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Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD CHEMISTRY PROJECT WORK INVESTIGATORY PROJECT Name: Taher Shabbir Hussain Class:

XII-B School: Indian Public School Year: 2009 -2010 STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD-STUFFS

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Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD Certified to be the bonafide work done by Mr. / Miss in the _ TAHER SHABBIR HUSSAIN of class XII B_________

CHEMISTRY LAB _ __ during the year ___2009-2010__ CHEMISTRY ___ INDIAN PUBLIC SCHOOL Salmiya-Kuwait Date _______________________________ P.G.T. in __ Submitted for ALL INDIA SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE PRACTICAL Examination held in ____CHEMISTRY LAB Salmiya , Kuwait. _ at INDIAN PUBLIC SCHOOL Examiner Date _______________ Seal 3|P a ge

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry mentor Mrs. Shirley Zachariah, for her vital support, guidance and encouragement without which this project would not have come forth. I would also like to express my gratitude to the lab assistant Mrs. Julie Sam for her support during the making of this proj ect. 4|P a ge

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD S.No. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Contents Objective Introduction Theory Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Re sult Conclusion Bibliography Page No. 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 5|P a ge

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD The Objective of this project is to study some of the common food adulterants pr esent in different food stuffs. 6|P a ge

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Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD Adulteration in food is normally present in its most crude form; prohibited subs tances are either added or partly or wholly substituted. Normally the contaminat ion/adulteration in food is done either for financial gain or due to carelessnes s and lack in proper hygienic condition of processing, storing, transportation a nd marketing. This ultimately results that the consumer is either cheated or oft en become victim of diseases. Such types of adulteration are quite common in dev eloping countries or backward countries. It is equally important for the consume r to know the common adulterants and their effect on health. 8|P a ge

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD The increasing number of food producers and the outstanding amount of import foo dstuffs enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers. To differentiate t hose who take advantage of legal rules from the ones who commit food adulteratio n is very difficult. The consciousness of consumers would be crucial. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. So we need simple screening tests for their detection. In the past few decades, adulteration of food has become one of the serious problems. Consu mption of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer, diarrhoea, asthm a, ulcers, etc. Majority of fats, oils and butter are paraffin wax, castor oil a nd hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder is mixed with brick powder and pepper is mixe d with dried papaya seeds. These adulterants can be easily identified by simple chemical tests. Several agencies have been set up by the Government of India to remove adulterants from food stuffs. AGMARK - acronym for agricultural marketing ....this organization certifies food products for their quality. Its objective i s to promote the Grading and Standardization of agricultural and allied commodit ies. 9|P a ge

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD To detect the presence of adulterants in fat, oil and butter. REQUIREMENTS Test-tube, acetic anhydride, conc. H2SO4, acetic acid, conc. HNO3. PROCEDURE Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax, hydrocarb ons, dyes and argemone oil. These are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee Heat small amount of vegetable gh ee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acet ic anhydride indicates the presence of wax or hydrocarbons. Adulteration of dyes in fat Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. sulphuric acid and 4mL of acetic acid. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat. Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils To small amount of oil in a test-tu be, add few drops of conc. HNO3 and shake. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil. (ii) (iii) 10 | P a g e

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar REQUIREMENTS Test-tubes, dil. HCl. PROCEDURE Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other insoluble substances which are detected as follows : (i) Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little water. Pure sugar dissolves in water bu t insoluble impurities do not dissolve. Adulteration of chalk powder, washing so da in sugar To small amount of sugar in a test-tube, add few drops of dil. HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar. (ii) 11 | P a g e

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder, turmeric powd er and pepper REQUIREMENTS Test-tubes, conc. HCl, dil. HNO3, KI solution PROCEDURE Common adul terants present in chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper are red coloured le ad salts, yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds respectively. They are detect ed as follows : (i) Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of potassiu m iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead sa lts in chilli powder. Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. HCl. Appearance of magenta colour shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder. Adulteration of brick powd er in red chilli powder Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker co ntaining water. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floa ts over water. Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Dried p apaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bott om. (ii) (iii) (iv) 12 | P a g e

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD EXPT. NO. 1. EXPERIMENT Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee 2. Adulteration of dyes in fat Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils Adultera tion of various insoluble substances in sugar 3. 4. PROCEDURE Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicate the presence of wax or hydrocarbon. Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. H2SO4 and 4m L of acetic acid. To small amount of oil in a test tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 & shake. Take small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it with little water. OBSERVATION Appearance of oil floating on the surface. Appearance of pink colour. No red colour observed Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Adulteration of chalk To small amount of sugar in a No brisk powder, washing sod a test tube, add a few drops of effervescence in sugar dil. HCl. observed. Adeul teration of To sample of turmeric Appearance of yellow lead salts to powder, add conc. HCl. magenta colour turmeric powder Adulteration of red To a sample of ch illi powder, No yellow ppt. lead salts in chilli add dil. HNO3. Filter the powde r solution and add 2 drops of KI solution to the filtrate. Adulteration of brick Add small amount of given Brick powder settles powder in chilli red chilli powd er in a beaker at the bottom while powder containing water. pure chilli powder f loats over water. Adulteration of dried Add small amount of sample Dried papaya seeds papaya seeds in of pepper to beaker being lighter float pepper containing water and stir over water while with a glass rod. pure pepper settles at the bot tom. 13 | P a g e

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to m ake sure that such foods do not cause any health hazard. It is not possible to e nsure wholesome food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm level. However, visual examination of the food before purchase ma kes sure to ensure absence of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters, etc. Ther efore, due care taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thor oughly examining can be of great help. Secondly, label declaration on packed foo d is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value. It also h elps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of best before use. Th e consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and food being prep ared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be avoided . It is always better to buy certified food from reputed shop. 14 | P a g e

Chemistry Project on STUDY OF ADULTERANTS IN FOOD ENCARTA ENCYCLOPEDIA 2009 www.wikipedia.com www.answers.com www.google.com 15 | P a g e