26 . 1818–1915. June 18. Va . 1898 . entry 24. 1899. Entries for Aug . 1898. pp. Huntington Journal. See Huntington Journal. Semper Fidelis : The History of the United States Marine Corps (1991). and memo for Chief of Staff from McCalla. 25–26 . 842-843 . Huntington to commandant.. 1. vol . Magill to first lieutenant and brevet captain. 48. North Atlantic Station . Alan R . Sampson to Comdr . Pages 24–25. Annual Report. pp . 62. 56.

p . 63. Semper Fidelis. July 30. 834 . 1898. 1898. p . 131 . 64. 494. . General Order No . 92 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Millett. Long. Navy Dept . Commandant's Report. Annual Report. Secretary of the Navy John D .

Photograph of the irascible Bowman H. who was the overall commander of the task force off Guantanamo that landed the 1st Marine Battalion ashore. McCalla. Navy cruiser Marblehead was the flagship of Cdr Bowman H. who would have his differences with the Marine commander. Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center NH72745 . Huntington. LtCol Robert W. USN.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY THE MARINE BATTALION AT GUANTANAMO 93 The US. the naval commander of the landing expedition at Guantanamo. McCalla.

MCHC First Battalion Marines at Guantanamo. cruiser Marblehead support the troops ashore.S. the battalion adjutant raise the American flag at newly named Camp McCalla.94 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Photo courtesy from the Henry Clay Cochrane Papers. Photo courtesy National Archives 127-N-521285 . Draper. Searchlights and naval gunfire from the U. under 1stLt Herbert L. The Marines were the first American forces to land in Cuba. A contemporary painting pictures Marines of the 1st Battalion repelling a Spanish night attack on their position.

look on.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 95 Photo from the Henry Clay Cochrane Papers. A navy ship can be seen offshore in support of the Marines. USMC Photo 515350 . allied with the Marines. Marines continue to improve their position at Camp McCalla. MCHC Captain Francis H. One Marine takes a break and rests on a wheelbarrow while two Cuban irregulars. Harrington stands in a fortified position which includes a 3-inch naval landing gun and Marine infantry at Camp McCalla.

the rank he reached in World War I.S.96 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center NH54531 The U. USMC . Quick was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the SpanishAmerican War when he signaled the USS Dolphin to cease fire. Photo History and Museums Division. but redirected its guns after the Marines signaled the ship. Navy gunboat USS Dolphin. Inadvertently the ship took a Marine platoon under fire. Sgt John H. who attacked the Spanish forces in the locality of Cuzco Well. He is pictured below as a sergeant major. Elliott. originally built as a dispatch ship. provided naval gunfire support to the Marines under Capt George F.

2dLt Smedley D. Magill. IstLt Wendell C.M. McCawley. Navy. 2dLt Newt H. Capt Francis H. 2dLt Louis J. Jonas. Lt Col Robert W. IstLt Charles G. Mahoney. Huntington. (M. 2dLt Melville J. Guantanamo rest behind three markers denoting the graves of Privates James McColgan and William Dumphy. Draper. Lucas. Capt George F. Reid.S. Long. 2dLt Philip M. A. Capt Charles L.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 97 Photo from Henry Clay Cochrane Papers. Shaw. 1stLt William N McKelvey. Elliott. Butler. 2dLt Edwin A. C. Neville. The officers of the 1st Marine Battalion pose for an official photograph at Guantanamo: Sitting left to right: IstLt James E. 1stLt Lewis C. and Navy Assistant Surgeon John B. MCHC Marines at Camp McCalla. Standing left to right: 2dLt George C. IstLt Herbert L.Q..) U. Hall. Ingate. Defense Department (Marine) Photo 521218 . Gibbs. IstLt Clarence L.A. Harrington. Bannon. Capt William F. Spicer. Lt John M Edgar.



Reprinted with permission from The University of Virginia Edition of the Works of Stephen Crane, Vol. ix, Reports of War, War Dispatches, Great Battles of th e World, edited by Fredson Bowers (Charlottesville, Va . : The University Press o f Virginia, 1971) pp . 134-42 .

The Red Badge of Courage Was His Wig-Wag Fla g by Stephen Cran e
June 22 .--It has become known that Captain Elliott's expedition against the guerillas was more successful than any one could imagin e at the time . The enemy was badly routed, but we expected him to recover in a few days, perhaps, and come back to renew his night attacks . But the firing of a shot near the camp has been a wonderfully rare thing since our advance an d attack . Inasmuch as this affair was the first serious engagement of our troops on Cuban soil, a few details of it may be of interest . It was known that this large guerilla band had its headquarters some fiv e miles back from our camp, at a point near the seacoast, where was located th e only well, according to the Cubans, within four or five leagues of our position . Captain Elliott asked permission to take 200 marines and some Cubans to driv e the enemy from the well and destroy it. Colonel Huntington granted this request , and it was my good fortune to get leave to accompany it . After breakfast one morning the companies of Captain Elliott and Captai n Spicer were formed on the sandy path below the fortified camp, while th e Cubans, fifty in number, were bustling noisily into some kind of shape . Most of the latter were dressed in the white duck clothes of the American jack-tar, whic h had been dealt out to them from the stores of the fleet . Some had shoes on thei r feet and some had shoes slung around their necks with a string, all according t o taste . They were a hard-bitten, under-sized lot, most of them negroes, and wit h the stoop and curious gait of men who had at one time labored at the soil . They were, in short, peasants--hardy, tireless, uncomplaining peasants--and the y viewed in utter calm these early morning preparations for battle . And also they viewed with the same calm the attempts of their ambitiou s officers to make them bear some resemblance to soldiers at "order arms ." The officers had an idea that their men must drill the same as marines, and the y howled over it a good deal . The men had to be adjusted one by one at th e expense of considerable physical effort, but when once in place they viewe d their new position with unalterable stolidity . Order arms? Oh, very well . Wha t does it matter? Further on the two companies of marines were going through a short, shar p inspection . Their linen suits and black corded accoutrements made their stron g figures very businesslike and soldierly . Contrary to the Cubans, the bronze face s of the Americans were not stolid at all . One could note the prevalence of a curious expression--something dreamy, the symbol of minds striving to tear



aside the screen of the future and perhaps expose the ambush of death . It was no t fear in the least . It was simply a moment in the lives of men who have stake d themselves and have come to wonder which wins--red or black ? And glancing along that fine, silent rank at faces grown intimate through th e association of four days and nights of almost constant fighting, it was impossible not to fall into deepest sympathy with this mood and wonder as to the dash an d death there would presently be on the other side of those hills--those mysteriou s hills not far away, placidly in the sunlight veiling the scene of somebody's las t gasp . And then the time . It was now 7 o'clock. What about 8 o'clock? Nin e o'clock? Little absurd indications of time, redolent of coffee, steak, porridge, o r what you like, emblems of the departure of trains for Yonkers, Newark, N .J., or anywhere--these indications of time now were sinister, sombre with the shadow s of certain tragedy, not the tragedy of a street accident, but foreseen, inexorable , invincible tragedy. Meanwhile the officers were thinking of business ; their voices rang out . The sailor-clad Cubans moved slowly off on a narrow path through th e bushes, and presently the long brown line of marines followed them . After the ascent of a chalky cliff, the camp on the hill, the ships in the harbo r were all hidden by the bush we entered, a thick, tangled mass, penetrated by a winding path hardly wide enough for one man . No word was spoken ; one could only hear the dull trample of the men , mingling with the near and far drooning of insects raising their tiny voices unde r the blazing sky . From time to time in an hour's march we passed pickets o f Cubans, poised with their rifles, scanning the woods with unchanging stares . They did not turn their heads as we passed them . They seemed like stone men . The country at last grew clearer . We passed a stone house knocked t o flinders by a Yankee gunboat some days previously, when it had been evacuate d helter skelter by its little Spanish garrison . Tall, gaunt ridges covered wit h chaparral and cactus shouldered down to the sea, and on the spaces o f bottom-land were palms and dry yellow grass . A halt was made to give the Cuban scouts more time ; the Cuban colonel, revolver in one hand, machete i n the other, waited their report before advancing . Finally the word was given . The men arose from the grass and moved o n around the foot of the ridges . Out at sea the Dolphin was steaming along slowly . Presently the word was passed that the enemy were over the next ridge . Lieutenant Lucas had meantime been sent with the first platoon of Company C to keep the hills as the main body moved around them, and we could now see hi s force and some Cubans crawling slowly up the last ridge . The main body was moving over a lower part of this ridge when the firin g broke out . It needs little practice to tell the difference in sound between the Le e and the Mauser . The Lee says "Prut!" It is a fine note, not very metallic . Th e Mauser says "Pop!"--plainly and frankly pop, like a soda-water bottle bein g opened close to the ear . We could hear both sounds now in great plenty . Prut--prut--pr-r-r-rut--pr-rut! Pop--pop--poppetty--pop ! It was very evident that our men had come upon the enemy and were

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slugging away for all they were worth, while the Spaniards were pegging awa y to the limit . To the tune of this furious shooting Captain Elliott with Lieutenan t Bannon's platoon of C Company scrambled madly up the hill, tearing themselve s on the cactus and fighting their way through the mesquite . To the left we coul d see that Captain Spicer's men had rapidly closed up and were racing us . As we swung up to the crest we did not come upon Lucas and his men as w e expected . He was on the next ridge, or rather this ridge was double-backed, being connected by a short transverse . But we came upon Mauser bullets i n considerable numbers . They sang in the air until one thought that a good han d with a lacrosse stick could have bagged many . Now the sound made by a bullet is a favorite subject for afternoo n discussion, and it has been settled in many ways by many and eminen t authorities . Some say bullets whistle . Bullets do not whistle, or rather th e modem bullet does not whistle . The old-fashioned lead missile certainly did toot , and does toot, like a boy coming home from school ; but the modem steel affai r has nothing in common with it . These Mauser projectiles sounded as if one string of a most delicate musica l instrument had been touched by the wind into a long faint note, or that overhea d some one had swiftly swung a long, thin-lashed whip . The men stooped as they ran to join Lucas . Our fighting line was in plain view about one hundred yards away . The brown-clad marines and the white-clad Cubans were mingled in line on the crest . Some were flat, some were kneeling, some were erect . The marines were silent ; the Cubans were cursing shrilly . There was no smoke ; everything could be seen but the enemy, who was presumably below the hill in force . It took only three minutes to reach the scene of activity, and, incidentally , the activity was considerable and fierce . The sky was speckless ; the sun blazed out of it as if it would melt the earth . Far away on one side were the white waters of Guantanamo Bay ; on the other a vast expanse of blue sea was rippling in millions of wee waves . The surrounding country was nothing but miles upon miles of gaunt, brown ridges . It would hav e been a fine view if one had had time . Then along the top of our particular hill, mingled with the cactus an d chaparral, was a long, irregular line of men fighting the first part of the first action of the Spanish war. Toiling, sweating marines ; shrill, jumping Cubans ; officers shouting out the ranges, 200 Lee rifles crashing--these were th e essentials . The razor-backed hill seemed to reel with it all . And--mark you--a spruce young sergeant of marines, erect, his back to th e showering bullets, solemnly and intently wigwagging to the distant Dolphin ! It was necessary that this man should stand at the very top of the ridge i n order that his flag might appear in relief against the sky, and the Spaniards must have concentrated a fire of at least twenty rifles upon him . His society was a t that moment sought by none . We gave him a wide berth . Presently into the di n came the boom of the Dolphin's guns. The whole thing was an infernal din . One wanted to clap one's hands to one's

weary . no serried ranks . Two hundre d yards down the hill there was a--a thicket. A marine remarked : "Well. From end to end and from side to side it was alive . the Dolphin marked the line for the . Suddenly some one shouted : "There they go! See 'em! See 'em!" Forty rifles rang out . shot just beneath the heart . it was past bearing . The procession that moved off resembled a grotesque wheelbarrow . He too did not seem then in pain . It was about an acre in extent and on level ground. This thicket was alive with th e loud popping of the Mausers . But at any rate. and on the ground among the stones an d weeds came dropping. the blood staining his soiled shirt . It was n o extraordinary blunder on the part of the Dolphin . His expression was of a man weary. but made his men hunt cover with great celerity . he simply toppled over. Th e skirmish suddenly turned into something that was like a grim and frightful fiel d sport. punctuated by the roar of th e Dolphin's guns. Lieutenant Magill had been sent ou t with forty men from camp to reinforce us . Tw o comrades were ministering to him . Then a strange thing happened . No one heeded it much . He made no outcry . weary. while a comrade made a semi-futile grab at him . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 01 ears and cry out in God's name for the noise to cease . Instantly one Cuban loaded the body upon the back of another and then took up the dying man's feet . The Spaniards were running. a thicket whose predominant bus h wore large. What mysterious underbrush! But--there--that was a bit of dirty. and he di d know from our line of fire that the enemy was in the valley . i n the heat and rage of this tight little fight there was a good deal of strong language used on the hill . He had come up on our left flank an d taken a position there. as i f some giant loom was running wildly. dropping a rain of rolling brass shells . white jacket ! That was a dodging head! P-r-r-rut ! This terrific exchange of fire lasted a year. it seemed as if he were senseless before he fell . It was improbable that th e ship's commander should know of the presence of Magill's force. but the Dolphin's guns not only held him in check. And still crashed the Lees and the Mausers. it wa s trap-shooting . Now began one of the most extraordinary games ever played in war . drunk from the heat and the fumes of the powder. The Dolphin swung a little further on an d then suddenly turned loose with a fire that went clean over the Spaniards an d straight as a die for Magill's position . And what was two hundred yards down the hill? No grim array. Along our line the rifle locks were clicking incessantly. " Under a bush lay a D Company private shot through the ankle . He seemed in no pain . It did not appear so then--for many reasons--but when one reflects. The thicket was the trap. green leaves . Magill was immensely anxious to mov e out and intercept a possible Spanish retreat. A number of figures had been seen to break from the other side of the thicket . or probably it was twenty minutes. And--look--there fell a Cuban. oily. a great hulking negro. swung heavil y with blazing faces out of the firing line and dropped panting two or three pace s to the rear . so that its whole expanse was plain from the hills . there goes one of the Cubans . Marines. covering us .

The firing-drill of the marines was splendid . whose body had to be left temporarily with the enemy--all thes e men were being terrifically avenged . and a line of a score o f marines was formed into a firing squad . stealthy woodsmen. like pieces of white paper . in twenty minutes the thicket was too hot for his men . You could see the little figures. The wounded were carried down to the beach on the rifles of thei r comrades . At last it was over . The entire function of the lieutenan t who commanded them in action was to stand back of the line. the two lads ambushed and riddled with bullets at ten yards . Soon it was arranged on a system . that is another matter. The Spanish commander had had plenty o f time to take any position that pleased him. frenziedly beat hi s machete through the air. who cannot hi t even the wide. shot at night by a hidden enemy . Dunph y and McColgan. One was 400 yards away. . The Cubans. met a superior force and in twenty minutes had the m panic-stricken and on the gallop. and with incredible rapidity howl : "Fuego! fuego ! fuego! fuego! fuego!" He could not possibly have taken time to breathe durin g the action . The marines--raw men who had bee n harassed and . Sergeant Smith. It was vastly exciting . harassed day and night since the first foot struck Cuba--the marine s had come out in broad day. There were two open spaces which in their terror they did not attempt t o avoid. The men reloaded and got up their guns like lightning. The Cubans t o the number of twenty chased on for a mile after the Spaniards . but simply lashed themselves into a delirium that disdaine d everything . the heavy tile s rang down from the caving roof like the sound of a new volley . He had chosen the thicket. wide world. A squad destroyed the Spanish well and burned the commander's house . His men were meanwhile screaming the most horrible language in a babble . 1 02 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R marines to toe. It was impossible to tell whether they were all hit. Sergeant-Major Goode. One noticed it the more on account of the Cubans . Gibbs. Looking at them then one could hardly imagine that they were th e silent. As for daring. They paid no heed whatever to th e Spaniards' volleys. but afterward there was always a rock-like beautifu l poise as the aim was taken . At first the whole line of marines and Cuban s let go at sight . The heaven-born Dolphin sent many casks of water ashore . who used the Lee as if it were a squirt-gun . or whether all or part had plunged headlong for cover . the splendid scouts of the previous hours . Sometimes we could see a whole cove y vanish miraculously after the volley . Coveys of guerillas got up in bunches of five or six and fle w frantically up the opposite hillside . "There they go: I See 'em! I See 'em! " Dr . for as we marched out we had hear d his scouts heralding our approach with their wooddove-cooing from hilltop t o hilltop. lapsed into temporary peace. Everybody on ou r side stood up . The dripping marines looked with despair at their empt y canteens . the other was 800 .

Save for the low murmur of the men a peace fell upon all the brown wildernes s of hills . ahead. As we neared camp we saw somebody in the darkness--a watchful figure . on the flank . Possible stragglers were called in . he had escaped from a landing party in order to join in the fray . The tired men grew silent. "Hello" said a marine . "Who are you? " A low voice came in reply : "Sergeant of the guard . eager and anxious. some laughingly said six . The Cubans appeared with prisoners and a cheer went up . As to execution done. could be heard the low trample of many careful feet . none was certain . Some said sixty . " Sergeant of the guard! Saintly man! Protector of the weary! Coffee ! Hard-tack! Beans! Rest! Sleep! Peace! . He grinned joyously . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 03 A party went out to count the Spanish dead . Which is many . Then the brown lines began to wind slowly homeward . perhaps uncertain of the serpent-like thing swishing softl y through the bushes . to the rear. It turns out to be a certain fifty-eight--dead . he had a rifle and belt. In the meantime a blue jacket from the Dolphin appeared among the marines. the daylight began to soften. As the dusk deepened the men closed fo r the homeward march . some said on e hundred and sixty . not a sound was heard except where.

Company A : Capt .64. A . Ingate. First Sergt. Company B : Capt . by direction of the Secretary. quartermaster . 1898. C . have the honor to submit the following report of the condition and service s of the United States Marine Corps for the past year . and was composed o f young. New York. Edgar. $106.W . M. The battalion. Kelton. Q . First Lieut. receive d from the ordnance department. 1 surgeon of the Navy.. H .. C . commanding . adjutant . Cochrane . sergeant-major . and 623 enlisted men. Pope . L. First Lieut . Surg . at different times. 1 04 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR REPO RT OF T HE COMMANDANT OF UNITED STATES MARINE CO RP HEADQUARTERS U .. to organize a battalion at New York for service in Cuba. of th e marines for war service . McCawley. consisted of 23 commissioned officers of the Marine Corps. September 24. F . C. surgeon . navy-yard. Huntington. Maj . J. quartermaster-sergeant . The following is the organization of th e battalion : SIR : I Lieut. I issued orders o n the 17th and 18th of April for the immediate assembling at New York o f detachments of men from all the Eastern posts of the Corps and receiving ships . of which th e Secretary allotted to the Marine Corps. A . and healthy men . On the night of April 18. Magill . I proceeded to New Yor k for the purpose of organizing the marine battalion for service . Washington. R . S . First Lieut . B . and careful preparations were immediately begun looking to the thorough equipment.529 . P . all under command of Lieut . L . . clothing. . First Sergt . Capt. Col. W . Huntington. as organized. C . 1898 . Second . Draper. C. D. W. R. H . J . for ammunition. equipments. Allan C . J . U . Limerick. Moses. L. in every respect. one o f which was an artillery company. The battalion was divided into six companies. S . . In accordance with the verbal instructions of the Department of April 16 . John M . MARINE CORPS . Maj . L . strong. having four 3-inch rapid-fire guns. Henry Good.000. R. Col .000 for the national defense. etc . C . United States Navy. Russell. Shortly before war was declared between the United States and Spain Congress appropriated $50. Second Lieut . M.

formerly the Venezuela. barbed-wir e cutters. and 92 privates . P. The greatest care was exercised in fitting out the battalion by th e quartermaster of the Corps. pickaxes. two days after the arriva l of the men at New York. H .S . 23 commissioned officers. White. and myself. Lucas. E . L .M. 623 enlisted men . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 05 Lieut. The band of the yard was loaned by th e commandant to escort the battalion to the landing . N. an d two days later. Mahoney. Long. L. sailors. Each company consisted of 1 first sergeant. Capt . and others on the vessels at th e navy-yard. J. as well as those on shore . having regard for the health and comfort of the men . and when the Panther sailed the battalion was thoroughly fitted out with all the equipments an d necessities for field service under the conditions prevailing in Cuba whic h experience and careful consideration could suggest. orders were received from the Department directin g that two companies be added to the battalion. F. Before leaving Washington for New York. F . U . 1 fifer. J. First Lieut . A.. C . and accommodations for thes e additional men had to be immediately provided . H . Lieut. Company C : Capt . and that he had bee n instructed to render me all possible assistance in fitting out the ship as a transport. total.. 4 sergeants. the number decided upon by the Department. M . woolen and linen clothing. Company D : Capt . Spicer. . three months ' supply of provisions. wall and shelter tents. Shaw. M. navy-yard. C. including mosquito netting. . The vessel was ready in two days for the battalion of 400 men. two corporals . First Lieut . I was informed by th e Department that the commandant. push carts. McCawley.M . had been directed to fi t out the Panther. Harrington. As the men marched from the barracks to the ship they were greeted wit h great enthusiasm by the officers. Company F (artillery) : Capt. Bannon . Denny. which coul d have sailed then . Total in battalion. Elliott. but owing to the grea t demand for these articles at the time by the Army it was impossible to send them . Second Lieut . wheelbarrows. First Lieut . Color guard : One sergeant. First Lieut . for the transportation of a battalion of 400 men. shovels. 1 drummer. Work was proceeded with night and day to make the necessary provision for the increased number of men. . F. Second Lieut .C . W. W . Neville. heavy and light weight underwear. the quartermaster of th e battalion. S. Newt . 4 corporals. F. on April 22. the Panther sailed. G . McLemore . W. for Cuba . with the battalion of 2 4 commissioned officers and 623 enlisted men. McKelvy.S. New York. K. U . L . As the Panther left the navy-yard and proceeded down the river she was repeatedly greeted with cheers and whistles from the vessels passed . Campaig n suits of brown linen and campaign hats were ordered. Maj . When the battalion was ready to sail. and a full supply of medical stores . First.C. 103 . G. Hall Company E : Capt H. First Lieut C . C.

Asst . and prepared to go into camp . . 1898 . it was found that the Panther would be very much crowded with this number on board . . the exigencies of the service required that sh e be taken for other purposes. On the 11th the camp was attacked by a much superior force of Spaniards. during a very severe attac k on the camp. for the purpose o f destroying a well at Cuzco. of the battalion. P . to have been fired at a range of from 600 to 800 yards . E . They were shipped later. John M . The battalion received orders a t 5 :30 in the afternoon of May 24 to land. S .. the men were landed and went into camp there . S . C. About 1 a. After the Resolute was fitted out and ready to sail and provision s placed on board for the battalion. Tent floors were purchased at Key West . however. was killed by a Mauser bullet. of the battalion. formerly the Yorktown. and at 2 p . and proved a great comfor t to the men . joined it at Hampton Roads . 1898. and 50 Cubans. Owing to the dense undergrowth. as a permanent transport for the use of the battalion . the ship arrived at Guantanamo Bay. at 1 p . and arrived at Santiago de Cub a on the morning of the 10th . about 6 miles from the camp. P. and repulsed the enemy on every attack . was sent out on June 14 with a detachment of two companies of the battalion. Pope was detached from the battalion . it would have been impossible for the vessels. on the morning of the 12th of June.m . N . arriving at Key West April 29 . . After leaving New York the Panther proceeded to Hampton Roads for th e purpose of awaiting a convoy to Cuba. as he was a most popular officer. . Cuba. F. and from that time until the 14th the battalio n was constantly under fire. C . . by 3 o'clock th e following morning. wit h stores. Just before the Panther saile d from Key West. 106 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R with the battalion . On the same day. which was accomplished . .m. Elliott. Surg . Maj . from the date last mentioned to June 7 . The Panther left Hampton Roads April 26. John Blair Gibbs. who had been ordered to the battalion . reported by Surg . which was the onl y water supply of the enemy within 12 miles . Mahoney. . arriving on April 23. Pope and First Lieut . Geo . of that day the battalion landed. by shelling th e shore. Montgomery. During the time the Panther remained at Key West. a s it was the only harbor where the vessels could seek shelter during the hurrican e season .m .. to keep the enemy from harassing those on board the ships with thei r Mauser rifles to such an extent as to make it dangerous for them to remain there . . . The death of Assistant Surgeon Gibbs cast a gloom over the whole command. liked by all. . I reported the fact to the commandan t of the station. making in all 623 men. unde r convoy of the U . Edgar. affording safe shelter to the Spanis h sharpshooters. After orders were received to increase the strength of the battalion by tw o companies. and was informed by him that he had received orders to fit out the Resolute. U . The Panther sailed from Key West for Cuba on June 7. J. Maj . with all stores. Capt. S. The holding of the position at Guantanamo Bay was of the utmost importance to the Navy. This small force attacked an d defeated a body of about 500 Spaniards and accomplished the destruction of th e well. and she was not available for the use of the battalio n until it embarked at Guantanamo for the Isle of Pines.

when they arrived from Cuba . states his belief tha t . instead of distributing them immediately to their respective stations . Private Goode Taurman. sailed for Playa del Este . Private Thomas Wallace. and wishing to get them away from Portsmouth before the equinoctial storm. arrive d in the city September 22 . and on the 14th the Resolute. and Private Arthur Walker . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 07 and his services were very much missed and the battalion could ill afford to los e them . I regret to have to report the following list of the enlisted men of the Corp s who lost their lives in the brave defense of the flag at Guantanamo Bay : Killed: Sergt . the encampment has been of great benefit to the health of the officers and men . Maj . Having lande d the army detachment. [September] the men having improved so much in condition a s to make it safe to return them to their stations. . I issued orders to disband the battalion . in reporting the disbandment of the battalion. Fleming. After sailing. The marked improvement in the conditio n of the officers and men shows that it was a wise provision to put them in camp i n the healthful climate of the coast of New England. On the 5th of August the battalion embarked on the Resolute. Private Robert J . consisting of 3 officers and 164 men. with the battalio n on board. and fo r over three days and nights was under constant fire. every man of the detachment was reported well and presen tfor duty . Noonan. and the men upon their arrival wer e marched through quite a heavy downpour of rain to the White House an d reviewed by the President . N . . The morning of the day of their arrival the Presiden t notified me that he desired to review the detachment . where the ship arrived on August 12 . The Washington detachment. and that the following day a . Private Charles C . On the 18th of the same month the Resolute . The fact that this battalion was attacked by overwhelming numbers. the destination o f the vessel was changed to Manzanillo. sailed for Montauk Point. . the town surrendered. On August 13. Henry Good. where the battalion disembarked on August 26 .. she proceeded t o Portsmouth. . Halvosa. . Private William Dumphy. Sergt . On the 16th. Private James D . Th e next morning. Glass. having taken on board certain officers and men of the artillery of the Army . . . Private Lewis L . Colone l Huntington. Smith.. Marley. The following men of the battalion were severely wounded : Corpl .H. Bourke. some of which are in the South . Private James Roxberry. news having been received of the signing of the peac e protocol. The men were enthusiastically greeted all along the line of march and many compliments upon their appearance were heard . which ha d been previously carefully fitted out as a transport as stated above. and getting a clean bill of health. William B. Private Bartholomew McGowan. Private Albert E . The honor thus tendere d being unsolicited was highly appreciated. in spite of their long trip of the day before. at which place she arrived on the 23d . and on the 9t h of the same month sailed for the Isle of Pines . Charles W . and Private James McColgan . Private Patrick Long. and their marc h through the rain.

. . as attempts had been made by Spanis h spies to blow them up. and the car e exercised by the officers for the health and comfort of the men. and eve n after these 473 men were added to the Corps. showing the good results o f the extremely careful and complete preparation of the battalion for the servic e which devolved upon it. and the percentage of sickness was only 2 per cent. F. 3. where millions of dollars worth of public property is stored. which required most watchful guarding. on account of th e many Spanish emissaries in the country . this left only 71 enlisted men of the regular servic e available for duty at all eastern posts . Denny. and that all were well drilled and under the most effective discipline . if the 1. shows that Colonel Huntington and his officers and men displayed grea t gallantry.S .M. In addition to the men required at the navy-yards . guards composed of selected men were ordered to be established at th e magazines at Norfolk and Philadelphia. There were 623 i n the battalion and 50 at Key West. Edgar. For this reason the .073 enlisted men . C .. medicines. some of them were distributed among the various marin e guards on board ship. Maj . afte r arrival at Portsmouth. except a reduction of 1 inch in height and the extension of the age limit to 35 years. it is shown that there were but 7 1 men of the permanent establishment available for duty at the different posts. . by the quartermaster of the Corps. viz . U . relieving older men for positions as noncommissione d officers at the different posts . of provisions and meals before being served. in procuring all the necessary clothing.C . as provided for in section 1596 of the Revised Statutes. John M . making a total of 2. the Corps would have been unable to furnish adequate guards for th e various navy-yards and stations.N. appropriated for 47 3 additional men for the Marine Corps. Deducting those on the Pacific coast. the Corps would have been unable to meet the demands for men required fo r the guards on board ship and men for the battalion and at Key West. . 275. only nine-tenths of 1 per cent. . L. Surg. Thus it will be seen that if the additional 473 men had not been appropriate d for. U . as well as a rigid discipline always enforced in the Corps . portion of the battalion attacked and repulsed a superior force of Spaniards .S. and in camp. by the constan t inspection of the camp. As the men enlisted for the war becam e sufficiently drilled. and other necessaries for a tropical climate. as i t was not thought advisable to reduce the general standard . approved May 4. The men enlisted for the war were required to pass the same physica l examination as those enlisted for the permanent establishment.055 enlisted men at sea . th e quartermaster of the battalion. varying in strength from 8 0 down to 6 men. 1898. McCawley. making a total of 2. The battalion has not lost a man by disease from the time it left for Cuba until it s return.500 additional men for service during the war had not bee n provided. The naval appropriation act. L . an d therefore. Capt . thus bringing the Corps up to its ful l authorized strength. the medica l officer.. 1 08 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. During the war 57 vessels had marine guards. and myself.728 .

and many of the guards on board ships wer e without officers before the act was passed . On September 8 the prisoners left the Academy and returned to their country . . Muse. This guard was maintained until the prisoners were discharged from the hospital and was then returned t o the barracks. as the marines are thoroughly trained as sharpshooters. After due consideration the Department accepted my suggestion . and. I maintained that the men of the Corps could do this work. and a guard was established there and camped in the hospital grounds . Many of the Spanish wounded in the battle of July 3 were sent to the naval hospital. For some time after the establishment of the new Navy it was a questio n whether or not it would be advisable to station marines at the rapid-fire an d secondary batteries . and the First Marin e . Md . Battalion . consisting of 2 commissione d officers and 50 enlisted men. By the reports received after the battle of the 3d of July . was reestablished for the purpose of guarding these prisoners an d performing guard duty at the Academy .. were sent from Washington to the naval base. H. Norfolk. a number of men having been shot by desperate characters. 40 second lieutenant s were appointed from civil life and 3 from noncommissioned officers . when the Spanish fleet off Santiago was annihilated. under command of Second Lieut . Va . This act of May 4 also provided for a number of additional officers fo r service during the war. under command of Maj. K. White was detached from the marine battalion before it sailed for Cuba and placed in command . All the marines having been taken away from that station and sent to the front. a guard . and it ha s been demonstrated that a good marksman with the rifle is a good gunner. In accordance with the order of the Secretary of the Navy. a detachment . These officers were very much needed. and distributed among the auxiliary cruiser. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 09 enlistments were somewhat slow. for duty at that station . . as there were but 4 line officers on shore fo r service at all the Eastern posts. to be appointed from civil life. The newly appointed officers wer e hurriedly drilled and otherwise prepared for duty as rapidly as possible. Ke y West. consisting of 2 officers and 60 enlisted men. Capt. . and upon the cessation of hostilities enlistments were stopped . and do it well.. Davis. S . the various posts. many of the men are thoroughly drilled at the small guns befor e going on board ship . were sent to Annapolis. Fla . it was shown that the greatest damage on the enemy's vessels resulted from the fire of the secondary batterie s and the rapid-fire guns. W . and the reports of th e Spanish officers who were on board these ships. Admiral Cervera and the other officers captured in the battle of July 3 off Santiago not confined at Portsmouth. Henry C. Under the act. this fire being so effective that the enemy were driven . on account of th e lawlessness in Key West of vicious persons congregating there as a result of the war. . and included in the regulations orders to station them at the secondary batterie s and rapid-fire guns . I accordingly urged that the marines should be given a tria l at these guns. and from worth y noncommissioned officers of the Corps. furthermore.

. I a m informed. D . requiring them to perform duty day on and day off at man y of the posts. C . will be greater than can be met by the corps with it s present strength. As these appointment s are only temporary. and will leave none available for any additiona l ships which may be placed in commission or for any other duty which might b e required . which attracted publi c attention. state s concerning this arm : "The Lee straight-pull rifle has a few defects. As stated elsewhere in this report. growing out of the present war. If this is the case the Lee will be a very superio r military arm . which. indorsed very favorably by th e commanding officers of the vessels. . . and it is submitted that its enlisted strength should be increase d by at least 1. . have been corrected . and wa s promoted to the rank of sergeant by myself . The discipline and instruction of the Marine Corps have been maintained a t a high standard. I feel safe in asserting that the Department did not make a mistake when it directed that the small guns should be manned by marines . Although the corps has been restored to its statutory strength of 3. it seems certain that the demands which will probably be made upon it in th e near future for foreign service. 1 10 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R from their guns . The duty the officers are now performing at the posts of the corps require s an immediate increase of numbers. R . and informing him that the ship had been blown up and was sinking . . . was the conduct of Private William Anthony in performing the ver y letter of his duty as orderly on the occasion of the destruction of the battle ship Maine in Havana Harbor by going below to the captain's cabin. of the Maine. and the Secretary of the Navy." . I have received reports from many commanding officers of marine guards of ship s which took a prominent part in this action. irrespective o f danger. and I request that they be printed with this report . . who commanded the battalion. . . 1898. The marine battalion in Cuba was armed with the Lee straight-pul l 6-millimeter rifle .000 men . . an d their services have been of much value during the war . . 43 second lieutenants have bee n appointed under the authority contained in the act approved May 4. The letters mentioned are appended . . these officers will soon have to be mustered out. For his action on this occasion Private Anthony received commendatory letters fro m Capt. which wil l not leave enough officers to perform the required duties at the various posts an d on the ships now in commission. showing the stations and services of th e marines .073 men . As a great number of these guns on the ships engaged wer e manned by marines. and the mustering out of the temporar y officers at present in the service will make the duty on the regular officer s extremely rigorous. Huntington. One of the instances of discipline connected with the war. Col. and to this is attributed in a large measure the efficiency of th e services rendered by the marines in the war between the United States and Spain . W . and on account o f the growth of the Navy. Sigsbee. being limited by the act to the emergency under which the y were provided for. which should not be the case in any service .

. There are now 484 aliens in th e Corps. . The peace strength of the corps i s over 3. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 111 This bill provides the rank of brigadier-general for the commandant of the corps. It is further submitted that the Marine Corps. L.700 men . The same strict recruiting regulations in force last year have been continued this year. There is no service in the world. is entitled to have as its head a brigadier-general . as one of the coordinate militar y branches of the Government. . . 302 live in the United States but have not declared their intentio n to become citizens. and of these 179 have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States . The authorized strength of the Marine Corps is at this time 116 officer s and 4.898 men on duty at the various shore stations and 1. it was necessary to procure large quantitie s of clothing. The great number of men enlisted in a short period of time at the beginning of the war devolved upon the Quartermaster's Department the duty of procurin g material and manufacturing large quantities of clothing of all kinds. with the exception that the authorized minimum height of men enliste d for the war was reduced 1 inch. All of thi s work was performed in the most satisfactory manner.000 men. wher e a colonel has command of this number of men . . all the articles required arrived in ample time to be placed o n board the Panther before the battalion sailed . . By the energetic work of the quartermaster of the Corps . Very respectfully. When orders were received to assemble the battalion at New York. and the Department met al l the demands made upon it without any delay . and various other stores for the use of the battalion i n the tropics. It gives me pleasure to mention the fact that. which is an appropriate command for a brigadier-general . as well a s the procuring of other supplies of various sorts. and quartermaster have rendered all assistance possible in ever y emergency. adjutan t and inspector. at very short notice . CHARLES HEYWOOD . except the Marine Corps. the paymaster. F . Maj . the work having been at all times kept up to date . There are 1. . THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY . and the consequent large increase of work in al l departments. Colonel Commandant . without any addition in the clerical force. thus placing the commandant on an equality in this respect with th e corresponding rank held by the heads of departments in the Army and bureaus o f the Navy . and only 3 claim foreign residence . notwithstanding the great increase in the strength of the corps. it being almost double its strength at th e commencement of the war. . and the age limit increased to 35 years. and a n excellent class of men have been obtained . and have promptly and efficiently transacted all the business of thei r respective departments. . Denny. . and there were but four days in which to collect all the articles a t New York.678 on boar d ships in commission . equipments. many of which had to be obtained from manufacturers and dealers a t a considerable distance .

. on that date. harbor front. SIR : I THE COLONEL COMMANDANT UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS . 1 12 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R REPORT OF COMMANDING OFFICER FIRST MARINE BATTALIO N U . Montgomery. of the latest navy pattern . S . Headquarters.C. reporting on board soon after the Panther dropped anchor . have the honor to make the following report: Before leaving New York on the 22d instant the force placed under m y command was divided into five companies of infantry and one of artillery. HUNTINGTON . . At the request of the commanding officer of the ship. on the 26th instant. th e battery of artillery consisting of four 3-inch B .W. United States Marine Corps . S . Maj . . unde r convoy of the U . At 8 p . E. .m . and they have satisfactorily received and transmitted all signal s and messages . with the letter of th e company and each man's company number . R.m . Mahoney joined the battalion. Pope and First Lieut . one round being fired from each gun . docks. The battalion marched aboard the transport Panther at 6:15 p . S. L . each man firing ten rounds . each of the six companies was practically instructed i n loadings and firing at sea. on the 23d the ship anchored at Fort Monroe to await orders . Lieutenant-Colonel. The men of this command have been frequently and carefully instructed an d drilled to such an extent as the limited facilities of the ship would permit . C . The mechanism of the new rifle worked fairly well . P . and sailed for Fort Monroe at 7 :30 p. R. and the battery of artillery received similar practical instruction. and arrived at Key West at 11 a . At 8 :05 a . PANTHER. and shipping of Ne w York and Brooklyn.m. S .. six men were detaile d for signal duty. The accouterments have been marked in black. . April 30. Fla . 1898 . on the 26th instant this ship sailed from Fort Monroe. D. Key West. Very respectfully. and .m. Washington.m. Commanding First Battalion . the departure being marked b y intense enthusiasm in the navy-yard. on the 29th . J.

000 pounds. Key West. I respectfully repor t that the battalion under my command was sent ashore from the Panther on the 24th instant.000 rounds ) and one-half of the 3-inch ammunition (18 boxes).. This ammunition weighed about 14. We had permission to get out such stores as we could before 3 a . Camp Sampson. extended the time allowed to take stores out and get out of the ship until th e Amphitrite.m. 1898. This 6-millimeter ammunition was retained . and partially the extreme hurry i n getting out of the ship. and moved out t o the beach. Owing to my representations.m. Subsequently I received orders from Commander Reiter that the battalion would leave the ship at 4 :15 a . as the Panther has no 6-millimeter rifles .. Commander Reiter informed me. to serve as ballast. . Lieutenant Draper was present a part of the time when the matter of sendin g the battalion on shore was debated between Commodores Remey and Watso n and Commander Reiter. considerabl e t quantities of our property and part of the ten days' rations I requested were lef on board. the Panther having two 3-inch guns and we having four . The ship was put alongside about 9 :30 p . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 13 HEADQUARTERS. the order to this effect having been received about 5 :30 p. It was necessary to knock off work at 3 :45 a . and after we had been there some tim e the Panther came out of the harbor and apparently lay to in the offing about tw o and one-half hours. waiting for the Amphitrite.m .m. was due to the earnest solicitation and representations o f Commander Reiter . and wa s stowed aft. short 2 miles from the wharf.m. on the 23d instant. in order that the men might get ready to go ashore . FIRST BATTALION . commanding the base . but Commander Reiter retained one-half of the 3-inch . against my earnest plea. an d notwithstanding the fact that the men worked hard and worked fast. May 25. There was considerable delay in procuring the first lighter. SIR : In obedience to your telegram of the 25th instant. Commodore Remey modified this order so that we were able to take ou r 6-millimeter ammunition. Fla . I was ordered by Commander Reiter. and. should be ready to sail . to leave o n board the Panther one-half of our 6-millimeter ammunition (225.m. which the Panther was to tow. it having been loaded .m. and from his report of this conversation I am convince d that the order for the transfer of the battalion. Commodore Remey. this order being to land the battalion at 3 a . there was considerable more delay in getting the ship alongside the wharf . The battalion moved from the ship shortly after 4 :15 a . Owing to the short time allowed for the removal of the stores.

I have no objection to these details except that the men are necessaril y absent from their drill and from their places in squads and companies. Lieutentant-Colonel.m . Cooked meats have to be sent to these men. HEADQUARTERS FIRST MARINE BATTALION . Commanding Battalion THE COLONEL COMMANDANT. from 8 a. 1 14 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R The Saturn was available for the service assigned the Panther and has muc h greater towing power. The quartermaster has been compelled to hire a storehouse for the protectio n and preservation of the stores . Very respectfully. and a guard of 33 men an d an officer has been sent into Key West for the protection of public property a t the naval station. owing in part to the sun. two at a time. The battalion is now strung out in camp along the beach for over half a mile . About May 10 Commander Reiter attempted to get the battalion on shore . by order of the commandant of the base. the experience will be some value to the battalion . Guantanamo Bay. UNITED STATES MARINE CORP S Headquarters. The expense for transportation is also greater than I had estimated . HUNTINGTON . I think that. C. to 10 p . SIR : I have the honor to make the following report : The stores of thi s battalion were sent to the dock at Key West from Camp Sampson. R . The same reasons that I then urged against the transfer held good on the 23d instant .m . heat. the transportation of which i s paid by the Marine Corps . Washington. Six men are on duty. I addressed a letter (copy annexed) to th e commandant of the station against this transfer and the order was revoked . June 5 . and an order was issued to that effect . Cuba. United States Marine Corps . D. 1898 . and the sick list shows a decided increase this morning.m . In referring to this letter I find the expense for water is greater and for wood it i s less than I had estimated . and thei r military instruction at the present juncture is of great importance . and exposure . as orderlies for the commandant. June 17. and went on board the Panther. trouble. The battalion is established in camp. We broke camp at 2 a . on Sunday . notwithstanding the annoyance. on June 6. and expens ethis transfer has caused.W . this to continue daily . The usual routine of camp has been established. Major Pope going to Key West hospital . . and was fitted for towing until her steel towing hawse r was ripped out for the Panther. daily.

On the landing all houses and huts lately occupied by the Spanish force s were burned. but the best to be had at thi s point . About 2 a. a more combined attack was made.m . A detachment was sent out from camp to support the outpost. the blockhouse on top of the hill was burned . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 15 On June 7 at 7 :10 p . about 40 yards across. On the night of the 12th many persistent and trifling attacks were made. all of Company D. on the same day. and southwest. but their help was not needed . On the 12th we were joined by 60 insurgent troops. Sergt. i n reply to which we used a good deal of ammunition . McColgan and Dumphy. Henry Good was killed . On the afternoon of landing. was opened . of the 14th a rather smart fire wa s opened for a few moments on the camp and easily repelled . About 1 a. The men turned out each time under arms with promptitud e and courage . and we found only faint traces of the enemy . were killed. The hill occupied by us is a faulty position. The position is commanded by a mountain. Privates McGowan and Dalton.. and all the surrounding country is covered with thick an d almost impenetrable brush .. southeast. and a barricade made around the position. but when the position was vacated the day before our landing . and a trench was dug on the sout h front. On the 11th.200 yards to the rear . From the best information attainable about 160 men were engaged in this attack .. we sailed from Key West and arrived off Santiago d e Cuba on the morning of the 10th . H . About 20 Cuban s came from below the hill at this alarm.m. the space at the top is very small. about 5 p . United States Navy. eac h receiving more than eight wounds. at 2 p . were of the greatest assistance . On the morning of the 12th all tents and material were removed from th e position and taken on the bay side of the hill.m. About 8 a . On the morning of the 12th Sergeant C . This hill is about 150 feet high and on top was formerly occupied by th e Spanish troops. They opened fire . an attack was made upon one of the outposts an d two privates. Smith was killed and Corpora l Glass.. being acquainted with the country. the ridg e of which is about 1. . as I was informed that more troops were bein g assembled by the enemy in this immediate vicinity . These two men were patrols . fire was opened upon the camp and subdue d without loss or difficulty . about 8 a. After nightfall fire was opened upon our camp by small parties from different directions on fiv e different occasions . an d they. at 1 p . of Company D. we arrived in Guantanamo Bay . each of which would have caused death . The ridge slopes downward and to the rear from the bay . Company C wa s landed and deployed up the hill near the beach on the right of the entrance to th e harbor.m. the battalion landed with stores . and noisy fir e from south. During this attack Acting Assistant Surgeon John Blair Gibbs. tents were pitched and outposts established . and excellent woodsmen and fearless . On the 13th.m.m. were wounded--no t dangerously.m . was killed . Maj .m . whic h would enable us to hold it.

being obliged to make the firs t advance under fire. Lieutenant Ingate failed to find his way to Lieutenan t Mahoney. in terms of high praise .m. Dolphin . and at a distance of 1. with 50 men and 10 Cubans. exhausted by the long. skill. which. S. arriving too late to take a n active part in the affair . while descending the mountain. I ordered First Lieutenant Mahoney to be joined by First Lieutenant Ingate--these officers eac h having 50 men with them on picket--this combined force to proceed to Captai n Elliott's assistance . about 10 o r 12 of our men and 2 Cubans were overcome by the heat . under fire fo r twenty minutes without being able to return it. no t dangerously . Your attention is called to a report made by Captain Elliott. the conduct of First Lieutenants Lucas and Neville. the native troop s above mentioned.. . owing to the lay of the country. borrowed his field glass to pick up parties of the enemy. by whic h alone its success was achieved . makin g a total of a little short of 500 men . Lieutenant Nevill e wrenched his hip and will probably be unfit for service for a month . The engagement between these forces lasted from about 11 a . until 3 . and the gallantry and skil l displayed by him throughout this affair were essential to the great succes s attained by the expedition.000 yards often inflicted damage and caused withdrawal .. From information received from prisoners. with about 25 more from Guantanamo. and Second Lieutenant s Magill and Bannon . owing to the fact that his advance was stopped by the fire of th e U. this advance wa s intended to cut off the retreat of the Spaniards. The forces returned to camp at 8 p . Second Lieutenant Magill. From the best information I can gather. S . attached hereto . Our losses were 2 Cubans killed. all under the directio n of Colonel Tomas. but too much praise can not be awarded to the coolness.30 p.m . Cuban army. This affair was planned by the Cubans. they could not return . 2 wounded. said to be the only available water supply within 9 miles . which I believe to be reliable . 1 16 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R At 9 a . Captain Elliott's cool advance up a rocky. 14th. after the affair. and 1 lieutenant and 17 privates were captured . and 3 privates wounded. proceeded through the hills about 6 miles an d destroyed a well.m . hard march through this mountainous an d tropical country . joined Captai n Elliott. about 60 of the Spanish force were killed and something more than 15 0 wounded. Being apprehensive for the success of the movement. and are worthy of and I earnestly recommend that h e be advanced in rank one grade . climbing the mountain through cactus and brush . a force consisting of Companies C and D. which unfortunately failed of it s principal object. Captain Elliott reports that the men in many cases coolly estimate d distances. Our troops drove the enemy at every point. and Lieutenant Mahoney advanced alone. this force was opposed by fou r regular companies of Spanish infantry and two companies of guerrillas. steep mountain path. Captain Elliott mentions.m. and bravery of our officers and men.

If the marine position is commanded by a mountain ridge. McCALLA. HUNGTINGTON .] U . United States Marine Corps . W. with 40 marine s from the Oregon and 20 marines from the Marblehead. The expedition was suggested by Colonel La Horde. S . On the arrival of the Panther Captain Goodrell was sent on board to giv e Colonel Huntington the benefit of his observations . H . Respectfully referred to the commander in chief. and the Dolphin was sent to cover the sea front of our force . Referring to paragraph 4. [First indorsement . United States Marine Corps. who arrived shortly after he had completed this duty . R. The blockhouse referred to on page 2 was burned by the gun fire from th e Yankee on the 7th instant . He also stated that 5. and not in the marine camp . S . examined the localit y occupied by the marines. that mountai n ridge is commanded in turn by the ten 5-inch rapid-fire guns of the Marblehead. to be the only tenable position on the bay which could be successfull y held by a small force . Commander. Early on the morning of the 10th instant Captain Goodrell. I believe. of the Cuban army. at my suggestion . on the 17t h instant. Very respectfully. This report requires several corrections . MARBLEHEAD (THIRD RATE ) June 19. the position occupied by the marines ha s been pronounced by Major-General Perez. The behavior of the officers and men of the marine battalion generally ha s been most gallant. United States Navy. when the Marblehead took permanent possession of the bay on the 8th instant . and is in general worthy of all praise . mainly to the fact that the campaign hat s of the marines were on the Resolute. Commanding .C.000 Spaniards could not take it . . Lieutenant-Colonel. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 117 Very respectfully. page 2. Washington. B . Twenty-three marines overcome by the heat were brought back by th e Dolphin . This exhaustion was due. Commanding First Battalion . D . and of such other ships as may be here . The position referred to on the same page was not occupied again after a small Spanish force had been driven away. COLONEL COMMANDANT CHARLES HEYWOOD . The mistake of locating the camp between the main position and the outpos t was corrected on the 11th instant. 1898. Headquarters.

1898 . inclusive . Strong scouting parties. W . crossed to the west side of Guantanamo Bay in small boats for the purpose of cutting off a body of the enemy who had been annoying small boat s from the Marblehead in their search for mines. The right half o f this line has been drawn back to easier supporting distance . T. in addition to those sent out by the Cubans. S. SAMPSON . A heavy patrol was then sent to search the point. when we first landed . Respectfully referred to the Secretary of the Navy . Off Santiago De Cuba. under m y command. The graves of our dead have been appropriately marked with headstones an d a record placed in a bottle beneath the headstone in each case . Cuba. 1898 . Playa Del Este. Headquarters First Marine Battalion .. FLAGSHIP NEW YORK . Commander In Chief U . A landing was made and the troops disposed to cut off any retreat of the enemy on the point. North Atlantic Station . but it is being closely observed by scouting parties from this camp . Companies C and E and about 40 Cubans. July 31.m . This line of observation is about 800 yards to a mile from our position . but I have reduced these materially from the number which were kept on dut y from the 10th to the 30th of June. Sentries on each face of the fortified position occupied by us are maintained . June 20. Naval Force . The regular pickets have been maintained--15 men by day and a ful l company with all its officers by night . 118 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R [Second indorsement . but inasmuch as rations have been sent fro m here to the Spaniards in Caimanara it does not seem necessary to fill up the well .] U . although unmistakable signs showed that a force of 100 or 150 ha d occupied this point a day or two before . S . while th e Marblehead watched the isthmus leading from the mainland to our position . Rear-Admiral. During the past few days water has been reported in the well at Cuzco whic h was filled up by our force after the affair on the 14th ultimo. hav e been sent out frequently to examine the surrounding country for the enemy . at 3 a . On June 25. This force reembarked at 7 :30 a. as reported to yo u in my communication of June 17. One-half of this line--the left--is the same a s that established on the 10th day of June.m. SIR : I have the honor to make the following report : After the action of Jun e 14 the enemy retreated farther up country and has never since annoyed us . and returned to the camp . but none of the enemy were found. .

H. Commanding Battalion. bound for the Isle of Pines. a captured tug drawing 4 feet. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 9 The strength of the battalion at this date is 515 . Goodrich. F. to his force . Resolute. I had no information as to whether there was a hostile force in any part of the island . and on the 9th instant sailed. the battalion remained in camp at Playa del Este . under convoy of the U . N. Of this number 23 ar e commissioned and 482 enlisted . THE COLONEL COMMANDANT UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS . Headquarters. Very respectfully. leaves 484 available . My application was very positively and somewhat contemptuously denied . Washington. I asked i f there was any military information available for my use there. giving the details of his action under this resolve . HUNTINGTON . 1898 . R. S . sailed for Play a del Este. 6 or 7 feet. Newark. Osceola. C. the Hist. W . with the battalion on board. July 31. S. Marine Corps. as the Suwanee drew 8-1/2. and I was told by him that the Suwanee could go anywhere. deducting 21 sick. Information received off Cape Cruz by Captain Goodrich induced him t o resolve to demand the surrender of Manzanillo . and Wompatuek all drew more water than this . D . who was i n command. Your attention is invited to the reduction in the strength of the battalion a s shown by the muster rolls forwarded herewith. but the Newark drew 21 feet and the Resolute 18-1/2. Navy-Yard.C. up t o August 5. The available draft of water at the principal port was. SIR : I respectfully report that from the date of my last report. I suggested to Capt . and was the lightest draft of any vessel in the expedition. On the 14th instant the Resolute.. Portsmouth. as she drew 8 feet . the great desirability of the addition of the Maniti. HEADQUARTERS FIRST MARINE BATTALION . Lieutenant-Colonel. . and was told b y him that there was a paper of which a copy should be sent to me . S . On the latter date we embarked on board the U . In an interview with the commander in chief before our departure.S. U. S . I append herewith a copy of a report of Captain Goodrich. August 26. By the chart 18 feet could be carried just into the Bay of Seguranca. This paper proved to contain certain general information relative to th e island and the approaches to it . according to the abov e mentioned paper. and by his direction and in his name applied to th e chief of staff of the fleet for her. Two fathoms are marked on th e chart several miles--8 or 10--from shore in the bay .

where the battalion disembarked . at short ranges . and not offering enough resistance to dews . the color after washing being nearly as distinct as white at night. and thi s kind of headgear is unsuitable for a very hot climate. would during the last month of our stay there have yielded easily to any disease . Notwithstanding this the battalion disembarked at Play del Este in goo d condition. The gradual deterioration of the battalion was. I doubt not . having disembarked the detachment belonging t o the Army proceeded to this place.--Those of the new issue. and during our stay there the sick list was at no time large . The men seemed to have no reserve supply of strength. 120 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR On the 18th instant the Resolute. The men seemed willing to work.--The battalion at Playa del Este was subjected to frequent inconvenience and discomfort owing to lack of fresh water .--The material is not suitable. however. I have also to recommend that canister be issued with the 3-inch navy rifle . After the Resolute had gotten under way for Manzanillo I received a telegraphic order from you to make recommendations for brevets of officers wh o were deserving of that honor . and the cut is not desirable . and durin g this time--just previous to our departure for Cuba--diarrhea was very prevalent . have proven very satisfactory . the Lee will be a very superior military arm. and i t should have more and larger pockets. after hard wear.--These should be cut longer and. having taken on board certain officers an d men of the United States artillery. The coat is too tight in the chest and back. however. and i t was very difficult to explode this projectile.--The material of which they are made is very poor.These have given entire satisfaction .--I respectfully recommend that the color of these belts b e changed to that of the leggings or to conform to the color that may be selecte d for campaign suits . in my opinion. The camping ground in Key West is bad and the water is bad . and. Campaign suits. The Lee straight-pull rifle has a few defects which. a great boon to officers and men during the scorching days. as it is heavy and warm . Underclothting. These suits were. . From May 24 to June 7 the battalion was in camp at Key West. If this is the case. and fitted with rawhide laces . Leggings . at which place sh e arrived on the 23d instant. I have been informed. Shoes . Buzzicott cookers . with any certainty. and. This report completes the history of the service for which the battalion wa s collected . have been corrected . Campaign hats . Cartridge belts . The only ammunition issued to the battalion for these pieces was shrapnel. should be boun d with leather. clearly marked . Water .-. but tasks that were comparatively easy at first became hard .--The so-called light-weight underclothes would be muc h better if they were lighter in weight . sailed for Montauk Point.

and 13. While under my command he has shown no tendency to commit the fault fo r which he was tried . M . 12. and on the 14th for gallant conduct in ou r attack on the Spaniards. and 13th of June. and 13 . a great part of the time. L . S. He has never seemed to consider his own ease in compariso n with the service. I have nothing but praise to award Capt . Neville. 12. 12. McKelvy for gallant conduct on June 11. C . I recommend that he be no w advanced two numbers. Lieutenant Mahoney's coolness unde r fire and the excellent example he set for his men were conspicuous . A. C. He acted often on those days as aid . and. On the 11th. George F. in th e various attacks upon our position. K. From regarding it as the worst company in the battalion I came to look upon it a s among the best. and this means a great deal when the climate of Cuba i s considered . Kelton. C . its efficiency increased remarkably . and I most heartil y recommend that he be brevetted captain for his services on those days . 12th. Long. for th e manner in which his duties have been performed. also First Lieuts . C. so as to be placed in his original position upon the list . has been untiring in assisting me . From the time of the organization of the battalion to the present Lieutenan t Draper. which resulted in their utter discomfiture . and Second Lieuts . as set forth in my report of June 17. James E . G. 1898. 12. and his deportment was becoming to a soldier . Lieutenant Mahoney's prompt and soldierly action. L . in reference to Capt . deeming it for the best interests of the Government tha t he should receive promotion as soon as possible. often under very tryin g circumstances . J. J. and as such entitled to succeed t o this vacancy. On June 11. and owing to him. White at Key West . A. although Lieutenant Mahone y was not the senior lieutenant of the battalion. Lucas and W . McCawley. M . A . First Lieut . the adjutant of the battalion. First Lieuts . C. with me. Elliott . Shaw. and also that he be brevetted captain . L . viz : Capt . it was formed fro m recruits and from men who had been rejected for Company C. His dutie s have been performed with zeal and discretion . Mahoney succeeded to the command of Company E b y the detachment of Capt . This company was the last formed of the battalion . N . M . is deserving of high praise . the fact that I had received information from you that Captai n Goodrell had been ordered to the battalion and my unwillingness to sever th e association already formed between company officers and men led me t o continue him in command of Company E . During the various attacks on our position on June 11. Bannon for gallant conduct on June 11. I also recommend that the following-named officers receive brevets of th e next higher grade. and 13 hi s conduct was marked by imperturbable coolness and courage. and W . . I recommend that he be brevetted to the grade of major for gallant conduct . and P . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 12 1 In obedience to that order I have the honor to renew the recommendation made in my letter of June 17. H . Q . Magill. and 13 he was. McLemore. and unde r Lieutenant Mahoney.

and 50 Cubans under command of Lieut . an d the existence of which made possible the continuance of the annoying attack s upon our force in camp here . L . at a distance of 800 yards . whose headquarters were in a house at Cuzco . C and D companies occupied one-half of this horseshoe ridge . while Second Lieut . J . R . SIR : I have the honor to submit the following report : In accordance with your verbal directions. William F . hoping to cut off the enemy's pickets . Magill. Spicer. but wer e fired on heavily by the enemy from the valley.N . for zealous and faithful performance of his dutie s under fire on June 11. which was the only water supply of the enemy within 12 miles of this place. Commanding First Battalion . Eugene Tomas. Cuba. 12. came into the fight at 11 :15 . Very respectfully.W . and 13 . D . with 3 2 men of his platoon and the remaining Cubans. HUNTINGTON . with one platoon (50 men) of A company . two-thirds encircling Cuzco Valley and th e well . United States Marine Corps .S. which retreated immediately and gave th e alarm to the main body. 1898 . Two miles and a half from Cuzco half the Cubans and the first platoon of C Company. June 15.. and our force wa s discovered by the Spanish outpost. Col . The crest of the hill was in the shape of a horseshoe. about 6 miles from this camp . John M . CAMP MCCALLA . leaving the narro w path. In this we failed. Washington. A high mountain separated the two forces at this point. UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS . with an aggregate of 160 men . Lieutenant Lucas. Edgar. Thi s fire was replied to by the Cubans of the main body . commanded respectively by Firs t Lieut. Lucas and Capt . L . Lieutenant-Colonel. U . passed over a mountain on ou r left. yesterda y with two companies of the battalion. Just i n rear of this platoon and following in single file was D company . The Cubans. and making their way through the cacti . Headquarters. C and D. which was the only road. In this we were successful. but without command . The other nine men of his platoon becoming exhausted were obliged to return t o Camp McCalla . was also present. My orders were to destroy the well at Cuzco. 122 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R I also recommend to the most favorable consideration of the Department Surg . Guantanamo Bay. out of fire from the enemy. I left camp at 9 a . came up from the valley on the opposite side. and each attempte d to gain its crest as a point of advantage .C. Colone l Laborde. Cuban Army. E. under Lieutenant Lucas's command. THE COLONEL COMMANDANT. Lieutenant Bannon conducted the second platoon of C compan y just below the crest of the hill.m. where he had been stationed as an . C .

The fight. consulting with eac h other and their officers as to the range . For fifteen minutes we were marching under a heavy fire. U . an d believing his force necessary to our assistance. The enemy began a straggling retreat at 2 p . Neville . W. and we were thus enabled to gain targets at which to fire. havin g mistaken the valley intended. The two platoons of Company C . the U . which had bee n heretofore impossible owing to the dense chaparral in which the enemy sough t successful cover .m . which he handled with entire satisfaction .m. which had been sent along the coast t o cooperate with us if possible. . whic h was well taken advantage of. having been attracted by the heavy fire. but she was so far to the front.S. driving him to the reverse side of the ridge . they would break from cover to cover . Forty men left the crest of the hill a t 3 . was now drawing to a close. Having reduced the enemy's fire to straggling shots. that her fire was in Lieutenant Magill's direction . to which no reply was made. and Boniface. M. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 12 3 outpost from Camp McCalla.m . Canteens were taken from the men still holdin g the crest and filled with water required by signal from the Dolphin . S . Many of the men fired as coolly as at target practice.15 p . this shell fire started the enemy from his hiding places. The fire of the force under my command was at all times deliberate an d aimed. J .. Shaw in command of D Company .. Signal was made to the Dolphin to cease firing. being over a t 3 p . By the use o f glasses and careful search by the men. getting out of the valley as best they could. and occupied the left center o f this horseshoe ridge . commanding the first platoon..m . However. Lieutenant Neville injured his hip and ankle in catching his foot and falling down the mountain side after the fight wa s over . and Lieutenant Magill wa s directed to form skirmish line and move down the valley in front of him towar d the sea. individuals were discovered here an d there. First Lieut. This was defeated by renewed shell fire from the Dolphin . C . Bannon. Among these were Privates Carter. commanding D Company. did his best with the men in front of him . fire being opened upon them. W . which began at 11 a . This movemen t of the enemy gave Lieutenant Magill an opportunity to get in a cross fire. to gain this position . under First Lieutenant Lucas and Second Lieut . was overcome by the sun on the top of the hil l and had to be sent on board the Dolphin . under Lieutenant Lucas and destroyed the well and burned the hous e lately occupied by the enemy . sights being adjusted and volleys were fired when sufficiently larg e bodies of the enemy could be seen to justify it . Dolphin . Lyon. and. These accidents left Second Lieut . S.N . Faulkner. were handle d with the best of judgment . all of whom did noticeable execution . Captai n Spicer. D Company overcrowded on the firing line and me n needlessly exposed themselves by standing in groups . whic h gave the other companies the opportunity to fire on them on the move . As soon as he saw our position he sent one of his me n around the ridge to report to me . P . M . was signaled to shell the house used as th e enemy's headquarters and also the valley. Commander H .

Tw o Cubans were wounded during the fight on the hill. the Cubans' belts bein g filled during the action from the belts of the marines. which was about 500 men. 124 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R The marines fired on an average about 60 shots each. among whom were 2 officers. Had he been an hour and a half sooner. 60 of the enemy. United States Marine Corps . Before closing I desire to commend Lieutenant Magill's goo d judgment in coming up and the excellent manner in which he handled his men . wa s unable to report to me until 4 p . W . Quick was obliged to stand on the open ridge under fire t o signal the Dolphin. From the best information since obtained. sir. The loss to our force was 1 private of D Company wounded slightly. which had been sent to u s from an outpost near Camp McCalla when the heavy firing was heard there. Captain. The wounded were numerous. woul d have been captured . and 1 0 or 12 overcome by heat . Guantanamo. G. F. your obedient servant. at which distance all the explosive effect of the bullets are lost . James E .m. but killed 5 of the enemy . Lieutenant Magill also captured a complete heliograph outfit and destroye d the signal station . These latter were kindly taken on board the Dolphin an d cared for. one being accidentally sho t by Colonel Laborde by a pistol . including 1 lieutenant. which he did with the utmost coolness. This ship rendered every possible assistance to the expedition . This had been used ever since our arrival here and could b e seen at all times . While destroying the well the Cubans were placed up the valley from whic h the enemy retreated and began a noisy and hot fight with guerrillas who had no t been dislodged . Col .000 yards.m. Lieut . HEADQUARTERS FIRST MARINE BATTALION . I am satisfied that the entire force of the enemy. using his rifle with equal judgment while not thus engaged . were captured . ELIOT . very respectfully. owing to the range of 600 o r 1. Commanding C Company. Camp McCalla. R . In this fight the Cubans lost 2 killed and 2 wounded. Cuba .. about 30 Mauser rifle s and a quantity of ammunition . Guantanamo Bay. 1898 . were killed . . under the command of First Lieut . but the wounds were probably light. Cuba. My only regret is that E Company. June 18. Commanding First Battalion of Marines . The march home began at 5 :30 p . which is believed to be reliable .m. John H . camp being reached at 8 p . Mahoney. Sergt. HUNTINGTON . Eighteen prisoners. I have the honor to be. each having to furnish 6 clips or 30 cartridges . This delay was not due to any lack of zeal on his part .

Cuba. U. United States Marine Corps. and I can not say too much in praise o f the officers and men who took part in it . As the day was well advanced. In this vicinity the Spaniards. H UNTINGTON. MCCALLA. June 16. Stephen Crane would be allowed to accompany the expedition. to the different company commanders . The expedition was most successful. etc . In addition.. One portion of the command advanced by the cliffs so far as the well an d blockhouse. 4 of whom were Cubans . Commanding Battalion . 1898 .P. Lieut. H . supported by the Dolphin . We suffered a loss of 2 Cuban soldiers killed . and I fear that many were left on the fiel d uncared for . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 125 SIR: I desire to make the following supplementary report : Upon leaving camp you asked me if I wanted an adjutant . C OMMANDER. sustaining a loss of between 40 and 60 killed and 1 officer and 17 soldiers captured. The other portion diverged from the coast line and advanced up the valley t o the southeast. Very respectfully. but having been notified that a Mr . [First indorsement ] U. . 88. G. I declined to take one. F. S . Respectfully forwarded to the commander in chief .C. at the suggestio n of Colonel Laborde. numbering about 300. MARBLEHEAD. R . 23 marines were prostrated by the heat and. MARBLEHEAD. were encountered and driven from their position.M. U. B.S . carrying messages to fire volleys. supported by two companies of marines under the command of Captain Spicer and Lieutenant Elliott. ELLIOTT. the two forces eventually uniting on the sides of the mountain i n the vicinity of the blockhouse and well .S. 1898 . SIR : I have the honor to inform you that on the 14th instant. Col. S . which I referred to in my No .W. the Cubans under the command of himself an d Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas.S . Captain. He accepted the duty and was of material ai d during the action. with the . Commanding C . (THIRD RATE) Guantanamo. 6 wounded. O. . the command being short of officers for duty . it was not possible for our force to make a search for the Spanish wounded. I requested him to act a s an aid if one should be needed . June 19. routed the force of about 30 0 Spaniards stationed in the pass between the marine camp and the south coast . S.

were transferred to the Dolphin. 1898. shown in so many ways.. Navy-Yard. Captain Elliott asked me wh o commanded the projected expedition to Cuzco . Elliott. CAMP HEYWOOD. Laborde. I told him that he was not unde r the command of the Cuban colonel. Huntington . F. . Portsmouth. United States Navy. The COMMANDER IN CHIEF North Atlantic Station . SEAVEY ISLAND . The COLONEL COMMANDANT . and if Laborde saw fit to issue orders he would obey them only if th e movement approved itself to his judgment . I believe. Colonel Commanding First Marine Battalion. SIR : I inclose herewith a letter to myself from Capt . . K. Cuba. I have cause to believe that Laborde' s authority was not recognized by the officer in command of the Cubans ." is a list of the Spanish soldiers captured . . H . marked "A. HEADQUARTERS FIRST MARINE BATTALION . on the south coast. McCalla. The well and blockhouse referred to. Upon the morning of June 14. were destroyed an d a set of heliograph instruments taken . N.W. C. is Francisco Batista. "Viv a Cuba Libre . G . The second lieutenant. UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS . June 14. 126 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R wounded." Inclosed. M . The object of the movement was for the purpose of relieving the pressure o n the marine camp by an offensive movement and it was. Commander. by stating that the last words o f the Cuban who was shot through the heart and buried on the field were. I need hardly call attention to the fact that the marines would have suffere d much less had their campaign hats not been on the Resolute . Commanding . also captured. 1898. S. relating to errors in the report of Commander B . The marines who were prostrated by the heat were nearly all able to return t o their camp early in the evening . R. of Guantanam o City . about the fight at Cuzco. which letter I ask to b e filed with the report referred to . Very respectfully. from which ship the force was als o supplied with ammunition during the engagement . United States Navy. Very respectfully. I desire to call particular attention to the devotion of the Cubans to the caus e of freeing their island. U . but that he would consult wit h him. September 19. 1898. entirel y successful .

made to you and forwarde d to him for his information. McCalla. 1898 . and it is no w known that the force was a little larger. This word "support. W. he had many opportunities to call m y attention to the facts at the time. Captain McCalla states in his report as follows : "Cubans under the command of himself (Colonel Laborde) and o f Lieutenant Colonel Tomas. United States Marine Corps . " The facts are these : Two companies of marines formed a battalion under m y command. but that I was not under the command of either of the insurgen t commanders. June 14. United States Navy. I believe Captain McCalla's report was made from the statements receive d from Colonel Laborde. As this report will be filed for general publication with other archives o f Government relating to the Spanish war. is a military misnomer. routed a force of 30 0 Spaniards . incorrect. I left with the understandin g that I was to act with the Cubans so far as in my judgment it was for the good o f the expedition. H . 1898 .. B . but he left me for months believing it accepte d unquestioned while controverting it in his own . L. SEAVEY ISLAND . My command was not a supporting body for the Cubans. b y Captain Spicer and First Lieut . Commanding First Battalion of Marines . September 16." as used. C. ELLIOTT Captain. United States Marine Corps. Kittery. and if he had believed mine. and the companies were commanded. Lucas. CAMP HEYWOOD. HUNTINGTON . Very respectfully. as stated by Captain McCalla . for the marine s numbered 225 and the Cubans 50 in the fight. Me . SIR: I Col R. . F . respectfully call your attention to the errors in the official report o f Capt. after conversation with you on the subject. and before leavin g camp. supported by two companies of marines under th e command of Captain Spicer and Lieutenant Elliott. G. and not 300. My report states that there were 500 of the enemy engaged. nea r Guantanamo Bay. in regard to the military status take n by the battalion of marines under my command at the Cuzco fight. it should be correct . and although the latter were brav e enough. their quality as efficient fighting men was on a par with that of th e enemy. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 127 HEADQUARTERS FIRST BATTALION OF MARINES . as stated in my report.

9. 12. 11. First Marine Battalion Headquarter s Dumphy/McColgan Monument The Crossroad s The Old Stone Fort Hill 35 0 Hill 40 0 Elliott's Position 14 June 189 8 Quick Signaling Position 14 June 189 8 Lieutenant Lucas' Starting Poin t Lucas' Position when he rejoins Elliott 14 June 189 8 Spanish Main Battle Position Spanish Command Post on Cuzco Beac h Lieutenant Ingate's Objective (never reached ) Lieutenant Magill's Route Spanish Signal Station overrun by Lieutenant Magil l Hill fired upon by the Dolphin '*Map taken from sketch map and locations provided by Colonel Robert R. 6. 128 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R MARINE BATTALION AT GUANTANAM O Legend 1. 10. NOTE : 1898 locations are overlaid on present-day map of Guantanamo. 5. 15. 4. 7. 2. 8. USM C (Ret) . 16. Hull. 13. 14. . 3.

a 2 company task forc e supported by a Cuban Army detachment attacked the main Spanish position a t Cuzco Well causing the Spanish to retreat in the direction of Guantanamo City . Huntington USMC landed at Fisherman's Point. the Spanish ceased to be a bother to the First Marine Battalion . Hull USMC (Ret ) To: Distribution Subj : June 10-15 Research Trip to Guantanamo Bay. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 12 9 Published with the permission of the author . The Marines held the positio n but not without sustaining casualties . From that day. Significant terrain features and related areas of interest were identified by grid coordinates using a current military map (Re f B).During the period 10-15 June 1997. On 14 June. R . 199 7 From : Colonel Robert R . and using a metal detector . Guantanamo Bay. Spanish force s launched numerous attacks against the Marines . including the Battle of Cuzco Well . USMC (Retired) 16 June. efforts concentrated on discovering and/or verifying locations associated wit h the exploits of the First Marine Battalion . the team developed a conjectural reconstruction of key events . With the 1898 participant's accounts for guidance. the First Marine Battalion (Huntington' s Battalion). Based on this. HULL Field Notes 11-14 JUN 199 7 Summary Historical . R . Artifacts discovered in situ plus the contemporary narrative accounts aided the research team findings . Cuba . Cuzco Hills and adjacent terrain features . commanded by Lt . providing a correlation with the eyewitness accounts of 1898 . Hull. W . Report o f Ref: (a) (b) (c) (d) COMNAVBASE GUANTANAMO BAY 190520Z MAY9 7 Map Sheet GUANTANAMO BAY 1 :25000 Series 824S SECNAV/CMC Annual Report FY 189 8 R. . These efforts . From 11-13 June. Research Trip to Guantanamo Ba y by Colonel Robert R . Col . including a description of the artifacts. Cuba and established a camp on th e plateau area now called McCalla Field .On 10 June 1898. Areas of concentration include d McCalla Field. field research wa s conducted in the area occupied and fought over by the First Marine Battalion . Research Trip . and the team's findings and conjectur e are discussed in detail .

Col . Accordingly . newspaper clippings and other unpublishe d official amounts . . The purpose of the trip was to conduct field research of the Guantanamo Bay area in which the First Marine Battalion (Huntington's Battalion). Backgroun d In accordance with the area clearance granted by ref (a). Col . Hull USMC visited the Guantanam o Bay command during the period 10-13 June (for Maj . Th e two most important items were the contemporary reports by Lt . most of the field research time was spent in the Cuzco Hills area including th e hills overlooking Cuzco Beach and the Cuzco Beach area itself . sketches. provided a reasonably clear and surprisingly detailed overview of the Battalion's operations . Hull) and 10-15 June (for the undersigned) . and other locations significant to the Battalion's operations .W. Maj . located in various archive s are numerous other items relating to the Battalion's operations . th e discovery of war material in situ would assist in developing a conjectura l reconstruction . commande d by Lt . These officer' s reports have become the basis for most published accounts found as eithe r articles or as included in general histories . Narrative descriptions of this action were available an d the general area was known . A notable exception to the documentation were contemporary maps or sketches of th e Cuzco Well battle area . photos. A Team Approach . particularly in the vicinity of the camp established at McCalla Field . Huntington and Capt . F. had been assembled and consulted prior to the research trip . particularly in the Cuzco Hills area . th e latter being known as the Battle of Cuzco Well . Norfolk and with the concurrence of C O MARINE BARRACKS GD/SF Guantanamo Bay. letters. . However. 1 30 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 1. These include diaries. Michael P . Elliott contained as enclosures to the Commandant' s Annual Report to the Secretary of the Navy in 1898 (Ref C) . 2. R. Huntington USMC. where most of the Battalion' s casualties were incurred was visited on several occasions by the research team . A significant body of documentary evidence . operated during the Spanish-America n War . the main battle positions of both the Marines and the Spanish a t Cuzco. the routes t o the Cuzco area. . insofar as possible. The use of a metal detector was envisioned as an aid i n discovering such items. the undersigne d accompanied by his son. was no t neglected by the field research . The Battalion's initial base at Fisherman's Point. both published an d unpublished. . Cuba. The field research concept included traversing the ground where the Firs t Marine Battalion ("the Battalion") maintained its base of operations and further to critically examine the terrain associated with the battle of the campaign. It remained to walk the ground in an effort t o determine with some specificity the respective battle positions . Analysis of this material. although greatly altered since 1898. This area. Ideally. facilitated b y CGMARFORLANT Liaison Element. A prime objective of the research was. to locate the Battalion's outposts. G . prior to the conduct of the research trip.

A . wel l maintained park site upon which sits a large monument dedicated to the Firs t Marine Battalion . these coordinates can be used b y future researchers as a common base of data concerning the activities of the Firs t Battalion from 10-14 June. a physical inspection of the area. Findings and Conjectural Reconstructions . Hull USMC. 3. Using this report and the existing documentation should permit the development of a reasonably accurate reconstruction of certai n key events during this period . The report is not intended to be a definitive account of the Battalion's operations . Particularly noteworthy was Ssgt . Phase I--First Marine Battalion Base Camp encompassing area fro m Fisherman's Point to and including McCalla Field (inactive ) (1) First Marine Battalion Headquarters and Base of Supplie s McCalla Field and the surrounding plateau area was the site of th e Battalion's Headquarters and its "base of supplies" . the ke y locations discussed below have been assigned grid coordinates based on th e current military map (Ref B) . It has been drastically altere d by the construction of buildings. Whitten's dedication to the effort . and Ssgt . These phases coincide generally with the sequence with which the fiel d research was conducted . Minefield Maintenance Section M B Guantanamo . Capt . include conjectural descriptions based [on] an analysi s of extant documentation. P . . there is a small. and in the case of th e Cuzco Well battle. Rather it is presented to supplement and amplify the existing body of knowledge surrounding the Battalion ' s exploits during the period 10-14 June. 1898 . . 1898 . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 13 1 The findings below. The report's findings and conjectural reconstructions are presented below b y phases . The . At the extreme northern end of this area. . Whitten. 4. Operations Officer MB Guantanamo. A highly motivated Marine. Considerable quantities of earth were removed in the process which has also had an effect on the 189 8 terrain contours . Michael P. he wa s primarily responsible for the location of numerous artifacts in the Cuzco Hill s area whose discovery provided convincing proof to the events which occurre d there on 14 June. The enthusiasm and professionalism of these active duty Marines contributed materially to the findings in this report . Assuming the accuracy of the grid coordinate s with relation to the 1898 activities described. W . In order to aid this reconstruction. Immediately adjacent to the monument is a tall flagpole . analysis of material located by a metal detector . Asst . Report Style . and an airfield . 1898 . roads. Tom Riordan USMC. In addition to the undersigned. the research team consisted of Maj .

At approximately 1700 on 11 June they were killed by the Spanish at their post. and to the rear of this line of sentinels was positioned a small support force . lies a now obscured terrain feature. 1 32 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R grade at this location appears to be original and undisturbed . (2) Memorial to Privates Dumphy and McColga n In a flat valley floor. and adjacent to a dirt road running between two stee p ridges is a small white memorial marking the site where Privates Dumphy and McColgan. As such. The "base of supplies" was placed in charge of the Battalion's next senior officer. . On 12 June. It is probable that Dumphy/McColgan was only one o f several posts established on a line in the small valley . 1898. Cochrane . launched later that night . Concurrently. sketches and photograph s depicting the Battalion's headquarters . they marked the Battalion' s front line . C. the tent camp was dismantled . havin g landed at Fisherman's Point from the USS Panther. The main power station now covers the beach area where the "base of supplies" wa s located . that in 1898 was known a s the "crossroads . on a direct line . Co . conforms to the descriptions. Sgt . In its place. coordinates 832021. a "base of supplies" was established on the beach just below the fortified position . The monument's current location was subject t o evaluation by the research team to determine the plausibility that its curren t location did in fact occupy the exact position where the two Marines were killed . the support) . This location. The conjectural site of the Battalion's initial tent camp is in the vicinity of a rectangular multi-storied office building (unoccupied) and the nearby WWII er a multi-storied square sided concrete blockhouse (disused) . ("Vedettes. The monument is located at coordinates 833010 . Smith. This doctrine prescribed the use of sentine l posts on a line covering the outermost approaches to a main position . The two Marines. From the memorial to the Battalion Headquarters measures approximatel y 1100 yards. following the firs t Spanish attack on the camp the previous night. both from D . About 300 yards south o f the monument. the Battalion. In a position of support. The Spanish fire alerted the Battalion to an impending attack . were killed in action . On June 10." term used to describe the sentinels . Co ." (See (3) below) . Later that night (12th) somewhere between th e memorial and the "crossroads". Maj . it was rectangular in shape an d measured approximately 25 by 125 yards . This evaluation considered primarily the surrounding terrain as well as referenc e to 19th century infantry doctrine . the Battalion constructed a fortified position approximately 40 yard s square with the north side resting close to the edge of the hill . also of D. Oriented in a north-south direction. was killed in action . and connected by a path to the hilltop position . H . The beach area of 1898 is now completely covered by concrete an d industrial type structures and also serves as the site of the current ferry landing . established a tent camp i n this vicinity . were manning a sentinel post as part of the forward outpost tha t screened the Battalion's main position . at the tim e of their deaths. "Cossac k Post".

then between two ridg e lines where it veers to the southeast (site of Dumphy/McColgan memorial ) through a saddle. and apparently unaware of the advancing Spanish. headed west . that the two Marines were part of a larger outpos t with the center of their support located at the "crossroads" then their positio n (the monument) would be consistent with 19th [century] existing doctrine . the route would conform closely to the trai l outlined on the early 1900s map . However. An early 1900s map shows a trail running from the vicinity of the curren t flagpole at McCalla Field. part of this trail is now Sherman Road . i . if the road instead of veering continues in a straigh t line to intersect with Sherman Road. then down the valley terminating at Cuzco Beach . trace the western leg of McCalla Road from th e flagpole south . The number of rounds each Marin e received (21 in one and 15 in the other) led to early reports that the Spanish ha d mutilated them . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 33 The monument sits just next to an existing dirt road that begins near th e current Sherman Road . Surprised while eating their evening mea l of hardtack.e . it becomes apparent that the memorial lies astride the 1898 trai l from Cuzco Well to Fisherman's Point . the road veers toward the southeast . Further. Dumphy and McColgan were two lone Marines on sentry duty wit h no support to back them up. this was the main Spanish route between Cuzco Beach and Fisherman's Point i n 1898 . then south around the base of the hill toward the lighthouse at Windward Point . On the afternoon of 11 June. Both from a map study of the road's trace. south across Sherman Road. Dumphy and McColgan were directly in the path of the lead elements of the 3r d (Principe) Spanish Infantry Regiment. the monument would appear to be in the wron g place . On the current map. Clearly. the route. Given the importance of the "crossroads " position (it was a major outpost occupied b y at least one platoon later that night as well as on the 13th and 14th) then the sit e of the monument appears to represent the approximate exact location of the two Marines when they were killed . The other trail that defined the "crossroads" was a trail which started at water's edge in the basin to the east of McCalla Field. it appears that the "crossroads" is located at . Given the importance given to the "crossroads". (3) The "Crossroads" The "crossroads" appears in several contemporary narrative accounts . Extant sketch maps of the area also depict a confluence of trails labeled "crossroads" . it seemed important t o discover its approximate 1898 position . After reviewing the earlier map and afte r a detailed walk over the area. It veers to the southwest to avoid the old short east-west runway of McCalla Field . Pvts . the two Marine s were shot numerous times by the Spanish . and by viewing the site from the cres t of nearby hills. If Pvts . A terrain analysis confirms the importance of the path through the valley . Assuming however. once across Sherman Roa d would neatly connect with the current dirt road where the Dumphy/McColga n monument sits . Near the monument.

Lt . His body wa s recovered the next day by a ship's boat . he led his group in a charge against the building driving out the Spanish . In addition to the deaths of Dumphy an d McColgan at their post just south of the "crossroads". That night. Stephen Crane noted that they had passed th e Spanish stone fort . This places the "crossroads" approximately 700-800 yard s south of the Battalion Headquarters . 13 4 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R coordinates 831012 . had t o pass through the "crossroads" on his way to reinforce Capt . the Battalion's position was attacked several time s from a number of directions . Neville's platoon was operating in the plateau area (McCalla Field) southwest of the Battalion's position. Along this route. Huntington as a critica l piece of terrain . Taubman fell from the cliffs to the rocks below and was killed . Shaw stationed to the southwest of this location . on that same day. Sgt. where they remained until daylight . he had Lt . At dawn the next day the combined force returned to the Battalion Headquarters having been away from the main body for over 12 hours . During the preparations for the attack one Marine. On the 14th. Shaw cam e under attack. Shaw's platoon initially operated southwest o f the "crossroads" and later joined forces with Lt . the team worked along the existing roads unti l coming upon two concrete batteries erected in 1906 as coast artillery . was killed late on the night of the 11th in this vicinity. Co. he came under fire from a group o f Spaniards located near the remains of an old stone building . Smith D . Elliott's force i n battle with the Spanish at Cuzco . On the night of 12 June. Neville at the "Crossroads " position. Elliott's route to Cuzco followed the cliff trail toward s Windward Point . Neville stationed here and Lt . Lt. The actions on 11 June are discussed above in (3) where Lt . At some point in time. withdrew to the "crossroads" where he joined Neville 's platoon. The 11 June night attack on th e Battalion's main position came from a southwest direction . Like the dirt path near wher e Dumphy/McColgan were killed. On the night of the 11th. Today this area is either covered with McCalla Field runway . Lt . In an effort to locate the approximate location of the "Old Stone Fort". or by structures along the cliff edge . The "crossroads" was recognized early by Lt . Neville ordere d his force to spread out in the prone position on a line at the cliff edge . and withstood all efforts by the Spanish to overrun the group . During the exchange of fire thre e Marines were wounded . Another 200-300 [yards] southeast of thi s position lies the monument to Dumphy/McColgan . While these attacks were in progress. After a series of rifle volleys. the crossroads lay astride the main trai l Fisherman's Point-Cuzco Well . Pvt . (4) The "Old Stone Fort " Virtually silent on the subject in the official contemporary accounts are a series of night patrol actions on 11 and 12 June . The "crossroads " was the Lt . Col . He had posted sentinels south of this locatio n (Dumphy/McColgan) . Mahoney's outpost position on the morning of 14 June . Magill.

Capt . It should be noted that at th e crest of Hill 350 is a circular concrete gun position probably dating from WWII . The battle may have started here but the range t o Cuzco Beach is about 1000 yards . Initially. coordinate s 839001. coordinates 839996. fragments of old field communication wire was in the vicinity . Upon actually viewing the terrain from this location. Looking north at this point. This was based on a map study . Phase II--Cable Beach-Cuzco Hills-Cuzco Beach . Capt . Reaching the top of the hill. head eastward upon reaching the crest line. he was able to look up the valley to the top of the crest where be observed Lt . From the flagpole at McCalla Field.) Rounding Windward Point . Also. The massive hill continued on in a north-south direction . a light yellow color. (2) Hill 350 (in feet)--Elliott's first view of Cuzco Beach . (Se e B (3) below for Lt. the twin emplacements bear roughl y southwest at a distance of approximately 750 yards . rose a steep hill which seemed to start its ascent almost from the sea which was then on his right . which was soon accomplished . They are sited to cover the se a approaches to the harbor and are directly opposite the harbor's first entranc e buoy . Elliott (Co . Nevertheless. W . Elliott. this location had been worked over in modern times . Lt. at coordinates 827016. At sea. C). the USS Dolphin was providing escort duty . Following the coastal path an d passing the" Old Stone Fort" (See A (4) above). Lucas' route to the battlefield . Lucas' platoon to scale the hills . the emplacements. Conjecturally. Col. the senior. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 35 emplacements . Obviously . Tomas departed the "Base of Supplies" on the beach below the Battalion's fortified position . Now minus their guns. or about where a short circular stub of the old runway is located . (1) Elliott's Approach March 14 June 1898 . are in near pristine condition otherwise . To get to Cuzco meant a steep climb up the west fac e of the hill. F. a sweep of the hill top and the terrain leading north to Hill 400. the research team places the "Old Stone Fort". Hill 350 . and looking east Elliott now had a view of Cuzco Beac h and the main Spanish position . Lucas group heading eastward . Prior t o reaching Windward Point. Its mission was to "destroy the well at Cuzco" . Shortly after breakfast on 14 June 1898. the undersigned had presumed thi s location as Elliott's command post for the entire battle . they continued towar d Windward Point . Elliott ordered Lt . B . D) and a supporting force of Cubans. To Elliott's immediate front. Spicer (Co . From Hill 350 and lookin g both north and east one can easily see how the intervening terrain could be . Elliott's force came to Cable Beach (the paved road turns abruptly north at th e beach). and attempt to surprise the Spanis h sentinels believed to be screening the Spanish main position at Cuzco Well . G. it became obviou s that Hill 350 was not the primary battle position of the battle . was in command of the force . F. (Coordinates 832022) . was conducted but with negative results .

This ground wa s eliminated by the team as the site of the Marine's main battle position . All had stamped 6mm USN on the lower half of the rim . consisting of D Co . i s a peak labeled Hill 400 . Bannon) plus Cubans is occupying a battle line 30 0 yards in length at a distance from the enemy of between 500 to 850 yards . The Team now continued from Hill 400 following the ridge line as it trended easterly an d slightly southerly . others UMC . (WRA CO was th e Winchester Repeating Arms company . (3) Elliot's Main Battle Position--Lucas rejoins Elliott. As Elliott's force engaged the Spanish below. the nos e of the hill refuses to a fairly sharp angle heading northeast . 6mm cartridge cases and cartridge clips began to be recovered . although a few were discovered on top of the ground . This point appears to conform with the flank o f Elliott's force nearest the enemy . i. Consequently. as Elliott did in his report . This would indicate that an individual Marine chose thi s location as his firing positio n As the ridge line continues east/south it begins to slope more directly in a southeastern direction . Some had WRA CO stamped above this. From just below the Crest of Hill 400. the forerunner of Remington Arms company . When last seen by Elliott. In any event. the metal detector recorded buried metal . which trends north at this point. the ground was searche d thoroughly by the metal detector with negative results . Lucas "now rejoined th e fight" . The first part of the climb was strenuous and cost him several heat casualties . the route became easier as he followed the ridge lines in that area . Once on th e peaks. Using the traces of metal found on the ridge leads to th e conjecture Elliott's main battle position on the ridge line. From that peak. the other flank of the positio n is farther from the Cuzco Well by about 200-250 yards . The entire Marine position i s at an angle to the Spanish position . 136 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R described as a "horseshoe" in shape. UMC the Union Metallic Cartridge company. part of the hill mass turns east in a gently curving arc . clusters o f cartridges were found in a small area near one of the small (12-18 inch) rock s littering the hillside. the team continued along the cres t line in a generally east slightly southerly direction . Thi s line is traced by coordinates 840000-843001 . Between these two peaks. Usually. about 700-850 yard s from Cuzco Well . they were found just beneath the surface. when he . and one platoon of C Co . Lt . At this point.) The initial find of these items began at coordinates 840000 and continued along the ridge line for abou t 300 yards to coordinates 843000 . At this point. It measures approximately 500-600 yards fro m the old building at Cuzco Well (See C (2) below) . (Powe r lines on that ridge line may be following his route) . at about the 250 foot contour level.e. At about this position. Almost immediately. (Lt. Lucas was on the skyline having climbed th e steep hill by the coast road in order to cut off any Spanish outposts . metal indication ceases . From the top o f Hill 350 to the next peak in the ridge system. On the cartridge bottom were stampe d letters and numbers . Often.

the Marines had to stand on the top of the ridg e line. coordinates 843002 . An early assumption based on a prior map study suggested that Hill 350 . where the rest of the force was now engaged with th e Spanish . At this location. Bannon's platoon from C . It may have been a position used by the Spanish in the opening stage of the battle . Both Marines received the Medal of Honor for these exploits . which put them in full view of the Spanish . Quick had his back to the enemy while facing the ship . Lt . (4) Signaling Position of Sgt . Co . we place the Marine main battle position along the trace of the ridge defined by coordinates 84000 to 843001 . However. a small brass buckle usually associated with a harness wa s discovered. At this point. commanded by Capt . Elliott commande d from this position with his probable final CP at coordinates 843000 . Elliott's CP is fixed at coordinates 843000 . coordinates 839996. plus a number of Cubans . Fitzgerald signaled to the USS Dolphin . and this terrain was ruled out as a. As he came into this position at coordinates 843002 Elliott was able to communicate with him by messenger. Spicer. Early speculation on the part of the team had made this a possibl e Marine battle position . the terrain over looks the Cuzco valley toward the east and also begins to slope rapidly to the south where it then levels off a t 200 feet before sloping again sharply in the sea . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 37 rejoined Elliott he most likely came around in view from the northern side of th e ridge. Lt Lucas ' platoon came up on the other (north) side of this ridge and came into view (b y the Marines) as the ridge line narrows and forms the nose overlooking Cuzc o valley. the Marines tied cloth neckerchiefs to the end of their rifles and waved these to an d fro in the approved manner). Quick and Pvt. As noted above in B . . Some accounts note that Sgt . Co. Based on the material evidence discovered in this location. The Marine position now had more depth on the nose of that ridge line . All contemporary accounts agree that in order for the Dolphin to see the signals (Elliott's force di d not have the standard issue signal flags used for "WigWag" signaling . (Final CP until beginning of Spanish retreat. Fitzgeral d A prime objective of the research team was to determine the possibl e location from which Sgt . This latter piece of terrain i s about 500 yards from the Cuzco Well position at its top. battle position . the range to the Spanish was over 1000 yards . Accordingly. On this firing line was D . Quick and Pvt. a thorough sweep of this terrain registered n o metallic hits whatsoever. The team selected this position as the most likely CP for Elliott .) This conjectural CP would have given hi m the needed visibility and control . this location was rejected as the CP after the field visit to the area . and is almost parallel t o the position . Coming off the slope. during th e force's approach march . thus Elliott's original force was togethe r for the first time since Lucas was detached on his scouting mission. served as Elliott's CP throughout the battle and also woul d have served as the signal location for Quick and Fitzgerald . (2).

It should be noted tha t the small hills south of the cemetery and overlooking the water were not swept . rectangular in shape and about the size of a good sized backyar d swimming pool . In short. immediately to the right was an old concrete wate r reservoir. Specifically. the north edge of the road is bounded by the beginning of a hil l trending north . From the beach inland. 1 38 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R The key to discerning the QuicklFitzgerald signaling location then depende d on finding the Marine's main battle position. Magazine Road make s a sharp turn to the north. evidence includes concrete block construction of fiel d heads plus strands of early model field communication wire . Fitzgerald's exploits . (2) The Old Foundation at Cuzco Beac h At the foot of the hill where the monument is located. Quick's and Pvt . Here. Elliott's probable C P in the final moments prior to the Spanish retreat . At the first peak of this hill (in fact the hil l extends further northward as part of a ridge complex) is located a monumen t erected in 1988 to commemorate Sgt . bisecting Cuzco Valley and leading into the magazin e area . The objective was to find evidence of the Spanish position . The area swept south of the road is in the vicinity of coordinates 849998 . Building on that data. A fairly elaborate system of pipes and valves were part of this structure . The flat terrain that defines the cemetery and the adjacent terrain that lead s to the beach has been worked over both by manmade works as well as the effect s of nature . the probable location of both Quick and Fitzgerald as they signaled the Dolphin i s also in this vicinity . This location is also sufficiently close to the Spanish in the valley below (estimate between 500-600 yards) such that thei r bravery would be specifically noted by those around them . As noted in (3) above we plac e Elliott's CP in the vicinity of coordinates 843000 . Clearly. a thorough sweep of the level area south of the cemetery road reveale d nothing of interest attributable to the late 19th century . They probably needed to move around this point to find th e right location for the ship to see them . . Phase III The Spanish position at Cuzco Beach-Magill's Hil l (1) Cuzco Beach--Naval Cemetery The team returned to the Cuzco area the following day. A related objective wa s to determine if the hill rising north and overlooking the Cuzco valley woul d reveal evidence of naval gunfire . As one climbed the steps. Accordingly. and with that. this tim e approaching the area by the road (Magazine Road) to the Naval Cemetery . In this immediate vicinity were the ruins of yellow brick steps . this had been a significant source of well water at an earlie r time in this century. we estimate their position to have been in the same general vicinity as Elliott's CP a t coordinates 843000 . C. There was no above ground evidence of the building to which these steps led . evidence exists of tidal storm surges that have on occasion swept inland .

In one corner of this are a was a large number of red curved roof tiles. and probably served as the Spanish headquarters during the Cuzco Wel l battle . His instructions were to take up a screening position at coordinates 828002. Magill. many in near perfect condition . condition and location suggested modem manufacture . Although onl y one corner was obvious to visual inspection. finally departed for Cuzco and arrive d after the battle was essentially over . he . Unfortunately. It was dry laid. Col. this was Ingate's first experience away fro m the main headquarters . The shooting from that location now noticeable at the main camp . This was certainly an important early structure in the area. Mahoney at the "crossroads" (coordinates 831012) and then reinforce Elliott at Cuzco . They were probably the roof tile to the demolished building related to the yellow bric k steps . probably at the saddle beginning just southeast of the location of th e memorial to Dumphy/McColgan . At one edge of this relatively flat area. constructed of rubble (local rocks) material. The framing nails. Lt . Mahoney waited for him. a closer look at the outline s revealed the shape and size of the foundation . Here he was to wait for Elliott's column to arrive and then to take hi s orders from Elliott . and door hinge were consistent with 19th century building materials . He missed this landmark also. Based on his subsequent actions. The outside dimensions were measured . platoon led by Lt . Also near the "crossroads" was the third force sent out by Huntington t o screenlreinforce . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 39 About 30 feet to the right (east) of the concrete tank was a relatively leve l patch of ground overgrown with small trees and cactus . were the remains of a stone foundation . To the southwest was Lt . Their quantity. Elliott to Cuzco Well. Its location is coordinates 847998 . and to b e prepared to assist Elliott . keeping to the ridge lines north and east of the Cuzco Valley trail (Magazine Road) led his force toward the Spanish position . Magill . Ingate's platoon from Co . Magill's platoon was probably "leaning" into the direction o f Cuzco. where the cliff trail is constricted b y the hills. Small fragments that might have been part of a jar o r similar vessel were located . augmented by a corpsman and a correspondent . B. cut nails and a few wire nails plus the remain s of an iron door hinge . but also established three platoon size outposts to screen his main position at Fisherman's Point. He was then ordered to join Lt . an d chinked with the peculiarly oval local coral found in the vicinity . A. The team concluded that this was the foundation to one of the important 19th century ranch buildings at Cuzco. Huntington not only dispatched the tw o company task force under Capt . cut nails. missed Elliott . This was the Co . coordinate s 835008. (3) Magill's Route to Cuzco Wel l On the morning of 14 June. Assuming this as his start point. Located by the detecto r were a quantity of framing nails. He wandered around the plateau area. The structure size was 35 feet 3" (east-west and facing the beach) b y 27 feet 9" . ended up back at the main position . On the way. The foundation's perimeter was carefully swept .

At this latter point (site of the Quick/Fitzgeral d monument). Army personnel on a hunting expedition . The nava l gunfire precipitated the Spanish retreat . suspected 6 and 3 pounder naval shell fragments . 1898. An old fire break traces a straight line up the face of the hill for about 30 0 yards to where the Quick/Fitzgerald monument is located . which were essentially "line of sight". initially thought to be used in the Spanish Mauser rifles . A logical location for thi s station would be the hill at coordinates 848007 . the detector began to sweep a path t o the immediate left of the fire break . Several larger cartridge cases wer e discovered. made the hill mass coordinates 848998-848001 the logical location o f the hill into which the USS Dolphin fired on the afternoon of 14 June . The latter were identified as 6mm with markings identical to those foun d previously on the opposite ridge line . Magill's final position just prior to th e battle's end is located at coordinates 848003 (site of Quick/Fitzgerald . the log records expenditures of 14 rounds of 4"-Common. coordinates 808042 . On 1 4 June. the Spanish were most likely communicating with a Spanish outpost near Cond e Beach. 1 40 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R overran a Spanish signal station (Heliograph) . The trace of Magill's path from th e "crossroads" area to the Cuzco Well location is described by the coordinate s 831012-835008-848007-848003 . 1905-1906 (Probably used by U . and 12 rounds of 3 pounder ammunition in the support of th e Marines at Cuzco . Reasoning that th e bulldozer had disturbed the original soil. Magill was nearly in a position to seal off the Spanish retreat fro m Cuzco Well . As Magill continued on the ridge line. Based on this evidence. A s discussed in (2) above. they turned out to be 30-06 cartridge cases from the Frankfort Arsena l and manufactured in .S . and numerous cartridge cases and clips . On further analysis. 11 round s of 6 pounder. . (4) Magill's Hill/Monument Hil l An early conjecture. The USS Dolphin's log for his period is in the National Archive[s] . Lt. It remained to discove r evidence of naval shells on this hill to positively identify this position . it now turned south and led directly t o a hill overlooking the Cuzco Well area . . the old stone foundation was at the foot of this hill a t coordinates 847998 . numerous items were recovered . The reflections from this statio n had been noted by the Marines at Fisherman's Point . In the course of the sweep which continue d up to and past the monument. For the Marines at Fisherman' s Point to see the reflected signals. note the coastal artillery positions previously discussed wer e constructed in 1906) . These included fragments of a 4-inch naval shell (verified by EOD [Explosive Ordnanc e Disposal] Gtmo detachment). Magill was reported in a position t o seal off the Spanish retreat until the Dolphin's' shells impacting on a hill drov e his force back up the ridge line out of the line of fire . based on a map study and analysis of the contemporar y accounts.

but mor e importantly. it is hoped that this report will add to the existin g body of knowledge concerning the subject events and serve as a guide to an y future research efforts . the team had brought a thermometer to the field . Several 6mm rounds were found beyond the monument (at thi s point . As a minimum. it eventually settled a t only 90 degrees. Finally. for his company . Acknowledgments . Larry E . COMNAVBASE Guantanamo fo r granting "permission to come aboard" and for the courtesies of his command . P. This opinion is reflecte d in the findings and discussion in paragraph 4 above . Robert R . Colonel Ren o Bamford II USMC. Also. At 1030 on 12 June. At the same time. both of whom ar e Marines in the finest tradition. Bob Mauskapf USMC. The above findings were based on three factors . Conclusions . To both Capt . a thank you to Col . my sincerest thanks for his assistance. When place [d] in the shade. aka Maj . 6.O . 5.S . As the field research progressed. On this particular day. Larson USN. . and in particular as physical evidence wa s located. Hull Colonel. my thanks not only for your dedication to th e project but also for the major contributions you made . U . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 141 monument) . could not be done with 100% certainty . Marine Barracks Guantanamo added his graciou s hospitality in addition to his full support of the research effort. events that occurred nearly 100 years ago . 1) analysis of the existing body of accounts by 1898 participant s 2) physical study of the terrai n 3) identification of material discovered at particular locations . th e members recognized that reconstructing the operations of the First Marine Battalion (Huntington's Battalion). Marine Corps (Ret) . While the team is confident of its findings. the reading on the thermometer as it was taken from th e backpack read 99 degrees . who provided initia l encouragement and though his efforts helped to make it happen .W. C . the team soon developed a consensus opinion . M. Lucas on Elliott's northern flank facing east) . Whitten USMC. P . . My thanks to Capt . to my son Mike . Hull USMC. [there] is a saddle in the ridge line) an indication that the enem y position extended around the base of the hill facing west (across the valley wa s Elliott's main body with Lt. Tom Riordan USMC and to Ssgt . it is recognized that future researchers may come to different conclusions .

W . Michael P . 1 42 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Initial Distribution : COMNAVBASE Guantanamo Bay.O. Marine Barracks Guantanamo Bay. Whitten. USMC . T. USMC MarForLant Liaison Element Norfol k Maj . Thomas J . USM C SSgt . Riordan. Robert Mauskapf. USM C Capt. Cub a C. P . Cub a Col . Hull.

American losses were 1 man killed and 10 wounded. ships. On 20 June 1898.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY VICTORY ON LAND AND SEA 143 Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center NH85346 The armored cruiser USS New York. In the battle. More than 1.S. is shown after the decisive battle of Santiago Bay. the flagship of Rear Admiral William T Sampson. The Spaniards suffered casualties of over 350 dead. were taken prisoner. An American sailor poses before the former Spanish fort Santa Cruz. the American fleet destroyed the seven ships of the Spanish squadron without the loss of any U. the Spanish commander. and over 150 wounded.600 Spaniards including Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete. on the island of Guam. the American cruiser USS Charleston entered Apra harbor and took the surrender of the Spanish forces on Guam. Photo courtesy of National Archives 127-N-521890 .

S. USMC .144 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center Marine IstLt John T. Lejeune was the commander of the U. naval force under attack by Spanish forces. Marine 1stLt John A. in the Philippines.S. Myers is shown as a Marine captain commanding the Marine Barracks. Puerto Rico. Myers landed on 21 June 1898 with 30 Marines from the USS Charleston on the island of Guam and disarmed the small Spanish garrison there. Lejeune commanded the Marine detachment from the American cruiser Cincinnati. Photo History and Museums Division. 2d Division in World War I and in 1920 became Commandant of the US. In the above photograph. Pictured above as a Major General. to relieve a U. taken in December 1899. Marine Corps. which landed on 9 August 1898 at Cape San Juan. Subic Bay.

He retired in 1903 as a major general. Like Lejuene. He is photographed above as Commandant of the Marine Corps.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 145 Photo History and Museums Division. Charles Heywood was Commandant of the Marine Corps during the Spanish-American War. Neville served in World War I and became Commandant of the Marine Corps. Department of Defense (Marine) Photo A413182 . USMC Marine 1stLt Wendell C. Heywood zealously protected the traditional mission of the Marine Corps while at he same time seizing the opportunity to form a Marine battalion to be deployed with the fleet. Neville served with the 1st Marine Battalion at Guantanamo. in 1929.

In September 1898. Elliott (pictured above as a brigadier general) commanded the Marine attack on 14 June 1898 on the Spanish forces in the Cuzco Well area. the 1st Marine Battalion is seen marching through the streets of Portsmouth. Photo courtesy of Naval Historical Center NH 46345 . New Hampshire. Elliott succeeded MajGen Charles Heywood as Brigadier General Commandant of the Marine Corps (the rank of the Commandant reverted by law to brigadier general upon the retirement of Heywood). USMC Captain George F. On 22 September 1898. the Marines paraded before President William McKinley at the White House in a driving rainstorm. Spanish forces withdrew and no longer presented a viable threat to the Marine battalion on Guantanamo. In 1903. With the destruction of the well which was the only source of fresh water in the sector.14 6 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Photo History and Museums Division.

USMC (Ret) A photograph taken in June of 1997 shows the flagpole at the US Marine Barracks Guantanamo marking the 1st Marine Battalion's command post in June 1898. . The view is north and overlooking Guantanamo beach and harbor.ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 147 Photo courtesy of Col Robert R. Hull.

S . . 8 August--Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Canovas del Castillo assassinated b y an Italian anarchist. 1896 10 February--Spanish General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau takes over the Spanish effort to end the revolt in Cuba . 6 April--United States Congress passes joint resolution calling for Executive t o recognize Cuban independence ." Suggestion made to transfe r officers and men of the Marine Corps to the line of the Navy . Spain had agreed to permit entry of food. December--U . 1 48 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Chronology of Events Involving th e Spanish-American Wa r 1895 12 June--President Grover Cleveland issues proclamation of neutralit y concerning the revolt in Cuba . However. 189 7 4 March--President William McKinley takes office .S. Colonel Commandant Charles Heywood argues to keep Marine Corps separate . leading eventually to a change of government in Spain . clothing. 16 June--Annexation Treaty with the Hawaiian Republic signed at the Whit e House on 16 June . President McKinley was unable to gain th e two-thirds majority in the Senate for ratification . 23 October--Spanish government announces to Woodford that Spain would gran t autonomy to Cuba . 4 November--Assistant Navy Secretary Theodore Roosevelt convenes specia l board "to consider the reorganization of the Navy . 15 July--Cuban insurgents declare that the Cuban Republic is independent o f Spain . State Department announces arrangements for contributions t o those suffering due to the Spanish policy of reconcentration in Cuba . 13 September--General Stewart Lyndon Woodford arrives in Spain as U . Minister to put pressure on Spanish government for an early and certain peace i n Cuba . and medicines into Cuba free of duty .

25 February--Acting Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt order s Commodore George Dewey to move squadron to Hong Kong and "Keep full o f coal . 26 February--Secretary of Navy John Davis Long orders naval units in Pacifi c and Caribbean to take on coal . 28 Marines die along with 238 sailors . USMC . 15 February--USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor. 16 April--Colonel Commandant Charles Heywood USMC. an d authorizes the President to employ U . the declaration of an armistice between Spai n and Cuba. 25 January--USS Maine anchors in Havana harbor on port visit . mediation . led by pro-Weyler Spanis h army officers . mediation upo n Cuban sovereignty. 21 March--Navy Court of Inquiry declares that USS Maine blown up by external agency.S . troops to force Spain to relinquis h control over the island .. 29 March--President McKinley sends ultimatum to Spain calling fo r abandonment of reconcentration. but refused to submit to U . 17 April--Colonel Heywood issues orders to assemble men from all East Coas t ports and stations at the Brooklyn Navy Yard under the command of Lieutenan t Colonel Robert Huntington. 9 March--President McKinley's "50 Million Dollar Bill" for national defens e passes 311 to 0 in the House and 76 to 0 in the Senate .S . 12 January--Anti-American riots occur in Havana.S . Spanish Minister to the U . critical o f President McKinley is published by the New York journal . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 14 9 189 8 January--Spain declares autonomy for Cuba and Puerto Rico . Navy Court of Inquiry begins session in Havana .S . receives orders t o organize two Marine battalions to serve in Cuba . 21 February--U . 19 April--Congress passes resolution that Cuba is free and independent. believed to be a submarine mine . 10 April--Spanish Captain General Ramon Blanco y Arenas announces a n unconditional armistice with Cuba. . 9 February--Letter of Enrique de Lome.S . and that Spain accept U .

S . headed west . 25 April--U . Huntington's Battalion parades to the transport US S Panther and sails south . Cuba .m. Spanish fleet destroyed by 12 :30 p .S . Also. naval force of three ships under Commander Bowman H .S . 1 May--Commodore Dewey opens fire on Spanish fleet near Cavite Nava l Station . and Spain since 21 April . Twelve Marines receiv e Medal of Honor . 5 June--A U . 3 May--Lieutenant Dion Williams USMC and Marines from USS Baltimore take Cavite Naval Station unopposed . Cuba . and signals surrender at 12 :3 7 p. 24 April--Spain declares war on U . . recognizes that a state of war has existed between the U .S . 11 May--Sailors and Marines from USS Marblehead and USS Nashville cut two (of three) transoceanic cables off Cienfuegos. 27 April--Commodore Dewey's squadron leaves Mirs Bay for Philippines . 26 April--Huntington's battalion sails for Key West. Florida from Fortres s Monroe.. thirty miles up the coast from Hong Kong .64 0 enlisted men. 19 May--Filipino insurgent leader Emilio Aguinaldo returns to the Philippine s from Hong Kong to rally the people against the Spanish . 25 April--Commodore Dewey moves his squadron into Mirs Bay (Tai Pan g Han).. Virginia. Navy sinks the collier Merrimac in Santiago Harbor in an attemp t to bottle up the Spanish squadron .000 volunteers . McCalla enters Guantanamo Harbor to destroy a blockhouse above Fisherman' s Point. 23 April--President McKinley calls for 125. 30 April--Commodore Dewey and naval squadron enter Manila Bay at 11 :30 p. at th e Brooklyn Navy Yard.S . 4 May--Congress authorizes USMC to increase strength by 24 officers and 1. 29 April--Spanish squadron under Vice Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topet e departs Cape Verde Islands. Admiral Cervera's squadron anchors in Santiago Harbor. On the same date. 3 June--U .m. 1 50 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 22 April--President McKinley declares a blockade of Cuban ports .m .

1 July--U . destroy cabl e station at Playa del Este. Lieutenant John T . 3 July--Spanish Admiral Cervera's squadron attempts to break out of Santiag o Harbor and is destroyed by the American fleet . Cuba . Cuba . captures Guam . warships of the North Atlantic Fleet under Rear Admiral William T. 10 June--Huntington's Battalion of Marines lands at Fisherman's Point . Sampson bombard fortifications at Santiago Harbor. Lieutenant Henry C . Cuba. Army captures El Caney outside Santiago. Elliott destroy Cuzco Well . 11-14 June--Huntington's Battalion holds off Spanish regulars and Cuba n loyalist troops at Guantanamo .S. Puerto Rico and seizes Ponce . Sergeant John Quick and Private John Fitzgerald. Army V Corps under General William Shafter. 22 June--U . troops under Army General Nelson Miles come ashore in Puert o Rico.S. and withdraw .S .S. 20 June--USS Charleston under Captain Henry Glass. 30 June--First U .S. 31 July--BGen Arthur MacArthur USA.S. Philippines . Haines orders U . USA. 14 June--Marines at Guantanamo under Captain George F . USMC. flag raised over city hall. lands of f Daiquiri to begin drive on Santiago. 17 July--Spanish garrison at Santiago. 27 July--USS Dixie arrives at Playa del Ponce. 7 June--Forty Marines from USS Oregon and 20 from USS Marblehead check for a suitable landing area in Guantanamo at Fisherman's Point. 28 July--U . and 30 Marines accept the surrender of th e Spanish garrison . surrenders to General Shaffer . USN. 5 August--Huntington's Battalion departs Guantanamo for another objective are a in Cuba . both win Meda l of Honors signaling USS Dolphin to shift fire . . troops land at Luzon. 1 July--Emilio Aguinaldo proclaims the Philippine Republic . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 51 6 June--U . Myers. USMC. arrives at Manila with 4000 soldiers .

LeJeune USMC and 37 Marines from US S Cincinnati and USS Amphitrite reinforces sailors at San Juan Lighthouse . Navy squadron bombards Manzanillo. Cuba.000 enlisted . doubling th e size of USMC to 225 officers and 6. New Hampshire . 15 August--Huntington's Battalion ordered to return to U . 10 August--1st Lieutenant John A .S . Philippines with the First Battalion of Marines . to prepare fo r Marine landing . Pope USMC arrives at Cavite Naval Station . which formally ends the war with Spain. Guam. and Puerto Rico . Puerto Rico . 6 February--Senate ratifies Treaty of Paris. Army under Major General Wesley Merritt make simultaneous attacks on Manila. 1 52 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R 9 August--Spanish attack lighthouse manned by U . 12 August--The United States officially annexes the Hawaiian Islands .S . 23 May--Colonel Percival C . 13 August--Admiral Dewey's fleet and U . 10 December--Treaty of Paris signed to end war with Spain . Landing of Huntington's Battalion at Manzanilla. Cuba.S. 12 August--Peace Protocol between Spain and U . control . 189 9 1 January--Spain transfers Cuba to U. .S . called off. 12 August--U . Philippines . annexes the Philippines. and the U . Spanish authorities surrender and 7.S .S . sailors overlooking San Juan Passage. suspends Caribbea n operations . 3 March--Congress passes Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Bill.000 Spanish troops taken prisoner.S . 26 August--Huntington's Battalion arrives at Portsmouth.

Field Private Michael L . Franklin Private Joseph F . Cable-cutting expedition off Cienfuegos. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 153 Spanish-American Wa r Marine Corps Medal of Honor Awardee s 11 May 1898. On USS Brooklyn during actions off Santiago. Cuba : from USS Nashville: Private Frank Hal l Private Joseph H . Action against Spanish at Cuzco Well. Scott Sergeant Philip Gaughn Private Pomeroy Parker Private Oscar W . Cub a Sergeant John Henry Quic k Private John Fitzgeral d 3 July 1898. West Private James Meredith Private Edward Sulliva n Private Daniel Campbell 14 June 1898. Kearney from USS Marblehead : Private Herman Kuchneiste r Private Walter S . Cub a Private Harry Lewis MacNeill .

Lacks a bibliography and footnotes . An early general history of the Corps . The book also discusses how the experiences of the Marine battalion at Guantanam o led to the Navy realizing the utility of using its own Marines for landin g operations . 154 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Selected Annotated Bibliograph y Spanish-American Wa r Compiled by LtCol David E . 1991 . The Story of the United States Marines. 1919? . Soldiers of the Sea : The United States Marine Corps. USMC . Inc . Annapolis. New York. New York.. John W . USMCR Books with * indicate titles in Marine Corps Historical Center library. and how the Navy an d Marine Corps began to practice fleet landing exercises on a regular basis . Jr." give s succinct coverage of that era . Reprint. . Chapter 10. Putnams's Sons. *Metcalf." in well-documente d accounts explain the origins of the Advance Base Force. and Fred F . Semper Fidelis : The History of the United States Marin e Corps. Chapter 5. Baltimore. written on the eve of Worl d War II . 1962 . Kelly. NY : G.. LtCol. P. Naval Institute Press. *Millett. 1775-1962 ." covers Spanish-American War an d discusses the development of the Advance Base Force . MD : U. 1939 . Update d versions of this bibliography to be available on the History and Museum s Division Web Site or on diskette from the Historical Center's library . New York. 1980 . A valuable general history of the Marine Corps. Col. "The Creation of the Advance Base Force 1900-1916." and Chapte r 10. "The Expeditionary Years.S . A History of the United States Marine Corps . 1740-1919 . of America.. *Leonard. General Marine Corps Histor y *Heinl. NY : Macmillan Publishing Co . Chitty .. Chapter 4. MD : Nautical & Aviation Publishing Co . "The War with Spain and Operations in the Far East. NY : United States Marine Corps Publicity Bureau. Robert D . "The Marine Corps and the New Navy 1889-1909. Clyde .. Allan R.

*Keeler. VA : Marine Corps Museum . 1880-1898 . The Journal of Frank Keeler. *Nalty. 1930 . roles. together with several good photos of the First Battalion o f Marines at Guantanamo . VA : Special edition published fo r Marine Corps Association by arrangement with the Viking Press. Bet . development of postwar roles fo r Marine Corps. Cuba and the return t o the United States after the war . 1993 . Marine Corps. Lawrence. Early chapters deal with reform and professionalism issues in the Marine Corps at the time . through the fighting at Guantanamo.C. Lots of information on Navy Lieutenant William Fullam's pressure to remove Marines from moder n naval ships . Frank . Chapter 6 deals with the "new" Navy . Includes copies of reports from Colonel Robert Huntington and the Battalion at Guantanamo . Quantico. USMC. Small mimeographed monograph of the War . Comprehensive discussions of reforms. : Historical Branch. *U .S. *Shulimson. John H . G-3 Division. The U.S .3) Washington D. ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 55 *Moskin. Has listing of every Marine in the battalion . Portsmouth. Chapter VII. Marines . A personal account of Frank Keeler's service in the Marine Corps during th e Spanish-American War . NH." has a genera l discussion of the war. Chapter 9 discusses the Spanish American War and its aftermath . The Marine Corps Search for a Mission. BGen Edwin H . A self published. Marine Corps . Quantico. A firsthand account by a Marine from hi s enlistment in 1898.. 1977 . The History of the First Battalion of U.S. KS : University Press of Kansas. Headquarters. The United States Marines : The Firs t Two Hundred Years 1775-1975 . Robert J . NY : McGraw-Hill . 1959 . 1898 . "The Four Month War With Spain 1898. Marines in the Spanish-American Wa r *Clifford. 1976 . . 1898 . rare booklet . U . Marine Corps Story . no . Tyson. Annual Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps . *Simmons. One sketch map of Cuba . 1968 . Bernard C .S. Jack. The United States Marines in the War with Spain . New York. (Marin e Corps Historical Reference Series. Edited by Carolyn A .

156 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Sources Located at the Marine Corps Historical Cente r Subject Files . French E. "Marines in the Spanish-American War. 1958 . Army an d Navy operations .. New York. New York. Jack Cameron .S. D. Photos emphasize Army actions. 1970 . *Lodge. and many Nav y photos ." *Chadwick. ed. NY: Russell & Russell. Diplomatic background. *Freidel. Philadelphia. Personal Papers Collection. . 1993 . The War with Spain . Papers : Diaries and letters contain firsthand account of the Guantanamo battle . The Splendid Little War: Boston. Henry Cabot . Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War and It s Aftermath . 1968 ..C. NY : Harper & Brothers. 127-151. Robert W . Reference Section . Frank Burt . A Leap to Arms : The Cuban Campaign of 1898 . D .C. Marine Corps Historical Center. Papers : Contemporary letters by the commanding office r of the 1st Marine Battalion relative to the war . Extensively illustrated general history of the war . Johnston. A concise. Huntington. general history of the war . Naval Institute Press.. The Relations of the United States and Spain : The Spanish-American War . James C . Brown. New York. NY : A . Washington. *Dierks. PA: Lippincott. A few Marines appear on board ship in some photos . an d Co. MD : U . Cochrane. William A . pp . Barnes & Co . MA: Little. Spanish-AmercWHto y Bradford. Henry C . Annapolis. 1899 . Section by Dr. Washington. S. also includes paintings and illustrations from the time. Jack Shulimson. 1899 . History Up to Date :A Concise Account of the War of 189 8 Between the United States and Spain : Its Causes and the Treaty of Paris.

S . J.. The Campaign of Santiago de Cuba . Herbert Howland . CT: A. questions the motives for. New York.. John R . S . . Staff Correspondents . Outlines preparations of Navy Department in the late 1890's ." Stephen Crane's description of Marines fighting a t Guantanamo and night time signaling from shore to ship for gunfire from th e ships while under attack . 1LL : A. NY : Norton W . Lights and Shadows of Our War with Spain . Chicago. Chicago. A general history of the conflict.. 1969 . Inc . Discusses Battle of Manila Bay. and Hobart Hillman's story of night attack on wester n shore of harbor at Guantanamo by two companies of Huntington's Firs t Battalion of Marines . The Martial Spirit : A Study of Our War with Spain . New York. written during the anti-war period betwee n World Wars I and II. An Illustrated History of Our War with Spain . Ill : Chicag o Record. The Chicago Record's War Stories . 1984 . 1898.. 189 8 Articles filed by newspaper reporters covering the War . 1931 . and results of th e war . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 57 *Millis. New York. and explains wh y Admiral George Dewey could not take control of the city of Manila unti l reinforcements arrived from the United States . Sargent. NY : H . D . W. Brief mention of Marines a t Guantanamo in three paragraphs on page 259 . Allan . G . NY : L. Worthington and Co . A. MA: Houghton Mifflin Co . Ivan . Russell.. McClurg & Co . NY : J. New York. Henry B . 1997 . C. Musick. 1907. 1898 . Keller. & Co . The Spanish-American War : A Compact History . Walter . Hawthorn Books. Boston. Hartford. the building o f new war ships and President McKinley's efforts to avoid war by undertakin g negotiations with Spain . conduct of. O'Toole. Ogilvie. Empire by Default : The Spanish-American War . *Musicant. Critical of Army preparations and actions . Includes coverage of the prelude to the war . Holt. The Spanish-American War : An American Epic. senator describing conditions in Cub a under "Reconcentration . 1898 . speech from a U .

public opinion. Co . 1897-1898. W. Colonel Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt Goes to War . David F . CT : American Publishing Co.S. USMC .ed . and destruction of the USS Maine.. NY : Macmillan. 1979 . Wilson.. NY: Arno Press. The War of 1898 and U.. Marcus J . Benjamin R. outcry by U . Hartford. Spanish Genera l Valeriano Weyler's policy of "reconcentration" in Cuba. Akron .. Lots of information on background to th e war. 1899 . 1994. 1899. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish-American War . New York. *LeJeune. Our Country's Defensive Forces in War and Peace . 158 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R Trask. Leslie's Official History of the Spanish-American War . Dyal. Donald .. Arthur L . New York. pressures by the Cuban Junta on U . NY : J . Excellent overview of the War . Henry .. OH: The Werner Co .. 1996 .S . Watterson. NY: Garland Publishing. Army. New York. Hero Tales of the American Soldier and Sailor as Told by th e Heroes Themselves . James . 1981 . Biography/Memoirs *Buel. newspapers demanding action. Reminiscences of a Marine . Westport . NY : Garland. 1990 . The War with Spain in 1898 . Wiley & Sons. The Spanish-American War :An Annotated Bibliography . Biblographes/RfncWok s Beede. *Wagner.1898-1934. Venzon. MajGen John A . 1898 . mobilization of U . 1996 . Anne C . War Records Office. History of the Spanish-American War . Interventions. . 1899 .S. New York. Paul H .S. New York. Washington? . CT : Greenwood Publishing Group Inc . An Encyclopedia . Wright. *Jeffers. Inc . New York. W . NY : W .

effects of this on the fighting at Santiago. KY : University Pres s of Kentucky. The Spanish-American War 1898 .C . U. and state militias . Related Topics of Interes t Uniforms. Early chapter covers his first eight months as one of the officers commissione d for the duration of the war. Young. Correspondence Relating to the War With Spain . 1971 . 1987 . Describes problems for U. Hampton Moore . : R. Cuba. Old Gimlet Eye : The Adventures of Smedley Butler . Field. Reminiscences and Thrilling Stories of the War B y Returned Heroes. Illustrates uniforms. Hans . and his reentry into active service as the Corp s expanded in colonial conflicts in the Philippines and the Caribbean area . NY : Brassey's . and flags . Weapons. Washington D . In collaboration with J . Dinsmore . Maverick Marine : General Smedley Butler and th e Contradictions of American Military History . political difficulties durin g mobilization for war between regular Army units. *Thomas. D .S. and how the American publi c perceived these problems . Lexington. almost hagiographic biography of Butler's career written for th e popular press which romanticizes Butler's colorful time in the Corps until hi s forced retirement in 1931 . A. A glowing. *Adjutant-General . Columbia. Inc . 1998 . NY : Farrar & Rinehart. 1933 . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 59 *Schmidt. Ron . An Army for Empire : The United States Army in the Spanish-American War . 1902 . Army in the 1890's.. Serious examination of Butler's career as a Marine officer and hi s controversial post-retirement career as an anti-war and anti-imperalist activist . Graham . 1898 . : Government Printing Office. MO : University of Missouri Press. New York. 2 vols. Army *Cosmas.S . arms. . New York. Lowell J . Washington. Etc . Also outlines problems between the Army and th e Navy at Santiago . volunteers. Hon James Rankin .C.

Cuba . "The Cable Cutting at Cienfuegos" describes the action wher e Marines won their first Medal of Honor in the war. Pascual.C . G . Cervera y Topete.: Government Printin g Office. . 1898 . the English translation of the Spanish naval commander' s outline of the Spanish Navy's deficiencies in the war due to lack of prope r funding in the 1890's. CT : Praeger. 1 60 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R African-American Units *Johnson.p. Washington . Joseph C . E . *Feuer. The USS Oregon and the Battle of Santiago . Westport. New York. with a thorough description of the three days of defensiv e fighting which led to the decision to attack the Spanish-held well at Cuzco. D . gives Waller's account of Marines on the US S Indiana during the 3 July naval battle off Santiago. Pascual . The Squadron of Admiral Cervera . D .C. 1958 . Newport. Views of Admiral Cervera Regarding the Spanish Navy in the Late War. "Captain Littleton Waller Tazwell Waller's Story". Gannon. Edited by W . (Edward Austin) . Chapter 10.. 1898 . November. The Development of the Modern Navy and the Spanish War . New York. 1898 . "The Capture o f Guantanamo. Cassard. Washington . Chapter 16. 1995 . an d operations in the harbor to clear Spanish mines . Washington. 1899 . RI : Nava l War College. : Government Printing Office. A. NY : Comet Press Books.: Government Printing Office. B. Short booklet. Concas y Palau. A . 1898 . United States : N . 1970 . Chapter 6." is a very complete account of the actions of the First Battalion o f Marines in Cuba. History of Negro Soldiers in the Spanish-American War : and Other Items of Interest . *Cervera y Topete. 1936 . Clearly written account of naval actions in the Atlantic and Caribbean . Victor M .C. The Spanish-American War : A Collection of Documents Relative to the Squadron Operations in the West Indies . D. NY : Johnso n Reprint Corp .. 1900 . Naval Operation s The Battleship Indiana and Her Part in the Spanish-American War. The Spanish-American War at Sea : Naval Action in the Atlantic .

Wounds in the Rain : War Stories . The U S. D. Results of Admiral Rickover's study on physical causes of the explosio n which sunk the ship . : U.S.C. Howard. Reports of War. R . and Cap t Robley D . 2 vols . .: The University Press of Virginia. 1964 . 1899 . *Rickover. Lt Nephew. VA . John D . The War Dispatches of Stephen Crane . USA. He concludes that it was due to spontaneous combustion o f the coal on board the ship. Government Printing Office. Ill : W. Hagemann . The second volume is the Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation : Naval Operations of the War with Spain . ix. Stallman and E . Stephen . Also has other stories from war in Turkey . W .. War Dispatches. 1902. Naval Institute Press. How the Battleship Maine Was Destroyed . includes photos of Navy and Marines during the war . 1976 . Edited by R. Conkey Co. Great Battles of the World. B. Works of Stephen Crane. General Navy history. USN. an d correspondents during the war . U. vol.S . Navy Department. Crane's versions of events involving Marines. 1898. Chicago. New York. Washington. NY : Outlook Co . O.S . 2 vols . Army personnel. The New American Navy .. Evans. Annual Report of the Navy Department. edited by Fredson Bowers (Charlottesville. 1971) Pictorial Works *King. W. MD : U. Nathan . 1903 . Hyman . Navy an Illustrated History. 1976 . New York. Stokes. Long. Literature *Crane. *Miller. Annapolis. George Edward . New York : Peter Fenelon Collier. G. New York. Schley and Santiago : An Historical Account of th e Blockade and Final Destruction of the Spanish Fleet . not an external mine. . with MajGen O. NY : Frederick A . 1900 . USN . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 61 *Graham. The Story of the War of 1898 and the Revolt in th e Philippines. NY : NYU Press.

but include s several pages on Huntington's First Battalion of Marines . 1895-1902 . MD : Johns Hopkins University Press. Offner. concentrate on Army and Navy operations.p. 1979 . 1898 . Imperialis m Foner. Wright. Baltimore. 1977 . Morgan. William R. The War with Spain an d Overseas Empire . 1895-1898 . New York. 1972 . R. American Espionage from Secret Service to CIA . 1904 . Chapel Hill. NC : University of North Carolin a Press. J. NY : Naval Institute Press. . 1975 . 1908 . New York.KS : Military Affairs. drawings and som e full color lithographs. Jeffrey-Jones. The Emergence of the War Department Intelligence Agenc y 1885-1918 . The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of America n Imperialism. Diplomac y Benton. Marcus J. United States? : N .. International Law and Diplomacy of the Spanish-American War. 1881-1918 . Photographs. Jeffrey M. An Unwanted War : The Diplomacy of the United States an d Spain Over Cuba. New York . *Wright. Philip S . Elbert J . America's Road to Empire . Manhattan. New York. oversized picture book . NY : Dial Press. 162 MARINES IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WA R A rare. The Armies of Ignorance : The Rise of the America n Intelligence Empire. Dorwort. NY : Free Press. Intelligenc e Corson. Pictures : Spanish-American War. 1992. John L . Wayne H . out of print. Powe. Washington : M. New York. . 1965 . NY : Monthly Review Press. The Official and Pictorial Record of the Story of America n Expansion . NY: Wiley. The Office of Naval Intelligence : The Birth of America' s First Intelligence Agency. 1977 . Marc B .

p . ANTHOLOGY AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 16 3 Public Opinio n Brown. Baton Rouge. 1967 . The Mirror of War : American Society and th e Spanish-American War. NY : Scribner.. Public Opinion and the Spanish-American War . Wilkerson. Louis H . Charles H . N. Marcus M . 1932 . Naval and Marine Corps Casualties in the Wars of the Unite d States .1946? . Casualtie s Roddis. 1974 . . Gerald F . New York. MI : University of Michigan Press. LA : Louisiana State University Press. Linderman. Ann Arbor. The Correspondent's War: Journalists in the Spanish-American War .

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