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Geography Mid-Term Exam Study Guide UNIT 1

Basic Map Components Cartographer- map maker Cardinal Directions- North, South, East, West Compass Rose- shows cardinal directions on a map Legend/Key- explanation of symbols on a map Latitude/Parallels- lines parallel to the Equator Longitude/Meridian- run from pole-to-pole, intersects latitude lines Types of Maps Physical- include physical features (mountains, lakes, rivers, etc.) Political- include boundaries and capital cities Thematic- specific data (population, resources, etc.) Definition/Meaning Of Geography- earth science 5 Themes of Geography (LPRIM)- Location, Place, Region, Interaction, Movement GIS- Geographic Information system GPS- Global Positioning System Hemisphere- half-globe (Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western) 4 Environmental Spheres (BLAH) o 1) Bio- Life o 2) Litho- Rock o 3) Atmos- Air o 4) Hydro- Water Parts of the Earth Crust Mantle Inner/Outer Core 5 Oceans o Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Southern 7 Continents o North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, Antarctica Miscellaneous Continental Drift Theory- Pangaea broke apart into the 7 modern continents Plate Tectonics- lithosphere is broken into pieces and continuously-but slowly-move Ring of Fire- area of high volcanic activity in the Pacific Ocean 4 Major Plate Movements- Converging, Faulting, Spreading, Subduction Mt. Pinatubo Video Problems of predictions o Immediate: Failure to Warn, False Alarms o Ongoing: Flooding, Loss of Jobs, Worldwide Temperature Drops, Loss of Wildlife

Tools used: Seismometers, COSPEC, GIS, Helicopters Types of Devastation: Lava Rivers, Ash Clouds, Hot Mud Flows (lahars), Lateral Blasts, Pyroclastic Flows

Weathering Mechanical- physical breakdown (frost wedging and root growth) Chemical- chemical breakdown (H2O and C2O combined = weak carbonic acid acid rain = chemical pollutants + water vapor) 3 main forces of erosion: Wind, Water, Glaciers Climate/Weather Marine West Coast 12 Climate Zones o Continental o Tropical Humid Continental Tropical Wet Subarctic Tropical Wet and Dry o Polar o Dry Tundra Semiarid Ice Cap Arid o Other o Moderate Highlands Mediterranean Humid Subtropical Ocean Currents Prevailing Winds Windward- side of a mountain facing the wind Leeward- side of a mountain facing away from the wind Rain Shadow- area of reduced rainfall on the leeward sides of mountains Precipitation- any form of water that falls onto Earths surface 12 Ecosystems o Tropical Rain Forest o Temperate Grassland o Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest o Desert Scrub o Mixed Forest (Deciduous and o Desert (Little/NO Vegetation) Coniferous) o Tundra o Coniferous Forest o Ice Cap o Chaparral o Highlands (Vegetation Varies with o Tropical Grassland Elevation) Types of Forests/Trees o 1) Tropical Rain Forests- near the equator, warm temperatures, large amounts of rainfall, tall trees that form a dense canopy of leaves o 2) Deciduous Forests- trees shed their leaves during autumn, looks much different, appearance changes throughout the seasons o 3) Coniferous Forests- trees can survive harsh winters and produce seeds that are covered by pine cones, and can be home to moose and bears o 4) Chaparral- small evergreen trees and low bushes (scrubs), vegetation adapt to Mediterranean climate, leathery leaves hold moisture over dry summers Landforms and Water Bodies Archipelago- a chain of islands Basin- bowl-shaped indentations in the earth Bay/Gulf- large body of water connected to an ocean/sea, bordered by land

Butte- free standing flat-topped landform Canyon/Gorge- deep space between cliffs formed by water Cape/Peninsula- piece of protruding land bordered by water on 3 sides Delta- alluvial soil deposits at the mouth of a river Divide- imaginary line that divides the continents into draining areas Glacier- huge mace of ice that breaks away and melts into the water Harbor- body of water where ships and boats dock Hill- landform less than 2000 feet in elevation, rounded Island- landform surrounded by water Isthmus- narrow bridge of land that connects 2 larger land masses Lake- medium-sized body of water, surrounded by land, fed by a river Mesa- elevated flat-topped (free standing/attached) landform with a steep side Moraine- rock and debris formed by slow-moving glaciers Mountain- landform with more than 2000 feet in elevation above ground level with a peak Pass- low place in a mountain range Plateau- huge flat-topped area that extends for miles Plain- land with an expanse of flat, level ground Pond- small body of standing water, can have growths (fungi) River (large)- natural course for water to flow in, usually to a lake or ocean Sea- large body of saline water, usually connected to an ocean Strait/Sound- narrow channel of water that connects 2 larger bodies of water Striations- lines in rocks from weathering/erosion Tributary- stream or small river that flows into a main river

Human Geography Culture- beliefs and actions that define a peoples way of life Population Density- average number of people in a square mile or square kilometer Birthrate- number of live births each year per 1000 years Immigrant- people who move into the country Emigrant- people who leave the country to live in other places Urbanization- growth of city population Rural- countryside population Cultural Convergence- when the skills, arts, ideas, habits, and institutions of one culture come in contact with those of another Cultural Diffusion- process by which a cultural element is transmitted across some distance from one group to another Cultural Divergence- restriction of a culture from outside cultural influences Governments Sovereignty- a nations freedom from outside control Authoritarian Governments- leaders hold all (or almost all) political power o Dictatorship- single person o Totalitarianism- government controls all of society o Monarchy- king/queen Democracy/Constitutional Monarchy- any country in which the people choose their leaders and can set government policy Economies

Economic System- what goods and services will be produced, how theyll be produced, and how the profits and products will be distributed o Traditional- small surplus o Command- single central government o Market- free enterprise Subsistence Farming- grow only enough food for family/village needs Commercial Farming- large quantities of manufactured goods 4 Types of Economic Activities o Primary- rely directly on natural resources o Secondary- use of raw materials to make new products of greater value o Tertiary- service industries (lawyers, doctors, salesmen) o Quaternary- jobs focused on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information

Resources Natural Resources- materials in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs o Renewable- constantly replaced/regenerated by the environment o Nonrenewable- cant be replaced after use o Water (Hydroelectric)- returned to earth through the water cycle o Fossil Fuels- coal, oil, natural gas, iron, copper, aluminum, uranium, gold o Solar Types of Energy o Geothermal- energy from Earths inner heat o Nuclear- produced by fission (splitting uranium atoms) o Solar- produced by the sun

Dates 1942- Columbus discovered America 1500s- Century of Conquest & Discovery 1607- Jamestown established 1620- Pilgrims on Mayflower establish Plymouth 1754-1763- French & Indian War 1776- Declaration of Independence 1789- US Constitution 1803- Louisiana Purchase 1812- War of 1812 1845- Texas Annexed/MexicanAmerican War 1861-1865- Civil War 1867- Dominion of Canada 1914-1918- World War I 1929- Stock Market Crash 1931- Complete Independence of Canada 1939- World War II Starts in Europe 1941-1945- World War II

Terms (Chapter 5) colony- territory separated from (but subject to) a ruling power annex- incorporation of land to a country cede- transfer of land from one country to another civil war- conflict between opposing groups from the same country Industrial Revolution- introduced electric machines and mass-production continental divide- a boundary that separates flowing rivers toward opposite sides of a continent

drainage basins- areas of land that are drained by major rivers and tributaries tributaries- rivers and streams that carry water to a major river striation- polished rocks and scratch marks rain shadow- area of reduced rainfall on leeward sides of mountains literacy- ability to read and write suburbs- residential areas outside a central city standard of living (HHEN)- measurement of: Housing, Healthcare, Education, and Nutrition per capita- measurement (per person)

Terms (Chapter 6) gross national product (GNP)- total value of a nations output of goods and services canal- artificial waterway telecommunication- communication by electronic means free enterprise- allows individuals to own, operate, and profit from their own businesses in an open, competitive market metropolitan area- comprises a major city and its surrounding suburbs hierarchy- rank of urban places according to their function hinterlands- areas that are influenced by metropolises Terms (Chapter 7) megalopolis- a very large city mangrove- tropical trees that grow in swampy ground along coastal areas bayous- marshy inlets of lakes and rivers of Louisiana fall line- imaginary line between the Appalachians and the Atlantic Coastal Plain where rivers and streams form waterfalls and rapids as they descend from plateau to coastal plain Sunbelt- the band of southern states from the Carolinas to southern California that overlaps in the South and West humus- organic material that combines with weathered bedrock to help build more soil growing season- the average number of days between the last frost of spring and the first frost of fall grain elevator- tall building equipped with machinery for loading, cleaning, mixing, and storing grain grain exchange- a place where buyers and sellers deal for grain tundra- a dry, treeless plain that sprouts grasses and mosses only in summer, when the top layer of soil thaws aqueduct- large pipes that carry water over long distances Terms (Chapter 8) provinces- political divisions maritime- bordering on or related to the sea lock- an enclosed area on a canal that raises or lowers ships from one water level to another bedrock- solid rock that is usually covered by soil, gravel, and sand separatism- making a country independent secede- withdrawing from a nation customs- fees charged by a countrys government on goods brought in from another country tariffs- taxes on imports NATFA (North American Free Trade Agreement)- established a free-trade zone across all of North America

State Abbreviations
AK- Alaska HI- Hawaii WA- Washington OR- Oregon CA- California ID- Idaho NV- Nevada MT- Montana WY- Wyoming UT- Utah AZ- Arizona CO- Colorado NM- New Mexico ND- North Dakota SD- South Dakota NE- Nebraska KS- Kansas OK- Oklahoma TX- Texas MN- Minnesota IA- Iowa MO- Missouri AR- Arkansas LA- Louisiana WI- Wisconsin IL- Illinois IN- Indiana MI- Michigan OH- Ohio KY- Kentucky TN- Tennessee MS- Mississippi AL- Alabama GA- Georgia FL- Florida SC- South Carolina NC- North Carolina VA- Virginia WV- West Virginia PA- Pennsylvania NY- New York VT- Vermont NH- New Hampshire ME- Maine MA - Massachusetts RI- Rhode Island CT- Connecticut NJ- New Jersey DE- Delaware MD- Maryland

Terms (Chapter 9) conquistadors- Spanish conquerors cultural divergence- merging of cultures caudillos- local military rulers pampas- grassy plains in southeastern South America cays- islands formed of coral coral- skeletons of tiny sea animals tropical storms- winds of at least 39 MPH hurricanes- winds of at least 74 MPH El Nio- an ocean current that warms the Pacific off the coast of Peru canopy- uppermost layer of a rain forest where the tree branches meet mestizos- people of both Native American and European descent mulattoes- people with African and European ancestry Terms (Chapter 10) plateau- an area of high, flat land peninsula- strip of land that juts out into an ocean irrigation- artificial watering of farmland by storing and distributing water from reservoirs and rivers sinkhole- limestone wears away and caverns collapse hacienda- large Spanish estates land redistribution- division of estates among landless peasants ejido- farmland owed collectively by members of a rural community subsistence farming- growing only enough crops to meet a familys needs latifundio- commercial farms cash crop- farm crops grown for sale and profit (corn, sugar cane, coffee, fruit) migrant worker- landless, jobless peasants that wander for work NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)- designed to phase out trade barriers along Mexico, the US, and Canada maquiladora- factories that assemble products for consumers in the US Terms (Chapter 11) isthmus- a narrow strip of land that connects two larger bodies of land guerrilla- armed forces outside the regular army that usually fought against the government

earthquake- a shaking of the ground caused by sudden movements in earths crust tsunami- a huge sea wave set off by an undersea earthquake or volcanic eruption landslide- a sudden drop of a mass of land down a mountainside or hillside infrastructure- the network of services that supports a community (power utilities, water supplies, transportation, communication) avalanche- a sudden fall of a mass of ice and snow aftershock- tremors that can occur after an earthquake seismic waves- vibrations that travel through the ground epicenter- point on the surface directly above the focus of an earthquake archipelago- chain of islands coral islands- islands created by the remains of tiny, soft-bodied sea animals (coral polyps) windward- northern and eastern sides of islands leeward- sides of islands that face away from the wind

Terms (Chapter 12) escarpment- a steep cliff between two level areas at different heights serto- interior plateau in Brazils Northeast Region favelas- slum communities in Brazils Southeast Region plantation- large commercial farms for growing crops gasohol- an alcohol-based fuel made of a mix of gasoline and ethanol deforestation- the permanent removal of woodlands/trees ecotourism- tourism that encourages environmental awareness and protection and has little effect on the ecosystem Terms (Chapter 13) mulatto- people of mixed African and other ancestry bauxite- a mineral used in the making of aluminum llano- tropical grasslands/savannas cordillera- parallel mountain ranges (of the Andes) campesino- tenant farmers (that are barely able to grow enough food for their families since they focus on producing coffee [cash crop]) altiplano- high plan in Peru and Bolivia pramo- high plain in Ecuador timber line- the boundary above which forest vegetation cannot grow selva- forested tropical lowlands in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia estuary- a broad river mouth formed where a flooded river valley meets the sea piedmont- gently rolling foothills region (at the bottom of the Andes) pampas- temperate grasslands in Argentina and Uruguay gaucho- cowboys that herded cattle on pampas Latin America Notes Sheet 4 regions of Latin America: o Mexico o Central America o Caribbean o South America Conquistadors o Hernan Cortez- conquered the Aztecs o Pedro de Alvarado- defeated the Mayans

o Francisco Pizzaro o Bartolom de las Cajas & Junpero Serro- refused to fight the Indians Mexico Packet 4 social classes under Spanish Rule o (1) Peninsulares- born in Spain, held high official positions o (2) Criollos- Spanish ancestry, born in the Americas o (3) Mestizos- both Native American & European descent o (4) Indians- lowest ranking Approximate length of US/Mexican border- 2000 miles Number of Mexican states- 31 Mexicos 5 climate zones: o Semiarid o Arid o Tropical Wet o Tropical Wet/Dry o Highlands Mexicos 6 ecosystems: o Desert Scrub o Coniferous Forest o Temperate Grassland o Tropical grassland o Tropical Rainforest o Chaparral Sister cities o Matamoros / Brownsville o Ciudad Jurez / El Paso o Laredo / Nuevo Laredo o Nogales / Nugales o Tijuana / San Diego


MAPS (US & Canada / Latin America) Landforms and Water Bodies Diagram (p.46 in book) Quizzes (Chapters 1-13) Tests (Units 1 & 3) Dates (p. 4 of this packet) Flashcards if you have them Quizlet Any other materials you think would be helpful

GEOGRAPHY MIDTERM: 12/19/12 8:00 AM Good Luck!!