TEACHER’S GUIDE with ANSWER KEY

Beatrice S. Mikulecky Linda Jeffries

Advanced Reading Power: Extensive Reading, Vocabulary Building, Comprehension Skills, Reading Faster Teacher’s Guide with Answer Key
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY 10606 Staff credits: The people who made up the Advanced Reading Power team, representing editorial, production, design, and manufacturing, are Christine Edmonds, Ann France, Gosia Jaros-White, Laura Le Dréan, Edith Pullman, Jennifer Stem, and Paula Van Ells. Text composition: Rainbow Graphics Text font: 10/14 Stone Serif LONGMAN ON THE WEB Longman.com offers online resources for teachers and students. Access our Companion Websites, our online catalog, and our local offices around the world. Visit us at longman.com. 13-Digit ISBN: 978-0-13-199028-9 10-Digit ISBN: 0-13-199028-4 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10–OPM–11 10 09 08 07

Answer Key
Part 1: Extensive Reading
UNIT 3: Reading and Discussing Fiction
Exercise 2, page 18

Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

Main characters: Margot: a thin, pale, quiet girl, who feels different from the other children and does not play with them William: the class bully, who resents Margot and mistreats her because she is different The teacher: not clearly characterized, but distant and not very involved in the class or concerned about the children The other children: typical nine-year-olds, easily persuaded by William to gang up against Margot Setting (time): in the future Setting (place): at a school on the planet Venus
Exercise 3, page 19

Exposition Complicating action e, g Climax f Resolution a, c (Answers will vary for parts B
Exercise 5, pages 20–21

Interpretation Interpretation #1 #2 b, d b, d, h, i, j, k e, g, f c a and C.)

a. b. c. d. e. f.

11 2 10 1 3 5

g. h. i. j. k.

4 6 8 9 7

Exercise 4, pages 19–20

A. There can be more than one interpretation to a story like this, so alternative answers are possible. Answers based on two interpretations are shown below. Other answers are possible if students can justify them. The students do not have to use all of items a–k

A. (Other answers are also possible.) 1. b. thousands upon thousands of days compounded and filled from one end to the other with rain c. a thousand forests had been crushed under the rain and grown up a thousand times to be crushed again d. It was the color of rubber and ash, this jungle, from the many years without the sun. 2. b. the rain had washed out the blue from her eyes and the red from her mouth and the yellow from her hair c. an old photograph dusted from an album, whitened away d. if she spoke at all her voice would be a ghost 3. b. the children pressed to each other like so many roses, so many weeds c. they turned on themselves like a feverish wheel, all tumbling spokes d. wildly, like animals escaped from their caves, they ran and ran in shouting circles 4. b. He gave her a shove. c. he seized her roughly d. The boy gave her another push.

Answer Key

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page 30 A. tamper: to change something without permission. the sun on their cheeks like a warm iron 6. 2. page 28 1. a warmness. the endless shaking down of clear bead necklaces upon the roof 7. F (Answers will vary for parts B–D. the idea of something that is low and empty (with high sides) b. b. like a blushing in the face d. pages 26–27 Exercise 2. T 4. kidnapped Exercise 4. the concussion of storms so heavy they were tidal waves come over the islands d. You probably are worried that your teacher will find something wrong. T 4. 4. Part of speech: verb Definition: 1 B.) A.) Exercise 1. Answers will vary. b.) B. a. the tatting drum. pages 31–32 A. Part of speech: noun Definition: 2 b. page 37 A. F (Answers will vary for parts B–D. (Answers will vary. blazing blue tile color c. F 3. darkened into midnight Exercise 2. pages 34–35 A. adjective 3.) A.Part 2: Vocabulary Building UNIT 1: Strategies for Building a Powerful Vocabulary Exercises 1. the idea of doing something very thoroughly over a period of time 30 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 3. F 2. page 40 UNIT 2: Learning New Words from Your Reading Example. 1. T (Answers will vary for parts B and C. pages 32–33 A. pages 37–38 (Answers will vary. especially in order to damage it forlorn: sad and lonely Exercise 3. 6.) UNIT 3: Inferring Meaning from Context Exercise 1. 1.) B.) Exercise 3. on the first syllable 7. a gold or a yellow crayon or a coin large enough to buy the world with c. amazing blueness d. T 2. page 38 (Answers will vary. drenched: completely wet thrust: to push someone or something somewhere with a sudden or violent movement . three 2. (Answers will vary. F 4. b. the sweet crystal fall of showers c.) B. scrubbed Exercise 4. a piece of paper 5. (Answers will vary. woes: the problems and troubles affecting someone abducted: taken away illegally and by force. a. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. F 3. 5. Inc.

imperative for me to prove B. tools. was very popular and well-developed UNIT 4: Word Parts Exercise 1. (Answers will vary. Word: predict Root: dictus Dictionary definition: to say that something will happen before it happens 5. Word: manual Root: manus Dictionary definition: involving the use of the hands 2. pages 42–43 A. proven Exercise 10. take away 2. 1. 1. 6 B. they tried to zep all the guns. jumped into the dreel as it pulled out c. no room to doubt its validity. pages 48–49 A. seize. a. a sharpshooter might decide it was time for zeem (Students’ definitions will vary. instruments 3. pages 40–41 A. set of beliefs 2. Word: located Root: locatum Dictionary definition: to be in a particular place 4. a. in the opposite direction 3. Do these systems work better to zop drivers c. proof of my contention. warn Exercise 8. (Answers will vary. it could be so thoroughly substantiated that there would be no room to doubt its validity 3. Word: annual Root: annus Dictionary definition: happening once a year Answer Key 31 . practice—and they rarely missed their zeem c.Exercise 5.) A. 2 d. the idea of movement or change Exercise 7. when the dreel arrived. 3 d. there were large dreels that went back and forth. 1. the idea of something that is level and then changes to a new position. drivers are zopped about the condition of the road. page 46 A. a. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. 1. page 43 A. page 41 A. a.) B. 4 c. a. verb b. verb 2. Word: reverse Root: versum Dictionary definition: to go backwards. 5 c. a. noun b. electronic signs along roads that zop drivers about dangers or problems ahead. page 45 Exercise 6. target Exercise 9. where they could be a zeem for enemies on the roofs. 1 b. 1. 3 b. 1 B. the Germans zepped radios as well c. ferryboat 2. literally or figuratively Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. verb b.) C. noun b. Inc.

rivers. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. trial 32 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Word: chronological Root: chronos Definition: arranged according to when something happened meter metric biologist biodegradable Exercise 3. pages 52–53 A.) Exercise 4. pages 50–51 (Students’ definitions will vary.6. normal 3. diskette (Answers will vary for parts B and C. oceans. Word: gender Root: genos Dictionary definition: the fact of being male or female 3. Word from part A pathetic Related word sympathy Definition of related word the feeling of being sorry for someone who is in a bad situation having the Earth as the central point a written record of events.. pages 53–54 A. 1. uncle 2. geography geocentric .) A. or movie a small part of a cell that controls the development of qualities that have been passed on to a living thing from its parents using or relating to the metric system of weights and measures capable of being broken down by biological agents. Word: biologists Root: bios Dictionary definition: person who scientifically studies living things 4. Inc. Word: pathetic Root: pathos Dictionary definition: making you feel pity or sympathy 2. Word: logical Root: logos Dictionary definition: seeming reasonable and sensible 5. especially bacteria annual anniversary chronological chronicle dictator dictation logical gender dialogue gene located local Exercise 2. 1. written in the order in which they happened a conversation in a book. Word: geography Root: geo Dictionary definition: the study of the countries. play. mountains. biology 3. especially historical events. 1. unimportant 2. Word: meter Root: metron Dictionary definition: a machine that measures and shows the amount of something you have used B. inspire 4. Word: dictator Root: dictus Dictionary definition: a ruler who has complete power over a country B. of the earth 6. Word from Related part A word reverse revert vision manual visualize manipulate Definition of related word to go back to a previous condition or habit to form a picture of something in your mind to make someone do what you want by deceiving or influencing them a date on which something special or important happened in a previous year the act of saying words for someone to write down connected with a particular place or area 7. etc.

Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. A. the extent to which an intended result is produced 10. restriction. not obeying the law. to consider that one thing is the same as something else 5. pages 57–58 1. endurance. teller 7. or to make a document official 2. the ability and skill to do what is needed 3. a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way 9. suggestive. panicky. using tricks or lies to get what you want 7. quantify. durable (Answers will vary for parts B and C. happening or needed only at a particular time of year 3. reason 3. strategic. that you use Answer Key 33 . lawless. syringe 4. able to be believed or imagined 2. the ability to suffer difficulties or pain with strength and patience 2. money 7. the belief that there is a hidden meaning in life or that each human being can unite with God 8. something that limits or controls what you can do or what is allowed to happen Exercise 8. quality 5. justify. Inc. superb 8. devious. 1. deletion. done as part of a plan 10. organizer. comma 2. the act of talking about something with someone or a group in order to exchange ideas or decide something 6. conqueror. and gentle. page 59 1. effectiveness. pages 54–55 Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. to give an acceptable explanation or reason for something 3. poster 4. competence. goods.) Exercise 5. seemingly good. pages 55–56 7. or behaving in this way 5. generous 4. etc. to prove that something is true or correct. economize. to change something to make it more appropriate for you 4. 1. to reduce the amount of money. pretty 2.. boring because there is no variety 6. to measure something and express it as a number 6. commitment. discussion. reminding you of something 8.) Exercise 6. kind. bountiful. someone who takes control of a land or country by attacking people or fighting a war 5. angelic. interest 3. conceivable. or not controlled by the law Exercise 9. pages 58–59 A. central 6. seasonal.) Exercise 7. someone who makes the necessary arrangements so that an activity can happen 4. validate. exercise 5. subject 6. contract (Answers will vary for parts B and C. primrose (Answers will vary for parts B and C. the act or process of removing something from a piece of writing or from a computer 1. mysticism. very nervous or anxious 9. equate. time. monotonous.4. customize.

page 64 (Answers may vary. rather than amount or number 6. Word: telepathy Parts: tele + pathy Definition: the communication of thoughts directly from one person’s mind to someone else’s mind without speaking or writing 3. optional. page 63 (Answers may vary. nation. Exercise 11. roughly doubled 2. the condition of being more important than other things 10. etc. 9. page 60 7. you do not have to do it or use it 7. like a hero Word: synchronized Parts: syn + chron + ized Definition: to make two or more watches or clocks show exactly the same time Word: universe Parts: uni + verse Definition: the whole of space. harmonize. startling findings Exercise 2. precedence.) 1. or water on Earth 3. noun. adjective. pages 60–61 (There may be more than one word to analyze in some senteces. adjective. statistically less important 2. plans.) 1. 6. to make two things work well or look well together 2. work or activities that involve investigating something 5.Exercise 10. verb. adjective. adjective. adjective. differentiate. investigative. in the last few years 3. qualitative. exactly the same 9. adjective. Word: revise Parts: re + vise Definition: to change your opinions. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. more important. Definition: the fact of being more powerful. reduced to a minimum 5. Inc. 8. Word: dominance Parts: domin + ance UNIT 5: Collocations Exercise 1. or more noticeable than other people or things Word: unconventional Parts: un + convention + al Definition: doing things one’s own way or having different opinions from most other people Word: insensitive Parts: in + sensi + tive Definition: not noticing other people’s feelings Word: heroically Parts: hero + ic + ally Definition: with extreme bravery. if something is optional. to state that something does not exist or is not true 8. research group 5. land. verb. concerning or affecting the air. identical. negate. to recognize or express the difference between things or people 4.. rely the most on e-mail 34 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. environmental. relating to the quality or standard of something. verb. because of new information or ideas 2.) 1. relating to a particular race. to stay in instant touch 3. 1. ethnic. or tribe and their customs and traditions 5. Word: generate Parts: gene + rate Definition: to produce or make something 4. a series of studies 4. around the world 4. including all the stars and planets .

motion and sense perception. It can also be followed by a comma and a new clause. depends on the assumption. Inc. process has been very widely discussed. The winning strategy. is part of the process. 1. to question the assumption. in. strategy since it tends to cut down energy. most ancient. rests on the further assumption. not been a smooth process. smooth. the general assumption. is. assumption made by. depends on the assumption. the most ancient process. strategy remarkably. 1. process of dying through the use. it is this process. there is a widespread perception. Process can be followed by a comma or period and a new clause or sentence. According to the regional strategy 2. Its new strategy. strategy for either of us. strategy is one that. It can be followed by a verb: achieve. process of understanding and. gradual. the problem of visual perception. process as we know.Exercise 3. main. strategy could achieve. process is competition. process. During the preceding fifty. a successful strategy. been a gradual process 2. Assumption is often followed by a phrase starting with that. process of revision. rational. tended to adopt a strategy. The main process. plan a date and a strategy. is. strategy for sampling the stimuli. page 65 Exercise 5. Process is often preceded by an adjective: relatively simple. the shared assumption. truly best. dared to question the assumption. process. strategy for the return. not just a matter of my own perception. the political process. is the truly best strategy. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. relationship between their perception. strategy away from dependence. plan. Certain verbs are used such as adopt. based on the general perception Answer Key 35 . 3. a relatively simple process. beyond direct perception. adopt a development strategy. 3. the only rational strategy. and that where this perception. regional. Adjectives are used to describe the strategy: development. the assumption of. strategy is called. political. influence upon the popular perception. Exercise 4. involved in. this is a reasonable strategy. the assumption that. It can be followed by certain verbs: be discussed. page 66 1. process of change. process and divides the egg. do not fit in the long-term strategy. not a single process. process and understand what this. unreasonable assumption. was. was the simplest. strategy in a more general. historical. understand what sense-perception. the historical process. depends on the public’s perception. strategy the government aims to 4. successful. extend. the fundamental assumption 3. strategy of the group. extend the process. single. long-term. process of production. for. It can be followed by a prepositional phrase with of. enjoy the process. page 67 Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. involved in the process. process and one which continues. reasonable. page 68 1. the assumption was that 4. whose theories of perception. Strategy is often followed by a preposition: away from. Various stories lend 4. Process can be preceded by certain verbs: enjoy. Exercise 6. started from the assumption. fit in. that any strategy.

gradual. depend on the. develop. gradual 4. smooth 7. adopt a.) 36 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. unreasonable. popular 2. visual.Part 3: Comprehension Skills UNIT 1: Previewing Exercise 1. perception actually is. is part of. It can also be preceded by a phrasal verb: depends on. widespread 3. public’s.) (Answers will vary. theories of. is included in 3. cause a. further. Possible answers:) 1. fit in a.) 1. question 5. fundamental. deal with the. (Answers will vary.) Exercise 2. regional. beyond. 2. developed. rested on 6. 2. general. winning. relationship between. perception and is laid out. popular. public’s. own. regional 1. Exercise 9. perception involved both material things. pages 69–70 1. perception. perception recorded in the surveys of. make the. page 77 (Answers may vary. starts. page 71 (Answers may vary. depends on. regional 3. is based on 2. perception. historical. long-term. made. fundamental 2. pages 75–76 Exercise 7. winning. Name Index. page 78 1. Inc. single. direct. plan a 3. from lots of examples of real use of the word 4. smooth 5. explanation 3. perception as a particular difficulty. historical. No. It is often preceded by an adjective: sense. A dictionary writer is a collector (of examples) and a recorder (of meanings). fundamental. Subject Index Exercise 3. Certain verbs can be used after it: involved. questioned . Perception is sometimes followed by a prepositional phrase with of. 16 (Answers will vary. be included in 8. widespread. widespread. the meanings of words can change. adopted 7. perception of what life imprisonment. general Exercise 8. this.) Glossary. recorded. political. It can be followed by a comma or period and a new clause or sentence. fundamental. page 70 (Answers may vary. was based on. 5. perception that pre-1939 aviation was 4. popular. a matter of. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. main. perception of the good of the state. how dictionaries are written 2. perception of Islam. basic 8. public’s. based on. smooth. long-term. perception is lacking. 3. But he is not. be involved in. Possible answers:) 1. It was definitely. successful. question the 2. influence upon. make. 6. adopt 4. based on the Exercise 10. Perception is often part of a prepositional phrase: the problem of. shared. Possible answers:) 1. be part of. successful 4. depend on the. 3. page 69 (Answers may vary. rational. direct. be involved in a 4. 4. visual 6. rest on the. visual. Socialization (Answers will vary for questions 2–5. long-term. extend a. start from the. general.

Adverb authoritatively ——— contextually creditably ——— incidentally ——— ——— originally periodically principally revealingly Answer Key 37 . T 3. pages 80–81 UNIT 2: Making Inferences (In many of these exercises. 5. 4. 11. Exercise 2. a 11. 12. incidence influence occurrence origin period principal revelation Verb authorize bind contextualize credit illustrate ——— influence occur originate ——— ——— reveal Adjective authoritative bound contextual creditable illustrative incidental influential ——— original periodic principal revealing. 4.) Exercise 6. a 6. c 7. It is about the effects of social isolation on monkeys and on children. a 9. b Exercise 8.6. He is a scientist. a 12. pages 84–85 1. c 14. b 8.) 3. It tells about a five-year-old girl who had had almost no contact with people. 7. 8. 16. 2. Key Concepts. b 2. Paul Breslin works at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. a 15. (Answers will vary. 5. c 4. It is a scientific journal. T 5. 4. c 5. He and his colleagues have discovered that extra virgin olive oil contains a compound called oleocanthal. 15. Any answer is acceptable if it can be justified by evidence or conclusions that arise from the text. They are expensive. They don’t contain the chemical compound. CriticalThinking Questions Exercise 4. 6. Summary. c 16. 10. Farmers in two states in India have sprayed Coca-Cola on their fields instead of chemical pesticides. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. T 3. binding context credit illustration incident.) Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. b 3. 14. page 89 1. 13. 5. b 13. the answers may vary. F 4. b 10. 3. (Answers will vary. 3. period authority thus occurrences illustrative tasks original bound by 9. page 86 Noun authority bind. pages 86–87 1. 2. There are two parts: one about research with monkeys and one about isolated children. revelatory 1. incidentally apply influenced context credited decades principally reveal Exercise 5. Social Isolation 2. no (Answers will vary for questions 4–5. pages 79–80 Exercise 9. Both the research with monkeys and the cases of isolated children demonstrate the harmful effects of social isolation. 1. page 90 Exercise 7. 2. 6. F 2. pages 82–83 1.) Exercise 1.

The Coca-Cola Company already has legal problems in Andhra Pradesh because farmers believe it is taking water away from them for its bottling plants. Inference 7. Hundreds of farmers say they have sprayed Coca-Cola on their fields.000 years. he could escape from the feelings or thoughts that disturbed him. You can infer that he really liked playing the piano and that when he was playing. 4. and that there may even be other kinds of humans alive on the planet today. The writer has inferred that the man is scared. You can infer that the doctors were convinced that he was seriously in need of psychiatric care. 6. Inc. it must mean that Coca-Cola soft drinks sell quite well in India. 2. They guessed that he must be from a northern or central European country (probably because he is blond). and that they had then evolved into the smaller species of humans (Homo floresiensis). Water for farming is in short supply. 2. 7. They inferred that he was a pianist and wanted to play the piano. Small brain size usually belongs to a chimpanzee. They inferred that it is a species of human because it walked upright. It was clear to the police from the way he looked or behaved that he needed medical help. According to the farmers. Roberts has inferred that a volcanic explosion eliminated both the pygmy elephants and the Homo floresiensis population of the island. 9. 7. that they had not been able to leave. even though the skeleton is shaped more like that of a chimpanzee and it had a smaller brain than most humans. if farmers are suing the company over water use. 4. At the same time. such as a waiter in a fancy restaurant or a concert musician. 6. He has probably worked in a job that requires formal clothes.Exercise 3. probably very disturbed. pages 91–92 1. 38 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 3. not a human. 10. 6. 3. Morwood inferred that the humans (Homo erectus) who had made the tools had arrived in boats on Flores from the mainland. It must have something in it that kills insects. and doesn’t want his picture taken. If there are bottling plants. pages 92–95 1. He was surprised because he did not expect a creature with such a small brain size to be able to make fine tools. 11. 4. 3. You can infer that both types of humans must have lived together on the island for at least 20. You can infer that they were not small and not one of the new species. there is evidently some negative feeling about the way the company operates in India. He suggests that Homo floresiensis may have become small because resources were scarce on the island. . The writer infers that this discovery means that other surprising discoveries are possible. The fact that the labels had been cut out seems to imply that he (or someone else) did not want anyone to identify him. Exercise 4. 8. Animals on islands may evolve to become much smaller or much larger than the similar species on the mainland. 5. the insects on cotton plants die when they are sprayed with cola. They are probably quite poor. 8. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. 5. 5.

and they care about him and want to comfort him. They are used to his ways. b 3. It seems probable that one or both of the men will fall in love with Junie Moon. 9. 2. It seems that that they don’t have any money except the small allowances (pittances) they receive for their disabilities. They either don’t have families or they are not in contact with their families (perhaps they do not want to make contact). c 16. b Exercise 8.” you can infer that all three patients have no close family ties. c 12. surviving Adverb ——— apparently ——— diversely ——— implicitly persistently presumably previously proportionally. Arthur’s ironic and rather dark sense of humor about his situation may be a way of coping with his difficulties. proportionately resourcefully significantly solely ——— resource significance ——— survival. c 9. c 5. a 7. c 2. a 6. Junie Moon and Arthur probably get annoyed with Warren sometimes when he tells them what to do. 13.Exercise 5. 7. evolving implicit persistent presumable previous proportional. a 13. c 14. b 11. he’s good at convincing people. and he’s not afraid to challenge authority (as with the landlord and the nurse). and they feel the same way about her. Since Arthur is probably thinking that Warren represents the minority group of Noun alteration appearance capacity diversity evolution implication persistence presumption ——— proportion disabled people. 3. She may be more sensitive about her deformities and perhaps more damaged psychologically than she seems at first from her rather tough way of speaking. There seems to be some rivalry between them and some resentment on Arthur’s part about Warren deciding things. pages 101–102 1. though we don’t know what her relationship was with this man. 10. 5. (Answers will vary. a 15. and he has been in a wheelchair for many years. a 4. Junie Moon had the bad luck to meet up with a violent man. Inc. 6. proportionate resourceful significant sole survivable. He doesn’t easily become offended. b 8. 4.) Exercise 7. 12. we can infer that Junie Moon and Arthur must belong to other ethnic or racial minorities (such as African-Americans or Native Americans). page 103 Verb alter appear ——— diversify evolve imply persist presume ——— proportion ——— signify ——— survive Adjective altered apparent capacious diverse evolutionary. b 10. Since it says “they had no place to go. 11. 8. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. She does not like or trust them. Warren probably used to be active and have friends. pages 95–99 Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. survivor Answer Key 39 .

Exercise 4. Topic: The clear water of Lake Baikal Main idea: a Supporting facts and ideas: The lake contained certain small zooplankton and crustaceans. Topic: The causes of water shortages in Mexico City 2. The first line of defense is made up of dikes.Exercise 9.000 species exist nowhere else. 11. The government has begun buying land along major waterways. It is 1 mile deep. 2. 5. Another unique creature is a fish called the omul. c a d f e Exercise 5. 15. It is at least 25 million years old. pages 103–104 1. 10. Topic: Flooding in the Netherlands Main idea: c Supporting fact and ideas: The Netherlands is more than 60 percent near or below sea level. 3. Flooding can occur along the Rhine. pages 112–114 Exercise 3. 5. UNIT 3: Understanding Paragraphs rivers meet at the North Sea. Among its unique fauna is the Baikal freshwater seal. 2. dams. When major 1. and Scheldt Rivers. Topic: A description of Lake Baikal Main idea: a Supporting facts and ideas: It measures 395 miles by 50 miles and has 1. pages 107–109 1. 12. 4. wiped out proportions evolutionary presumably elsewhere resources apparently diversity Exercise 1. 2. Inc.245 miles of coastline. These are aided by secondary defenses. previous persistent capacity implication altered significance survived sole 9. Topic: The history of Mexico City’s water supplies 3. 16. 13. 7. The water consisted of rainwater and melted snow. and storm barriers. . Most of the watershed has a rocky surface. 4. higher rainfall and rising sea levels would lead to increased risk of flooding and hotter summers could lead to weakening of the dikes. Maas. Topic: The Dutch system of flood barriers Main idea: b Supporting fact and ideas: The Dutch barriers are the strongest in the world. pages 111–112 1. Topic: Climate change and Dutch water protection strategies Main idea: b Supporting fact and ideas: According to the study. Topic: How Mexico City is sinking Exercise 2. The greatest risk of flooding comes from the North Sea. Topic: Lake Baikal’s ecosystem Main idea: c Supporting facts and ideas: More than 1. The new approach will rely more on natural protection. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. 3. pages 106–107 1. 40 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. they form a delta region. 3. 8. They also help clean rivers and streams. 3. 14. 6. page 110 Topic: Floodplains Main idea: c Supporting facts and ideas: Floodplains can control flooding. 2.

This is true even for women who are working full-time and for those who can afford to pay Pronouns—Referents: it—the increase in paid employment for women who—women working outside the home they—husbands these—taking out the trash and mowing the lawn This—the fact that men spend a lot less time doing household tasks than women do who—women working full time those—women who can afford to pay for help she—a woman who—the one (the woman) managing the help this —help She—working women Example. page 117 Main idea: A transnational corporation is a corporation that has investments in two or more countries. at times. cleaners. Inc. 118–119 for help in the home. Finally Pronouns—Referents: his—Ford he—Ford One—factor Answer Key 41 . and so on. in managing the care of the house and family. repairmen. But. She is also more likely to attend school meetings. Before long. make appointments with teachers. hiring and overseeing the babysitters. she is usually the one who has to manage this help. In fact. but on average they spend a lot less time doing these and other household tasks than women do. but it has not completely changed the role of women in the home. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. attend to the needs of the children. In fact. women are still responsible for most household tasks and responsibilities. Main idea: Although they are working more. Main idea: Ford’s plantation began producing rubber but then was closed due to a number of difficulties. and in general. Transitions: However. Transitions: However. Husbands may contribute by taking out the trash or mowing the lawn.Exercise 6. Exercise 7. Women who work outside the home still usually end up playing the leading role Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Main idea: In order to be sure of having enough rubber for his cars. page 116 The increase in paid employment for women may have contributed to various changes in social attitudes. 1. In fact. if a woman can afford to pay for help. Henry Ford started his own rubber plantation in Brazil. Thus Pronouns—Referents: who—Henry Ford he—Henry Ford his—Henry Ford 2.

a Main idea: At home parties. a 3. d Main idea: A company must react immediately and decisively to a crisis in order to keep the trust of customers. a 8. 2. c Main idea: Because Johnson & Johnson acted quickly and decisively in the Tylenol crisis. gold has had special and lasting value. c 42 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. b Main idea: Gold is valuable because people believe it is valuable and there is a strong demand for it. Exercise 13. 3. most companies today order supplies just when they need them. pages 123–124 Exercise 11. a Main idea: Firestone lost sales and millions of dollars because it did not immediately recall defective tires. b 6. 3. d Main idea: The Longaberger Company has used the home party to market its products successfully. 3. pages 129–131 1. For this reason. there were no serious consequences for the company. Main idea: Instead of trying to control all phases of production. c Main idea: Buying artwork may not be a good investment for several reasons. d Main idea: Since ancient times. c 14. For example Pronouns—Referents: this—because they are afraid of having too many supplies they—contemporary car makers they—car makers they—car makers it—what they need this—buying what they need when they need it its—Apple Computer Company it—Apple 3. 3. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. b 4. a 5. products are sold at someone’s home to friends and acquaintances of the host. c 2. 2. c Main idea: In the early twentieth century. a 11. a 15. b Main idea: In order to sell the plastic containers he had invented. 2. pages 125–126 1. . Transitions: In fact. 1. Exercise 9. Earl Tupper also invented a new marketing strategy— the home party. Inc. André Level started a fund that invested in art and made a substantial profit. a 10. a 12. 2. a 9.Exercise 8 pages 121–122 1. a Main idea: The price of gold could be pushed higher because of the high social and environmental costs of mining it. c 7. However. Whereas. pages 126–128 1. b 13. d Main idea: People are investing in art today in order to make a profit as Level’s investors did. Exercise 10.

pages 132–133 1. 8. Key words in the main idea: a significant impact Pattern: Cause/Effect Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details affected by Computer research was affected by the moon landings. much further They could travel much further from the landing site. 2. The first mission lasted only a few hours. only Answer Key 43 . consumer contrast currency distribution evidence excess factor inadequacy location phenomenon recycling supplement ——— Verb consider consume contrast ——— distribute evidence exceed factor ——— locate ——— recycle supplement underlie Adjective considerable consumable contrasting current distributional evident excessive ——— inadequate ——— phenomenal recycled supplemental underlying Adverb considerably ——— ——— currently ——— evidently excessively ——— inadequately ——— phenomenally ——— ——— ——— Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 12. Inc.Exercise 14. current factors recycle locate phenomenon exceeded underlying UNIT 4: Patterns of Organization Exercise 1. 4. contrasts distribute evident inadequate supplement furthermore consumes considerable 9. Key words in the main idea: very different from Pattern: Comparison/Contrast Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details But while The first landing was an enormous achievement. 11. Topic: The impact of the Apollo moon landings Main idea: The Apollo moon landings had a significant impact on scientific and technological development in the twentieth century. 6. 13. 2. pages 141–144 1. 14. the three men spent more time on the Moon. 7. far more The last landing contributed far more scientific knowledge. Topic: The landing of men on the Moon Main idea: The first moon landing was very different from the last one. 3. 15. however On the last mission. Exercise 15. 10. wider They could collect a wider range of samples. 5. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. page 131 Noun consideration consumption.

Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. Key words in the main idea: are Pattern: Extended Definition Supporting facts and ideas: Explanation or description: Lunar craters are deep holes visible from the earth. Topic: Lunar craters Main idea: Lunar craters are circular depressions that were created by the impact of various objects on the surface of the Moon. Also in 1608 Galileo made his version of the device. motivation for Scientists and engineers were motivated to look for ways to communicate from computer to computer. Topic: Newton’s invention of the reflector telescope Main idea: Newton invented the reflector telescope because of problems with the refractor telescope. 4. They can be surrounded by mountains. 3. Key words in the main idea: problems Pattern: Problem/Solution Supporting facts and ideas: Problem: Newton noticed that in Galileo’s refraction telescope. 1608. Some are a few feet across. 3. Key words in the main idea: lack of water. Solution: Newton designed the reflector telescope with a curved mirror that concentrated light and reflected it to the eyepiece. scientists are looking for evidence of water on the Moon. Topic: The first optical telescopes Main idea: The first optical telescope was invented in Holland in 1608. others are many hundreds of kilometers across. 44 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. a ring of colors sometimes interfered with viewing. They pushing remain unchanged because the Moon has no atmosphere. 2. until. 1611 He showed his device to guests at a banquet. There are millions of lunar craters. Topic: The lack of water on the Moon Main idea: The lack of water on the Moon limits exploration of the Moon. but was not used successfully until Galileo developed his version in 1610. 1610 Galileo used his telescope. Inc. Key words in the main idea: first. Topic: Large modern optical telescopes Main idea: Today. limits Pattern: Problem/Solution Supporting facts and ideas: Problem: The lack of water is a serious problem for future Moon exploration. there are a number of very large optical telescopes built on hills or mountains in many parts of the world. . Exercise 2. Solution: Rockets are sent to crash into the Moon so that scientists can analyze the vapor and dust created by the crash to see if there is water. pges 144–147 1. for this reason.The space program pushed engineers to develop personal computers. attributed to The invention of the Internet could be attributed to the Apollo program. 1610 Pattern: Sequence Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details 1600s The first optical telescope was invented in a Dutch optical shop 1608 Hans Lippershey tried to sell his invention.

distinctive appearance different while both They use different methods to record information. c 6. but radio waves.Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Topic: Radio telescopes Main idea: Radio telescopes are similar to optical telescopes in some ways. b 9. b 13. c 10. different Pattern: Comparison/Contrast Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details very different Radio telescopes look different from optical telescopes. Radio telescopes use radio receivers to record radio waves. Pattern: Sequence (S) Missing sentence: b 2. Key words in the main idea: a number of Pattern: Listing Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details For example the world’s largest refracting telescope Another reflecting telescope on Mount Palomar in California an even larger reflecting telescope in the Caucasus Mountains A fourth the Keck Telescope in Hawaii 4. a 14. the better it works. a 7. c Exercise 6. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. b 4. a 12. the larger the telescope. Key words in the main idea: similar. Pattern: Sequence (S) Missing sentence: e 4. pages 147–149 1. affectation analysis attribution. pages 151–152 1. Inc. a 11. Exercise 3. but they are different in important ways. Pattern: Problem/Solution (P/S) Missing sentence: a 3. a 5. b 8. c 3. For both kinds. attributive available conclusive ——— environmental exposed ——— investigative motivated potential vehicular Adverb ——— ——— analytically attributively ——— conclusively ——— environmentally ——— ——— ——— ——— potentially ——— Answer Key 45 . a 2. affecting analytical attributable. attribute availability conclusion conduct environment exposure impact investigation motivation potential vehicle Verb achieve affect analyze attribute avail conclude conduct ——— expose impact investigate motivate ——— ——— Adjective achievable affected. Pattern: Comparison/Contrast (C/C) Missing sentence: c Exercise 5. page 153 Noun achievement affect. instead They do not collect light waves. not cameras to take photographs.

conclusive 12. Paragraph 3: Socializing girls like boys cause girls to be more violent. Paragraph 6: Culture can influence certain emotional responses. vehicles 13. Paragraph 5: The fourth stage brings depression and letdown. conducted 9. victims turn to each other. 1. exposed 2. (In some of the following exercises. Paragraph 4: Young children show and perceive emotions through facial expressions. Inc. Paragraph 6: In the final stage. . affected 10. but there are cultural differences in the rules about displaying emotion. Paragraph 5: There is a biological basis to emotional expression. environment 11. achievement 5. Pattern: Sequence Thesis statement: Why are girls fighting more and what can we do to stop them? Pattern: Problem/Solution OR Cause/Effect Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: Recently the roles of men and women have changed and tended to become more equal. Paragraph 4: The entertainment media 46 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Paragraph 3: In the second stage. victims adapt to the changes in their lives.) Exercise 3. impact Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: The first stage is psychological numbness. Pattern: Comparison/Contrast OR Listing Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: All people speak and understand substantially the same “facial language. Exercise 2. Paragraph 4: In the third stage. and confusion. victims continue to lack awareness. Exercise 5. investigating 6. pages 159–160 Topic: Cultural universals in emotional expression Thesis statement: But does raising the eyebrows and rounding the mouth say the same thing in Minneapolis as it does in Madagascar? Much research on emotional expression has centered on such questions. pages 162–163 Thesis statement: Psychologists have theorized that responses to extreme natural and human-caused disasters occur in five stages.Exercise 7. shock. pages 153–154 Exercise 4.” Paragraph 3: People everywhere can recognize at least seven basic emotions. potential 8. pages 161–162 UNIT 5: Reading Longer Passages Effectively Exercise 1. pages 158–159 Topic: Human responses to disaster Thesis statement: Psychologists have theorized that responses to extreme natural and human-caused disasters occur in five stages. there may be more than one correct answer for the pattern. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. motivate 3. page 161 Thesis statement: But does raising the eyebrows and rounding the mouth say the same thing in Minneapolis as it does in Madagascar? Much research on emotional expression has centered on such questions. attribute (attributed) 7. availability 4. analyzed 14.

page 168 Noun abandon.Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. a 8. Paragraph 7: To find a solution. and history of abuse have not changed. poverty. adaptability awareness circumstance(s) collaboration community consequence(s) coordinate. Exercise 6. we have to examine the values of American society and try to change it so it is less harmful to young people. Paragraphs 5 and 6: “Achievers” cherished social recognition and career advancement. Exercise 8. but equally effective paths that lead to psychological maturity for women. pages 166–167 Thesis statement: There are at least three different. adaptable aware circumstantial collaborative communal consequent. Paragraph 7: “Seekers” valued unconventional pursuits. family life and traditional female occupations. so they are not responsible for the increased violence. a 14. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. c 6. pages 163–164 Pattern: Listing Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraphs 3 and 4: “Conservers” sought the security of marriage. a 13. b 7. c 12. abandonment adaptation. consequential ——— ethical focused functional involved. consequentially ——— ethically ——— functionally ——— ——— voluntarily Answer Key 47 . b 11. creativity and selfdiscovery. c 2. coordination ethic(s) focus function involvement phase volunteer Verb abandon adapt ——— ——— collaborate commune ——— coordinate ——— focus function involve phase volunteer Adjective ——— adaptive. Paragraph 5: Factors such as gun availability. a 4. b Exercise 9. encourages girls to be more violent. 1. c 15. Paragraph 6: Solutions used in schools in the past on boys will not work with girls either. Inc. voluntary Adverb ——— adaptively ——— circumstantially collaboratively communally consequently. c 9. involving phased volunteer. a 10. a 3. b 5.

which the reviewer thinks is unscientific. yes 6. 4. pages 174–178 Exercise 5. c 6. c 10. preterm/low birth weight. poor nutrition. c 5. UNIT 6: Skimming 3. positive 3. and respiratory distress syndrome. 2. pages 170–172 2. (Answers will vary for parts C and D. cuts to nutrition programs.) . 7. and conditions that affect birth outcomes such as smoking. 10. lack of prenatal care. 14. a Exercise 6. 8. yes Noun comprehension conviction elimination feature innovation portion promotion source statistic(s) 1. Other causes include: behaviors. The reviewer is most interested in the message of the film about the unhealthiness of McDonald’s food and about the poor eating habits of Americans in general. yes 2. page 180 B. yes 9. causes include congenital abnormalities. 3. yes 8. climbing poverty rates. 15. 1. 11. pages 168–169 1. Inc. negative 2. a 9. yes 4. ethics adapt to aware involved collaborated volunteer consequences Exercise 1. yes 5. Among African Americans. 13. The reviewer is most interested in the director’s point of view and his very personal approach to the subject. and chronic illness. Women receiving less prenatal care or losing their jobs. the higher rates of infant mortality among African-Americans and other ethnic minorities. 12. Disparities among racial and ethnic groups. lifestyles. pages 172–174 1. substance abuse. no 3. 4. page 181 Verb comprehend convince eliminate feature innovate portion promote source ——— Adjective comprehensive convincing ——— ——— innovative ——— promotional ——— statistical Adverb comprehensively convincingly ——— ——— innovatively ——— promotionally ——— statistically 48 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. b 7. coordinate circumstances function community undergone abandon phase focuses (focused) on 9. a 3. (Answers will vary for parts B and C. c 8. 5. an increase in premature births. 6. Exercise 2. 2. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. medical problems. c 4.Exercise 10.) Exercise 3. 7. problems related to complications of pregnancy. The higher number of premature births. c.

pizza was a purely Italian food with a long history in southern Italy.) B. pages 183–184 Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. a 12. 4. c 9. 9. Exercises 2–5. 3. Paragraph 5: Pizza remained a southern Italian specialty until the 1950s and 60s. 5. Paragraph 4: The classic pizza we know now was invented in 1889 in Naples. Exercise 1. (Answers will vary. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. c Answer Key 49 . they brought pineapples from Central and South America to other parts of the world. Pattern: Sequence Thesis statement: Before the 1950s. Inc. when they became more easily available. pages 191–192 1. b 7. convince source statistics portions feature 6. Paragraph 6: Pizza is so common in so many countries that its Italian origins are often forgotten. pages 181–182 1. the Germans the Russians less than 5 percent about 8 percent Exercise 6. pages 193–194 A. b 5. c 2. a 6. c 4. when it became popular in other parts of Italy. b 11. Pattern: Sequence Thesis statement: The pineapple has been cultivated and enjoyed by humans for thousands of years. 10. a 8. 8.) Example. 4. pages 196–197 1. 3.Exercise 7. innovate comprehensive promoter eliminated guidelines UNIT 7: Study Reading Example. a 3. 1. 2. a 10. Hispanic women White men African-American men White women Exercise 8. pages 187–191 (Answers will vary. Europeans discovered the pineapple and fell in love with it. 4. Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: In the fifteenth century. 7. Paragraph 3: In the sixteenth century. 2. 3. pages 185–186 Paragraph 3: Early pizza had no tomatoes because there were no tomatoes in Europe until the sixteenth century. Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: Pizza may have originated in Greece and then spread to Italy. Paragraph 4: Pineapples remained a luxury food until the early twentieth century. 2.

10. Summary sentence: Throughout history. These species depend on the habitat of the wetlands for survival. Main idea: Until recently. distinctive. people have begun to realize that wetlands are valuable. wetlands were considered to be land that was wasted and could be put to better use for human activity. Main idea: A comparison of the effects of a flood in two cities has led city planners and politicians to recognize that wetlands are a valuable defense against flooding. but recently. 6.Exercise 9. pose regulation ——— emerge extract facilitate major pose regulate ——— ——— ——— ——— ——— ——— ——— virtually . Wetlands have been converted into land that could be used for human activity. containing an immense variety of animal and plant species that depend on the detritus (mixture of water and organic material) in the wetland habitat. Pattern: Extended Definition Supporting facts and ideas: They contain an immense variety of animal and plant species. Throughout history. and Newburyport. pages 198–199 1. Summary sentence: Wetlands are very productive ecosystems. 2. 4. larger animals that feed on them. but Newburyport 50 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Wetlands have a rich mixture of water and organic material—detritus. Pattern: Sequence Supporting facts and ideas: Wetlands are areas of land covered by water all or part of the year. 3. 5. Haverhill suffered lots of damage from flooding. a lot of rain fell on two cities in Massachusetts. Inc. 12. Pattern: Comparison/Contrast Supporting facts and ideas: In 2006. 2. page 198 Noun collapse construction core distinction Verb collapse construct core distinguish Adjective collapsible constructive ——— distinct. wetlands are not wastelands at all. which attract other. This feeds many small animals. 8. 11. emergence extraction. wetlands have been drained and filled. Main idea: From a biological point of view. but are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. emerged constructed core adjacent collapsed extract UNIT 8: Summarizing Exercise 1. dishtinguishable distinguishing emergent. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. extract facilitation major. people have considered wetlands to be land that was wasted and could be put to better use. 3. Haverhill. majority position. regulatory virtual Adverb ——— constructively ——— distinctively Exercise 10. distinguished. emerging extractive facilitating major ——— regulation. pages 201–203 1. 9. distinction regulated virtually posed facilitate major 7. Now people are realizing that wetlands are valuable.

pages 204–205 Pattern: Cause/Effect Summary of paragraph 1: In the 1960s. but the city of Newburyport did not flood because the floodwaters could spread out and be absorbed by the wetlands. In Haverhill. pages 203–204 Summary paragraph: Throughout history. First. but the effort failed and the plan was dropped. Wetland plants and soil absorbed water. Inc. Exercise 4. where the city of Haverhill flooded because its wetlands had been developed. A new type of pesticide usually gives positive results at first. Summary of paragraph 3: Pesticide resistance is an example of how organisms adapt to their environment through the process of natural selection and change over time. Second. In Haverhill. Exercise 2. using a pesticide called DDT. in Newburyport. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. Pesticide resistance is an example of how organisms adapt to their environments through the process of natural selection and change over time. Summary paragraph: In the 1960s. Flood waters could spread out in the wetlands. the area along the river has been developed and covered with buildings. but the effort failed and the plan was dropped. Exercise 3. but the city of Newburyport did not flood because the floodwaters could spread out and be absorbed by the wetlands. Summary of paragraph 2: A new type of pesticide usually gives positive results at first. pages 206–208 A. scientists and WHO made a big effort to eradicate mosquitoes and malaria using a pesticide called DDT.Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. as was demonstrated in Massachusetts in 2006. Both cities are built along the Merrimack River. the area along the river has remained marshland (wetlands). did not. people have considered wetlands to be land that was wasted and could be put to better use for human activity. as was demonstrated in Massachusetts in 2006. but then the insects become resistant to the pesticide and it becomes less effective. people have begun to realize that wetlands are a valuable part of the environment for two reasons. the water could not spread out so it rose over the banks and flooded the city. but then the insects become resistant to the pesticide and it becomes less effective. wetlands are very productive ecosystems. in recent years. wetlands are a valuable defense against flooding. Part 2: paragraphs 4 through 5 Part 3: paragraphs 6 through 8 Thesis: But what Spain has in abundance compared with northern European nations— apart from more sun—is what the researchers in this study call social support structures. The city of Haverhill flooded because its wetlands had been developed. Summary sentence: Wetlands are a valuable defense against flooding. scientists and WHO made a huge effort to eradicate mosquitoes and malaria. However. Pattern: Cause/Effect Part 1—Topic: A study of the prevalence of depression in Europe Summary sentence: One of the most striking results of a study about the prevalence of depression in Europe is the geographical distribution and the fact that Thesis: How could a tiny mosquito thwart the best efforts of a large group of wellfunded scientists? Answer Key 51 . containing an immense variety of animal and plant species that depend on the detritus (mixture of water and organic material) in the wetland habitat.

Then. and how they can help overcome negative feelings like anger and depression. C. more densely settled and more diverse than earlier cities. but may use two sentences if necessary. Spain has a lower rate of depression because it has more social support structures.000 years ago. Summary paragraph: Because of technological advances that allowed farming about 10. which was larger. Then. Part 3—Topic: Metropolis and megalopolis Pattern: Extended Definition AND Sequence of Events Summary sentence(s): In the twentieth century. Students should be as concise as possible and aim for one sentence. the automobile allowed wealthier classes to move to the suburbs. more densely settled and more diverse than earlier . and the development of the industrial city. The Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led to an increase in population. the displacement of people from rural to urban areas and the development of the industrial city. the first cities emerged. though these were relatively small for various reasons. that is. industrial. people began to settle in villages. with further advances about 5. about 5. 52 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.) A. Part 2—Topic: Spain’s social support structures Summary sentence: According to the study. and how they can help overcome negative feelings like anger and depression. they settled into villages about 10. the displacement of people from rural to urban areas. Spain has a lower rate of depression because it has more social support structures.Exercise 5. pages 209–211 (Textbook passages may contain complex ideas that do not fit easily into a one-sentence summary. Summary paragraph: One of the most striking results of a study about the prevalence of depression in Europe is the geographical distribution and the fact that there is much less depression in Spain than in northern Europe. the author has learned about the importance of family ties in Spanish daily life. which was larger. Today most Americans live in a metropolis (a large urban area that includes a city and its surrounding suburbs). Statement of purpose: We can identify three periods in their history: the preindustrial. the first cities emerged. cities began to spread outward. Inc. that is. Part 1—Topic: The preindustrial city Pattern: Cause/Effect AND Sequence Summary sentence(s): Because of technological advances that allowed people to begin farming.S. though these were small for various reasons. B. B. or even a megalopolis (an area in which many metropolises merge). According to the study. families tend to stay together and to help each other through problems. due to further technological advances. so U.000 years ago.000 years ago. Part 2—Topic: The industrial city Pattern: Cause/Effect Summary sentence(s): The Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led to an increase in population. families tend to stay together and to help each other through problems. Part 3—Topic: Examples of family solidarity from the author’s experience Summary sentence: From his own experiences living in Spain. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. From his own experiences living in Spain. the author has learned about the importance of family ties in Spanish daily life.000 years ago. and metropolitanmegalopolitan stages. there is much less depression in Spain than in northern Europe.

the children suffered similar damage to their social and mental development. a 8. transmittal Answer Key 53 . Summary paragraph: Since researchers cannot subject human beings to experimental isolation. funding predominance ——— transmission. c 9. estimation fund. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. Exercise 8. Exercise 6. These cases demonstrate the importance of social experience in human development. B. revealed that the monkeys showed permanent negative effects after six months of isolation. Part 2—Topic: Isolated children Pattern: Listing Summary sentence(s): In two cases where children grew up in isolation (Anna and Genie). c 3. Research on infant monkeys. page 212 Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and in spite of later socialization and care. pages 214–215 Verb document ——— enable estimate fund predominate ——— transmit Adjective documentary dynamic enabling estimated well-funded predominant subsequent transmittable Adverb ——— dynamically ——— ——— ——— predominantly subsequently ——— Noun document. Part 1—Topic: Research with infant monkeys Pattern: Cause/Effect Summary sentence(s): The Harlows’ research on infant monkeys. These cases demonstrate the importance of social experience in human development. They suffered less developmental harm if they received some physical contact (even artificial) or if the period was shorter. In the twentieth century. so U. the damage was permanent. whose behavior is similar to humans’. b 6. b 5. A. In two cases where children grew up in isolation (Anna and Genie). documentation dynamics enabler estimate. pages 213–214 1. b 4. they have studied monkeys and cases of isolated children. or even a megalopolis (an area in which many metropolises merge). cities began to spread outward. and in spite of later socialization and care. whose behavior is similar to humans’. a Exercise 9. the automobile allowed wealthier classes to move to the suburbs.S. Today most Americans live in a metropolis (a large urban area that includes a city and its surrounding suburbs). revealed that the monkeys showed permanent negative effects after six months of social isolation. a 7.cities. They suffered less developmental harm if they received some physical contact (even artificial) or if the period was shorter. a 2. the damage was permanent. the children suffered similar damage to their social and mental development.

the news organization. pages 218–220 Online article 1 1. Yes. URLs b. as for example.” 2. and d. reacted to the story.” Exercise 5. 7. or National Health Service (Great Britain) in Kent and Medway. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. .” 3. (Answers will vary. so they probably include information about him. Yes. 9. to inform readers about the health aspects of caffeine (Answers will vary for part B. .” or when he uses exaggerated language like “I find it appalling to sometimes get responses within a minute . belongs to the NHS.) 5. since it is someone’s point of view. The language includes many phrases that show the author is trying to convince readers: “perhaps we should. page 217 Exercise 3. page 223 Exercise 2. The Mirror is the web site for the Daily Mirror. page 215 1. 3. 3. URL b. it could give an idea of how this person. c. to entertain the reader 2. transmitted funds subsequent goal enabled 6. because it includes “mirror. it belongs to an individual because it includes the name and the word “blog. .co. probably provide reliable information. There may be useful information here about the Piano Man. (Answers will vary. predominant dynamics document estimated UNIT 9: Critical Reading Exercise 1.” 1. 4. 5. No. 3. URL c.” “Co. Online article 2 1. URL d. all include “piano man” in the web address. you would need to check the information against other sources.” Exercise 4. pages 224–225 A. 1. so its information may be less reliable.) 54 Answer Key Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.” is an abbreviation for “company.” “it might be better. URL a. You can’t tell from this information. to persuade readers that performanceenhancing drugs should be permitted 2. Jonathan James probably wrote it. to persuade readers to buy this coffee 2. Yes. . 8. a British tabloid (sensationalist newspaper). belongs to CNN. 4. but since this newspaper tends to emphasize the sensational aspects of an event. belongs to a newspaper called The Mirror. URLs b. and d. You would need to look at the home page of the web site and see whether it is a tabloid or a newspaper that publishes articles about serious news.. Inc. belongs to an individual because it includes the name of a person “Jonathan James” and it includes the word “blog. 2. 2. to inform readers about Fair Trade Certified coffee and indirectly to persuade them to buy it 3. and perhaps others.” “should be allowed. . 4. The tone is informal. Stephen Moyes and Jon Kaila 2.) 5. and the writer uses language to catch your attention and make you laugh. page 222 1..Exercise 10. 1. when he says “The stuff is like kudzu. 4. Probably not.” and “Maybe the answer is to .

” “We should blame ourselves. The writer seems to be biased since he/she only presents one side of the issue. The writer’s purpose is to inform. The writer seems biased against the smoking bans. but never quotes the workers or anyone on their side.” 4. the tone and language is neutral. The writer is clearly against the policy. c 10.” 4.” and “positive effect. . biased b. emphasizing the fact that the smoking bans may not be legally acceptable because they violate workers’ rights. 2. 2. (Answers will vary.” and “raids by the lifestyle police. The writer uses phrases such as “at last. Inc. pages 228–229 2. a 7. The article includes strong negative language: “goes too far. The writer may have some bias in favor of the company policy because he/she quotes the company president twice. against it Article 2 1. The writer does not think that fast food is responsible for Americans being overweight. 3. The language includes many non-neutral words: “extreme trend. It argues against the new WHO policy of not hiring people who are smokers. and it ends with a quotation that gives a neutral summary of the issue. 3. The writer uses sentences such as “. a 12.” “destructive habit.) Paragraph 2 1.” “in a worrisome way. Paragraph 1 1. Exercise 10. She presents both sides of the issue. It describes a trend (a number of companies with bans against off-duty smoking) and the issues connected with it. Article 3 1. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. .” “zero-tolerance. The article presents both sides. pages 234–235 1. c 6. She is against the smoking bans. She presents more information and quotations in support of people who are against the smoking ban.” “class of unemployable citizens. b 11.” “control. b 4. pages 229–231 Article 1 1.” 3. The writer is in favor of laws that ban smoking in public places. a 3. but she uses language that is clearly intended to persuade readers.Exercise 6. It describes an event (Weyco’s firing of four workers) and explains how this sets a legal precedent that could raise important issues. Through the tone and language.” “crackdown. pages 226–227 Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 3. The writer is mostly neutral since the article presents both sides of the issue. we can’t blame the restaurants. 2. (Answers will vary. a 8. 2. neutral 3. b 9. one can tell the writer is against the ban and is persuading the readers that it’s wrong. Exercise 8.” and “No one forces us to buy those hamburgers!” 3. a 5. a.” “fear.” “discriminating.) Exercise 7. The writer’s purpose is to persuade. The writer’s purpose is to inform and persuade at the same time. c 2.” “troubling. c Answer Key 55 . 4. 2. a.

/ Their importance / in early human settlements / is shown / by the evidence / of dog graves / from 12. Inc.500 years ago / in Israel. / But until now. 4. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. / Other animals / were tamed before cats. Exercise 12.) Archeologists have found / the earliest known evidence / of a special connection / between humans and cats. / the first evidence / of household cats / came from Egypt / only 4. / These cats probably stayed / around human villages / to catch the mice and rats / attracted by / the supplies of food. every year 3. / seems to indicate / that the cats / in this village / were tamed / and had some special role / to play / in human activities / or a special relationship / with certain individuals. page 244 A. page 236 1. / The new find on Cyprus. / lay the bones / of a young cat. 1. discriminatory ——— preceding random submissive suspended. / The first dogs / (actually a type of wolf) / are known to have lived with humans / as early as 15. / Less than a meter (3 feet) away.000 years ago. site policy precedent status violation challenge 7. 8. but the phrases must be meaningful. / which had clearly / been handled with care.) 56 Answer Key . page 243 (Answers may vary. / These bones / showed no signs / of having been butchered / for eating.Exercise 11. bouquets of flowers (Answers will vary for part B. the marches 5. / otherwise. / in another grave / almost certainly / made at the same time. seashells and other items. page 235 Noun challenge confirmation discrimination issue precedent randomization submission suspension violation Verb challenge confirm discriminate issue precede randomize submit suspend violate Adjective challenging confirmed discriminating. / Last month in Cyprus / they discovered the grave / of a 30year-old villager / who died 9. 10. / Exercise 3. 5. 2. / however. / With the body. / And since they were / in the right places / in the skeleton.000 years ago.500 years ago. / the animal / must have been buried / soon after death. 12. suspenseful ——— Adverb challengingly ——— ——— ——— ——— randomly submissively ——— ——— Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. no 2. 3. / Cat bones / have been found before / near early human settlements. issues random discriminated suspended confirmed submit Part 4: Reading Faster UNIT 1: Learning to Read Faster Exercise 2. / The goat was probably / the first animal / to produce milk for humans. / is very exciting / for archaeologists. / around 10. / The discovery / of the skeleton / of this cat. 9. 6. / but scientists believe / they belonged to wild cats. 11. / the bones / would have been taken / by other animals.000 years ago. / they found / jewelry. children from the Park School in Roxbury 4.

Inc. b 6. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. d 4. UNIT 3: People Who Have Made a Difference Passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 d c b d b a 2 c b a b d c Questions 3 4 5 b d c a a d a b a c a a b c c a c a 6 a a d c c b 7 d a a b a d 8 a d a d a b UNIT 4: Inventions That Are Changing Our Lives Passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 c a d c d b 2 a c b d a a Questions 3 4 5 b b a c b b a c b a b c b d d a c d 6 a b b b b c 7 b a a b a b 8 c a c d b b Answer Key 57 . a 3. d UNIT 2: New Technology and Its Impact Around the World Passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 b c c a c d 2 a a a d d c Questions 3 4 5 b d d b b b d b a b a b c a b d a d 6 a a a b d a 7 a b b a b b 8 c c d b b b Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.Timed Reading Example.) 7. a (Answers will vary for parts D–F. pages 248–251 C. c 2. b 5. 1. a 8.

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