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DGD&D 18/34/40

Army Code 71656

ARMY FIELD MANUAL VOLUME 2 - OPERATIONS IN SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTS

PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

This publication replaces AFM Vol IV Part 4 AC 71346 (Pt4) 1992

1996
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CONDITIONS OF RELEASE Copyright This work is Crown copyright and the intellectual property rights for this publication belong exclusively to the Ministry of Defence (MOD). No material or information contained in this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form outside MOD establishments except as authorised by both the sponsor and the MOD where appropriate. This document is issued for the information of such persons who need to know its contents in the course of their official duties. Any person finding this document should hand it into a British Forces unit or to a British police station for its safe return to the MINISTRY OF DEFENCE, D MOD SY, LONDON SW1A 2HB, with particulars of how and where found. THE UNAUTHORIZED RETENTION OR DESTRUCTION OF THIS DOCUMENT COULD BE AN OFFENCE UNDER THE OFFICIAL SECRETS ACTS OF 1911-1989. This publication is issued under the overall direction of the CGS. It is an MOD Approved Code of Practice (ACOP). Where issues of health and safety are concerned it takes into account the provisions of the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974. The contents provide clear military information concerning the most up to date experience and best practice available for commanders and troops to use in their operations and training. If you are prosecuted for a breach of health and safety law, and it is proved that you have not followed the relevant provisions of the ACOP, a court may find you criminally liable unless you can show that you have complied with the requirements of health and safety legislation since it is a breach of this legislation which renders a person criminally liable. Breaches or omissions of the ACOP could result in disciplinary action under the provisions of the Army Act.

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"Climate is what you expect, but weather is what you get."


Anonymous

"This is sheer torture for the troops, and for our cause it is tragedy, for the enemy is gaining time, and in spite of all our plans we are being carried deeper into winter. It really makes me sad. The best of intentions are wrecked by the weather. The unique opportunity to launch a really great offensive recedes further and further, and I doubt if it will ever recur. God alone knows how things will turn out. One must just hope and keep one's spirits up, but at the moment it is a great test."
Colonel General Heinz Guderian, November 1941, quoted in von Mullenthin's book, German Generals of World War II, 1977

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PREFACE 1. Cold weather can occur anywhere and often unexpectedly. In such conditions some tasks become difficult and some are impossible to achieve. The tempo of operations slows down, time becomes a more critical factor and the efforts required to overcome a hostile environment can sometimes be more urgent than the defeat of an enemy. Armies not trained and equipped for these conditions will be unable to operate effectively; in such circumstances the Red Army took time to learn the hard lessons following its almost disastrous campaign against Finland in 1939/40. By contrast, the much smaller Finnish Army appeared to thrive on fighting in such conditions and was able to go onto the offensive at the very time when the Russians were increasingly unable to cope. The problem for most armies is that opportunities to train and operate in areas of extreme cold can be limited, although for the British Army Scotland can, in the right conditions, provide a suitable environment. Most units only experience the effects of the cold for comparatively short periods of time and exercises are more likely to be halted for safety reasons rather than extended to take advantage of such conditions. The geographical scope of this publication covers all areas where cold conditions and cold weather occurs. This could include both polar regions and the geographical regions between the polar areas and temperate zones. Readers should note that the UK is a signatory of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 whereby all territorial claims in that polar area are held in abeyance in the interests of universal cooperation for scientific purposes. The difference between the north and south polar regions is that the antarctic is a continental land mass whereas the arctic is a large floating ice pack. Both have different geographical and climatic features. The essential doctrine and principles for military operations do not change because of the altered climatic conditions and thus the essential purpose of this AFM is to complement AFM Vol 1 Part 1 Battlegroup Tactics. This publication records those tactical factors that need greater emphasis when cold weather conditions apply. It is worth recording that cold weather conditions can affect many temperate zones and areas. Indeed, the large majority of military operations that have occurred in regions where cold weather conditions apply have not had to deal with the effects of deep snow or of plunging temperatures at all. As those who have served in the Falklands, Bosnia and many places elsewhere will testify that freezing rain, fog, hard frost and ice, coupled with cold winds, all contribute to making operations more complicated and definitely within the category of cold weather operations.

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Cold Weather Operations is split into three Parts. Part A deals with Combined Arms Operations, the aim of which is to provide a guide for use by commanders and staff in units and formations up to formation level when operating in cold weather conditions. It describes the effects that this environment will have on combat operations, the functions in combat, the employment of weapon systems and the tactics used by the various combat arms.

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Part B deals with the aspects of operations in cold weather conditions that concern the individual, how he survives, lives and operates in these regions. It provides some tactical features about movement on foot, on skis, over ice, for driving vehicles in cold conditions and basic tactical features about operating in such conditions at section and platoon level. Part B also contains some details about training for operations in these circumstances. Part C is a historical supplement which gives an insight into how soldiers and commanders have coped with cold weather conditions in previous campaigns. Nuclear and biological weapons have not been used in these environmental conditions; chemical weapons have been used in the First World War and later in 1918/19 in the Archangel region of Russia. The prospect of their use in the future is considered to be remote. Nevertheless, this may change, given the growing proliferation of nuclear weapons systems and the scope for rapidly producing biological and chemical agents. Many nations already have the ability to produce chemical and biological agents. It would be wrong to discount the possible use of these weapons, or to overlook the accumulated knowledge gained about the effects of these weapons on combat operations in these conditions. These points are emphasised at greater length in Chapter 3 of Part A.

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10. The implications surrounding the use of technology which became more apparent in the Gulf War of 1991 have not been properly evaluated for cold weather conditions at formation and unit level. While there are obvious advantages to be gained from the coordinated use of such devices as Remote Ground Sensors (RGS), Thermal Imagery (TI) and Night Vision Goggles (NVG), the tactical implications of their use in cold weather conditions have not been tested in battle conditions; neither have the logistic burdens of additional equipment resupply and maintenance. Once more information has been gained, amendments and additions to this publication can be made. The main initial deduction that can be derived from these potential technical advances is that they will need to be tested properly in a cold weather environment during any period of acclimatization for troops, which could lengthen the overall time it takes to reach overall readiness for operations. 11. In summary environmental influences determine, in large measure, the outcome of combat in cold regions. The side that best adapts to and uses these influences will be victorious. Wars fought in cold regions have been among the most brutal in history and with incomprehensible suffering and death. Preparation, knowledge and training are the requisites for success.

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PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

PART A PART B PART C

COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS SKILLS, DRILLS AND MINOR TACTICS HISTORICAL SUPPLEMENT

PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

PART A COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS

ARMY FIELD MANUAL VOLUME 2 PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

PART A

COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 - THE ENVIRONMENT Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Annex A. B. C. Defining Cold Weather Climatic Conditions Terrain Cold Weather Areas of the World Cold Weather Categories of the World Climatic Conditions in Individual Countries

CHAPTER 2 - OPERATIONAL FACTORS IN COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 The Potential Threat Joint and Combined Operations Command, Control and Communications The Conduct of Operations The Functions in Combat Surveillance and Target Acquisition

CHAPTER 3 - NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Annex A. General Points The Effects of Nuclear Weapons The Effects of Biological and Chemical Weapons Protection Against the Effects of NBC Weapons The Effect of NBC Weapons on Operations Chemical Agent Freezing Points

CHAPTER 4 - TACTICAL FACTORS IN COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Common Features of Cold Weather Operations Offensive Operations Defensive Operations Delaying Operations Transitional Phases The Effects of Cold Weather on the Combat and Combat Support Arms Armour (including Armoured Reconnaissance) Artillery (including Air Defence Artillery) Engineers Signals Infantry Army Aviation The Effects of Cold Weather on Other Services Cold Weather Flying Limitations

Section 7 Section 8 Section 9 Section 10 Section 11 Section 12 Section 13 Annex

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CHAPTER 5 - COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT (CSS) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Annex A. Basic CSS Considerations CSS Planning G1 and G5 Considerations Key Combat Support Factors in Cold Weather Operations

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CHAPTER 1 THE ENVIRONMENT SECTION 1 - DEFINING COLD WEATHER 1. A cold climate (according to the Koppen classification system) is a climate in which the average temperature of the coldest month is below 3 oC and the minimum temperature of the warmest month is 10 oC. This, however, is a scientific definition that merely indicates average conditions that, in themselves, represent perfectly acceptable environments in which to conduct operations. The problem lies, however, with extreme conditions that not only have an affect on terrain but also on man and his equipment. To compound the problem of finding a useful definition for cold weather are that these extreme conditions are not confined merely to those areas where average temperatures are low. They can occur in an otherwise temperate area and it is here that a sudden and extreme change can be the most dangerous. Anyone who has trained in Canada will know how unpredictable the weather can be. 'Wait five minutes and the weather will change' is a local saying in Alberta. Training in northern Scotland, the Brecon Beacons or on the West German plain can be extremely cold when certain weather conditions apply. It is for this reason that the term 'cold weather' has replaced 'cold climate' as a means of defining the combined weather and climatic conditions needed to make up the generic term 'cold weather operations'. The map at Annex A to this Chapter shows the cold weather regions of the world as defined by the Koppen classification system. More specific guidance on the cold weather categories of the world and further details of climatic conditions in individual countries are given in Annexes B and C to this Chapter respectively.

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SECTION 2 - CLIMATIC CONDITIONS General Points 6. Conditions vary considerably and are affected by a number of factors such as the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream. Weather, by its nature, is unpredictable and low temperature alone does not necessarily make an environment hostile. It is often the combination of conditions that causes cold weather to become a serious limiting factor on military operations. The weather conditions outlined in this Section are described in generic terms. Their occurrence (individually or collectively) will not be confined to any specific areas; they can occur almost anywhere in the world. Temperature 8. Cold regions occur north of 40 degrees latitude in North America and 50 degrees latitude in Eurasia (and the same for Antarctica in the southern hemisphere). These regions are the result of specific climate controls, those of latitude, land-water contrast, mountains, ocean currents and altitude. These controls affect temperature and moisture and thus atmospheric pressure and wind. It is a region's latitude and hence its influence on incoming solar radiation which determines the region's temperature, and is a result of solar intensity and duration. Temperature, the dominant climatic element, controls moisture and pressure, which in turn determine wind. Temperatures in cold regions can get so low that metals become brittle, liquids become solid, and humans die. Temperatures as low as -75 degrees Centigrade have been recorded in the middle of Siberia. Snow cover reduces temperature in winter. A blanket of snow can insulate and retain energy the ground has absorbed, but it can also reflect solar radiation so that the ground will absorb less than 10 percent of the available winter energy. Temperature is also responsible for atmospheric moisture, which leads to precipitation. Higher temperatures allow for evaporation and for large quantities of moisture in the air, while lower temperatures inhibit both evaporation and the air's capacity to hold moisture. Since cold air cannot

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hold much moisture, even a small amount results in a high percentage; when relative humidity reaches 100 percent, condensation results in dew, fog and clouds. With further cooling, precipitation occurs in the form of rain, sleet, hail, or snow. 12. In cold regions, there is little evaporation. Some precipitation, however, does occur along coastal areas and this accounts for the frequent fog and snow in these areas. Surprisingly, cold regions get nearly the same low amounts of precipitation as hot desert areas, especially polar climates where the average precipitation is less than ten inches a year. Wind Chill 13. A light breeze on a summer's day can be a pleasant experience because it has a cooling effect on the body. If, however, the atmospheric temperature is already low, a wind will quickly lower the body temperature further. The higher the wind, the quicker heat will be lost and the colder the body will become. This phenomenon is known as wind chill and it can be one of the main contributors to cold weather casualties. If a soldier is riding in an open vehicle moving at 20 miles per hour into a wind of 10 miles per hour with a temperature of -10 degrees Centigrade, the wind chill factor will be -20 degrees, and that soldier's exposed flesh will freeze in one minute. The blast from propellers and rotors creates the same situation. Strong wind kick up debris that can cause injury to soldiers. Trees and structures blown down by strong winds also cause injuries. Winds are responsible also for blizzard conditions that can disorient soldiers, isolate positions, and lead to life-threatening situations. A wind chill chart is shown in Section B of this Manual. Snow 15. The main effect of snow will be to limit mobility and create concealment problems; in the short term equipment and tracks will be hard to conceal, but after a snowfall the opposite occurs, degrading friendly Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RISTA) capabilities. In general, the lower the temperature, the drier and less consolidated the snow will be. As the temperature rises so the snow will compact more easily. Temperatures above freezing will cause wet snow conditions while lowered night temperatures will re-freeze it, causing icy crusts on the surface. 1 - 3

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Sunlight can melt snow even if the air temperature is below freezing. When this occurs, dry powder snow is generally found in shaded areas and wet snow in sunlit areas. Movement from one area to another will be difficult because the wet snow will freeze to skis, snowshoes and footwear. Wind can compact snow to create a hard surface. Snow can also be carried by wind in the form of drifts. The higher the wind velocity and the lighter the snow, the greater the tendency to drift. This can also have a considerable effect on mobility. As the wind increases, so also will the wind chill factor. Precipitation

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Precipitation in the form of rain, sleet or snow is formed by condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere. Precipitation can occur anywhere in a cold weather region. Altitude

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The effect of altitude on climate and weather is unpredictable. Gentle breezes can become hurricane force winds in minutes at higher altitudes. The weather can change so much that in the same place in quick succession there may be hot sun and cool shade, chill wind and calm, thick fog or clear visibility, storms of rain or snow and then perhaps hot sun again in a single day. Mountain environments are covered in AFM Mountain Operations but it should be noted that at higher altitudes there is less oxygen in the air and lower atmospheric pressures, which can cause altitude sickness and provide a range of additional military complications. Visibility and Glare

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Fog. Fog is caused by the meeting of air currents of different humidity and temperature. The coastal regions of the arctic countries, particularly those on the Atlantic and Pacific, are areas of frequent fog. These fogs are thick and low lying but seldom extend far inland or out to sea. Ice Fog. Ice fog often occurs around inhabited areas when temperatures drop below -37C. It is caused by the production of water vapour by human or vehicle activity together with the inability of stagnant air at such low

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temperatures to hold the vapour. The result is a fog which can hang over a body of troops, bivouac areas, vehicle parks and airfields. Ice fog can sometimes give positions away and will degrade night vision devices. 23.

White-Out. White-out is a milky atmospheric phenomenon in which the observer appears to be engulfed in a uniformly white glow. Neither shadows, horizon nor clouds are discernible and sense of depth and orientation are lost. White-out occurs when snow is covered by an overcast sky, typically when cloud has descended to ground level, and the effect on the individual is to engender a feeling of uncertainty. White-out is rarely encountered except by those venturing onto mountains in winter. Grey-Out. Grey-out occurs over a snow covered surface during twilight conditions or when the sun is close to the horizon. The surroundings become grey, the sky is overcast and there is an absence of shadows resulting in a loss of perspective which makes safe movement, particularly in vehicles, more difficult. In such conditions there is a high risk of snow blindness. Glare. The weather conditions, particularly during winter months, can provide clear dry stable air which allows for sunlight to be reflected from snow and ice. Operating in these conditions without sun glasses can cause serious optic distortion and possible loss of vision. At higher altitudes during daylight the wearing of sunglasses, goggles or visor would be mandatory.
Physiological Factors

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Cold, snow, wet conditions, darkness and wind increase the difficulty of operating effectively. The history of warfare in cold weather conditions has illustrated frequently that the weather generally causes far more casualties than any enemy forces. Fear of the snow, the cold and exposure can have a stronger effect on the untrained and the inexperienced than fear of the enemy's weapons. A soldier who is 'winter scared' becomes withdrawn, apathetic and indifferent. The common symptoms are that he often stands still, feels cold and reacts slowly or not at all, when spoken to. He lacks the ability and will to take care of himself. Other results of this 'cold weather phobia' are an unwillingness to obey orders, avoiding duties to be able to remain in the sleeping bag or 1 - 5

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in the tent, leaving his post in order to warm himself and becoming irrational in his behaviour.1 28. This phobia can be overcome, but only with careful and progressive training in cold weather conditions. Soldiers have to learn the drills and procedures that aid survival and take a positive attitude to overcoming the worst effects of these conditions. Seasonal Changes 29. The spring thaws and autumn freeze which occur in cold weather areas provide the most dramatic change to weather and climate - and incidentally cause the most difficult periods for military operations, mainly because of the unpredictable nature of the weather, which can change in 24 hours. Further details on seasonal changes and their effects on mobility are given in Chapter 2. In polar regions daylight hours get shorter as winter approaches, reducing to almost total darkness for 24 hour periods in these latitudes during mid winter. In the summer time the reverse occurs, and 24 hours of daylight can be experienced in mid summer. SECTION 3 - TERRAIN General 31. The terrain of an area will not only affect the local climate but will also have a strategic and military significance on operations. Many of the cold weather areas of the world, particularly those in the extreme north and south, are sparcely inhabited and their resources have yet to be exploited. Their remoteness and often inhospitable terrain will simply compound the problems of climate.

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1. A psychological hazard called "arctic hysteria" results from short days, long nights, persistent cloud cover, and cold temperatures. This ailment is characterized by passivity, low morale, depression, insomnia, claustrophobia, and suicidal tendencies. In below-zero temperatures, these states of mind can be killers, because they lead to personal neglect, inactivity, and carelessness. Fear of isolation and freezing to death can get out of control. German accounts during World War II reported soldiers who became apathetic and indifferent, which destroyed their will to survive.

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In cold regions, the terrain and weather vary considerably. The constraints that polar climates impose on combat operations are markedly different from those of the more moderate humid microthermal regions. In the far north, the lack of vegetation allows for almost unrestricted views, and relief is the restrictive element. The wide, flat plains provide ideal fields of fire and observation. The problem in these areas is finding elevations from which to observe. Thick fog also reduces visibility over the coastal tundra, especially in the spring and autumn. Farther from the poles, observation and fields of fire are inhibited not only by terrain and atmospheric conditions, but by vegetation which becomes increasingly significant. Dense shrubs restrict ground observation. Dead space created by stream cuts and glaciated hummocky mounds have to be covered by indirect fire. Once across the tree line and into the forests, observation and fields of fire are restricted, and trees may have to be removed. The lack of underbrush in the deep conifer forests helps ground observation. Cleared farmlands in the southern limits of the cold regions provide excellent observation and fields of fire. Since these areas are also more populated, however, this advantage is often nullified by other factors. Mountainous areas will often experience unstable and rapidly changing weather conditions and temperatures will be lower due to the increased altitude. The physical problems of operating in mountains will be compounded by a combination of extreme cold, deep snow, high winds, lack of oxygen at altitude and the danger of avalanche. Although most mountain ranges form part of the areas where cold weather occurs, because of the different conditions that apply military operations in these regions are covered in AFM Vol IV Pt 1 Mountain Operations. Glaciers

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Definition. A glacier is a constantly moving mass of ice formed by the accumulation of ice on high ground. Glaciers are therefore only generally found in mountainous areas where the amount of snow has been enough to create and feed them. There are various types of glacier, the most important of which are:

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Mountain Glaciers. Ice streams that flow from mountain valleys are commonly called valley glaciers. The Himalayas, the European Alps and other mountain ranges contain this type of glacier. Ice Sheet or Inland Glacier. These are the largest form of glacier which generally cover vast areas, such as the central plateau of Greenland. Scandinavian Glaciers. A rare phenomenon and are classified as between a mountain glacier and an ice sheet.

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Glacial Terms. These are certain geographical terms that are applied to glaciers which are in common usage. These are:
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Moraines. Glaciers transport, during their movement, enormous quantities of material ranging from fine particles to huge boulders. This finds its way into the mass of the glacier and is called a 'moraine'. Moraines covering the surface of the glacier are termed 'superficial' while those which are engulfed in the moving ice are termed 'englacial'. Another phenomenon is the existence of terminal moraines. These are highly uneven, broken and rugged, consisting of innumerable intervening features, varying in height from 5 to 25 metres with steep slopes. Terminal moraines are infested with both apparent and hidden crevasses running both laterally and longitudinally and deceptive frozen lakes and streams. Crevasses. Large cracks (wide openings) which appear on the surface of the glaciers, with varying lengths, depth and width are called 'crevasses'. At times they are bridged with soft snow and therefore dangerously invisible. In certain areas crevasses have been known to occur in continuous rows. Movement across crevasses demands special techniques in the use of specialised equipment, such as telescopic ladders, ropes, jumars and carabiners. Avalanches. Avalanches can occur wherever snow lies on a slope. However, on slopes of less than 25 degrees the angle is usually too shallow for the snow to slide. On slopes of more than 50 degrees it is unusual for snow to accumulate in sufficient quantities to cause a problem. On slopes between these 2 angles snow cover supports

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itself until the internal bonds become overstressed and break. Slopes with an angle of between 30 and 45 degrees are particularly hazardous. Times of significant risk are in the period up to 24 hours after a heavy snowfall or high winds, or during a rapid rise in temperature above zero. d.

Glacial-Fluvial Streams. Streams formed as a result of melting snow and ice which may run on the surface or under the glacier itself are called glacial-fluvial streams. They are more common during the summer. Movement across such streams is difficult and therefore routes along or across such streams have to be reconnoitred and marked.

Coastal Areas 39. Coastal areas can be treacherous for reasons not directly related to cold climate, for example, a rugged coastline where navigation is difficult or a coastline that experiences unfavourable prevailing winds. The hazards of the sea will be compounded in cold climate areas where additional problems arise, such as very low water temperatures, freezing fog and drifting ice. Although coastal areas enjoy warmer temperatures than the higher ground inland, this small advantage may often be outweighed by the problems, such as high winds, lack of cover and reduced mobility due to marshland. Swamps, Rivers and Lakes 41. In winter, swamps, rivers and lakes can become aids to movement once they have frozen while in spring and summer they are obstacles. In winter detailed reconnaissance is required to determine ice thickness before frozen areas are used for vehicles or airstrips. An ice thickness table is shown in Section B of this Manual. Plains and Tundra 42. South of the north polar region (and north of the tree line) is a belt of harsh, treeless land which is sparsely populated and covers one-twentieth of the world's surface. It is known as tundra and for nine months of the year it 1 - 9

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is a frozen waste, covered with ice and snow and subject to freezing winds. The climate is too cold to allow trees to grow but the short summer season does allow some vegetation such as mosses, lichens, small herbs and low shrubs. Snowy owls, lemmings, caribou, polar bears and musk-oxen are examples of arctic tundra animals. 43. Beneath the surface of the arctic tundra is a layer of ground known as permafrost because it is permanently frozen and hundreds of metres thick. It is an obstacle to digging and it also prevents surface water from draining away. This leaves a thin surface layer which thaws in the short summer causing the ground to become marshy. There is seldom any rainfall in areas of tundra but there is no shortage of water existing in the permafrost. Tundra conditions exist in other parts of the world, most notably on the fringes of North America, Eurasia and in alpine regions. The Falkland Islands in the southern Atlantic is a type of tundra although its climate is not as severe as in the arctic regions. Forests and Wooded Regions 45. Further south of the tundra the trees become denser, more varied in species and thicker in diameter. Thick forests of larch, tamarack, fir, and pine trees form the taiga or boreal forest (a moist subarctic coniferous forest that begins where the tundra ends). Conditions in the southern areas of the taiga allow for deciduous trees (mostly birch, alder, aspen, willows and cottonwood), and farther south in the warmer humid microthermal climates are mixed forests of evergreen and deciduous growth. Forests and woods can provide cover and protection from the elements. If, however, snow manages to penetrate the tree cover, mobility will be difficult, exacerbated by close undergrowth, fallen branches and tree spacing. The use of forests and woods should always be balanced with the tactical situation; an over reliance on woods for cover may lead to vulnerability. Habitation 47. Habitation in the cold areas of the world will be sparse. Scientists, mineral prospectors and seasonal workers will come and go while the indigenous

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peoples eke out a precarious and nomadic living. They will mostly be hunters and herdsmen, moving with their prey or herds during the summer months and living in small permanent houses during the winter. 48. Few man-made features are found in the inhospitable climate of the really cold regions. More than 90 percent of the world's population is concentrated in urban areas, primarily because of the need for fuel, food and shelter. This may not always be the case as technology improves the prospects of living in these areas and the overcrowding elsewhere spills over to these regions where natural minerals and resources have yet to be tapped.

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COLD WEATHER AREAS OF THE WORLD

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 1

Mountain ranges and hill regions below the sub-arctic limit can in some circumstances be classed as cold weather regions for military operations. 1-A-1

ANNEX B TO CHAPTER 1 COLD WEATHER CATEGORIES OF THE WORLD Category Degree Description Lowest Temp Normal Temp Ever at Coldest Recorded Co Time Co -24 o -6 to -19 o
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Mild Cold

Coastal areas of Western Europe, South East Asia and the lowlands of New Zealand Central Europe including South Scandinavia, Japan, South East Canada and the coastal areas of Antarctica Northern Norway1, prairie provinces of Canada and parts of Siberia Most of Alaska, North West Canada and the Canadian arctic islands

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Cold Severe Cold

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-37o to -46 o Nearly constant at -51o during 24 hr period

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Extreme Cold

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-71o (Arctic) -88 o

Nearly constant at -57 o during 24 hr period (Arctic)

1 The gulf stream effect in coastal areas of North Norway leads to wider range of temperature even at coldest time of the year and can result in temperatures above freezing for short periods.

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ANNEX C TO CHAPTER 1 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES 1.

General. Short notes on the climatic conditions in some of the main cold weather countries are set out in this Annex. Although they are couched in general terms, they may be helpful in putting the main climatic characteristics in context. They do not replace a detailed study which is a vital prerequisite to operations or training in a cold weather regions; commanders and staffs should always try to discover the local and regional pecularities during the early planning stages. Alaska. Alaska is bounded on the north and west by arctic waters, to the east by the cold land-locked interior of Canada, and to the south and southwest by the warm Pacific. There are wide variations of temperature and climate, heavy snowfalls in the mountains and almost perpetual fogs along the Aleutian chain which extends into the Pacific. The interior is particularly cold with temperatures of -60C not uncommon, and the snowfall is also comparatively deep for such a cold area. Canada. The climate of the Canadian arctic is influenced by the Pacific on the western seaboard and to a lesser extent by the Atlantic to the northeast, while the broad centre of the country has a continental climate of extreme cold during the prolonged winter, and great heat in the short summer. The western areas have the greatest snowfall, and the dividing line between the temperate and sub-arctic regions runs from north-west towards the south-east. The northern part of the continent merges into the arctic region in a series of large, sometimes mountainous, islands with a polar climate. Greenland. The central uplands of Greenland have a polar climate with very low temperatures in winter (-65C): in summer, the thermometer only rarely rises towards 0C. A branch of the Gulf Stream warms the southwest coast which is thus usually frost free from June to August, and also has an appreciable rainfall. The east coast is cooled by a polar current, and snow can fall here at any time of the year. The central plateau is ice covered, and extensive glaciers debouch onto the coastal plain. Snowfall on the glaciers is not high as the prevailing winds are outwards from an almost permanent anti-cyclone situated over the interior. Iceland. The climate of Iceland is influenced by the Atlantic, and consists of moderate heat and cold without extremes: the temperature difference
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between the interior and the coast is not marked. There is rarely the same weather over the whole country at any one time, and sudden changes are likely from day to day: the same season may from year to year also show great fluctations. Pressure is usually low over the island, and snowfall can be considerable, particularly in the north-west and north-east. Drift ice frequently comes as far south as Iceland, arriving in April and May, and bringing cold, storms and fog with it. Fog is common at all times of the year, and although thunderstorms are rare, squalls can arise suddenly. 6.

Norway. The most striking feature of the Norwegian climate is the influence exerted by the Gulf Stream on the Atlantic coast as far north as the Arctic Circle. This leads to average temperatures substantially higher than in any other comparable region. The Atlantic has a further important influence, in that rain laden south-westerly gales, and north-westerly gales bringing snow are not uncommon, and calm weather is rare on the western coast: December and January being the stormiest months. Precipitation in one form or another occurs in the north-west and north on 150-200 days in the year, and in the extreme south on 100 days. Other points are:
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Snowfall. The heaviest and most frequent snowfalls are in the north-west, where they occur on average on 100 days in the year, and although most likely in the winter, snow can fall in these areas in any month. It is not uncommon for more than a metre of snow to fall in 24 hours in northern coastal areas, and the frequent gales can pile this snow into drifts many metres deep in the same time. The least snowfall occurs in the central region near the Swedish border and in the extreme south. Temperature. The coastal regions which are exposed to the vagaries of the Atlantic weather are subject to swift changes of temperature which may vary from -10C to -40C within one day as a result of a change of wind from a warm south-westerly to an east wind blowing over Finland from Russia. The coldest and most settled areas are in the interior, away from the influence of the Gulf Stream, experiencing winter temperatures of -50C. Visibility. Cloudy days are frequent, and in the north, clear days occur on less than one day in four: in the interior, clear and cloudy days are equally divided. Summer fog is common on the coast, but winter fogs are unusual, although in very cold conditions a 'frost fog' may occur over the fiords when the cold wind blows from the north or east.

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Sweden and Finland. These two countries have broadly similar climates and are considered together. There is a large area within the Arctic Circle which experiences extreme temperatures, a predictable long cold winter extending to mid June, and a short hot summer which ends with the first day frosts of the new winter at the end of August. The central and southern parts of these countries are less extreme, and while they suffer from the piercingly cold east winds from Russia, they also benefit from the warm winds which give neighbouring Norway its unusually mild conditions. Russia. The outstanding characteristic of the climate is its uniformity: thus this huge country, taking up one seventh of the world's land surface, has a broadly similar condition throughout, dominated for much of the year by the polar continental air mass. This produces low temperatures and low humidity with very little snow or rainfall, for example the arctic north-east has as little total precipitation as the Aral desert. Siberia justifies its reputation by the severity of its winters and the general absence of wind alone makes the cold bearable. Pressure over Siberia is high in the winter, and the consequential outgoing winds spread the bitter cold to neighbouring areas. The skies are generally clear, and the air is dry so that visibility is usually good. Because of the sparse covering of snow, the extent of permanently frozen soil (permafrost) is unusually large.

8.

1 - C - 3

CHAPTER 2 OPERATIONAL FACTORS IN COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS SECTION 1 - THE POTENTIAL THREAT Background 1. The vast distances covered by the world's cold weather regions preclude a precise definition of any potential enemy. However, some outline definition is necessary as an essential background against which our own operational planning and tactical procedures can be set and from which training programmes can subsequently be derived. Over the last 50 years the main threat to stability in potentially cold weather regions has been from the former Soviet Union and its ability to strike into North Norway or Eastern Turkey or possible elsewhere such as Spitzbergen or Iceland. Since 1989 this threat has virtually disappeared, but it is entirely feasible that this formerly large and potentially serious threat could be replaced by a resurgence of this type of threat from the same source, or separately, by a more aggressive form of nationalism or self determination by other nations or ethnic groupings based on other cultural values. Requests for assistance to the UN or NATO by beleaguered nation states in sensitive areas could result in some form of military deployment. New technology and scientific improvement may well improve the living conditions in polar regions to such an extent that it is possible to live and operate in these regions on a permanent basis. This could then make the natural resources of the region available for greater exploitation and hence liable to competition between states for use and control of these resources, - particularly when resources elsewhere are becoming more limited. Planning Assumptions 4. Overt armed aggression by the regular forces of one or more nations against another in one of the many cold regions of the world is probably the most dangerous form of threat that could develop. This aggression could take many forms, but at worst, it could be an all out war in which these largely empty regions are used as the battleground for obtaining a decisive result. It is this worst case assumption that forms the backdrop to the subsequent Chapters of this Manual. 2 - 1

2.

3.

Enemy Characteristics 5. The locations of the world's cold regions indicates that a potential enemy could, in these regions, have large and generally well equipped armed forces, but more significantly, have access to modern weapons systems and military resources. It would thus be wise to assume that any future enemy is likely to be adequately trained and equipped and could sustain land and air operations in these regions for long periods. Enemy Aims 6. It should be assumed that an enemy has gained the ability and experience to fight for a prolonged duration in cold regions. Similarly, it has to be assumed that the enemy has the ability to conduct operations on a large and coordinated scale at formation level, and that he would aim to dominate and control areas and to defeat an adversary as quickly as possible. An enemy would also take advantage of the same operational principles that we adopt and would utilise the same sort of military resources to a similar level of sophistication. However, the constraints and limitations that affect fighting in cold regions will apply equally to the enemy and this, if used to advantage, could contribute to his defeat if the operational initiative can be obtained. SECTION 2 - JOINT AND COMBINED OPERATIONS Background 8. Following a government policy statement to deploy a force for operations in an area which has cold weather conditions, decisions would be taken within the MOD on the type and size of force to be sent and on its subsequent deployment. These are beyond the scope of this Manual. It is unlikely that British forces will operate alone in any future operations in such an environment; the prospect of operating in conjunction with a multinational Alliance, or Coalition is much more likely. AJP1 (and its UK supplement) and ADP Vol 1 Operations all provide further details on Joint and allied cooperation.

7.

9.

2 - 2

Coalitions/Alliances 10. Whether any military grouping would come under UN, NATO, WEU, Commonwealth or Coalition auspices remains to be seen, but whatever the circumstances, there would need to be integrated command and control arrangements probably along the lines of those pertaining in the Gulf War. It is also likely that the British Authorities would nominate a self contained formation for commitment to such operations, although it is perfectly feasible to nominate only a formation headquarters, or even individual trained staff officers, observers and specialists to assist other nations or governments. Whatever the British contribution, an awareness of the main characteristics of working within a group of other military partners is important. These are set out in Chapter 6 of ADP Operations and will require careful study. Joint/Combined Operations 13. Any British force committed to operations in a cold weather region will invariably be joint at the appropriate level of command and will be working to a single joint force commander. In the absence of Alliance (NATO) procedures being used in the operational area then UK Joint Operating Procedures should be utilised until other operating arrangements are agreed. SECTION 3 - COMMAND, CONTROL AND COMMUNICATIONS Command 15. An army trained and equipped for operations in temperate climates requires both specialist training and additional equipment for deployment to a cold weather region. This essential prior preparation may engender apprehension and uncertainty amongst soldiers who have never experienced cold conditions and will place additional pressures on commanders at all levels.

11.

12.

14.

2 - 3

16.

The use of mission orders and main effort1 will be important tools of command in cold weather conditions. The commander who restricts flexibility by issuing over-detailed orders is likely to restrain his subordinates from using their initiative and may miss the opportunities that changes in the general situation and the weather might present. By designating a main effort a commander will be indicating where his priorities lie, thus allowing subordinates to act in accordance with the mission and in the absence of new orders.2 The emphasis in cold climates is likely to be on smaller unit operations and therefore much responsibility would be devolved upon junior commanders. Operations may be conducted over extended distances and, with communications always susceptible to the weather, there will be a danger that units may be cut off. A rigid style of command will not thrive in such an environment and subordinates should be encouraged to act in the absence of orders. Command and Control (C2)

17.

18.

Organisation. The organisation of C2 in cold weather conditions will depend upon the type of operation envisaged and the extent to which local conditions affect normal procedures. Limited mobility will be one of the main problems and it may be necessary to reduce the size of headquarters in order that they can maintain the appropriate mobility. Relationships. The command and control relationships between units and formations do not change in cold weather operations. The states of command and Fire Support Control terms are described in Chapter 2 of AFM Formation Tactics. Control of operations, control of fire, airspace control and control of the EM spectrum all conform with normal operational conditions.

19.

1.

See AFM Formation Tactics, for details of 'main effort'.

2. Note that main effort is not merely the tool of operational commanders. In cold weather operations, particularly where resources are limited and lines of communication restricted, the use of main effort in Combat Service Support planning will also be crucial.

2 - 4

Communications 20.

General. Good communications will be vital if the effects of dispersion and lack of mobility are to be minimised. To compound the problem, the polar regions are subject to severe magnetic storms and ionospheric and boreal disturbances which will make HF communications less easy to maintain than in more temperate regions. Effect of the Cold. Unusual atmospheric conditions are found in polar regions; these can produce sporadic static, which is most severe in the High Frequency (HF) waveband between 3 and 30 MHz. Magnetic storms, particularly when combined with ionospheric disturbance, may result in communications blackouts lasting several hours. More normally it should be possible to operate by voice on HF, at least during daylight hours. Skywave should be considered for longer ranges. VHF is reliable under most conditions, although mountainous areas pose significant screening and reflection problems which will affect ground nets and ground to air VHF/UHF communications. Local civilian telephone networks should be exploited if available. The handling and maintenance of communications equipment poses special difficulties in cold conditions, in particular, battery life is seriously reduced. Line. Difficulties with radio communications in cold conditions will emphasise the importance of line. The quickest method of laying lines over snow is by oversnow scooter or vehicle. Rewinding snow-covered or frozen cable may be impracticable.
SECTION 4 - THE CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS Concepts

21.

22.

23.

While this Manual deals primarily with how to operate in cold weather conditions, wherever they may occur, the main geographical areas where cold conditions can be guaranteed are normally areas above and below the 40 latitude line. The land areas in these regions are normally vast and generally inhabited by very few people, Northern Canada and Northern Russia are good examples. As with other military operations there is very little worth in capturing or holding areas of tundra or snow covered terrain, or of defending such regions unless it has a direct role in defeating the enemy. The war between Russia and Germany from 1941-45 is full of 2 - 5

examples of holding ground for no particular military reason, and also of major battles on ground which had no geographical tactical or strategic value. Operations around Moscow in Dec 41, once the chance of capturing the city had gone, are a good example. 24. There is, however, every reason to prevent the enemy from making use of the terrain features and weather conditions to sustain his operations; this can be achieved by dominating and controlling the terrain and the airspace above it in such a way that the enemy cannot operate there without disruption to his plans. When this is achieved the ground can be utilised to canalise or restrict enemy movement which then can lead to offensive actions to destroy the enemy's will and capability to fight. For a commander the first operational task could be to regain the tactical initiative from the enemy by establishing control and domination over the designated area of operations prior to making any further plans to defeat the enemy. Once this has been established operations on a larger and more coordinated scale can then begin. Experience from history, and previous campaigns in cold conditions, indicates that at the operational level, the use of bold thrusts that move directly to areas of vital ground could provide the basis for military success. The frequent lack of geographic objectives, and the large areas for manoeuvre, has meant that encirclement, at all levels, has often been the means by which such thrusts are achieved. The use of deception to mask moves of reserves, follow-on forces and operational/strategic objectives has been a common feature of many successful operations. The weather conditions and seasonal changes could have an overwhelming effect on the chances of success or failure and certainly alter the pace and tempo of operations. A commander who ignores the opportunities afforded by the changes in weather conditions will not succeed. Operations should be planned so as to reduce the time of exposure to the minimum, and to destroy the enemy as quickly as possible. This not only influences the style of manoeuvre but it also precludes a protracted firefight. Stalemate is to the general advantage of the defender who has shelter, warmth and food at hand and logistic arrangements tailored to his

25.

26.

27.

28.

2 - 6

situation: the similar needs of the attacker who fails to achieve his aim will have to be made on an ad hoc basis and will thus often be less than adequate. 29. The climate can and should be used to advantage. Thus an enemy deprived of supplies has to either restore his lines of communication, which involves an offensive manoeuvre, or he has to break out and thus lose the inherent advantge of shelter and protection. Blizzards, fog, low cloud and darkness can also be exploited, particularly to the advantage of a force which may not have air superiority. Attacking an Enemy's Cohesion 30. Cold weather does not alter military doctrine nor the fundamental principles on which the Army operates. It does, however, impose additional factors on the way that a commander faces the tasks that confront him. One of the problems is that although operating in cold conditions is well documented it can only be understood fully by those who have experienced such conditions. In addition to the operational factors already covered, there are two further characteristics that will influence military operations in cold weather conditions. These are: a.

31.

Scale. The emphasis, in cold weather operations, will be on operations at the lower level and although the scale of future operations cannot be predicted, history suggests that the number of troops that can be sustained will be a limiting factor. The important feature will be to strive for self-sufficiency at as many levels as possible. A large organisation dependent upon centralised control of resources and assets will be prone to the more damaging effects of cold weather. Simplicity . Over detailed plans will, by their nature, be less adaptable to a changing situation. In cold conditions not only will there be a clear operational need to modify existing plans, but changes in weather and climate will make such flexibility imperative. Operations should be kept as simple as possible, aided by the use of 'mission orders' and by indicating the main effort.

b.

2 - 7

32.

The key to success in cold weather operations is to minimise the damaging aspects of the weather on one's own forces while striving to maximise them on the enemy. Some examples are as follows: a. In all operations of war bad weather can actually be an aid to mobility if it reduces the chances of detection. Fatigue occurs more quickly in cold conditions and therefore the aim has to be to conserve the energy of one's own troops while steadily sapping the enemy. In offensive operations long approach marches should be avoided because they can prejudice the final assault. In defensive operations an enemy should be forced to deploy early. The siting of defensive positions in areas of deep snow will make the going for the enemy particularly hard, reduce the effect of his indirect fire and increase his overall use of amunition. However, the defender who surrenders his own mobility completely will gain little from this apparent advantage.3 Although tempo will be difficult to achieve, the unit that keeps going at a good pace is less likely to suffer the cold injuries that can result from lack of activity. This factor alone may be the imperative for moving on quickly. The unit that is too slow to counter attack or that takes too long to reorganise following an assault may start taking casualties to the weather while the enemy gains the initiative.

b.

c.

d.

3. The shelter provided by a village may make it key terrain. The battle for Rzhev during the winter of 1941-1942 on the Russian plain west of Moscow illustrates the importance of shelter in cold environments and how a simple village can give the force that holds it a distinct advantage. A German grenadier and artillery unit occupied the wooden houses of Rzhev. Throughout the day, the Russians surrounded the town and launched repeated attacks, each growing more desperate. As dusk approached, even sheer exhaustion did not reduce the tempo of the assaults. The Russians were less intent on killing Germans than on securing the shelter of the town, but they failed and were doomed to spend the night on the flat windswept treeless plain. Temperatures fell to -50 degreesCentigrade, and the winds were strong. The next morning, a German patrol dispatched to search for an escape found most of the Russian soldiers frozen in the snow; those who were alive were comatose. Following the patrol's report on return, the German unit escaped encirclement without a shot being fired.

2 - 8

33.

Breaking cohesion can be achieved in many ways and a commander will need to be flexible in utilising any number of factors to tighten the noose until it becomes a stranglehold. The main techniques that can be applied are: a.

Firepower. The selective application of firepower to attack vital bases, communication sites, command posts and logistic installations are probably those targets which have the greatest worth in cold conditions. Tempo. The rate of activity in relation to the enemy is the key factor. The cold weather conditions will inevitably slow the pace of battle for all sides in comparison with operations elsewhere, but if a commander can make decisions quickly and control the pace of operations at a faster rate than the enemy he will quickly gain the operational initiative. Simultaneous Operations. In conjunction with tempo this technique seeks to overload the enemy commander so much that he is forced to divert time and resources away from his main operational aims. Surprise. There are many possibilities for achieving surprise both in timing and location and these should be applied at every suitable opportunity across all levels of command.

b.

c.

d.

Command and Control at Operational Level 34. The principles of command and control of operations are described fully in ADP Vol 2 Command and are not repeated here. However, a salient feature of campaigning in cold conditions is that of overall planning at the highest appropriate level followed by decentralised execution; scarce military resources can then be utilised in the most effective manner. Once operations begin, the problems of command and control in practical terms, devolve down to junior commanders very quickly. Simplicity is thus the key to planning at formation level. A commander should make his operational aim and the method of achieving it very clear - not least because it enhances control. It is important to note that good workable and well rehearsed SOPs (which include drills for lost soldiers as well as communications and medevac procedures) are essential to allow for effective devolution of command and control. 2 - 9

35.

36.

However, a large element of initiative and latitude has to be built-in to any plan to allow subordinate commanders the ability to overcome the difficulties, delays and frustrations inherent in any fighting. The hazards and danger of changing fundamental aspects of an operation in cold conditions cannot be overstated. Communications and Liaison

37.

Radio communication is usually the only means of direct contact between a commander and his different formations and units. It may well be advantageous to establish a forward or advance headquarters at a suitable location which moves as operations develop. Redundancy and replication of communications should be considered where appropriate to improve direct contact with other users. Liaison officers at all levels of command are essential. They should be suitably chosen and briefed, and capable of moving rapidly around the operational area (probably by helicopter). Given suitable radio links, liaison officers can back up and endorse the commander's control of operations, as well as confirming any changes in tactical planning, or reporting developments as they occur. This should allow a commander to be at the place of best information during periods of activity. Combat Identification

38.

39.

Positive identification of enemy targets is always difficult but in cold conditions and limited visibility it is even more complicated. The danger of contact between friendly forces is a permanent hazard of operations and a clear definition of boundaries, objectives and other ground locations is necessary to reduce the chance of this danger. Misunderstandings and accidents cause casualties, prejudice security and lower confidence. SOPs must contain precise instructions for identification, both on the ground and in the air. Policy for the location and marking of mines and traps should also be clearly defined.

40.

2 - 10

SECTION 5 - THE FUNCTIONS IN COMBAT General 41. The principles of war are the basis for the successful employment of military force in combat. The guidance of these broad principles is translated into operational concepts which are known as 'functions in combat'. The practical expression of the 'functions in combat' is combat power - physical capabilities. When guided by doctrine and with the human dimension added, the result is 'fighting power' which defines the ability to fight. The 'functions in combat', their validation and their use on the battlefield are covered fully in AFM Formation Tactics. Additional factors which lend emphasis to these functions in a cold weather environment are mentioned in subsequent paragraphs. Command 43. The cold conditions and sparse environment make the achievement of good and effective command and control (C2) more difficult than elsewhere unless the aims of any military activity are very simple, clear and direct. Realistic timetables and timings based on sound practical knowledge of cold conditions are the key to successful tactical operations. If in doubt plan for twice the time it takes to achieve the task elsewhere, particularly for movement by night. Once committed to operations C2 should devolve very rapidly to subordinate commanders in order to allow them the flexibility to take advantage of tactical opportunities as they occur. Cold weather operations are the classic situation where mission command must work effectively. Manoeuvre 46. Manoeuvre enables friendly forces to engage and destroy the enemy. This is vital, particularly in cold weather conditions, but takes a great deal longer to achieve. The use of engineers to improve mobility, and equally, to prevent the use of critical terrain by the enemy is a battle winning factor for a tactical commander. 2 - 11

42.

44.

45.

47.

Sensible planning by formation staffs taking full account of the capabilities of the soldier, his weapons systems and his level of training, could prevent over -ambitious assumptions about movement (and hence manoeuvre) in cold weather conditions. This, combined with an appropriate allocation of weapon systems, will also keep the necessary balance and cohesion in the grouping of forces during moves and also allows for unexpected contacts or delays. In cold conditions, mobility, which forms a major part in achieving manoeuvrability, is a three dimensional factor of great value. A commander who can make positive use of the ground, the air and suitable terrain to move troops and supplies will gain the tactical advantage that mobility provides. These are: a.

48.

Ground Mobility . The speed of movement will depend entirely on the terrain. Movement across bleak and unremitting countryside in cold and energy sapping conditions is difficult and time consuming. Keeping to known tracks, ridges and higher ground is usually the easiest method of movement, but, correspondingly, it may be the most obvious route to an enemy. Time and Distance. Estimating time and distance is an important military skill in cold weather conditions, particularly when considering the difficulties of navigation with heavy individual loads or with supporting arms and equipment. Unless routes have been reconnoitred, precise timings cannot be confirmed. While speed of movement across open terrain can be reduced through a variety of obstacles, any attempt to increase speed is often quite impossible to achieve without serious consequences such as loss of surprise, physical exhaustion, or splitting of forces. These conditions affect all parties. Reducing the chance of navigational error would be advantageous and illustrates the vital need for good maps and training in similar conditions.

b.

Firepower Cold weather conditions by themselves do not reduce the effectiveness of the firepower available to modern armies. However, the problem of observation and accurate target acquisition, particularly in poor visibility, can inhibit the use of longer range weapons and can restrict the advantage of heavier supporting weapons. 2 - 12 49.

50.

Manportable rocket launchers, grenade launchers, as well as hand grenades, have all proved their worth against armoured vehicles and bunkers under almost any cold conditions. Thick snow mitigates the effect of high explosive; snow also readily absorbs shell fragments and the burst radius of bombs, shells and mortars is similarly reduced. Higher rates of ammunition expenditure will probably be required to effect full neutralisation and to cover for the slow rate of flanking moves. Special care will be needed to protect fuses from the cold and damp conditions. Experience shows that medium calibre mortars provide the most practical form of manportable firepower readily available to troops in virtually all circumstances. Wire guided missiles are of less value if there is poor visibility and any physical obstruction. Remote control devices can be affected by line of sight problems but could still be very effective if well located. The firepower now available in armed or attack helicopters can significantly assist a unit or formation when operating in any conditions provided visibility is present. Protection

51.

52.

53.

54.

All round protection, whether on the move or halted, is absolutely essential at all times. In defence the subtle use of any natural features available, such as sloping ground or trees, can be integrated into a defensive position in order to canalise the enemy towards fields of fire covering minefields or booby traps. Despite the relative lack of cover during daylight, from both ground, air and sensor observation, both sides will still be presented with opportunities for infiltration, deception and ambush. Strict track discipline and control is necessary to keep enemy observation to the minimum. Cover from view is not necessarily cover from fire and careful training on the need for the proper depth of protection against small arms, rocket fire and artillery is essential.

55.

56.

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Information and Intelligence 57.

General. As in every other theatre of war, a major difficulty confronting the commander will be the acquisition of reliable and timely intelligence. The vast open spaces can shroud an enemy's intentions just as easily as it can reveal his movements. While the intelligence cycle (see JSP 120 Manual of Service Intelligence for further details) remains unaltered by external influences, the actual task of collecting information and intelligence will be made even more difficult by the inhospitable nature of the cold environment. Direction. In defining his Critical Information Requirements (CIRs), the commander must consider the effects of cold weather on his own and the enemy's operations. He should thus specifically consider areas such as routes, going and information to supplement inadequate mapping. Particular requirements for information on the enemy (activities and intentions) will be expressed as part of his Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIRs), which will provide G2 with direction and will be used to formulate the Information Requirements (IRs). Collection. The IRs will be used to draw up the collection plan, which is used in tasking the Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RISTA) assets allocated to the commander. Provided that the Commander has been allocated suitable RISTA assets within the force to be deployed, the success of any collection plan will depend on a number of factors which will include:
a.

58.

59.

Enemy Capabilities. The skill with which an enemy can exploit the conditions to conceal his strengths and intentions. Technology. Thuse that can be made of technical resources in cold conditions. Communications. The communication links to and from any deployed reconnaissance forces and assets, their mobility, survivability and sustainability.

b.

c.

60.

Processing and Dissemination. The processing and dissemination stages of the Intelligence Cycle remain unchanged (refer to JSP 120), however, the requirement to transmit imagery and maps electronically should be considered.

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61.

The Area of Intelligence Responsibility. The Area of Intelligence Responsibility (AIR) 4 of a tactical commander is likely to cover a large geographical area and adequate information and intelligence may be difficult to acquire. HUMINT from refugees, local inhabitants and PWs is likely to be sparse and, apart from any organic manned reconnaissance, the commander will have to rely to a considerable extent on IMINT and SIGINT from higher formations to meet his information and intelligence requirements. Operational Intelligence . Intelligence at the operational level is outside the scope of this publication (for further details refer to AFM Vol 1 Part 1, Formation Tactics and JSP 120). However, due to the relative scarcity of RISTA assets at the tactical level, and the probable large AIRs, units may have to rely on higher formations for a considerable proportion of their information and intelligence. Due to the lack of in-country logistic facilities and the probable reliance on a few vital supply routes, intelligence at the operational level will often place a greater emphasis on the enemy's CSS assets and his resupply routes. Tactical Information and Intelligence Requirements . At the outset of operations the scarcity of intelligence at the tactical level will probably dictate that the operations are aimed at acquiring intelligence, rather than the destruction of any enemy forces. The extent of the tactical commander's AIR, and the limitations of his organic RISTA assets, may mean that higher formation assets, eg armoured reconnaissance and Special Forces (SF) patrols, will be needed to provide information and intelligence otherwise unavailable at the tactical level. The commander's tactical information and intelligence, and the means of meeting them, are likely to be:
a.

62.

63.

Terrain. Terrain information unavailable from existing mapping or imagery can be updated by patrol activity in the areas concerned. Where these areas are outside the range of the tactical commander's organic manned reconnaissance assets, SF patrols may be appropriate. These are controlled at the operational level.

4. An area allocated to a commander, in which he is responsible for the provision of intelligence, within the means at his disposal (AAP-6(T)).

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b.

Enemy Strengths, Identification, Locations and Intentions . HUMINT, which can give indications of locations, strengths, unit/formation identities, equipment and possibly the intentions of an enemy, may be gained from contacts with any local population, refugees, guides and from PW. Deep operations to acquire HUMINT are an ideal task for SF patrols if they are available. Failing this, a possible allocation of resources will be the use of integral reconnaissance assets for penetration into the depth of the AIR and other patrolling to cover the close areas. SIGINT can identify enemy strengths, unit/formation identities, locations and possibly intentions by intercept and DF techniques. In addition, strengths, unit/formation identities and locations may be derived from IMINT. It may also be possible to deduce the enemy's tactical intentions from intelligence gained at strategic or national level and passed down from the higher formation.

64.

Electronic Attack. Despite the potentially variable propagation conditions experienced in cold conditions, electronic reconnaissance will provide one of the few means of area surveillance, detection, identification and location to a commander. Electronic attack is a means of interfering with the enemy's activities when the physical location of the target is not accurately known. Ground based EW equipment can provide a longer term, more continuous capability and can be deployed closer to the target than airborne EW assets. Surveillance. A large and growing number of technical devices are now available for use by formations and units; navigational aids, remote ground sensors, improved radio and radar facilities and laser range finders are examples of this technical proliferation. Most of these devices have not been fully tested under cold conditions, but offer wide potential advantage. While surveillance and target acquisition are strictly part of any gathering of information and intelligence function, the more detailed aspects of surveillance are covered separately in Section 6 in order to assist the reader to be aware of the operating features of these equipments.
Combat Service Support (CSS)

65.

The principles of good combat service support pertain equally to cold conditions as to any other operational area, but the nature of a cold environment and its conditions could impose some severe constraint on normal operating procedures and methods of support. 2 - 16

66.

67.

It should be normal practice to assume that the enemy can cut or disrupt the lines of communication. Alternative means of resupply and casualty evacuation should always be considered and contingency plans prepared for such a situation. Planning for CSS is described in the interim volume of the AFM Vol 1 Part 6 Combat Service Support and also in Chapter 2 of AFM Vol 1 Part 1 Formation Tactics. Further points on CSS are given in Chapter 5. SECTION 6 - SURVEILLANCE AND TARGET ACQUISITION

68.

69.

Background. There are two aspects to cover when considering surveillance and target acquisition. These are the effects of cold on the equipment itself and the performance of the equipment in cold weather conditions. The Effect of Cold on Equipment . In any conditions most surveillance equipment needs sensitive handling and calibration. In cold conditions this becomes more imperative if the equipment is to function properly. Batteries will be less effective in cold conditions, rubber parts become rigid and may break off. Compressed air for thermal imagers may present additional hazards, particularly in areas where the temperature has large fluctuations in a 24 hour period. Equipment Performance. The effect of cold weather on surveillance equipments, radars and equipments that use the infra-red spectrum vary considerably. Thermal imagery (TI) and image intensification (II) equipments may be enhanced by cold weather conditions, particularly in low temperatures and in snow. Radars can be affected by precipitation and environmental clutter, but may be improved in cold dry conditions. It would be prudent to take expert advice concerning the utility of individual items of surveillance equipment before deployment for cold weather operations. However, the following points can be noted:
a.

70.

71.

Image Intensification Devices. Illumination is determined by the moon phase and the length of the day. In extreme polar regions, summer daylight is almost total, as is winter night. But a full moon reflecting the sun's light on a blanket of snow provides good nighttime illumination. Clear dry atmospheric conditions help in this regard. Such conditions also improve the efficiency of sensors. Light-intensifying devices work well because of clear stable air and
2 - 17

thermal sensors are especially effective when the background is snow. b.

Thermal and Infra-Red Imagery Devices. A sufficient thermal contrast (ie temperature difference) must exist between a target and its immediate background for a thermal or infra-red imagery system to detect that target. One potential problem is that the difference between the temperature of a target and the cold topography can make some returns overpowering and identification tricky. In winter, background surfaces are typically cooler than the surfaces of most man-made targets. The extent of this cooling is such that the probability of thermal detection are high during clear weather. Snowstorms degrade thermal contrasts and make target detection more difficult. Radar and Laser Systems. Radar and laser systems will both perform well in cold conditions although radar will be degraded by falling snow. The use of lasers for artillery target adjustment is a major advantage in snow conditions where fall of shot will not show up clearly. Snowy landscapes tend to give multiple laser returns so accurate aiming is essential. The millimetric wave (MMW) fire control radar to be included on attack helicopters in future will be extremely capable in cold conditions. Remote Ground Sensors (RGS) . Deep snow will degrade the performance of both seismic and acoustic RGS. However, although active and passive infra-red sensors will perform better, covert insertion of them into a snow covered terrain is likely to be difficult. Aircraft. Fixed and rotary wing aircraft equipped with the normal range of sensors and scanners5 will all perform normally in cold conditions. The only limiting factors will be poor visibility and bad flying conditions although these are less of a limitation for helicopters.

c.

d.

e.

5. Infra-Red Line Scan (IRLS), Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR), Airborne Stand Off Radar (ASTOR) and Night Vision Goggles (NVG). MMW FCR and Low Light TV for armed helicopters.

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f.

Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) and Drones. The performance of RPVs and drones will not be unduly affected by the cold although, like all aircraft, they are susceptible to icing. The launching and recovery of RPVs and drones, particularly in deep snow, may present problems: the use of specially adapted launch vehicles and helicopters for recovery could assist this process.

Summary 72. The winter environment provides an excellent scenario for thermal infrared detection and surveillance of ground targets, provided degraded weather conditions do not exist. Target contrasts are enhanced by low background temperatures and the frequent occurrence of strong thermal inversions. Although thermal infra-red systems offer some advantages over other devices during degraded weather (such as during a snowstorm), their effective ranges will still be reduced. Snowstorms could provide a greater opportunity for the movement of troops and vehicles to go undetected by long-range surveillance.

2 - 19

CHAPTER 3 NUCLEAR BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS SECTION 1 - GENERAL POINTS 1. The previous Chapter has described the operational factors that pertain in cold weather conditions. This Chapter identifies some of the additional problems which might arise if nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are used in these conditions. The use of these weapons and agents demand certain measures of personal and collective protection which may or may not be compatible with the general need in cold weather conditions to provide thermal protection from the climate. There is also the requirement to decontaminate which usually involves changing or shedding clothing and washing vehicles and equipment. None of these measures can easily be adapted to cold conditions, and the consequent problems are the subject of continuous developments and improvements in equipment and procedures. While it is British government policy not to use chemical or biological agents, a knowledge of their offensive use is of fundamental military concern and is essential to the preparation of suitable defensive measures. Mention of biological and chemical weapons is made solely to ensure that the full tactical implications of their use by an enemy may be studied. SECTION 2 - THE EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS General 4. The effects of nuclear weapons will be influenced by snow and ice, by the relatively clear atmosphere and by the much denser air which occurs with low temperatures in winter. This Section deals only with the consequences of these particular phenomena. Blast 5. Snow and ice, particularly if they are in fairly thick layers, will absorb a proportion of the heat, and thus reduce the amount of ground heating which is one source of the subsequent shock wave. Such a reduction will 3-1

2.

3.

lessen the ranges at which military targets will be destroyed and damaged. Deep snow will also absorb some of the blast energy, but if there is only a thin layer of snow, and the ground is frozen hard, the shock wave transmitted through the ground will be appreciably greater than in soft ground, and any dug-in defences or underground structures will be particularly liable to damage. 6. The blast wave may cause temporary snow storms, and if suitable conditions exist, avalanches. Reflection of the blast wave from the bottom of lakes and rivers can cause a breakup of an ice layer. Flash and Heat 7. The clear air, especially in winter, and the reflection from snow will greatly increase the heat and light radiation from a nuclear explosion, and may produce a much higher incidence of eye injuries, and at greater distances from ground zero: this will be further intensified by the contrasting winter darkness. On the other hand, troops and equipment well dug into the snow will be well protected, and the layers of cold weather clothing will also help to reduce the incidence of burns. Electromagnetic Effects 8. Effects of the electromagnetic pulse are expected to be the same as those in temperate areas. Radiation 9. At very low temperatures, the density of the atmosphere increases so markedly that the distances to which initial nuclear radiation will extend may be reduced by as much as 25 per cent. Fall-out may, however, be greatly extended in a particular direction by the high winds which occur seasonally. However, since such fall-out would be distributed over a wider area, dose rates nearer ground zero should be lower. Snow will become contaminated by fall-out, and this may lead to a further spread when it is blown and drifted by the wind; particularly if it is blown into shelters or slit trenches or into personal clothing.

10.

3-2

11.

The amount of radio activity induced in the soil will be affected by the amount of snow and ice. If the layer is thin (about 100 to 150 mm of snow or about 200 mm of ice), then the induced radio activity will be higher than normal, while on the other hand deep snow may prevent any induced radioactivity. Detection

12.

Radiac instruments function normally. The batteries should be kept warm or they will lose power and have a short life. When the instrument is needed (and the batteries must therefore be installed), it should be kept in a warmed shelter except when actually in use. Protection and Decontamination

13.

General. Protection against the radiation hazard is much less easy than in temperate areas for several reasons.
a. Contaminated snow can continue to be blown about and thus carry a radiation hazard with it. Levels of local radiation can therefore change quickly and, in windy conditions, often. Operating vehicles closed down is more difficult than in temperate areas, as blown snow can easily obscure the outside of vision devices which are also prone to misting and icing up. The difficulty of adjusting the amount of clothing needed for protection against the cold once the NBC suit has been put on. Many decontamination processes rely on washing with a water based solution.

b.

c.

d.

14.

Personal Protection. The protection afforded by the NBC suit is unchanged by the cold. Decontamination. Although the freezing point of a decontaminating agent mixed with water can be reduced to -10C with additives, this will not be helpful in extreme conditions, nor will it prevent freezing of the liquid on cold surfaces of vehicles etc, when although the temperature is near freezing, the wind may induce a lower temperature on exposed metal.
3-3

15.

16.

Food and Water. Emergency eating procedures should be adopted, although it may be difficult to maintain the required number of calories. All water will have to be pumped from beneath ice in rivers and lakes.

SECTION 3 - THE EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS General 17. The sparse populations living in cold weather regions will impose fewer political constraints on an enemy to use such weapons of mass destruction. A study of their use, the methods of protection available and the likely influence on tactics is therefore important. The Effect of the Cold on Biological Agents 18. Biological agents, both when airborne and on a surface, will survive much longer in the cold. Although winter sunlight appears bright, it has a less deleterious effect on biological agents than sunlight in a temperate zone, and the long nights also help to prolong their life. Since agents will survive longer, there will be an increased danger from secondary aerosols such as those produced by removing clothing in confined spaces. (Secondary aerosols are caused by resuspending in air those biological particles which have landed on surfaces.) The Effect of the Cold on Chemical Agents 19. Cold weather conditions can greatly alter the characteristics of chemical agents. Some nerve agents remain liquid at low temperatures, while blister agents solidify very rapidly. These blister agents may be mixed with other substances, however, to lower their freezing points and thus make their use in cold weather regions practicable. The vapour cloud produced by chemical munitions is much smaller in cold weather because of slow evaporation, but this merely spreads the effects over a longer period, and if atmosphere conditions are stable, and thus favourable, the cloud may still affect an appreciable downwind area. Aerosols should be little affected by the cold.

20.

3-4

Persistence 21. As temperatures fall, agents become more persistent. Below 0C a drop in temperature of 10C can double the life of an agent; changes in temperature of up to 30C in 24 hour periods are not uncommon in areas of cold conditions. Some non persistent agents, for example Sarin (GB), become persistent in conditions of very severe cold. Areas of contamination, although perhaps very localised, may last for over 30 days. In a hazard area at low temperatures, the vapour pressure of an agent may be 'suppressed' to a point where it no longer represents a respiratory hazard; however, a rise in temperature will increase the vapour pressure to a point where troops suddenly find they need full protection. The carriage of an agent on clothing from a cold outside area to a warm shelter area will have a similar effect. The build up to lethal levels in an enclosed space such as a tent, vehicle or shelter may be rapid. Penetration 22. Droplets of liquid agent will penetrate snow surface to a small depth and diffuse. As a general rule, the removal of the top 20 centimetres of contaminated snow should produce a clean surface, providing no further snow has fallen since contamination occurred. The effect of snow falling on to a surface already contaminated by an agent will be to 'preserve' the agent. Agents falling on to ice are expected to behave as on other smooth, hard surfaces. Two further factors affecting agents on snow surfaces are 'pick-up' and 'drift'. The 'pick-up' of contaminated snow on boots, clothing and equipment is likely to be much greater than that normally experienced on firm surfaces. 'Drifts', the movement of snow by wind action, can lead to levels of contamination at well below the 20 centimetre depth. Implications 23. A study of the figures at Annex A shows that chemical agents can remain liquid and continue to vaporise at very low temperatures and will produce both a liquid and a vapour hazard throughout rises and falls in temperature. Towards the bottom of the temperature range, the vapour hazard may not achieve lethal concentrations because of the fall in vapour pressure. However, there may be a very localised lethal hazard area and monitors should be used to check whether unmasking may be feasible. The most important factor in chemical operations in cold weather conditions is 3-5

temperature change and such changes must be notified throughout a formation or unit with the utmost speed. Individual decontamination drills must be rigorously enforced at all times when operating in a chemical environment. Detection 24. Detection of chemical agents is difficult in the cold. Detection kits for chemical agent vapours which use aqueous solutions will freeze unless they can be kept warm, in which case they can only be used in restricted circumstances. RVD detector tickets will have to be warmed in order to obtain a reaction. The problem of keeping the detector kits warm is compounded because the low temperatures result in appreciably lower vapour concentrations being available for detection. CAM and NAIAD (and their future replacements) also have temperature restricted operating parameters. It will be important to monitor for the presence of vapour inside heated shelters as this is where significant concentrations may be expected. The most serious problem is the detection of liquid contamination. The cold slows down the response of detector paper, and for those agents which solidify no response will be obtained. The difficulty of detecting liquid contamination accentuates the problem of preventing contaminated clothing and equipment being taken into heated shelters and producing a subsequent vapour hazard. Reconnaissance and Survey 26. Normal procedures for chemical reconnaissance may present major difficulties in cold or snow conditions as: a. Detector paper becomes soggy and deteriorates when continually dabbed on snow surfaces. At low temperatures the reaction of detector paper is slower. Agents may have been absorbed by or penetrate into snow, giving very little reaction at the surface.

25.

b. c.

3-6

27.

As a result, a revised chemical recce/survey procedure has been developed. The ground covered should be kept to a minimum. A core sampling tube is used for surface scooping and core sampling of deep snow. A bag is used for holding and heating snow samples. The samples are then monitored.

SECTION 4 - PROTECTION AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF NBC WEAPONS 28.

Protection. The current range of individual NBC protective clothing and equipment is effective under cold weather conditions against the NBC hazards. Similarly, the special clothing for survival in cold weather regions does its job against the elements. There is, however, some incompatibility between the two, and the need to be able to adjust the amount of clothing easily and quickly in response to varying physical effort must be sacrificed to the requirements for NBC protection. Suitable clothing for the anticipated workload must be put on under a large size NBC suit. The only alternative should this clothing be inadequate, is to don extra garments over the NBC suit: such clothing will of course become contaminated in an attack and exacerbate the already formidable decontamination problem. The Extremities. Protection of the hands and feet present special problems because they are among the most susceptible parts of the body to cold injury. The NBC ski and march overboot gives excellent protection against agents and fallout, and adequate protection from the cold. Respirators. The protection provided by the S10 respirator is maintained in the cold, but the outlet valve may freeze and the eyepieces fog badly. Condensation on the inside of the respirator may freeze and significantly increase the chance of frostbite, increasing the need for using the 'buddy system' for mutual checks on incipient injury, particularly for troops in IPE. Self Aid Procedures . The atropine autoject used for treatment of nerve agent casualties freezes at -5C, and must, therefore, be kept warm against the body. This is best done by attaching it to a lanyard worn round the neck. The injection through several layers of clothing will not be easy and must depend on what is being worn. Collective Protection. Collective protection is difficult because filtered air must also be heated, and the addition of filtration and heating systems to standard shelters increases their bulk, weight and complexity. While such
3-7

29.

30.

31.

32.

disadvantages must be accepted for medical dressing stations and would be feasible for major headquarters, the problems would generally preclude their use in forward areas. 33.

Decontamination. Fuller's earth which is contained in the personal decontamination kits (DKP 1 and 2) is satisfactory in dry conditions. DKP 2 should be used if there is moisture on the skin or clothing. Decontaminating vehicles in low temperatures by washing down is out of the question, and large quantities of fuller's earth may be needed for this purpose. Decontamination by weathering is a possible measure. Given the problems associated with other methods this may be a commander's only available option. The rate of weathering (and of "off-gassing") will be dependent on climatic conditions. Personal Drills. Personal drills to cover action in various NBC operational contingencies have been revised for use in cold weather operations, and are included in the NBC Defence Training pamphlets.
SECTION 5 - THE EFFECT OF NBC WEAPONS ON OPERATIONS General

34.

35.

The use of NBC weapons, or their threatened use, generates a situation in which the adoption of protective measures will have a considerable effect on operations in extreme cold conditions. Types of Operation

36.

Attack. An attack in extreme cold is not an easy operation, and delay can be hazardous to troops exposed to windchill: any further slowing up could have serious consequences. A further problem is caused by the difficulty of adjusting the warmth of clothing to the very different levels of effort expended in the various stages of the attack and the assault. Should an enemy use chemical weapons unexpectedly during an attack, then respirators should be donned and the attack should be pressed home quickly: cold weather clothing will provide some protection for a short time against some types of agent, but outer garments must be removed as soon as possible. Expert NBC advice would be needed immediately to ensure that the appropriate actions and measures are then applied correctly. If

3-8

chemical weapons are anticipated, the plan for the attack should take account of the effect on timings, mobility and casualties. 37.

Defence. Soldiers will be well protected in shelters, and can wear a suitable amount of clothing to keep them warm. Should an NBC attack develop, the detection and contamination problem will be considerable, and the latter may make the position untenable. Assuming that the enemy is aware of this it is unlikely that he will be planning to occupy such an evacuated position, and his intentions can be judged accordingly. Advance. The first problem is to monitor the extent and level of the contamination, an urgent assessment of which will influence the commander's judgement on the future scope of operations. The advance will inevitably be slowed down both because of this requirement and because movement will be much more difficult and much slower once protective measures have been adopted. Once the enemy positions have been identified, the best protection may well be achieved by getting close to him and possibly by joining battle, on the assumption that he will not wish to involve his own forces in the problems of full scale chemical protection. Withdrawal. The use of persistent agents against a withdrawing force would be unusual in that the difficulties likely to be encountered by enemy follow up formations would probably outweigh any advantages to him. Should such a situation arise, some of the problems will be similar to those mentioned below in the advance and attack.

38.

39.

3-9

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 3

CHEMICAL AGENT FREEZING POINTS

Agent

Type

Freezing Point Degrees C - 118 - 69 - 15

Phosgene (CG) Chloropicrin (PS) Hydrogen Cyanide (AC) Pure Mustard (HD) Mustard Lewisite (HL) Tabun (GA) Sarin (GB) Soman (GD)

Choking Incapacitating Blood

Damaging Damaging Nerve Nerve Nerve

- 14 - 26 - 50 - 56 - 42

3-A-1

CHAPTER 4 TACTICAL FACTORS IN COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS SECTION 1 - COMMON FEATURES OF COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS General 1. The problems of survivability, mobility, communications and unpredictable weather all emphasise that operations will probably be conducted by smaller sized units and combat groupings. This places greater responsibility upon junior commanders and stresses the importance of appropriate low level tactics, combat techniques and the G1/G4 interface. The aim of this Section is to outline the main tactical features of operating in cold weather conditions and to explain how combat techniques by the major combat arms are influenced and modified to meet the requirement. It has been mentioned in the Preface that the vast majority of military operations will be conducted in conditions where the temperature is at or below 0 Centigrade, but where there is not necessarily any snow. There could be frost, fog, ice, freezing rain and up to an inch of snow but these conditions should not change the operational or tactical factors that pertain in temperate climates - and hence the continued validity of AFM Vol I Pt 1 Formation Tactics. Experience gained over the last 70 years shows that despite the extreme climatic conditions of Central, Eastern and Northern Europe over four winter seasons between 1941 and 1945 the operational nature and conduct of the war for all belligerents were not affected at all by these conditions. Tactics did, however, alter when seasonal changes of climate occurred. The autumnal slush, the deep winter snow and freezing conditions, together with the slush and mud in the spring thaw all had a direct affect on tactics and on individual military activity. In Western Europe the severe winter conditions of 1944/45 played a significant part in slowing the overall pace of Allied operations, and altering the tactical ploys needed to defeat the forward defended localities of the enemy.

2.

3.

4 - 1

Tactical Factors 4. The tactical factors described in the next Sections cover those conditions where the weather is so exceptionally cold (well below 3C) or where snow is present at depths greater than a few inches, create conditions in which the tactics used in temperate conditions cannot be applied effectively without risk or hazard. Some of the tactical factors to be taken into account in the planning and execution of operations are: a. Maps will often lack detail and may be topographically inaccurate. Air photographs will be invaluable in the planning of operations but it is important that they are still current; terrain will look very different following a heavy fall of snow. Low visibility, clouds, snow and blizzards will often necessitate last minute changes in plan, however, the opportunity to move in such conditions should never be dismissed; useful advantages can be gained, particularly against a static enemy. Meteorological reports should be consulted early in the planning process and then updated, as appropriate. Tactical mobility should be maintained but not exercised unnecessarily because movement invites detection. Sound knowledge of local conditions will yield tactical results. Where appropriate, the provision of liaison officers from a host nation will be invaluable in this respect and should not be confined to liaison at headquarters level. Local knowledge and the application of local survival and operating techniques will be particularly useful to all units and formations.

5.

b.

c.

d.

e.

4 - 2

SECTION 2 - OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS General 6. The hasty attack is unusual in very cold conditions except as a counter attack to dislodge the enemy before he can establish himself and reap the benefit of the warmth and shelter of a vacated position. In other circumstances, even the very attenuated preparations necessary for a hasty attack will leave troops exposed and thus at a relative disadvantage, particularly if subsequent events are prolonged and a fire fight develops. This does not of course preclude an anti-ambush drill demanding instant reaction, but this is a situation where the initiative has in any event passed momentarily to the enemy. The deliberate attack implies a much enhanced battle procedure, adequate reconnaissance, orders, and such redeployment as is necessary. It does not mean that every attack should be prepared for and rehearsed on a grandiose scale, but rather that sensible precautions are taken to ensure that attacking troops make the best possible use of the conditions and are not placed at an unnecessary disadvantage in this respect. Illustrations of attacks at platoon, company and battalion level are shown in Figures 4-1 to 4-4. The defender has the advantage of warmth and shelter, both of which are denied to the attacker while he is manoeuvring prior to the attack and during the assault. The well sited defensive position will exploit this situation by measures designed to delay and prolong any attack. The particular aspects of planning peculiar to cold weather conditions are therefore very much concerned with this problem. Priorities of target may have to be set to achieve practical results which can be used to advantage. The enemy may be destroyed as much by cold as by bullets and gunfire. The tactical options available to a commander when formulating attack plans are likely to be: a. b. c. Out flanking movements. Fierce and swift attacks on a narrow front. Patrol activity in front and to the rear of enemy locations. 4 - 3

7.

8.

9.

d.

Deep raids by small forces either by sea or land on key areas such as LOCs. Heliborne assaults on suitable targets. Attacks from front and rear of enemy positions. Small 'pin prick' attacks on rest areas to destroy stores, shelters and damage morale. Larger raids by airborne or seaborne task forces to destroy logistic installations and airfields. Such a force could stay on its objective in order to exploit it for its own use. Rapid concentration of force and fire power to exploit tactical advantages.

e. f. g.

h.

i.

Intelligence 10. Good tactical intelligence is essential and may have to be obtained by extensive patrolling. The information required varies little from that required in other environmental conditions, but there will be greater emphasis on the following:a. b. Enemy strengths dispositions and unit/formation identities. The type of the defences, also whether shelter is contiguous to fire positions. Obstacles, mines and possible DF. Suitable approaches for an assault. Assembly areas and FUPs.

c. d. e.

Other Factors 11.

Surprise. The wish to achieve surprise should be tempered by the need to expose the enemy to the cold by bringing him to his fire positions and keeping him there. It will usually be most profitable to achieve surprise by

4 - 4

deception as to the size, direction and purpose of the attack. An attack can of course be conducted under cover of a blizzard, but co-ordination and direction keeping will be very difficult in such circumstances. 12.

Timings. All troops engaged in the attack, particularly those involved in the assault, should be in the open for the shortest possible time. As it is difficult to predict deployment times accurately when moving through snow, an attack should be phased with separate timings for each phase possibly on a 'not before' basis. Phases can then be started by a code word given at the appropriate stage in the previous phase. There must be flexibility in the plan to allow for timings to be arranged in this fashion: there must be no element of over-insurance which results in troops waiting about in the cold. Direction of the Assault. The assault should take place downhill when possible, with the wind behind the attackers. It may be possible to assault on skis, but this can only be accomplished by well practised skiers, and it will be usual to wear snow-shoes if boots sink deeper than 150 mm. The wind blowing in the face of the defenders chills them, and it is a further help to the attacking force who can maintain direction by keeping it at their backs. This could, however, be offset by the loss of surprise and early warning of arrival.
Fire Support

13.

14.

The ideal cold weather attack puts the main burden on supporting fire, to allow the assaulting infantry to advance unseen, clear the position and consolidate. The problem is, however, less simple because the logistic difficulties will seldom allow ammunition on an adequate scale, and the effectiveness of fire is in any event much reduced if the snow is deep and projectiles explode beneath its surface. A further strain on ammunition supply arises from the need for extensive preparation fire in order to maintain the strain on the defenders and keep them at their posts exposed to the cold. Close air support from ground attack aircraft will help to alleviate problems of ammunition supply, but it requires good flying weather. Because of the time needed to organize aircraft, which may well be based outside the immediate operational area, these will seldom take part in anything less than a set piece assault with a comparatively long preparation period. 4 - 5

15.

16.

Fire support groups will seldom be able to assess accurately the time taken to reach their positions; they must not be kept waiting there, nor be late in relation to other forms of support, so the fire plan must be adjustable to their movements. It will seldom be possible to time a fire plan in relation to a fixed H Hour. The usual practice is therefore for all targets to be on call. Predicted fire is seldom accurate in extreme weather conditions, and some adjustment, even if only for confirmatory purposes, is essential. It may be practicableto include this in the deception plan. Deception Plan

17.

18.

Any localised deception plan should have two purposes: a. To deceive the enemy as to the timing, weight and direction of the attack. To bring him to his post and keep him there, exposed to the cold, for up to 90 minutes prior to the actual assault.

b.

19.

Artillery and other forms of fire support are an important part of the preparation for the attack, but on their own they will tend to drive the enemy to ground and defeat the object of getting him out into the cold. Activity should, therefore, be arranged to delude the enemy into believing that an assembly area and FUP are being manned and an attack is developing in an area different to the actual assault. This can best be done in bad light or at night, and as periods of extreme cold generally occur in the arctic winter, a night attack will be quite usual. A deception plan might include: a. b. c. d. e. Patrol activity. Vehicle movement. Controlled use of light. Artillery and mortar fire. Small arms fire.

4 - 6

LD

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS FOLLOWING X FIRETEAM CONTACT 1. Z Fireteam reinforces X Fireteam to form Fire Base. 2. Pl Comd moves forward to reconnoitre. Sends preliminary orders specifying FUP. 3. Pl Sgt moves A & B vehs with V & W Fireteams to FUP, collecting Y Fireteam on route. 4. At FUP skis removed and bundled. All-round defence. O Gp assembled. 5. Pl Comd moves to FUP and gives orders. 6. Snow-shoe or foot assault.

Figure 4-1. Illustration of a Platoon Quick Attack 4 - 7

LD

SEQUENCE FOR ATTACK 1. Skis removed, bundled and loaded on to vehs by drivers. Shelters constructed if there is a delay in H hour. Snow shoes put on. 2. Veh muster formed by MT NCO. Coy Aid Post and REME vehs collocated. Dvrs in all round defence. 3. Assault Pls move forward down centre-line to Line of Departure. 4. Tac HQ forms up to rear and centre of assault platoons. 5. Reserve Pl, SF Det and drivers (optional) form up at reserve. 6. Milan vehs act as flank protection. Figure 4-2. Illustration of a Company Attack 4 - 8

Figure 4-3. Illustration of a Positional Defence Notes: 1. Assume that indirect fire and air were used first and failed. . 2. Essential to destroy en OPs first. 3. Recce gp bypass whilst comd does estimate. 4. The firebase may need shelter and will need ambulances. 5. Move to FUP should be as swift as poss. Probably located by recce fire team. 6. CAP on main route to ease casevac. 7. Use skis, snowshoe or foot. 8. Need shelter to attack. 9. The hasty attack will rarely be coord atBG level. 10. Pressing on as soon as possible. 11. A better option may be to destroy the enemy shelter and log units in the rear whilst bypassing the prepared posns 4 - 9

Figure 4-4. Illustration of a Battalion Deliberate Attack


Notes: 1. 5. Route to FUP cut by recce pl/coy recce fire teams, min of 3 routes. Engrs to sp if req. Tps Coy Echelon Parties mov to Assy Area on in asslt order. H hr. RAP mov from Conc Area on H hr. 6. Fire sp loc ident by recce, initial selection MAIN to be estb in Conc Area. from map. Shelter erected. Also act as flank Multi-route move (3+), use of vehs protection. restricted by wind dir/proximity of en/ 7. Exploitation force, also cut off/pursuit/flank ground. If no vehs then muster brought fwd protection. under BG control as close to H hr as 8. FUP: min wait, foot wear change if nec, H hr possible in order to be aval for casevac and "not before/on call". resup during asslt and reorg. 9. LD secured and marked by recce pl/coy Assy Area at least one km from FUP. Full recce fire teams. shelter for tps in assy area (sleeping bags/ 10. Break in: Directional guidance from fire sp tents etc). HLS for RAP estb. OC Recce and OPs. Ident coord pt for passage of 2nd ech brief CO/asslt tp comds on en. Select forces. footwear for mov to FUP/asslt (foot, snow11. Reorg: Vehs brought fwd asp for immediate shoes or skis). shelter/resup/casevac. 2nd Ech asslt tps stay in shelter in assy 12. Establish OPs as soon as poss in overwatch area for as long as possible. with obsn of posn by day and ni.

2.

3.

4.

4 - 10

Conduct of the Attack 20.

Trail Breaking and Trail Marking . Trails should be broken to the assembly area and FUP and marked with coloured tapes, luminescent devices or dye. This must be done at the latest possible moment to avoid detection and ensure markings are not obscured by falling or windblown snow. The Line of Departure (LD) can be marked by coloured tape, or a ski trail may be adequate. Trails cannot be broken beyond the FUP, and the initial formation in the assault will, if the depth of snow warrants it, be of sections in file, the order to shake out being given by platoon commanders when obstacles, enemy fire or the stage of the assault, dictate. Further details of trail breaking are given in Pt B of this Manual. Assembly Area . This must be well concealed and sheltered so that assaulting troops can get warm and have a hot drink and possibly a meal. As the FUP will be well forward, there may be a long move to it from the assembly area, and troops may ski-jore to cover this quickly, both to avoid exposure to the weather and to enemy fire, and also to reduce the time given to the enemy to appreciate the strength and direction of the attack. FUP. The assault should not take place over a distance in excess of 400 metres, and this may result in the choosing of an FUP in an exposed situation with a consequent need to provide cover by fire and smoke. The minimum requirement is that there should be enough space to enable the assaulting force, which may have ski-jored forward, to deploy into assault formation, remove skis, and for skis and toboggans to be able to be concealed in situ with those men detailed to bring them forward on the success signal. The conflicting requirements for a forward position and concealment must be carefully appreciated, and the time saved in the assault phase balanced against possible disruption of the FUP by enemy action. Over-snow vehicles used to ski-jore men into the FUP must leave it at once and not become involved in the assault - they are not APCs. The Assault . Once troops have left the assembly area, they are exposed to the cold, and they will not regain shelter until they are on the objective. The assaulting troops must, therefore, always move as fast as possible, the move out of line of sections into the assault formation taking place without halting; assaulting troops must not halt to fire. The penalty for an assault that falters will be exacted by the cold. Because the FUP must be

21.

22.

23.

4 - 11

selected well forward, it is possible that troops may come under fire while still on snow-shoes or skis: should this occur the assault should usually continue with these on. 24.

Obstacles. The main obstacle is likely to be wire, sometimes buried, which has to be cut or crossed, or, if it is on movable trestles, removed: this must be done under cover of fire or smoke. Consolidation and Reorganization. Enemy must be winkled out of their shelters which will often be dug into the snow and possibly difficult to find in the confusion of the assault and the darkness or half-light of winter. That this should be done thoroughly and quickly is essential, the enemy will probably seek to make an immediate counter-attack and the position must be organized and firmly held to meet this. Anti-tank weapons must be readily available, and should be brought forward to a concealed position, possibly near the FUP, soon after the assault has gone in. Anti-tank weapons can also be brought in by helicopter, but care must be taken not to land where the recirculating snow might confuse the reorganization. Exploitation. Exploitation can seldom be done by the assaulting troops, and a separate echelon should normally be detailed for this purpose.
Co-ordination and Control

25.

26.

27.

The point has already been made that movement timings are not easily predicted, and any attack has to be carefully phased. This implies good control which in turn depends on good communications. If radio conditions are uncertain, then alternative means of passing orders are essential, and while these may be by hand signals or voice to troops close by in, say the assembly area, light signals will probably have to be planned for other troops. Commanders should be positioned well forward at each level so that they are in touch with the battle and can maintain control. This may mean special arrangements for rear link and flank communications so that timely reporting of progress can be made.

4 - 12

SECTION 3 - DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS General 28. The factors which affect defence in situations of extreme cold or in snow conditions are: a. An uphill attack can be unusually arduous if there is deep snow: the value to the defence of high ground is therefore enhanced. The difficulty of concealing positions in snow means that greater dispersion may be necessary. Pressure operated, anti-personnel mines are not effective in snow conditions and anti-tank mines and obstacles can be made relatively ineffective by deep snow thus increasing the importance of mutually supporting defended positions and of artillery to cover gaps to overcome this possibility. In extreme cold, troops can only remain exposed at their posts for a short time before their efficiency deteriorates rapidly. It is not possible to dig in frozen ground, and effective snow defences take some time to construct. Resupply may be unusually difficult once contact has been established, or if the weather deteriorates.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

29.

The defender has an advantage over the attacker in that he can remain protected from the weather for some time after the attacker has had to leave his shelter. He must seek to exploit this advantage by prolonging this period for as long as possible, in this way the attacker will become cold and exhausted and less and less able and willing to press home his attack. The defender achieves his aim in several ways by: a. b. c. Selecting a suitable position. Improving the position with field defences, shelters and obstacles. The conduct of the defence. 4 - 13

30.

Defensive tasks can be best achieved by limiting the tactical ploys to achieve the following:1 a. b. c. d. e. f. Primary positions carefully sited for maximum fire power. Controlling lines of communication. 2 Holding high ground for observation. Patrolling undefended areas. Attacking enemy concentrations. Maintaining an ability to move forces rapidly to threatened areas within the defence plan.3 Maintaining good reconnaissance and observation to forewarn of enemy raids and attempts at penetration of the defensive position, from air and ground. Maintaining a standing reaction force.

g.

h.

Selection of Positions 31. It may be possible to occupy high ground, but the advantages have to be carefully balanced against the need to cover all possible approaches: OPs and standing patrols are inevitably exposed to the cold. Positions may need to be adjusted frequently to take account of current visibility, which may vary from hour to hour.

1. A recommended tactic might be to build a solid defence in an attempt to draw the enemy in, and then counterattack. If the enemy can be induced to attack, he is likely to exhaust his resources. 2. Another tactical ploy might be to cut enemy lines of communication, since forces will quickly succumb without fuel and food. Wide sweeping envelopments are too grandiose for this environment. 3. The Petsamo-Kirkenes operation in October 1944, the largest arctic combat operation ever, demonstrated that for an offensive to succeed, the mobility problem had to be solved. The Russians created and maintained a road network. This network, along with properly clothed and equipped troops, brought victory.

4 - 14

32.

Natural obstacles play an important part in the defence and, particularly at the change of the seasons, their significance may vary considerably with the weather. Water obstacles are the most obvious example, but snow can also alter the character of the ground, either making a difficult route quite feasible for ski-borne troops, or, if drifting occurs, an easy route may become almost impossible. Where there are local inhabitants, they can often help over the usual dates for the freeze up and thaw, and they can also provide useful indications of the likely load bearing capacity of the ice on nearby rivers and lakes. Field Defences and Obstacles

33.

In these types of operation, our own troops will usually be widely dispersed and there will thus often be gaps between positions; because snow confers an unusually swift mobility for ski-borne infantry, there is therefore an especial need for all round defence and adequate protection for the flanks and rear of a position. The commander must have time to study the ground which is of particular advantage when maps are poor and the approaches are cloaked in snow: this will enable him to discover hidden hazards and deep drifts which can then be incorporated into the obstacle plan. The ground in winter is usually too hard for digging, and although something can be achieved with engineer assistance, it will be usual to construct defences above ground level using snow, ice and timber. Shelters should always be sited as an integral part of a defensive layout so that warmth and food are readily available to men at their posts. The usefulness of man made obstacles depends on the weather conditions. If there is little snow and not much is expected, then wire can be erected and minefields laid, and while the mechanical problems will be great, the usual principles will apply. If heavy snowfalls are expected, then wire defences should rest on tripods on the snow surface and be recoverable and adjustable after each snowfall. Ice can be blown to create a tank obstacle, but an alternative is to conceal charges beneath it which can be command detonated as an attack develops. Water obstacles which are recreated by blowing ice usually produce an irregular tumble of small floes, which can sometimes be sown 4 - 15

34.

35.

36.

37.

with anti-personnel mines as refreezing begins. These mines help to maintain the obstacle without frequent need to blow the ice and, as they will sink out of sight at the thaw, need not be lifted. 38. Trip-wire operated, anti-personnel mines can be laid on likely enemy ski patrol routes, but while these may be on approaches to a position, they are unlikely to be part of the close defensive obstacle pattern. Conduct of a Defence 39.

Use of Covering Troops. Covering troops, usually in the form of a guard, may have an important part to play by forcing the enemy to deploy. They must, however, retain their mobility and thus at least partly surrender the important advantage of being sheltered while the enemy is exposed. Where there are defiles, covering troops can take advantage of the restrictions on the enemy's ability to manoeuvre, and can wear him down and exact a toll of his strength and his morale. Composition of Covering Troops. The composition of a guard must depend on the going and the weather. If there is little snow, tanks and reconnaissance vehicles should be included, with anti-tank helicopters whenever these can fly: if there is too much snow for conventional vehicles, the force must be ski-borne supported by over-snow vehicles and anti-tank helicopters. Positional Defence. Because of the need for shelter and the difficulty of preparing quick defences, the emphasis is likely to be on positional rather than mobile defence. However, a commander must be alert to a possible change in the weather which could enable a more fluid battle to develop. The main difference between defence in cold conditions to that in temperate conditions is the need to exploit the climate and weather. The enemy must be forced to expose his troops to the cold for as long as possible while the defenders remain, for the most part, warm and sheltered. Thus possible assembly areas and FUPs close to a defended position must be denied to the enemy by artillery fire, mines and standing patrols. The aim must be to force the attacker to form up a long way from his objective, and then to make his subsequent progress up to the start line and beyond it as slow and laborious as possible by engaging him at long range, so that by the time he reaches the final defences he is cold and tired.

40.

41.

4 - 16

42.

Surveillance. It is important that early warning is received of enemy intentions, and that a careful monitor is kept of his progress. It is only in this way that unnecessary alerts can be avoided which bring the defender to his battle positions and, keeping him there, exposed to the cold, deprive him of his important advantage. Early warning is obtained by reconnaissance patrols and standing patrols, and by surveillance devices. White light may be necessary because most attacks will take place in, at best, half light; however, its use must be carefully controlled or patrols will be needlessly exposed. Registration of Targets. Artillery fire leaves unmistakable scars on snow, and registration areas can often be detected and thus avoided by an alert attacker. Registration for both artillery and mortars should therefore be carried out on an adjacent area, and the necessary subsequent corrections made to the gun data, or they must be predicted. Reserves. Reserves may have to be split up and held close to vital ground in order to make an immediate counter attack. A counter attack should in any event be put in as soon as possible to catch the enemy before he has had time to gain any benefit from warmth or shelter. If troops are bypassed, they should hold out and be prepared to attack the enemy in his flank or rear. Plans for a breakout must be prepared in advance and rehearsed: provision must be made for casualty evacuation, possibly using helicopters. Layout. An illustration of a positional defence location is at Figure 4-5.
Defence of Administrative Areas

43.

44.

45.

46.

Logistic problems in cold weather operations puts a premium on supplies of all kinds, make administrative areas particularly attractive targets to deep patrols and coup de main parties. A major problem is that dispersal, while helpful against attack from the air, compounds the ground defence problem. Defences should include: a. b. c. Very low level air defence weapons. A co-ordinated defence plan to include all administrative personnel. Prepared defence positions with associated shelters each with a cooking stove and fuel. 4 - 17

Figure 4-5 An Illustration of a Positional Defence


Notes: 1. Recce vehs only effective on road tracks. Screen using tracked vehs/ mobile OPs and ATk wpns. Wdr routes carefully selected. Posns ident for use during poor visibility. 2. OPs/standing ptls/indirect fire and fighting ptls. Aim to keep en OPs out of direct fire range of own posn. 3. Snow ideal for rapid construction of dummy posns which may be occupied to form false front. Time taken to wdr from false front is important consideration. Additional Points: Defensive layout similar to temperate ops, but digging guidance and depth of packed snow considerable. Vehs will, whenever possible, be in position, dispersed in pl musters and dug in. 4. Mines of limited use in snow particularly after snowfall. Demolitions on rds/rivers with mines to deter local bypass are most effective. Engrs also used for route maintenance. OPs fwd to call down indir fire tasks. ATk plan to be based on limited number of tk/veh approaches and (as important) observation of all possible en routes.

5. 6.

4 - 18

d.

Permanent standing patrols assisted by intruder alarms, ground surveillance radar and other aids to vision. SECTION 4 - DELAYING OPERATIONS

General 47. Delaying operations can be conducted independently or within other types of operation, principally as a prelude to a defensive operation and carried out by a covering or guard force. It is also possible that transitional phases will be involved, the most likely being a withdrawal and a rearward passage of lines, although it is quite conceivable that other transitional phases, such as a meeting engagement, could occur. A division or brigade is likely to be tasked to conduct a delaying operation as part of a higher formation's plan in one of the following circumstances: a. b. As a covering force for defending or withdrawing main bodies. The advance guard or covering forces when encountering superior forces. An economy of force operation conducted to fix or contain an enemy attack on a less critical avenue of approach. A deception measure to set up a counter attack. As a fixing force in mobile defence.

c.

d. e. 48.

A delaying operation is justifiably considered as one of the most difficult operations of war: it usually takes place under adverse conditions, when the initiative has passed to the enemy and the air situation is frequently unfavourable. The problems are made no less formidable by the cold, but there are factors peculiar to cold weather areas which are not entirely unpropitious and can be exploited. The long hours of darkness in winter, combined with often bad flying weather, provide a cloak under which a force can the more easily slip away unobserved. If, at the same time, the attacker can be encouraged to overextend himself, there may be opportunities to exact a toll on his follow-up elements and logistic resources, and even to gain an advantage on him. 4 - 19

49.

Planning Considerations 50. Delaying operations are usually planned at operational level and are designed to achieve time and space to allow further operational ploys to be mounted within an overall campaign plan. Further details are given in AFM Vol 1 Part 1 Formation Tactics, but some additional factors concerning operations in cold weather conditions are given below: a.

Preparation of Main Positions. A new main position constructed by fresh troops would present no unusual problems. When it has to be prepared by a part of any withdrawing force, it will be important to appreciate the considerable effort needed to build defences and construct obstacles in the snow; the lower the temperature the less productive will be the labour, and there are compelling arguments for deploying a substantial amount of the available engineer effort on this task. Intermediate Positions. The difficulty and time taken in preparation is especially significant in the case of intermediate positions, particularly if temperatures are very low, as exhausted troops will be unable to work against the clock to prepare substantial defences without themselves becoming cold casualties. Intermediate positions, which cannot be prepared well in advance, must therefore be based on natural obstacles where the least possible improvement is required to impose an effective delay: waterways, mountain passes and other defiles where a few men can deny passage to a much stronger force, and ridges skirted with deep drifted snow are some examples of suitable situations. The measures taken to delay the enemy have to be appropriate to the nature of his force, but they could include:
(1) Blowing ice on rivers or lakes which are effective tank or infantry obstacles. Setting charges beneath ice for subsequent command detonation when the enemy begins to cross. Cratering, which will usually need engineer assistance.

b.

(2)

(3)

4 - 20

(4)

Inducing avalanches in mountain passes or where the route is constricted. Laying anti-tank mines when the snow is not deep: antilifting devices are particularly effective because of the time taken to neutralize them in the cold when gloves can only be taken off for very short periods. Booby trapping ski trails on the approaches to the position.

(5)

(6)

Covering Troops 51. Covering troops should be selected for their mobility in the prevailing conditions. If there is little snow, and tracked vehicles can move relatively freely across country, the general circumstances are no different in principle, to temperate conditions. If snow conditions preclude all conventional vehicle movement, then the covering troops should be skiborne and their weapons and equipment will be correspondingly light and portable; they should have over-snow vehicle support to lift the heavier weapons and assist a rapid withdrawal by ski-joring. A screen need only be lightly equipped. Surveillance devices, particularly utilising the infra-red spectrum will be useful. A guard which is tasked to delay as well as observe, should have the means of doing this in accordance with the nature of the enemy force. Delays can be caused by: a.

Ski Troops.
(1) (2) (3) Booby traps. Ambushes. Mortar fire.

b.

Vehicles .
(1) (2) (3) Direct fire. Artillery fire. ATGW, either ground controlled or launched from helicopters. 4 - 21

HL (Hand Over Line) (Bn Hand Over Line)

Figure 4-6. An Illustration of a Screen/Guard Delay Position


Notes: 1. Some OPs may stay behind. 2. In delay battle every opportunity for aggressive action to destroy or delay enemy should be sought and exploited. Local CAttacks should not be designed to recover lost ground but limited to destruction of enemy penetration which would otherwise result in close combat from which it would be difficult to extract forces. 3. Wdr routes must be reconnoitred in detail and kept clear at all times. Additional Points: The RAP may be colloc with MAIN or close to main routes through the HL. Armour is effective in delay buy may be restricted to main routes. 4. 5. Good comms are essential. Sub units or elms Xing the HL must send LOs in adv. Handover lines must be clear on the ground. Report lines should be used for the con of the wdr of fwd sub-units. MAIN should be static for optimum op and may well be to the rear of the BG rear bdry.

6. 7.

4 - 22

(4) 52.

Mining routes once the withdrawing force has used them.

An illustration of a screen/guard layout is at Figure 4-6. SECTION 5 - TRANSITIONAL PHASES General

53.

Operations are linked by one or more transitional phases which could also appear within the operation themselves. A transitional phase is not conducted in isolation, its execution should lead to the presecution of an attack or a defensive operation. This Section covers the advance to contact, and the withdrawal. Other transitional operations such as a linkup operation or a meeting engagement do not vary significantly from those in temperate conditions. The Advance to Contact

54.

General. The conduct of an advance will be influenced by:


a. The enemy, his strength, morale and dispositions: this factor will have a different significance according to whether it is an advance to contact, an advance in contact or a pursuit. The composition of the advancing force and particularly its mobility. A conventionally equipped force with a proportion of wheeled vehicles must have roads or equivalent going; tracked vehicles can move across country in a normal fashion provided there is not deep snow; over-snow vehicles, skis and snow-shoes enable a force to move over most polar terrain. The weather, particularly the wind chill factor, may dictate the length of time troops can be exposed and thus the depth and speed of the advance. Visibility affects reconnaissance capability and the provision of air support. The availability of routes, which, when considered in conjunction with the composition of the force, will dictate the scope of the advance and, if new routes need to be opened up, its speed and timing. 4 - 23

b.

c.

d.

e.

The going which is important for purposes of manoeuvre as well as for speed across country or movement independent of routes. If advantage is to be gained by bypassing or outmanoeuvring the enemy, then a force must be able to move relatively freely in the prevailing going.

55.

Frontage. Because routes will always be scarce and breaking new ones is tiring and slow, the advance will usually be conducted on a narrow front with other sub units in depth. Although it is tempting to use the routesmade by a retreating enemy, this involves some risk; he will be aware of their value and will probably have mined them. Reconnaissance. The aim is normally to make contact as quickly as possible, and the full reconnaissance capability should be deployed. This may include:
a. b. c. d. Aircraft. Conventional reconnaissance vehicles in suitable going. Ski troops supported by over-snow vehicles. RPV.

56.

57.

Organization. The organization must take account of the needs of reconnaissance and the importance of being properly balanced for immediate action on contact. Illustrations of a grouping for an advance to contact is shown at Figure 4-7 to 4-9. Conduct of the Advance. Tactical points to note in the conduct of an advance are:
a. In deep snow of over half a metre, the advance should be led by ski troops who will need to break a trail; the minimum number of routes should therefore be used, with troops moving in single file until contact becomes imminent. Pulks should be kept to the rear as they can be pulled more easily over a well broken trail: only a few GPMGs, carried by men on skis, may therefore be immediately available to the most forward troops if they are surprised. Over-snow vehicles and snow scooters can be used for ski-joring when contact is not imminent and for carrying and towing support

58.

b. 4 - 24

weapons, ammunition, fuel and rations. When contact is imminent, they should be moved in bounds from one camouflaged position to the next or to suitable positions for the deployment of support weapons. c. Because ascending high ground is both tiring and time-wasting, helicopters are useful both for the observation which would otherwise be difficult to obtain and, when necessary, for picketing so as to secure the advance of the main body. The speed will depend on the going and the weather conditions. If the affects of wind chill are likely to be particularly hazardous, frequent halts will be necessary to warm exposed skin, detect signs of frost-bite and at intervals to eat and drink: if windspeed is high then it may be necessary to erect temporary shelters or windbreaks when halted, in which case the pulks with these must move well forward unless individually carried tent sheets are used.

d.

59.

Navigation. Each sub-unit must be responsible for its own navigation. When a number of routes are being used, co-ordination of the advance will be necessary which must take account of the navigation problem as well as the scarcity of features suitable as report lines. Navigation parties must move well forward in the column when contact is not imminent. See also Section 6 of Part B for more details on navigation.
Advance in Contact

60.

General. The commander must harrass the enemy and so not allow him to break contact or seek rest or shelter. Such an operation requires at least an element of risk taking, which must be in proportion both to the task and the physical conditions. Thus, while troops may be imbued with the will to press on and exploit their successes, this enthusiasm may need to be kept within bounds if the wind chill is dangerous or the weather is deteriorating. As many routes as practicable should be used so that the maximum pressure can be maintained on the enemy, and also so as to give the best opportunity for finding an exposed flank or bypassing him. Bypassing. The orders on bypassing must be clearly understood and, because of usually inadequate maps and ill defined features, the most precise location of the enemy force must be passed to all concerned. The
4 - 25

61.

Reserve Fire Team Tac HQ, MFC and FOO

Main HQ

Notes: 1. Point Pl advances on skis. 2. SF Det advances with Tac HQ (GPMG SF on pulk). 3. 2nd Pl ski-jor. Ready to by-pass or reinforce as necessary. 4. 3rd Pl ski-jor, or on vehs. 5. Point Pl vehs at rear with REME veh.

Figure 4-7. Illustration of a Company Advance in Close Country 4 - 26

Tac HQ & MFC & FOO SF

Main HQ

Notes: 1. Point Pl advances on skis. 2. SF Det advances with Tac HQ and is available to deploy from main axis to increase firepower. 3. 2nd Pl ski-jor on vehs. 4. 3rd Pl ski-jor on vehs. 5. Point Pl vehs on main axis. 6. Atk vehs on main axis. 7. REME veh at rear.

Figure 4-8. Illustration of a Company Advance in Open Country 4 - 27

Figure 4-9. Illustration of a Battalion Advance


Notes: 1. 2. To adv across the grain is very slow and hard. Move by helicopter if possible; if not then on skis. Perhaps using MFC/FOO of Res Coy. If no ridge, air OP? Main axis, road or ice road, attempt to cut 3 routes. Each pl has one recce fire team who break trail. The lead coy should be replaced as it tires. If poss max of pl per route, but space and terrain may prevent. Stay mounted as long as possible. 7. Route must be travelled to be clear. Need route maintenance and improvement on main axis. Coys tend to move on flanks, BG sp on routes. Armour is effective if it can react. Try to fly fwd res coy to outflank/ surprise if poss. Res coy may go firm in tents and mov fwd in bounds. A1 rolls fwd usually using ground to hide. RAP well fwd since it takes about 45 mins to set up. No tailboard svc possible.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

3. 4. 5. 6.

4 - 28

enemy must of course be kept under observation and prevented from interfering with bypassing elements. 62.

Cleared Route. When a suitable route exists orders may be given to clear it, but if there is none then it will be usual to define an axis of advance. Flank Screens . The security and protection of the flanks must be provided for: the enemy will be aware of the damage which can be done by cutting lines of communication. Because the going is often variable across the frontage of the advance, it may be difficult to maintain an even speed of all the advancing elements, which will place a burden on control and communications. Helicopters will be useful to assist in flank observation.
Pursuit

63.

64.

The pursuit in extreme cold differs from the same operation under less testing circumstances in two important and to some extent contradictory ways: a. The climate can be used to complete the swift destruction of the enemy. The advancing troops can themselves quickly become overextended and vulnerable to the effects of the cold.

b.

65.

Initiative, speed and dash will be rewarded but they must be tempered by an appreciation of the risks. The aim should be to harass the enemy so that he is unable to seek shelter or cook the food so vital to survival, while at the same time gaining for our own use the stores and protection on which he is relying. Such constant harassment can only be kept up by the use of reserve units or sub-units to take over from the leaders as and when these must halt for their own food and warmth. This implies movement on a narrow front probably using enemy tracks and routes: if the pressure is kept up he will be less able to mine these, which in its turn will facilitate the speed of the pursuit. If a pursuit can be anticipated, there may be scope for deep patrols to move behind the enemy to harass his withdrawal. As an alternative, such patrols 4 - 29

66.

67.

could be inserted by helicopter or snow scooter during the pursuit if the air situation was favourable. 68. When the snow is deep (over about half a metre), the maximum speed of the pursuit will be that of ski troops and over-snow vehicles. If windchill is not a serious danger, then the main limitation will be the speed with which support weapons can be brought forward. Ski troops should not be allowed to outdistance their support and so expose themselves to enemy counter-attack which they are inadequately armed to repel. Control 69. Control in the advance can be difficult for several reasons. Three of the more usual reasons are: a. Poor maps, and the lack of easily identifiable features such as roads and railways on which to base axes, boundaries and report lines. Differences in terrain which may mean that flank troops move much more quickly or slowly than the main body. The inherent communication problem in or near the polar regions.

b.

c. 70.

Commanders can overcome these problems by: a. b. Good navigation at all levels down to sub-unit. Positioning themselves and their subordinate commanders well forward so that they are never out of touch with the battle. Clear orders. A comprehensive rebroadcast service supported by aircraft if possible. Suitable redundancy in communications.

c. d.

e.

4 - 30

Withdrawal 71. The main tactical factors which influence the conduct of a withdrawal are: a.

Routes. The capacity of routes through snow is limited, vehicle casualties can block defiles and cause delays where a detour has to be made through deep snow: bombing of ice crossings can also produce major hold-ups. The maximum number of routes should be chosen which can be prepared, separate routes for vehicles and ski troops are needed unless ski troops are ski-joring in which case it will be usual to provide separate routes for conventional and oversnow vehicles. Routes should be marked with shaded lights or luminescent devices and all trail-breaking done in advance. Timings. In intense cold, men cannot stand and fight without cover or shelter for more than a comparatively short time; this makes it more than usually difficult to retrieve the situation if the enemy should gain an ascendancy and the withdrawal become disorganized and in danger of becoming a rout. Timings must be flexible, but they must also be liberal and take account of the very real difficulty of working under pressure when the cold is sapping strength and slowing mental processes. When a commander has to assess the means by which he will impose delay so as to buy time to prepare a new main position, he will usually prefer to select only a few intermediate positions each to be held for a comparatively long time, rather than a larger number with less time spent at each. Men on the move are inevitably exposed, unfed, unwarmed, unsheltered; the less time they spend in such circumstances, the better for their morale and physical survival. Sequence of Events. The process of thinning out and the provision of reconnaissance and working parties is no different to other climates. The final troops to leave should be ski-borne assisted by over-snow vehicles if possible; this applies to both night and day withdrawals. Breaking contact by day is particularly difficult, and the last troops out must be covered by artillery or mortar fire, smoke or close air support. Offensive Action. Offensive action is an important morale booster, and it can be an effective means of delaying the enemy advance.
4 - 31

b.

c.

d.

The usually wide open spaces of the arctic and the comparatively small forces involved favour the use of stay behind parties who can ambush and disrupt enemy follow-up troops and communications. They must be ski-borne and it may sometimes be possible eventually to retrieve them by helicopter. In planning a withdrawal it may be possible to establish hidden caches of food and ammunition for such parties. Support for Withdrawing Forces 72. If the withdrawal routes are few and far between, it may be necessary to thin out vehicles very early on, and this will inevitably affect the level of support available in the later stages. Other points to note are: a.

Armour. The enemy threat and the going will influence the use of armour and armoured reconnaissance vehicles. Infantry may be able to ski-jore behind withdrawing armoured vehicles. Fire Support . Light guns and mortars which can be carried on, stowed in or towed by over-snow vehicles will be the main source of fire support. If flying is possible, close air support will be valuable, with a possible bonus in the form of limited visual reconnaissance. Anti-Armour. MRATGW can be transported over snow and provide flexible and long range support. Anti-tank helicopters should be allocated if flying conditions permit. Air Defence. HVM and small arms are likely to be the only ground to air weapons available to forward troops. Engineers. The calls on engineer resources are likely to be considerable. Although some effort can be allocated to maintaining withdrawal routes and improving obstacles at intermediate positions, as well as mining routes and preparing demolitions, the main weight of engineer support is likely to be needed on the main position. Although the lack of support forward will place an added burden on the withdrawing force, it will have the advantage of reducing the number of troops required to move over the withdrawal routes at a later stage.

b.

c.

d.

e.

4 - 32

f.

Communications. The maintenance of communications is vital. There will be considerable dependence on VHF with rebroadcast stations. The withdrawal of these at suitable stages so as not to interrupt communications needs careful planning. If line can be laid, it may be more dependable than radio, but the effort in laying may be considerable and maintenance possibly out of the question.
SECTION 6 - THE EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER ON THE COMBAT AND COMBAT SUPPORT ARMS

Combined Arms Activity 73. Much of any cold weather operations will be fought at close quarters by dismounted infantry. The problems of meeting superior forces unexpectedly, the difficulties of rapid movement and the ease of constructing strong and concealed defences indicate that a combined arms approach to operations in the cold weather conditions is absolutely essential. Operations in cold weather conditions invariably take much longer to organise and coordinate than elsewhere; the conduct of operations may depend on factors not present in operations elsewhere, such as the movement of armoured vehicles into precise positions for supporting fire or providing timely logistic support can become significant issues in cold weather operations. Any successful operation will depend to a large extent on the care and attention paid to the integration and harmonisation of all combat arms. Mobility 75. When mobile formations and units are to be deployed in an operation, weather forecasts have to be studied carefully to ensure that deteriorating weather conditions will not cause them to be stranded in deep snow or bogged down in mud. Reconnaissance by foot or in an over-snow vehicle will usually be essential to discover the going conditions and the most appropriate route. Some reorganisation of resources may be necessary to achieve this. Armoured vehicles are appreciably slowed down by wet snow more than half a metre deep but can negotiate dry snow up to two metres deep. A packed snow trail is soon formed by the passage of several vehicles, and 4 - 33

74.

76.

normal driving speeds can then be attained. The surface of a packed snow trail becomes compacted into a hard mass resembling well packed wet sand, and it is then easily traversed by all types of vehicles. In very wet snow or during a thaw, vehicles must however not track each other or deep ruts will be formed, making progress impossible. 77. Towed artillery will usually have to move on such few roads as exist, or on prepared tracks; this inhibits swift redeployment in battle and may entirely preclude movement after a heavy fall of snow. Light guns can be fitted with skids, and towed behind over-snow vehicles but progress is slow and the guns turn over easily on uneven ground; they can, however, be broken down and carried in over-snow vehicles. SP guns are subject to much the same limitations as tanks. During any thaw or seasonal climatic changes guns will have to be moved by helicopter to any area not accessible by metalled roads; and there will be similar limitations on most movement over tundra during other seasonal periods. The scarcity of suitable tracks may limit the number of vehicles that can be used. Reconnaissance and OP parties should be proficient skiers and equipped to operate on a man-pack and pack basis in order to conduct these duties. Cold weather regions generally have few roads, and route construction and maintenance is a major engineer task. In forward areas vehicles must be able to move as far forward as possible to enable armour and artillery to deploy and to reduce to a minimum the need for porterage of supplies by fighting troops. In rear areas, existing roads must be improved and kept clear of snow and ice in order that they can meet the needs of the inevitably heavy logistic commitment. If a freeze follows a thaw, the sheet ice which results will make most tracks and roads impassable, particularly on slopes of 35 per cent or greater. In such circumstances, armoured vehicles should follow each other to make the best use of the improved traction where preceding vehicles have already roughened the surface of the ice. Wet snow clings to the suspension and should be removed from tracks, idlers and sprockets at each halt to prevent track shedding. Dry snow does not pack in this fashion.

78.

79.

80.

4 - 34

Camouflage 81. All defended locations will often have to be occupied in areas virtually devoid of natural camouflage. Concealment will require punctilious attention to track discipline, deception and intelligent use of snow and ground. Tracks can never be completely concealed in snow and thus the deception plan, which may include dummy positions, should take careful account of the track plan. Shelters will be needed for gun detachments and command posts, and these should be constructed so as to take advantage of irregularities in the ground and any other natural features which may give protection and assist concealment; they should be close to each gun platform. Masts, antennae and conventional wire aerials all show up clearly against a background of snow. Insulated wire aerials for HF use, which can be laid on the snow or draped over trees, are helpful but a comprehensive deception plan may be necessary: usually achieved by siting separate dummy headquarters. Line also shows up clearly against snow, so that it must either be laid under trees, strung from them or buried. Buried line is rarely recoverable and makes fault finding tedious and often impossible. Maintenance 84. The effect of the cold on equipment is to increase the chance of damage or breakdowns. Equipment and power supplies will both function more efficiently if kept warm, and heated shelters are essential for maintenance and repair. Radio sets are particularly vulnerable to cold conditions, as they and their operators will frequently be located in exposed positions with limited resupply and no well heated shelters. Maintenance, regularly and systematically performed, is essential if communications are to be maintained. Vehicles should never be allowed to become cold-soaked, and engines should be started periodically to keep the lubricant warm during rest periods and at night. Frozen transmissions and engines of extremely cold vehicles are easily damaged by towing in an attempt to start the vehicle, and in some cases it is impossible to start tracked vehicles in this way because the suspension, transmission and final drives are frozen solid. 4 - 35

82.

83.

85.

Extreme care must be used in towing or pushing to ensure that no sudden shocks are applied as metal is very brittle in the cold and final drives, tow bars and tow chains may fail under sudden loads. Engines should only be started by towing if no other means is possible. Summary 86. The physical extremes of cold conditions which embrace snow and ice, slush, mud and the extremes of weather all restrict the mobility of a military force. To retain balance and cohesion a commander has to ensure that a combined arms approach to all climatic conditions is adopted by subordinate commanders and that his force can retain mobility, even if this is restricted at times to troops moving and operation on foot or skis. Most cold weather operations will involve the deployment of all combat and combat support arms probably without any major change of their organisational status. In conditions of extremely low temperature or where significant layers of snow are present operating conditions will have to change to reflect these circumstances. In these situations the Infantry, with their inherent mobility, will be at a premium, together with the Engineers whose ability to enhance mobility (and counter mobility) will also be a much valued asset. Each of the combat arms will have limitations on their capability to operate in cold weather conditions and some of these are recorded in subsequent sections of this Chapter. The effects of the cold on Combat Support Arms are given in Chapter 5.

87.

88.

SECTION 7 - ARMOUR (INCLUDING ARMOURED RECONNAISSANCE) General 89. If would be wrong to think that armour and armoured reconnaissance cannot be successfully used in conditions of extreme cold. There are many instances from World War II when large armoured formations operated with success in extreme conditions and in deep snow. There are, of course, some limitations that need to be addressed by commanders and crews which, with ingenuity can be overcome. The main limitations are listed in the following paragraphs.

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Firepower 90. Extreme cold can reduce muzzle velocity and impair accuracy. Solar radiation can have an appreciable effect on accuracy and zeroing if no thermal sleeve is fitted. It may at first go unnoticed because there has been only a marginal change in air temperature. However, a gun which is zeroed on a dull day or before sunrise can be seriously out of zero later because of subsequent distortion of the barrel by radiant heat from the sun. When a vehicle fires from a position on hard packed snow or ice, the vehicle may slip, which alters the basis for a corrected point of aim. Subsequent correction of fire may become difficult. Obscuration 91. Visibility can be impaired by ice fog, blown snow and falling snow. Ice fog occurs at the gun end, caused by the burning propellant, and at the target, caused by high explosive; snow can be blown by the wind, blown up by the muzzle blast and also blown into the air by a bursting shell. Many of these forms of obscuration occur on firing so that a first round hit assumes even greater importance. When the visibility from one vehicle is obscured, observation from another may be the quickest means of adjusting fire, although the vehicle commander, with improved visibility may be able to see. Heat shimmer can cause serious problems over the engine decks, and sighting and observation can become impossible for five minutes or more after shutting off the engine: this can to some extent be overcome by keeping a canvas cover over the engine louvres which may, however, cause overheating. Ammunition 92. Cold ammunition placed in a warm vehicle will become covered with frost crystals which may turn to ice and make loading difficult. Where possible, ammunition should be loaded into all fighting vehicles when both are cold. Ammunition may on occasions freeze into racks and containers, and it is always difficult to handle, particularly with gloves which should be worn to prevent ice burns.

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Crew Conditions 93. The crew compartments of AFVs are always cramped, and this is exacerbated in the cold by the bulky clothing worn. Commanders and drivers need the protection of face masks, hoods and snow goggles to reduce the risk of frost-bite and wind chill. Heating systems run off the engine give risk to wide fluctuations in temperature when the engine is switched on and off. Clothing can be adjusted by opening zips etc while the heating is on: it should, however, not be removed as it will be difficult to replace when needed, and if the vehicle has to be abandoned in action, the crew may find themselves inadequately clad and unable to retrieve their spare garments. Because of their cramped conditions, some form of heating is almost essential for AFV crews unless they can leave the vehicle frequently to restore circulation. It will generally be necessary to balance the advantage of keeping warm against the problems caused by overheating. SECTION 8 - ARTILLERY (INCLUDING AIR DEFENCE ARTILLERY) General 95. It will sometimes be difficult to deploy and manoeuvre armour and aircraft may be grounded because of the weather; artillery may often be the only form of fire support which can be employed, and play an important and decisive role in any cold weather operations. There are, however, some limitations to the use of artillery in these conditions. These are described in the next few paragraphs. Gun Areas 96. Gun areas will be unusually restricted and generally chosen for their accessibility. In wooded or mountainous country, suitable areas will be scarce, and particularly in the advance, a significant reconnaissance effort will be necessary. Not only should battery commanders and OP parties pay particular attention to this requirement but it is also a task for reconnaissance troops, and light aircraft may also have to be used to find suitable sites. Inadequate mapping could hinder the choosing of gun positions. SOPs would indicate that alternate positions should be chosen in all circumstances but only prepared if the situation dictates this.

94.

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Gun Platforms 97. Guns mounted on skids require no special preparation of the gun platform other than to ensure that the snow is firm and not supported on a thin layer of concealed ice which may cause the surface snow to slip when firing begins. A stadia rod should be used to detect concealed ice and also any slope which might otherwise be hidden under drifts. Wagon Lines 98. It may not always be possible to select a concealed position near the guns, in which case it may be necessary to bring the vehicles up to the gun position at night. While this eases the problem of protection, it will require constant attention to track discipline and a duplication of shelters. Occupation of Positions 99. If over-snow vehicles are not available, positions for individual guns must be constructed beside a prepared track. Such positions will have to be dug down until a firm base of hard packed snow can be made, or possibly even to ground level, and the guns will have to be man-handled into them. If over-snow vehicles are used, there is much greater freedom on the choice of gun platforms: guns can also be dropped into action on their skids but care must be taken to line them up on the centre of their arc with the vehicle, as subsequent manhandling may well require the efforts of two detachments for each gun: this is difficult, and until it can be done, only the limited traverse of the gun will be available for a quick response. The need for great care and deliberation in occupying a gun position in deep snow virtually precludes quick actions, unless these can be done on a road or track. Survey 100. Accurate survey is difficult in cold weather conditions due to the short hours of daylight in winter, weather conditions, low temperatures, difficult terrain and the sensitivity of the instruments. Survey processes may therefore take longer and be less accurate: this could mean using more ammunition for adjusting fire.

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Effect of Cold on Ammunition 101. Weapon and shell characteristics are affected by low temperatures, particularly when these change quickly. The temperature of cold ammunition placed in a warm barrel rises rapidly, and a few seconds delay in firing may cause considerable variations in range. It is possible that the first round from a cold barrel may therefore give misleading information to an OP. Meteorological conditions also change rapidly in the arctic and reliable and timely information on these is important. Snow absorbs the effects of an explosion and thus low airburst using time or proximity fuses is generally more lethal than groundburst. Smoke is smothered by deep snow but coloured smoke will give enough indication of the fall of shot to make it useful for adjusting fire. Observation 103. In-service observation equipment will perform adequately in cold weather conditions although there will be problems of mobility, battery life, condensation and handling. The accurate judging of distance by the naked eye can be difficult in good visibility because of the clarity of the light and the absence of shadow. The appearance of landmarks can change in drifting snow and the line of ridges can be obscured. The use of laser range finders, target markers or binoculars by Forward Observation Officers (FOOs) and Mortar Fire Controllers (MFCs) will overcome many of these problems. Artillery Logistics 104. Cold weather slows up operations and snow reduces the effectiveness of an HE burst: this means that a high proportion of multi-role fuzes4 are needed, more shells are required to provide a given effect, and fire may have to be brought down for unusually long periods to cover a relatively slow moving advance. Ammunition requirements are therefore likely to be high, particularly when other forms of support are not readily available.

102.

4. All current 155mm shells come with a multi-role fuze. This is not the case with 105mm, where a higher proportion of such fuzes would be required to compensate for the reduced effectiveness of the standard point fuzes in snow conditions.

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When over-snow gun towing vehicles are available, these are used to carry some ammunition. Resupply in remote areas will generally be by air-drop or by helicopter, in which case over-snow vehicles must be earmarked for its distribution. Air Defence 105.

General. The factors which affect the use and deployment of aircraft also have a relevance to air defence. In summer, generally good flying conditions and long hours of daylight give wide scope to enemy aircraft, while by contrast winter provides a cloak of darkness, fog and snow which keeps aircraft out of the sky and helps conceal troops and their activities on the ground. Dispersion. The limitations on mobility and logistic support will indicate that the relatively small number of troops engaged in cold weather operations are likely to be widely deployed on the ground. While such dispersion contributes to protection, it also places a heavy load on air defence and emphasizes the importance of passive measures. Passive Air Defence . The surest method of protection from air attack is to remain undetected; this is achieved by good concealment and blackout discipline coupled with a well executed deception plan and good communications security. Active Air Defence. Medium and high level air defence are not likely to be deployed further forward than port and base areas, and the principles governing their use are no different from any other theatre. Low level and very low level air defence is more likely to be available to field commanders and the two principal weapons are:
a.

106.

107.

108.

Rapier FSC. Tasks will be broadly similar to those required in other theatres. Detachments are usually isolated and special provision may have to be made for their warmth. Operators on duty will have little protection from the elements, and a system of reliefs is most important. HVM. The lightness and simplicity of this weapon enhances its usefulness as a daylight weapon in cold weather conditions. Its man-portable version can be carried by pack, snow scooter or on
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b.

a toboggan to any place where troops can penetrate; it can also easily be carried by light helicopter together with a limited amount of ammunition. In its tracked version, the same limitations will apply as for other tracked vehicles of its weight and configuration. HVM should be deployed in the same way as in other theatres, but detachments may be isolated from the main body and special provision may have to be made for their warmth and protection. The needs of concealment may mean that they should be deployed away from their vehicle: however the SP platform provides greater capability in acquisition tracking and engagement. 109.

Guided Weapons. Guided weapons carried in launchers ready for use should be properly covered and kept free of snow and ice. The main problems are of control and visibility. Even light gloves can be clumsy to use when controlling a missile, and for this reason in intense cold, it may be difficult to achieve accuracy if the controller is separated from the vehicle.
SECTION 9 - ENGINEERS General

110.

The rigours of cold weather place a premium on survival, inhibit movement, make defences difficult to construct and produce unusual problems for minelaying and the creation of obstacles. During thaw conditions there will be a different set of mobility problems as ice roads disappear and other tracks become deep slush or even raging torrents: while by summer minefields laid in snow will stand revealed, bog may replace former firm going and the defences of winter will either have melted away or for some other reason will probably have become untenable. All this adds up to the need for an engineer effort of unusual proportions, and the demand for assistance will certainly exceed the supply by a considerable margin. This section is designed to help commanders and their staffs to understand the problems, so that an appreciation of priorities for engineer assistance can be made. The few references to the technical problems and their possible solutions are included for illustrative purpose rather than as a guide on how to perform the tasks referred to. Field defences, mines and obstacles are also dealt with in Chapter 5.

111.

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Mobility 112. Engineer tasks in support of mobility are likely to be: a. b. c. d. Removal of fresh snow from all main surface routes. Spreading of salt and grit and removal of ice from road surfaces. Erection of snow fences to prevent drifting. Construction of over-snow roads to serve headquarters and logistic areas, and to enable deployment to take place in forward areas. Construction of ice bridges and approaches to ice roads. Route reconnaissance for all vehicles, including oversnow, on roads, tracks and cross-country. Preparation of airstrips and facilities for helicopters and light aircraft.

e. f.

g.

Counter Mobility 113. Over reliance on natural obstacles is unwise in cold weather conditions because rapid variations in temperature can dramatically change the nature of the ground. For example, impassable lakes or swamps can become aids to mobility when frozen, thus rendering good defensive positions more vulnerable to attack. Engineers will be involved in both preparing plans to counter enemy mobility and to construct obstacles and aids for defensive locations. Snow Clearance 114. Special plant and equipment are needed for removing snow, although most tracked and wheeled vehicles can be fitted with a snow plough device for clearing a light fresh fall. Snow insulates the ground and if it is removed early the underlying soil will more easily freeze and, particularly where it is marshy, enable heavy traffic to cross without undue extra preparation. Snow must always be scattered away from prepared tracks: snow walls cause drifting and further possibly unnecessary blockages. After a 4 - 43

temporary thaw, snow surfaces will become deeply rutted and must either be levelled with a dozer or some form of harrow, or the ruts can be packed with loose snow. Ice Roads 115. In some areas, the best sites for winter road routes will be found along frozen waterways. They have an advantage in that they are relatively easy to prepare, requiring only snow removal and possible strengthening of the ice in places, and the only slopes found on such routes are at the entrance and exit to the waterway. However, disadvantages are many: a. b. A sudden temperature rise can make the route unusable. Many men and much equipment must be stationed along the route to effect continuous maintenance and repair. Convoy speed is limited. Recovery operations of vehicles which break through the ice may force traffic to seek alternative routes.

c. d.

Airstrips 116. In deep snow, an airstrip can be prepared for light aircraft equipped with skis, by smoothing the surface with a drag or by driving over-snow vehicles over it; the snow must of course be well packed. Airstrips for wheeled aircraft can be constructed on frozen lakes, but otherwise require a firm, level, well frozen soil base. If this does not already exist, it would be difficult to prepare once the freeze-up had started. Steel or aluminium mats can be very difficult to handle in extreme cold and their wide use would be unusual. Seasonal Tasks 117. In the summer, there are no unusual problems with ground that drains and has a hard surface, although roads and tracks which have been damaged during the freeze and thaw will require repair. Flat ground which does not drain readily usually becomes a bog with many small lakes forming from melting surface snow and ice; the underlying permafrost prevents this

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water from seeping away, and such areas become almost impassable. A major road building effort would usually be necessary in such circumstances, which would be beyond the capability of a field engineer unit. Engineer assistance is likely to be required for: a. b. c. d. Bridging of streams and rivers. Laying of timber or hard core to make tracks. Construction of tracks in headquarter and logistic areas. Repair to bridges and crossing places damaged in winter.

Field Defences 118. Digging is difficult in frozen ground and defences will frequently have to be constructed above ground or explosives used to loosen the earth. During the summer the soil will often be waterlogged on the surface but too hard lower down because of the permafrost. Snow has a smothering effect on small arms fire and shell fragments but provides relatively little protection on its own. Ice, particularly when mixed with stones and rubble, gives much greater protection but there will be a risk of ricochets and ice splinters. The requirement for engineers to construct field defences and provide liaison and advice in utilising resources for field defences will be heavy. Further details about field defences are given in Chapter 5. Mines 121. The effectiveness of both anti-personnel and anti-tank mines will be reduced in snow. Compacted snow over mines can prevent detonation and fuses will freeze in low temperatures. This problem can be reduced by laying more than one layer of mine, placing mines on planks of wood or siting mines above ground. More time will be required for laying, breaching and recovering mines. Further details are given in Chapter 5.

119.

120.

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Obstacles and Demolitions 122. In winter, engineers will often be needed to restore deeply frozen streams and small lakes as obstacles. Ice can be cratered or holed to deny or impede passage over it, this can be done by blowing in advance, or demolitions can be prepared and then command-detonated. An ambush site can be prepared in this way and if charges are inserted under the ice, such preparation can be made undetectable by anything less than a very detailed reconnaissance. Water Supply 123.

General. Although water in the form of snow and ice is usually available in large quantities, it is impracticable to melt this in other than very small quantities, so that while tent groups will often get water from snow, the water supply for headquarters and concentrations of troops must be provided, and this is an important engineer task. The main sources of water for this purpose are rivers and lakes from which it must first be pumped and then purified, transported and distributed via the logistic services. NBC Contamination. Snow contaminated by radiation or chemical agents cannot be used as a water supply unless a WPU(NBC), with Sanitor, is employed. Alternatively water may be pumped from beneath the ice.
Deception

124.

125.

Engineer assistance may be needed to implement any deception plan. This may include: a. Construction of false defensive areas with shelters, dummy weapons and smoke from slow burning fuels. Construction of dummy headquarters and supply areas. Duplication of tracks and ice bridges. Simulation of gun areas and tank harbours.

b. c. d.

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e.

Simulation of artillery fire by explosives to deceive enemy locating devices. SECTION 10 - SIGNALS

General 126. The polar regions are subject to severe magnetic storms, the effects of the proximity of the magnetic pole, ionospheric and other boreal disturbances and of course to extreme cold which adversely affects radios and their power supplies. HF radio communications are therefore less easily maintained than in European and tropical conditions, and the problem likely to be encountered has to be understood and allowed for in planning. In addition to the limitations on radio, the hindrance to mobility and the lack of good routes will restrict signals deployment and the number of vehicles which can be used. There are special communications difficulties in mountainous areas for which reference should be made to AFM Mountain Operations. Atmospheric Conditions 129. The HF band, between 3 and 30 MHz, is very susceptible to the types of magnetic and atmospheric disturbances common in polar regions, and communications in this band may on occasions be subject to such heavy interferences as to be unworkable for many hours and even days. VHF and UHF is, however, usually reliable, and performance may on occasion even be enhanced by the greater ionization of the upper atmosphere, although screening will continue to be a problem in hilly terrain. The aurora borealis, which is most active between 60 and 70 of latitude has a very pronounced effect, which usually rises to a peak about every 28 days, leading to a total 'blackout' of HF communications. There is, however, usually a 'lull before the storm', and an indication of impending activity of this type is that immediately prior to it, reception from distant stations may well improve significantly. HF communication at night can seldom be relied upon but, except during very bad disturbances, it is usually possible for good operators to work 4 - 47

127.

128.

130.

131.

through daytime interference: should this become severe it can usually be mitigated by choosing a frequency below 3 MHz. 132. Precipitation static is a phenomenon where flakes or pellets of snow become highly charged with static electricity which is discharged as they strike an antenna. The effect is to blanket all frequencies, and although it can be eased by covering the antenna with polystyrene masking tape and shellac, this is only really effective when there are no other metal surfaces nearby against which the particles can discharge. Rebroadcast 133. Rebroadcast is usually necessary if VHF communications are to be used over any but very short distances, particularly in mountainous areas: stations can be positioned by helicopter or by the team moving on foot with a toboggan. If the area is mountainous, it will be tempting to site a rebroadcast station on a mountain peak, but while this may seem economical it will usually be easily located by enemy direction finding equipment and subsequently monitored or jammed. In such circumstances, several rebroadcast stations sited at the junction of adjoining valleys are more likely to be both secure and effective. A rebroadcast station can seldom be left for long periods without resupply or relief. Satellite Communications 134. Satellite communications can overcome the problems caused by atmospheric conditions and in some instances the difficulties caused by mountainous terrain. However, at high latitudes geo-stationary (equatorial orbit) satellites have a very low elevation. Particular care is therefore required in siting satellite communication antennae especially in more hilly regions. Reconnaissance of antenna locations should include checks on the visibility of all satellites that may be used. Satellite communications and antennae dishes should be kept clear of snow and ice and tied down securely to prevent misalignment caused by high winds. Equipment Problems

General. Extreme cold does not enhance the performance of any equipment which is designed primarily for use in temperate climates, and communications equipment is no exception. Some of the problems are set out below. 4 - 48
135.

136.

Batteries. Batteries of all types give less power at low temperatures, and the conventional dry cell battery loses efficiency particularly rapidly. Lead acid batteries behave comparably and must never be allowed to become discharged: because of their weight they are generally used only in vehicles. Lead acid batteries may be physically damaged if the electrolyte freezes. All batteries should be kept as warm as possible. Radios. At temperatures down to -25C, no serious adverse effects are noticeable. Occasionally, mechanical components can stick but this can be quickly remedied by warming the equipment. In low temperatures, metal does, however, become very brittle, with the result that antennae may snap if roughly handled and a radio can easily be damaged if it is dropped or jarred. All cables and leads also become brittle and break easily. Radio Antennae. It will usually be difficult to erect masts on hard frozen ground or in deep snow, and guy ropes should be fixed in a similar fashion to tent ropes. Horizontal wire aerials may become laden with ice and this should be removed frequently by jarring the supporting posts. Earthing. The amount of static electricity present makes earthing of radio equipment vital. Unfortunately frozen ground is not a good conductor, and it is anyway very difficult to drive in an earthing spike. The best earths are obtained by driving a spike through ice into water.
SECTION 11 - INFANTRY Organization

137.

138.

139.

140.

The tent group is the basic organization which is normally in multiples of four and gives some flexibility as to numbers, but the grouping concept remains because of the need to concentrate on cooking, toboggans and first aid facilities. The Infantry section is admirably suited to the tent group concept, but platoon and company headquarters, support weapons and administrative personnel need a more thoughtful division into appropriate groups. Static vehicles do not make suitable living quarters, they cool rapidly and bare metal is a serious hazard to any exposed flesh. Vehicles, however can be suitable for cooking in, as each vehicle is fitted with a boiling vessel, however vehicles must not be used for sleeping in when static running is necessary for proper maintenance. Vehicles crews should be organized into tent groups for overall security and administration. 4 - 49

Firepower 141. The difficulty of deploying other combat arms in some extreme conditions places a premium on the firepower within the battalion. All weapons are adversely affected by the cold, metal becomes brittle at low temperatures, lubricants clog and condensation turning into ice freezes up moving parts. The vital need to keep weapons working demands understanding of the problems and good discipline and supervision. Small Arms 142. The effects of extreme cold on infantry weapons is given below: a.

Pistols. Pistols cannot be operated wearing gloves or mittens, the moving parts are vulnerable to icing and becoming blocked with snow: they will seldom be used. However, they are small enough to be carried in a pocket which will improve the ability for immediate use in case of need. Rifles. Rifles should be oiled with low viscosity oil to enable proper functioning. If protected by muzzle and breech covers and treated with care they should give little trouble. The trigger guard may have to be removed to allow operation wearing gloves or mittens. Machine Guns. Machine guns of all types require lubrication which can often not be applied until the weapon is warm: the oil must then be removed immediately following firing or it will coagulate and jam the mechanism. A fairly high rate of breakages occur because of the rapid temperature changes, and a large supply of spare parts should be carried. It is very difficult to keep belt fed ammunition free from snow. Grenades. Grenades will bury themselves unless lashed to a stick. A grenade may freeze to wet or damp gloves - with unpleasant consequences for the thrower.

b.

c.

d.

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Anti-Armour Weapons 143. Points for anti-armour weapons are: a.

LAW. As it is light and not affected by the cold, it can be useful for reducing defensive works as well as engaging armour. MRATGW. These are heavier and the transport of the weapon and its ammunition requires toboggans, over-snow vehicles or helicopters. The use of MIRA sights can improve the effectiveness of these weapons significantly.

b.

Mortars 144. Mortars of all types work well in the cold because of their simple structure and few parts. Bombs should be fitted with proximity fuses when the snow is deep or they will bury themselves, and the explosion will be ineffective. If auxiliary platforms are not issued, they should be constructed or the base plates will be driven into deep snow. Extra illuminating rounds will be needed in the winter months. The use of vehicle mounted mortars eliminates the base plate problem in snow and provides a commander with a more flexible form of immediate close support. Vehicle Mounted Weapons 145. Weapons permanently mounted on vehicles will have the same limitations and will need the same sort of care and attention as those described for armoured reconnaissance vehicles. SECTION 12 - ARMY AVIATION General 146. Aviation can carry out all it's roles of armed action, observation and reconnaissance, limited movement of men and materiel, assistance with command and control, and the direction of fire in cold weather conditions', but the aviation unit has to be adequately equipped and trained for this environment. This Section concentrates on the equipment and training which is additional to that required for an aviation unit in temperate climates. 4 - 51

Equipment 147.

Camouflage. All army aircraft are usually painted in a camouflage scheme for a temperate climate. Provision has to be made for helicopters which are due to operate in cold weather to be painted in arctic camouflage. The painting of an aircraft is completed in approximately 24 hours. Additionally units deploying to cold weather environments should indent for arctic camouflage covers for the aircraft and ground installations. Weather Protection. Inflatable shelters or RUBB Hangars should be provided to ease aircraft maintenance. If hangerage is provided for the aircraft, extra generators, lighting and heating will be required, all of which will enable aircraft to be prepared for flight in a safe and timely manner. Aircraft can operate from field sites but because they are cold-soaked they will not be able to react as quickly as they do in more temperate climates. This is because batteries lose their power, oils become more viscous and ice and snow accretion will need to be cleared before take-off. Cold weather covers should always be used in temperatures below freezing. Engine and Missile Protection. Engine intakes will have to be protected from snow and ice ingestion and it should be noted that most intakes reduce available power. Likewise missile tubes should always be fitted with snow blanks, in order to protect the front of the missile from ice damage. Aircraft Skis. Aircraft skids readily sink in snow and also are prone to slippage in icy conditions, particularly when starting and stopping rotors. Consequently, crampons (known as bear pads) and snow skis incorporating crampons for the aircraft skids should always be provided for operations in these conditions. Consideration also needs to be given for the provision of passenger ski holders/brackets which can be fitted externally to the airframe and therefore save cabin space, as well as assisting in entry and exit procedures. Smoke Grenades. Due to the problems of losing visual reference when landing in loose snow conditions (often referred to incorrectly as white-out) aircrew should be provided with a supply of coloured smoke grenades. The coloured smoke has three functions:

148.

149.

150

151.

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a. b. c. 152.

To act as a wind reference. To give visual reference in recirculating snow on landing. To attract attention in case of emergency.

Survival Equipment. Aircrew and passengers should always carry adequate survival equipment in cold weather conditions. Aircrew should also be trained to survive in cold conditions if aircraft emergencies occur. Icing Inhibitors. Icing inhibitors are added to military aviation fuel in cold weather conditions. Military aircraft may be required to use HNS fuel which does not have the correct inhibitors, in which case Prist Blenders should be always be carried (The Prist Blender adds icing inhibitor during refuelling).
Training

153.

154.

Aircrew. Flying in cold weather conditions can be extremely hazardous and requires special techniques which need practice. Aircrew should be allowed time to prepared for operations in cold conditions. The amount of time required will depend on the level of training already achieved prior to deployment. Aircrew should also complete all the ground based training required for troops deploying to the theatre of operations. More detail is given in AAC Pamphlet 501 Special Flying Techniques. Groundcrew. Aviation groundcrew should complete suitable cold weather training and then practice driving, marshalling, refuelling and re-arming in suitably cold conditions. Groundcrew should also be instructed in the use of smoke grenades for landing references. Technicians. Technicians should also complete the appropriate ground training required. They will then need time to prepare the aircraft for cold weather operations such as fitting snow/ice guards, changing oils and fuel. Aircraft Limitations. Aircraft limitations are dependent on helicopter type but it is worth noting some "rules of thumb" for planning purposes. If the temperature drops below -26 degrees and the aircraft is "cold soaked" (main rotor gearbox reduced to the same temperature) it will not be able to start or fly. If the temperature is at or below -11 degrees, flight is not
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155.

156.

157.

permitted in icing conditions. The worst icing conditions occur between 0 and -20 degrees, once the temperature drops below -30 degrees the air becomes so dry that icing rarely occurs on rotors or airframe. Other Considerations 158. All those who have to work with aircraft in cold conditions should be briefed on the following factors which are unique to this environment: a.

Windchill . This is significantly increased when working in or near the rotor downwash of helicopters. Marshalling Techniques. Those who marshall helicopters should wear eye protection in order to minimise damage from ice and blowing snow. Marshallers need to be instructed in the correct techniques for snow landings (aircrew will often use the marshaller for visual reference in the final stages of landing). Static Electricity. Static electricity builds up quickly in cold dry conditions. Earthing spikes will have to be utilised, particularly when using underslung loads, and these will have to be considerably longer than normal in order to ensure good earthing. Cold Metal. All troops should be briefed on the dangers of touching cold metal when operating in very cold conditions.

b.

c.

d.

SECTION 13 - THE EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER ON OTHER SERVICES Naval Forces 159.

General. Where the sea is free of ice, the relative mobility of ships compared to that of land forces operating over difficult country can be used to advantage. Thus naval forces can provide fire support to supplement that provided by ground and air elements, and troops can be put ashore in areas which may be difficult to reach overland. Naval aircraft can operate without facing the problem of constructing airfields and helicopter landing sites on snow and ice; and it may often be possible for ships to remain outside a belt of coastal fog and thus operate their aircraft against targets beyond the fog belt inland when land based aircraft may be grounded.

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160.

Fire Support . Fire support may be direct, if the target is visible from the ship, or indirect, in which case fire is directed by air or ground observers belonging either to the ship or the ground forces ashore. On a very indented coastline, naval ships can often penetrate far inland. They may thus be able to provide fire support over a wide area, although there could be crest clearance problems where the cliffs are high. Ships will be vulnerable to enemy shore weapons in their vicinity.
Amphibious Operations

161.

General. Should an amphibious landing have to be made on ice floes or pack ice, a reconnaissance should ensure that subsequent movement is feasible. Even if it is feasible, it would be unusual for more than a lightly equipped force to be landed in such circumstances. Troops should land dryshod unless they are equipped with waterproof suits, which will be needed in any case if there is freezing spray. Ramps may freeze solid during the approach, and provision must be made to free them. Amphibious wheeled vehicles may be difficult to operate in freezing conditions and amphibious tracked vehicles may be difficult to operate in temperatures below -20C. Some shelter should be provided for casualties, unless immediate air evacuation is possible, and for warming men who have got wet or have to remain on the beach to receive subsequent landing parties or resupply. Effects of Weather on Coxswains and Troops . In the cold, any task connected with the preparing and launching of craft or landing of troops takes two to three times as long as in temperate zones, and coxswains and troops are thus exposed to the danger of frost-bite. Because of the need to keep mentally alert, the coxswain is least likely to suffer, but his attention to his duties may distract him from the danger to his own hands, feet and face: the craft commander must therefore appoint another man to watch the coxswain carefully. Troops being carried are, however, in some danger as they will have nothing to keep them alert and nothing to do. Craft commanders are responsible for keeping men exercised in their places, and for ensuring that no man falls into a torpor which may lead to exposure. At temperature below -10C troops must either land, or several craft must be lashed together, so that the troops can exercise at least once an hour; each man must be detailed to watch another for the early signs of frostbite.

162.

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163.

Effects of Weather on Craft. Ice up to 5 cms thick may form on all rigid parts of craft, but it will have little effect, and any forming on the hull will usually break off when underway. Engines of small craft are unaffected but ice may have to be chipped away from covers, fuel tank connections etc. An additive should be mixed with the fuel to prevent ice forming in fuel lines and carburettors.
Air Forces

164.

General. The very remoteness of most cold weather operations, when combined with the problems of ground mobility, give air support great significance. Limitations arising from the climate and the terrain may, however, restrict the use of aircraft. A major problem is the limited availability of airfields and the difficulty of maintaining suitable runways for high performance aircraft. These may, therefore, need to be based outside the immediate operational area, and their use may be restricted by the need to fly them in for specific missions. Some aircraft are of course less inhibited by the need for long runways, but there are problems of shelter, concealment and maintenance which are covered briefly in the next paragraph. Limitations. The major limitations associated with operating air forces in cold weather conditions are listed below. Other flying hazards are given in Annex A to this Chapter.
a.

165.

Airfields. Operating surfaces and runways will require dedicated manpower and resources to keep them operational. Even with this support, aircraft may be limited in their overall performance and hence payload. Visibility. Fog is most frequent in coastal areas, and provided that aircraft can take off and land, sorties against inland targets are often possible: however, the weather can change rapidly and due weight should be given to forecasts before aircraft are committed, particularly if diversion airfields are not readily available. Hours of Daylight . Fewer daylight hours in winter reduce the time available for visual sorties, while longer periods of daylight in summer, with the possibility of almost 24 hours worth of daylight operations daily, may soon overtax pilots and strain the ground maintenance system.

b.

c.

4 - 56

d.

Navigation. A usually monotonous terrain, badly mapped and with few landmarks gives little assistance in navigation and target identification: there will therefore generally be a need for pilots to acquire some local flying experience before being committed to operations. Icing. Icing is a serious hazard and aircraft will also usually need to be covered to keep them free of snow. The need to remove all snow and ice before take off may mean extra delays before a sortie can be mounted. Shelter. All aircraft benefit from being kept in heated shelters which assist starting and maintenance and reduce the risks of damage by cold, ice and snow. Such protection is essential for high performance aircraft. Maintenance. Maintenance is more arduous and time consuming than in temperate climates. The additional difficulties in cold weather conditions are caused by:
(1) The need to wear gloves and heavy clothing, even in some shelters. The extra and often complicated winter equipment which is generally fitted. The need to remove some assemblies, which would normally be examined in situ, so that they can be worked on in warmer surroundings.

e.

f.

g.

(2)

(3)

4 - 57

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 4 COLD WEATHER FLYING LIMITATIONS Icing Engine +10 0 Onset Airframe Nil Rain Wet snow Sleet Rain Freezing rain or drizzle at temperatures slightly below Snow becoming dry Supercooled water droplets Precipitation Visibility Fog or possible freezing fog at temperatures slightly below Survival Other Limitations Snow - wet and heavy Ice and snow very slippery

Becoming Onset severe

-10

Still severe

Severe

Fog Ice fog

Becoming a problem especially in any wind

Inversions, Static electricity becoming a problem. Preheating may be needed Ice and snow much less slippery. Static electricity difficult problem. Most helicopters must not be cold soaked or flown at this temperature. No military helicopter at present cleared for cold below this temperature Probably semi-permanent or permanent damage to aircraft or equipment.

-30

Nil

Rare Normally dry air so no normally no precipitation. Possibility problem of some supercooled water droplets. Ice crystals Nil Air dry

Ice fog Severe problem Ice crystals with or without Arctic sea smoke wind Blowing snow Ice crystals Survival marginal Arctic sea smoke ina any wind Blowing snow As above As above

-40

Nil

-50

Nil

Nil

Air very dry

Notes: (1) Aircrew Manuals must be referred to for temperature limitations for individual aircraft. (2) Engine icing details refer primarily to turbines.

4-A-1

CHAPTER 5 COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT (CSS) SECTION 1 - BASIC CSS CONSIDERATIONS General 1. The principles of providing effective CSS are unaltered by cold weather. The climate does, however, place an added burden on distribution, storage and maintenance, and there is the particular need for warmth and protection from the weather which is essential to survival and efficiency. The force is likely to be well spread out and this, combined with poor ground communications and bad weather, adds to the problem of keeping combat units properly and regularly supplied and of dealing with casualties to both men and equipment. Principles 2. The principles of CSS are detailed in AFM Vol I Part 6 Combat Service Support. These remain the same for cold weather operations, however, priorities will change and factors that may be ignored in temperate regions will become critical. Siting of Echelon and Base Areas 3. Echelon and base areas are an attractive target to enemy patrols and air attack; therefore they must be well concealed and protected. This is achieved by good siting and camouflage and a good defence plan. a.

Siting. Cover from the air will be particularly important. An echelon or base area should therefore be sited in a steep sided winding reentrant off a narrow main valley if possible; provided there are trees in the area it may well remain undetected in such a position, and even if it is located, an enemy pilot will have difficulty in delivering his attack. Dispersal. Within reasonable limits of local defence, tents, stores and vehicles should be well dispersed.

b.

5-1

c.

Camouflage. The total concealment of a logistic base area is difficult to achieve, particularly from the air. Concealment from the ground is easier and much can be done by carefully observing the proper techniques. An enemy attacking at night will have considerable difficulty in finding a well camouflaged area, particularly if light and fire discipline is good. Snow Defences . Considerable protection can be given to individual tents, dumps etc by digging them into the snow, and building snow and ice-crete defences around them. Protection. An echelon area must be guarded. The minimum requirement is the posting of sentries and the siting of alarm posts; all men in the area must be aware of these in the event of attack, and arms must be outside shelters and available for instant use with sights and mechanism adequately covered up. During the long winter night, protection of echelon areas will be a considerable burden on the limited number of men usually available.

d.

e.

4.

A suggested echelon system is shown in diagram form at Figure 5-1. SECTION 2 - CSS PLANNING Planning Factors

5.

CSS factors to be considered in cold weather operations are as follows: a.

Isolation. The remote nature of cold climate regions will place a heavy dependency on the establishing of bases and lines of communication. Distance should be measured in time rather than space; even the shortest route may be beyond reach.1 The remoteness of operations will also require early liaison with the host nation.

1. The fate of Captain Scott's last journey from the South Pole is an extreme and vivid example of the problem. His small party were within a few miles of a supply dump but because of adverse weather, fatigue and sickness, they gained little encouragement from the fact. Scott, not a man to give up easily, conceded in his diary that safety was beyond their reach.

5-2

b.

Movement. The ability to move by land, sea or air can never be guaranteed. Weather conditions quickly deteriorate, rendering proven routes useless. Snow clearance and rescue patrols will be essential if routes are to be kept open. Survival. A greater emphasis will be placed upon survival, a factor which will bear on the balance of stocks held at each echelon. It will be a fine judgement: a high holding of stocks forward may undermine operational flexibility, restrict mobility and reduce the capacity for combat supplies elsewhere. Battle casualties will deteriorate rapidly if left in the cold. A CASEVAC system that caters for this has a greater priority than the supply of equipment and other commodities. Consumption Rates. The demand for supplies will often be higher than in temperate regions. For example, effectiveness of artillery ammunition is degraded in heavy snow and thus more rounds may need to be fired to obtain the same effect. Chancing the Weather. Grasping the opportunity that a patch of clear weather presents will often be the key to success. The willingness to take calculated risks, a quality fundamental to the success of all operations, must be tempered by an understanding of the climatic elements. Security. Extended lines of communication and isolated logistic bases will compound the problems of security. The non-linear nature of the battlefield predicts that the tactical situation will change rapidly. Dedicated security forces are therefore important. Reaction Times. Resupply will be slower in cold weather conditions, a factor compounded by the fact that replenishment is often favoured at night. There should be no delay in CASEVAC arrangements.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

Transport 6.

General. Cold weather conditions affect surface mobility because they produce unusual and testing going and also because the low temperatures complicate maintenance and repair.
5-3

Track Wheel Interface (TWI) A1 2

A2

3.4.

DP

FAA

Distribution Point (DP)

Log Base

Forward Administration Area (FAA)

Notes: 1. Always deployed, manning organised by transport office. 2. Colloc with TWI when deployed. Consists of: a. Coy Admin Reps if not at A2. b. RAP. c. POW Cage. d. CSups: ammo, rations, water.

3.

4.

Consists of: a. Echelon HQ. b. Balance of F Ech vehs and all B vehs. c. LAD, URS, (fitter sects with coys). d. NBC (2nd line), Clothing, rations, water. e. Ammo. f. POW cage. Comms: HF from Coys to A1 and A2. HF from A2 to FAA. No comms to Log Base.

Figure 5-1. A Suggested Echelon System for Use in Cold Weather Operations 5-4

7.

Road Conditions. Roads, which are in any event scarce, become covered with snow in winter and may become blocked and impassable; in the thaw they can be deep in slush. On the other hand, compacted snow can smooth out an otherwise rough and unnegotiable cross country route and make it feasible for vehicles. Water will freeze over and provide a smooth surface which, when the ice is thick enough, can take heavy vehicles. Control and Use of Vehicles . Wheeled vehicles should be used for transport in rear areas where roads can more easily be kept clear; they should be used in forward areas only where the going is good, as the effort needed for recovery may well outweigh their usefulness. Strict controls must in any event be exercised over all transport to ensure that broken down or lost vehicles can be quickly traced. All vehicles must always carry emergency rations, survival kits and shovels. The following precautions may also be necessary for logistic transport:
a. b. Restriction to a few authorized routes. Recording departure and anticipated arrival times, and communicating these to the destination so that a prompt search can be mounted for an overdue vehicle. Retain a few tracked vehicles (BV206) at each major logistic location to ensure that some vehicle movement can be achieved in case of severe weather.

8.

c.

9.

Intense Cold . Low temperatures affect vehicle movement in several ways:


a. b. c. It becomes more difficult to maintain and repair vehicles. Intense cold increases the incidence of some breakdowns. Moves must be punctuated by frequent halts to enable vehicle crews and passengers to restore their circulation. Broken down, crashed and immobilized vehicles present survival problems for the crews and unusual difficulties for recovery teams.

d.

5-5

10.

Over-Snow Vehicles. Over-snow vehicles are designed for the conditions and the climate and are thus more versatile than road transport. Their cross country performance is, however, to some extent restricted, and when breaking a new route across difficult country progress may be slow. Over-snow vehicles are normally used for resupply in forward areas. Vehicle Maintenance. In order to operate effectively in the cold, a vehicle must be in the best possible mechanical condition to produce maximum power. Maintenance must therefore be thorough in spite of the temptation to skimp it when the weather is bitterly cold, particularly at the end of a long day. Points to note are:
a. It must be done when the vehicle is hot, for this is the only time when oils mix readily and grease can penetrate; this means that a vehicle must be maintained as soon as it has finished working (not half an hour later) before it has cooled down. This requires discipline and organization and a proper allocation of duties so that the drivers of the more complicated vehicles are helped by the other members of the crew. The short period of daylight in winter, and the tactical situation which may well preclude the use of lights, are factors to be considered when planning maintenance timetables. Sentries should be provided either with a thermometer or with samples of coolant and oil and clear directions as to when these reach a critical state. Damage can often be avoided if engines are warmed up just before the temperature drops to a dangerous level. Petrol will not freeze even in very severe cold. However, a nearly empty petrol tank becomes full of moisture laden air which freezes and contaminates the petrol with ice crystals. Petrol tanks and jerricans should, therefore, be kept as full as possible at all times and vehicles should be refuelled immediately after use.

11.

b.

c.

d.

12.

Air Transport. Fixed wing aircraft and helicopters are an important means of supply, and it is seldom impossible to find a helicopter landing site even if a landing strip for fixed wing aircraft cannot be prepared. Both types of aircraft are, of course, restricted by adverse flying conditions, but if they can take off it will usually be possible to airdrop supplies without the need to land.

5-6

13.

Toboggans. Where the going is unsuitable for vehicles, equipment and supplies must be carried by men or towed on toboggans. Toboggans, sledges or pulks have been developed by the inhabitants of cold climate areas and adopted in differing forms by armies equipping to fight there. They can be used to carry loads of up to about 75 kilo (160 lb) and they are particularly useful for casualty evacuation. They are manoeuvrable on the flat, but heavy to pull up slopes and difficult to control downhill. Larger toboggans can be pulled behind vehicles.
Combat Service Support

14.

Support. The need for warmth, food and shelter indicates the priority for supplies that should be provided accordingly. Troops without rations and fuel will find it difficult to move and fight and, in some not unduly extreme circumstances, to survive. Logistic supplies should be held as far forward as possible so that they are accessible to unit over-snow vehicles in the event of a heavy snowfall hampering other surface transport, and bad weather grounding aircraft. Rations. It is unlikely that there are opportunities for local purchase in forward areas and thus variety can only be obtained from within the ration scale and by foresight in supplementing this by fresh items brought forward from the rear. All units should hold a reserve of rations in addition to those needed for current consumption, and each soldier should carry a survival pack. The existence of survival rations must not be used to justify an over fine calculation of the needs of forward troops; any shortfall can, if the weather breaks, put the lives of soldiers in jeopardy. Water. Water obtained by melting snow and ice is expensive in fuel, and alternative sources should be used whenever possible: these will normally be rivers, lakes or wells. Water so obtained must be pumped, sterilized, stored and distributed. Pumping equipment, containers and water carrying vehicles with immersion heaters will be needed. Water cannot be stored for long in freezing temperatures, and arrangements should be made to supply units twice daily if possible. Ammunition. Snow deadens the effect of an explosion, and greater amounts of ammunition are therefore needed. There may also be a heavy demand for mines once the freeze up exposes a defended position to new approaches across ice, and also when minefields need to be resown after a heavy snowfall. Other points to note are that: 5-7

15.

16.

17.

a.

The weight and bulk of ammunition and explosives present a difficult supply problem. Supplies should be dumped well forward whenever possible, and during the winter, stocks should be built up whenever the weather permits. Handling ammunition is difficult because it is heavy and gloves must be worn. With the exception of some guided weapons which may have to be stored in heated jackets, ammunition does not deteriorate in the cold, and it should be stored in its container, raised above the ground and covered.

b.

18.

POL. The number of vehicles which can operate in cold weather conditions is limited, and even though cold running and the constant use of four wheel drive leads to high consumption, the call for POL for these will be relatively low. Fuel is, however, needed in large quantities for heating and cooking, and supplies must be held well forward. Storage presents a problem because any container which is less than full encourages condensation, formation of ice crystals and subsequent contamination. Jerricans and drums are heavy and wasteful in pouring and create backloading problems. While resupply vehicles can seldom negotiate the routes into forward areas, they should be used whenever possible; otherwise a compromise is to use disposable containers when these are available and to accept the inconvenience of handling them. Clothing. The wide temperature range between summer and winter creates a demand for an unusual variety of clothing which must be stored, cleaned and distributed. Washing of winter clothing is essential to preserve its insulating properties, and this can seldom be done by men in the field: provision must also be made for dry cleaning those items of clothing which require it. Distribution is a further burden on the supply chain, particularly during the spring and autumn when the new season's clothing is needed at a time when the thaw or freeze-up make movement particularly difficult.
Equipment Support

19.

20.

Repair. Repairs can seldom be carried out in the open, particularly if they are of a delicate nature, and some kind of shelter is essential. In base areas, large shelters, into which vehicles can be driven and equipment taken, should be space heated: the problem is then little different from that

5-8

encountered in a temperate climate except that there will be a delay while equipment warms up after being brought in from the cold. Special provision must be made to protect instruments from condensation, and a dry atmosphere is necessary in which to assemble optical instruments and communications equipment. Electronic equipment which is affected by condensation should be permanently switched on to avoid damage. 21.

Repair in Forward Areas. Space heating may not be practicable in forward areas for shelters large enough to take a major piece of equipment. A blower heater and flexible hose, such as is used for warming aircraft, is a suitable substitute: it can be used to concentrate warmth on the part being worked on so that only a small lean-to need be erected. Assemblies which can be removed can be repaired in a tent or shelter. Recovery . Normal recovery techniques are usually possible within limitations which arise from the cold. A broken down vehicle which has stood for only a short time may have become cold-soaked, and engines and transmissions may then be damaged if it is towed. Vehicle casualties may, therefore, have to be repaired in situ and slave leads will generally be needed to start those with flat batteries and those which have stood for any length of time. Forward REME teams should be equipped with their own shelter and heater: before they are deployed, it is useful if a technician can be flown by helicopter to the casualty to make a rapid diagnosis.
SECTION 3 - G1 AND G5 CONSIDERATIONS Medical

22.

23.

The peculiar hazards to health in cold conditions are covered in Part B of the Manual. Cold will rapidly turn minor casualties into major ones and it also seriously aggravates the effects of shock. The siting of medical facilities, and the casualty evacuating procedures must, therefore, be well planned to reduce such extra dangers to a minimum. Each tent group should have a first aid kit and, ideally, a man trained in first aid. Inflatable splints provide good support and insulation; improvised splints can be made from ski sticks. Specialist splints and stretchers to enable more rapid movement of casualties, particularly by helicopter, are in service with medical aid teams. These proved very effective in the cold conditions of the Falklands War in 1982. 5-9

24.

25.

The unit medical officer should remain at the RAP where his main duties will be advisory and the treatment of minor casualties. More serious casualties should be evacuated direct to a dressing station or to a field hospital in the rear area. This is particularly important in very cold or severe weather conditions where experience indicates that casualties rapidly deteriorate once injured unless prompt medical attention is available. Keeping a casualty in a stable condition is almost as important as providing first aid. While the RAP can make use of tents, a four metre square shelter with arctic liner is desirable, and something larger is needed for field ambulance use. All tents must be heated: heat and light should be provided from safe sources and not by an open flame, to reduce the fire risk if oxygen or anaesthetics are used. An RAP must have insulated containers to protect drugs and serums from freezing: such medical supplies are often very susceptible to temperature variations. Pulks specially designed for casualty evacuation can usefully be used forward of the RAP. Forward areas must be served by over-snow ambulances, and helicopters should be able to take stretcher cases with the minimum of conversion. Casualties cannot be carried on external carriers. Warm shelter should be provided for casualties awaiting collection, and again at the landing point if there is likely to be any delay in moving rapidly into a medical post. Provost

26.

27.

28.

A limited road network creates its own problems, particularly where only a single lane is available and traffic can only be allowed to flow in one direction at a time. Road signs must be kept clear of snow, and crosscountry routes, ice crossing places and hazardous routes should be well signposted and marked with reflectors. All traffic control posts must be based on a heated shelter and manned by two or more soldiers to allow relief working. Provost staff should be mounted in tracked over-snow vehicles in forward areas, and in four wheel drive vehicles fitted with chains in all other areas, when snow has fallen or icing is bad.

29.

5 - 10

Chaplains 30. The chaplain should have an over-snow vehicle if possible so that he may visit forward troops in their locations. His movements should, however, be co-ordinated to make effective use of the vehicle for carrying stores, mail etc and to ensure an accompanying vehicle in the event of a breakdown or deterioration in the weather. Prisoners of War 31. Prisoners are a serious inconvenience in forward areas, even when they are adequately clothed, and they often will not be. Their rapid evacuation both to avoid their becoming cold casualties and to allow for their timely interrogation is important. When the enemy suffers reverses, either tactical or logistic, the number of prisoners may well be large, particularly if rations are running short and morale is low; arrangements must be adequate to cope with such a situation if forward troops are not to be seriously hampered. Consideration has to be given to arranging suitable accommodation and facilities for the conduct of interrogation by the Joint Force InterrogationTeam (JFIT) Refugees 32. The refugee problem is only likely to be serious in port and base areas. They may well have to be evacuated to avoid an undue drain on resources which are essential to the fighting troops.

5 - 11

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 5
KEY COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT FACTORS IN COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS
SUBJECT Movement SITUATION Lack of Infrastructure (road, rail, airstrips) SOLUTIONS Use all available methods of movement (eg air and unfrozen sea lanes eg fjords) Use of frozen waterways/ iceflows for roads, airstrips Centralised and flexible control of assets/routes to ensure optimum use Snow conditions and terrain Preparation/winterization of vehicles Requirement for over-snow tracked capability Snow clearance and HNS assistance Movement of men in low temperatures Vehicles heated Duration of road journeys minimised Use of aircraft, landing craft, boats Drivers: Cold conditions and difficult difficult terrain Training should concentrate on anti-skid drills, driving on ice and snow, self recovery, navigation, survival, route selection and clearance Regular sleep and food. Double manning, if possible Shelter on MSRs Combat Supplies Rations: Cold places high priority on rations and lack of mobility may prejudice their distribution Plan for worst conditions Higher holdings forward Centralised cooking and fresh rations where possible. Often not feasible away from base area. Note requirement for higher calorific consumption Water required for dehydrated rations and drinking Ammunition: Deep snow reduces effect artillery rounds Lack of mobility for resupply Higher stock levels forward - however generally lower tempo will have compensating effect Ammunition should be stored under cover. Dunnage (brushwood matting) will prevent freezing to the ground Adequate fuel for melting snow and ice to boil water

Fatigue - endurance is reduced in cold conditions

Fuel: Higher requirement for heating and cooking But possibly lower consumption due to reduced mobility - however different balance of fuel types and lubricants

5-A-1

SUBJECT

SITUATION Effect of cold climate

SOLUTIONS Petrol unaffected but vehicles should be topped up to reduce chance of freezing condensation Protection of POL Points Diesel will require additives (eg methanol) or replacement by aviation turbine fuel for limited periods

Medical

Effect of Cold

Medical facilities must be warm not just for the patients but also staff. Ideally located in buildings and near roads. Increased manning may be required Rapid evacuation essential

High proportion of casualties will be due to cold

Reduced mobility

Greater dispersion for medical units Use of oversnow vehicles, pulks and improvised sledges Aircraft - high priority but susceptable to weather Use of landing craft, boats Casevac plan to harness all available resources

Repair and Recovery

Effect of Cold on Equipment Reduced Mobility

Repairs should be done under cover and in warmth Emphasis on self help recovery Recovery assets deployed forward for quick response and to prevent freezing of engines, transmission

5-A-2

PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

PART B SKILLS, DRILLS AND MINOR TACTICS

Cold reduces the efficiency of men and weapons. At the beginning of December 1941, 6th Panzer Division was but nine miles from Moscow and fifteen miles from the Kremlin when a sudden drop in temperature to -35 oC, coupled with a surprise attack by Siberian troops, smashed its drive to the capital. Paralysed by cold, the German troops could not aim their rifle fire and bolt mechanisms jammed or strikers shattered in the bitter winter weather. Machine guns became encrusted with ice, recoil liquid froze in guns, ammunition supply failed. Mortar shells detonated in deep snow with a hollow, harmless thud, and mines were no longer reliable. Only one tank in ten had survived the autumn muddy season, and those still available could not move through the snow because of their narrow tracks. At first the Russian attack was slowed with hand grenades, but after a few days the German prepared positions in villages and farmhouses were surrounded or penetrated.
Historical Study, Effects of Climate on Combat in European Russia . US Department of the Army, February 1952.

ARMY FIELD MANUAL VOLUME 2 PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

PART B

SKILLS, DRILLS AND MINOR TACTICS

CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 - THE ENVIRONMENT Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Annex Annex Annex Defining Cold Weather Climatic Conditions Terrain

A. Cold Weather Areas of the World B. Cold Weather Categories of the World C. Climatic Conditions in Individual Countries

CHAPTER 2 - SURVIVING IN COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Annex Annex Annex Annex A. B. C. D. Individual Factors Clothing Morale, Discipline and Leadership Mnemonic for Surviving in Cold Weather Conditions Safety Rules for Cold Weather Regions Cold Weather Injuries (Symptoms, Prevention and Cures) Wind Chill Chart

Annex Annex

E. F.

Falling into Cold Water Cold Weather Clothing

CHAPTER 3 - LIVING IN COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Annex Annex A. B. Shelters Equipment and Weapons Living off the Land Duties of a Tent Commander Cooking in Tents and Shelters

CHAPTER 4 - MOBILITY IN COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Annex Annex Annex A. B. C. Mobility Driving in Cold Conditions Route Selection and Reconnaissance Dealing with Ice Ice Crossing Techniques Navigation Ski Waxing Ski Joring Techniques Safety Thickness of Ice

CHAPTER 5 - MINOR TACTICAL FACTORS FOR OPERATING IN SNOW Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 ii Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Ski Crawls Fire Positions in Snow Field Defences

Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8 Annex Annex

A. B.

Mines and Obstacles Patrolling Small Unit Tactics Deep Penetration Patrols Mines and Minefield Awareness Drills Troop Drills for Operating with Helicopters

CHAPTER 6 - TRAINING FOR COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Adapting to the Environment Individual Training Collective Training Instructor and Specialist Training

iii

CHAPTER 1 THE ENVIRONMENT SECTION 1 - DEFINING COLD WEATHER 1. A cold climate (according to the Koppen classification system) is a climate in which the average temperature of the coldest month is below 3 oC and the minimum temperature of the warmest month is 10 oC. This, however, is a scientific definition that merely indicates average conditions that, in themselves, represent perfectly acceptable environments in which to conduct operations. The problem lies, however, with extreme conditions that not only have an affect on terrain but also on man and his equipment. To compound the problem of finding a useful definition for cold weather are that these extreme conditions are not confined merely to those areas where average temperatures are low. They can occur in an otherwise temperate area and it is here that a sudden and extreme change can be the most dangerous. Anyone who has trained in Canada will know how unpredictable the weather can be. 'Wait five minutes and the weather will change' is a local saying in Alberta. Training in northern Scotland, the Brecon Beacons or on the West German plain can be extremely cold when certain weather conditions apply. It is for this reason that the term 'cold weather' has replaced 'cold climate' as a means of defining the combined weather and climatic conditions needed to make up the generic term 'cold weather operations'. The map at Annex A to this Chapter shows the cold weather regions of the world as defined by the Koppen classification system. More specific guidance on the cold weather categories of the world and further details of climatic conditions in individual countries are given in Annexes B and C to this Chapter respectively.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1 - 1

SECTION 2 - CLIMATIC CONDITIONS General Points 6. Conditions vary considerably and are affected by a number of factors such as the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream. Weather, by its nature, is unpredictable and low temperature alone does not necessarily make an environment hostile. It is often the combination of conditions that causes cold weather to become a serious limiting factor on military operations. The weather conditions outlined in this Section are described in generic terms. Their occurrence (individually or collectively) will not be confined to any specific areas; they can occur almost anywhere in the world. Temperature 8. Cold regions occur north of 40 degrees latitude in North America and 50 degrees latitude in Eurasia (and the same for Antarctica in the southern hemisphere). These regions are the result of specific climate controls, those of latitude, land-water contrast, mountains, ocean currents and altitude. These controls affect temperature and moisture and thus atmospheric pressure and wind. It is a region's latitude and hence its influence on incoming solar radiation which determines the region's temperature, and is a result of solar intensity and duration. Temperature, the dominant climatic element, controls moisture and pressure, which in turn determine wind. Temperatures in cold regions can get so low that metals become brittle, liquids become solid, and humans die. Temperatures as low as -75 degrees Centigrade have been recorded in the middle of Siberia. Snow cover reduces temperature in winter. A blanket of snow can insulate and retain energy the ground has absorbed, but it can also reflect solar radiation so that the ground will absorb less than 10 percent of the available winter energy. Temperature is also responsible for atmospheric moisture, which leads to precipitation. Higher temperatures allow for evaporation and for large quantities of moisture in the air, while lower temperatures inhibit both evaporation and the air's capacity to hold moisture. Since cold air cannot

7.

9.

10.

11.

1 - 2

hold much moisture, even a small amount results in a high percentage; when relative humidity reaches 100 percent, condensation results in dew, fog and clouds. With further cooling, precipitation occurs in the form of rain, sleet, hail, or snow. 12. In cold regions, there is little evaporation. Some precipitation, however, does occur along coastal areas and this accounts for the frequent fog and snow in these areas. Surprisingly, cold regions get nearly the same low amounts of precipitation as hot desert areas, especially polar climates where the average precipitation is less than ten inches a year. Wind Chill 13. A light breeze on a summer's day can be a pleasant experience because it has a cooling effect on the body. If, however, the atmospheric temperature is already low, a wind will quickly lower the body temperature further. The higher the wind, the quicker heat will be lost and the colder the body will become. This phenomenon is known as wind chill and it can be one of the main contributors to cold weather casualties. If a soldier is riding in an open vehicle moving at 20 miles per hour into a wind of 10 miles per hour with a temperature of -10 degrees Centigrade, the wind chill factor will be -20 degrees, and that soldier's exposed flesh will freeze in one minute. The blast from propellers and rotors creates the same situation. Strong wind kick up debris that can cause injury to soldiers. Trees and structures blown down by strong winds also cause injuries. Winds are responsible also for blizzard conditions that can disorient soldiers, isolate positions, and lead to life-threatening situations. A wind chill chart is shown in Section B of this Manual. Snow 15. The main effect of snow will be to limit mobility and create concealment problems; in the short term equipment and tracks will be hard to conceal, but after a snowfall the opposite occurs, degrading friendly Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RISTA) capabilities. In general, the lower the temperature, the drier and less consolidated the snow will be. As the temperature rises so the snow will compact more easily. Temperatures above freezing will cause wet snow conditions while lowered night temperatures will re-freeze it, causing icy crusts on the surface. 1 - 3

14.

16.

Sunlight can melt snow even if the air temperature is below freezing. When this occurs, dry powder snow is generally found in shaded areas and wet snow in sunlit areas. Movement from one area to another will be difficult because the wet snow will freeze to skis, snowshoes and footwear. Wind can compact snow to create a hard surface. Snow can also be carried by wind in the form of drifts. The higher the wind velocity and the lighter the snow, the greater the tendency to drift. This can also have a considerable effect on mobility. As the wind increases, so also will the wind chill factor. Precipitation

17.

18.

Precipitation in the form of rain, sleet or snow is formed by condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere. Precipitation can occur anywhere in a cold weather region. Altitude

19.

The effect of altitude on climate and weather is unpredictable. Gentle breezes can become hurricane force winds in minutes at higher altitudes. The weather can change so much that in the same place in quick succession there may be hot sun and cool shade, chill wind and calm, thick fog or clear visibility, storms of rain or snow and then perhaps hot sun again in a single day. Mountain environments are covered in AFM Mountain Operations but it should be noted that at higher altitudes there is less oxygen in the air and lower atmospheric pressures, which can cause altitude sickness and provide a range of additional military complications. Visibility and Glare

20.

21.

Fog. Fog is caused by the meeting of air currents of different humidity and temperature. The coastal regions of the arctic countries, particularly those on the Atlantic and Pacific, are areas of frequent fog. These fogs are thick and low lying but seldom extend far inland or out to sea. Ice Fog. Ice fog often occurs around inhabited areas when temperatures drop below -37C. It is caused by the production of water vapour by human or vehicle activity together with the inability of stagnant air at such low

22.

1 - 4

temperatures to hold the vapour. The result is a fog which can hang over a body of troops, bivouac areas, vehicle parks and airfields. Ice fog can sometimes give positions away and will degrade night vision devices. 23.

White-Out. White-out is a milky atmospheric phenomenon in which the observer appears to be engulfed in a uniformly white glow. Neither shadows, horizon nor clouds are discernible and sense of depth and orientation are lost. White-out occurs when snow is covered by an overcast sky, typically when cloud has descended to ground level, and the effect on the individual is to engender a feeling of uncertainty. White-out is rarely encountered except by those venturing onto mountains in winter. Grey-Out. Grey-out occurs over a snow covered surface during twilight conditions or when the sun is close to the horizon. The surroundings become grey, the sky is overcast and there is an absence of shadows resulting in a loss of perspective which makes safe movement, particularly in vehicles, more difficult. In such conditions there is a high risk of snow blindness. Glare. The weather conditions, particularly during winter months, can provide clear dry stable air which allows for sunlight to be reflected from snow and ice. Operating in these conditions without sun glasses can cause serious optic distortion and possible loss of vision. At higher altitudes during daylight the wearing of sunglasses, goggles or visor would be mandatory.
Physiological Factors

24.

25.

26.

Cold, snow, wet conditions, darkness and wind increase the difficulty of operating effectively. The history of warfare in cold weather conditions has illustrated frequently that the weather generally causes far more casualties than any enemy forces. Fear of the snow, the cold and exposure can have a stronger effect on the untrained and the inexperienced than fear of the enemy's weapons. A soldier who is 'winter scared' becomes withdrawn, apathetic and indifferent. The common symptoms are that he often stands still, feels cold and reacts slowly or not at all, when spoken to. He lacks the ability and will to take care of himself. Other results of this 'cold weather phobia' are an unwillingness to obey orders, avoiding duties to be able to remain in the sleeping bag or 1 - 5

27.

in the tent, leaving his post in order to warm himself and becoming irrational in his behaviour.1 28. This phobia can be overcome, but only with careful and progressive training in cold weather conditions. Soldiers have to learn the drills and procedures that aid survival and take a positive attitude to overcoming the worst effects of these conditions. Seasonal Changes 29. The spring thaws and autumn freeze which occur in cold weather areas provide the most dramatic change to weather and climate - and incidentally cause the most difficult periods for military operations, mainly because of the unpredictable nature of the weather, which can change in 24 hours. Further details on seasonal changes and their effects on mobility are given in Chapter 2. In polar regions daylight hours get shorter as winter approaches, reducing to almost total darkness for 24 hour periods in these latitudes during mid winter. In the summer time the reverse occurs, and 24 hours of daylight can be experienced in mid summer. SECTION 3 - TERRAIN General 31. The terrain of an area will not only affect the local climate but will also have a strategic and military significance on operations. Many of the cold weather areas of the world, particularly those in the extreme north and south, are sparcely inhabited and their resources have yet to be exploited. Their remoteness and often inhospitable terrain will simply compound the problems of climate.

30.

1. A psychological hazard called "arctic hysteria" results from short days, long nights, persistent cloud cover, and cold temperatures. This ailment is characterized by passivity, low morale, depression, insomnia, claustrophobia, and suicidal tendencies. In below-zero temperatures, these states of mind can be killers, because they lead to personal neglect, inactivity, and carelessness. Fear of isolation and freezing to death can get out of control. German accounts during World War II reported soldiers who became apathetic and indifferent, which destroyed their will to survive.

1 - 6

32.

In cold regions, the terrain and weather vary considerably. The constraints that polar climates impose on combat operations are markedly different from those of the more moderate humid microthermal regions. In the far north, the lack of vegetation allows for almost unrestricted views, and relief is the restrictive element. The wide, flat plains provide ideal fields of fire and observation. The problem in these areas is finding elevations from which to observe. Thick fog also reduces visibility over the coastal tundra, especially in the spring and autumn. Farther from the poles, observation and fields of fire are inhibited not only by terrain and atmospheric conditions, but by vegetation which becomes increasingly significant. Dense shrubs restrict ground observation. Dead space created by stream cuts and glaciated hummocky mounds have to be covered by indirect fire. Once across the tree line and into the forests, observation and fields of fire are restricted, and trees may have to be removed. The lack of underbrush in the deep conifer forests helps ground observation. Cleared farmlands in the southern limits of the cold regions provide excellent observation and fields of fire. Since these areas are also more populated, however, this advantage is often nullified by other factors. Mountainous areas will often experience unstable and rapidly changing weather conditions and temperatures will be lower due to the increased altitude. The physical problems of operating in mountains will be compounded by a combination of extreme cold, deep snow, high winds, lack of oxygen at altitude and the danger of avalanche. Although most mountain ranges form part of the areas where cold weather occurs, because of the different conditions that apply military operations in these regions are covered in AFM Vol IV Pt 1 Mountain Operations. Glaciers

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

Definition. A glacier is a constantly moving mass of ice formed by the accumulation of ice on high ground. Glaciers are therefore only generally found in mountainous areas where the amount of snow has been enough to create and feed them. There are various types of glacier, the most important of which are:

1 - 7

a.

Mountain Glaciers. Ice streams that flow from mountain valleys are commonly called valley glaciers. The Himalayas, the European Alps and other mountain ranges contain this type of glacier. Ice Sheet or Inland Glacier. These are the largest form of glacier which generally cover vast areas, such as the central plateau of Greenland. Scandinavian Glaciers. A rare phenomenon and are classified as between a mountain glacier and an ice sheet.

b.

c.

38.

Glacial Terms. These are certain geographical terms that are applied to glaciers which are in common usage. These are:
a.

Moraines. Glaciers transport, during their movement, enormous quantities of material ranging from fine particles to huge boulders. This finds its way into the mass of the glacier and is called a 'moraine'. Moraines covering the surface of the glacier are termed 'superficial' while those which are engulfed in the moving ice are termed 'englacial'. Another phenomenon is the existence of terminal moraines. These are highly uneven, broken and rugged, consisting of innumerable intervening features, varying in height from 5 to 25 metres with steep slopes. Terminal moraines are infested with both apparent and hidden crevasses running both laterally and longitudinally and deceptive frozen lakes and streams. Crevasses. Large cracks (wide openings) which appear on the surface of the glaciers, with varying lengths, depth and width are called 'crevasses'. At times they are bridged with soft snow and therefore dangerously invisible. In certain areas crevasses have been known to occur in continuous rows. Movement across crevasses demands special techniques in the use of specialised equipment, such as telescopic ladders, ropes, jumars and carabiners. Avalanches. Avalanches can occur wherever snow lies on a slope. However, on slopes of less than 25 degrees the angle is usually too shallow for the snow to slide. On slopes of more than 50 degrees it is unusual for snow to accumulate in sufficient quantities to cause a problem. On slopes between these 2 angles snow cover supports

b.

c.

1 - 8

itself until the internal bonds become overstressed and break. Slopes with an angle of between 30 and 45 degrees are particularly hazardous. Times of significant risk are in the period up to 24 hours after a heavy snowfall or high winds, or during a rapid rise in temperature above zero. d.

Glacial-Fluvial Streams. Streams formed as a result of melting snow and ice which may run on the surface or under the glacier itself are called glacial-fluvial streams. They are more common during the summer. Movement across such streams is difficult and therefore routes along or across such streams have to be reconnoitred and marked.

Coastal Areas 39. Coastal areas can be treacherous for reasons not directly related to cold climate, for example, a rugged coastline where navigation is difficult or a coastline that experiences unfavourable prevailing winds. The hazards of the sea will be compounded in cold climate areas where additional problems arise, such as very low water temperatures, freezing fog and drifting ice. Although coastal areas enjoy warmer temperatures than the higher ground inland, this small advantage may often be outweighed by the problems, such as high winds, lack of cover and reduced mobility due to marshland. Swamps, Rivers and Lakes 41. In winter, swamps, rivers and lakes can become aids to movement once they have frozen while in spring and summer they are obstacles. In winter detailed reconnaissance is required to determine ice thickness before frozen areas are used for vehicles or airstrips. An ice thickness table is shown in Section B of this Manual. Plains and Tundra 42. South of the north polar region (and north of the tree line) is a belt of harsh, treeless land which is sparsely populated and covers one-twentieth of the world's surface. It is known as tundra and for nine months of the year it 1 - 9

40.

is a frozen waste, covered with ice and snow and subject to freezing winds. The climate is too cold to allow trees to grow but the short summer season does allow some vegetation such as mosses, lichens, small herbs and low shrubs. Snowy owls, lemmings, caribou, polar bears and musk-oxen are examples of arctic tundra animals. 43. Beneath the surface of the arctic tundra is a layer of ground known as permafrost because it is permanently frozen and hundreds of metres thick. It is an obstacle to digging and it also prevents surface water from draining away. This leaves a thin surface layer which thaws in the short summer causing the ground to become marshy. There is seldom any rainfall in areas of tundra but there is no shortage of water existing in the permafrost. Tundra conditions exist in other parts of the world, most notably on the fringes of North America, Eurasia and in alpine regions. The Falkland Islands in the southern Atlantic is a type of tundra although its climate is not as severe as in the arctic regions. Forests and Wooded Regions 45. Further south of the tundra the trees become denser, more varied in species and thicker in diameter. Thick forests of larch, tamarack, fir, and pine trees form the taiga or boreal forest (a moist subarctic coniferous forest that begins where the tundra ends). Conditions in the southern areas of the taiga allow for deciduous trees (mostly birch, alder, aspen, willows and cottonwood), and farther south in the warmer humid microthermal climates are mixed forests of evergreen and deciduous growth. Forests and woods can provide cover and protection from the elements. If, however, snow manages to penetrate the tree cover, mobility will be difficult, exacerbated by close undergrowth, fallen branches and tree spacing. The use of forests and woods should always be balanced with the tactical situation; an over reliance on woods for cover may lead to vulnerability. Habitation 47. Habitation in the cold areas of the world will be sparse. Scientists, mineral prospectors and seasonal workers will come and go while the indigenous

44.

46.

1 - 10

peoples eke out a precarious and nomadic living. They will mostly be hunters and herdsmen, moving with their prey or herds during the summer months and living in small permanent houses during the winter. 48. Few man-made features are found in the inhospitable climate of the really cold regions. More than 90 percent of the world's population is concentrated in urban areas, primarily because of the need for fuel, food and shelter. This may not always be the case as technology improves the prospects of living in these areas and the overcrowding elsewhere spills over to these regions where natural minerals and resources have yet to be tapped.

1 - 11

COLD WEATHER AREAS OF THE WORLD

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 1

Mountain ranges and hill regions below the sub-arctic limit can in some circumstances be classed as cold weather regions for military operations. 1-A-1

ANNEX B TO CHAPTER 1 COLD WEATHER CATEGORIES OF THE WORLD Category Degree Description Lowest Temp Normal Temp Ever at Coldest Recorded Co Time Co -24 o -6 to -19 o
o

CO

Mild Cold

Coastal areas of Western Europe, South East Asia and the lowlands of New Zealand Central Europe including South Scandinavia, Japan, South East Canada and the coastal areas of Antarctica Northern Norway1, prairie provinces of Canada and parts of Siberia Most of Alaska, North West Canada and the Canadian arctic islands

C1

Intermediate

-42 o

o -21 to -31o

C2 C3

Cold Severe Cold

-56 o

-37o to -46 o Nearly constant at -51o during 24 hr period

C4

Extreme Cold

The coldest areas of Greenland and Eastern Siberia. The central, high plateau of Antarctica

-71o (Arctic) -88 o

Nearly constant at -57 o during 24 hr period (Arctic)

1 The gulf stream effect in coastal areas of North Norway leads to wider range of temperature even at coldest time of the year and can result in temperatures above freezing for short periods.

1-B-1

ANNEX C TO CHAPTER 1 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES 1.

General. Short notes on the climatic conditions in some of the main cold weather countries are set out in this Annex. Although they are couched in general terms, they may be helpful in putting the main climatic characteristics in context. They do not replace a detailed study which is a vital prerequisite to operations or training in a cold weather regions; commanders and staffs should always try to discover the local and regional pecularities during the early planning stages. Alaska. Alaska is bounded on the north and west by arctic waters, to the east by the cold land-locked interior of Canada, and to the south and southwest by the warm Pacific. There are wide variations of temperature and climate, heavy snowfalls in the mountains and almost perpetual fogs along the Aleutian chain which extends into the Pacific. The interior is particularly cold with temperatures of -60C not uncommon, and the snowfall is also comparatively deep for such a cold area. Canada. The climate of the Canadian arctic is influenced by the Pacific on the western seaboard and to a lesser extent by the Atlantic to the northeast, while the broad centre of the country has a continental climate of extreme cold during the prolonged winter, and great heat in the short summer. The western areas have the greatest snowfall, and the dividing line between the temperate and sub-arctic regions runs from north-west towards the south-east. The northern part of the continent merges into the arctic region in a series of large, sometimes mountainous, islands with a polar climate. Greenland. The central uplands of Greenland have a polar climate with very low temperatures in winter (-65C): in summer, the thermometer only rarely rises towards 0C. A branch of the Gulf Stream warms the southwest coast which is thus usually frost free from June to August, and also has an appreciable rainfall. The east coast is cooled by a polar current, and snow can fall here at any time of the year. The central plateau is ice covered, and extensive glaciers debouch onto the coastal plain. Snowfall on the glaciers is not high as the prevailing winds are outwards from an almost permanent anti-cyclone situated over the interior. Iceland. The climate of Iceland is influenced by the Atlantic, and consists of moderate heat and cold without extremes: the temperature difference
1 - C - 1

2.

3.

4.

5.

between the interior and the coast is not marked. There is rarely the same weather over the whole country at any one time, and sudden changes are likely from day to day: the same season may from year to year also show great fluctations. Pressure is usually low over the island, and snowfall can be considerable, particularly in the north-west and north-east. Drift ice frequently comes as far south as Iceland, arriving in April and May, and bringing cold, storms and fog with it. Fog is common at all times of the year, and although thunderstorms are rare, squalls can arise suddenly. 6.

Norway. The most striking feature of the Norwegian climate is the influence exerted by the Gulf Stream on the Atlantic coast as far north as the Arctic Circle. This leads to average temperatures substantially higher than in any other comparable region. The Atlantic has a further important influence, in that rain laden south-westerly gales, and north-westerly gales bringing snow are not uncommon, and calm weather is rare on the western coast: December and January being the stormiest months. Precipitation in one form or another occurs in the north-west and north on 150-200 days in the year, and in the extreme south on 100 days. Other points are:
a.

Snowfall. The heaviest and most frequent snowfalls are in the north-west, where they occur on average on 100 days in the year, and although most likely in the winter, snow can fall in these areas in any month. It is not uncommon for more than a metre of snow to fall in 24 hours in northern coastal areas, and the frequent gales can pile this snow into drifts many metres deep in the same time. The least snowfall occurs in the central region near the Swedish border and in the extreme south. Temperature. The coastal regions which are exposed to the vagaries of the Atlantic weather are subject to swift changes of temperature which may vary from -10C to -40C within one day as a result of a change of wind from a warm south-westerly to an east wind blowing over Finland from Russia. The coldest and most settled areas are in the interior, away from the influence of the Gulf Stream, experiencing winter temperatures of -50C. Visibility. Cloudy days are frequent, and in the north, clear days occur on less than one day in four: in the interior, clear and cloudy days are equally divided. Summer fog is common on the coast, but winter fogs are unusual, although in very cold conditions a 'frost fog' may occur over the fiords when the cold wind blows from the north or east.

b.

c.

1 - C - 2

7.

Sweden and Finland. These two countries have broadly similar climates and are considered together. There is a large area within the Arctic Circle which experiences extreme temperatures, a predictable long cold winter extending to mid June, and a short hot summer which ends with the first day frosts of the new winter at the end of August. The central and southern parts of these countries are less extreme, and while they suffer from the piercingly cold east winds from Russia, they also benefit from the warm winds which give neighbouring Norway its unusually mild conditions. Russia. The outstanding characteristic of the climate is its uniformity: thus this huge country, taking up one seventh of the world's land surface, has a broadly similar condition throughout, dominated for much of the year by the polar continental air mass. This produces low temperatures and low humidity with very little snow or rainfall, for example the arctic north-east has as little total precipitation as the Aral desert. Siberia justifies its reputation by the severity of its winters and the general absence of wind alone makes the cold bearable. Pressure over Siberia is high in the winter, and the consequential outgoing winds spread the bitter cold to neighbouring areas. The skies are generally clear, and the air is dry so that visibility is usually good. Because of the sparse covering of snow, the extent of permanently frozen soil (permafrost) is unusually large.

8.

1 - C - 3

CHAPTER 2 SURVIVING IN COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS SECTION 1 - INDIVIDUAL FACTORS Introduction 1. To survive cold conditions a soldier will need to have some knowledge of the weather conditions and how they can change, practical experience and the will to survive. These three factors may seem straightforward and simple, but in adverse field conditions the problems are magnified and often take much longer to overcome than anticipated. Surviving in these conditions can be crucial to any military operations and this Chapter provides some guidelines as to how survival can be achieved through common sense and a knowledge of the relative weather conditions. The human body can operate effectively only as long as its temperature is kept within fairly narrow limits. The food we eat is converted into energy with the purpose of maintaining this temperature and providing a surplus for work. As conditions worsen so more energy is required to preserve body temperature and less energy is available for work. This effect can be reduced by a sensible combination of clothing, shelter and food. Overlook one or more of these factors and an otherwise fit soldier is likely to become a casualty of the cold. Daily Routine 3. As an individual it is necessary to establish some form of daily personal routine. The following points are important: a. The face and hands should be washed daily if possible. Feet, crotch and armpits should be washed as often as possible, especially after strenuous exercise. Powdering these areas will help if water is not available. The hair should be combed daily and not allowed to grow too long. Moustaches should be kept short; they will cause irritation when moisture from breath freezes on the hairs.

2.

b.

2-1

c.

Shaving should be carried out before going to bed at night because it opens the pores of the face and immediate exposure to the elements will be detrimental. In some conditions it will be better not to shave at all, in preference for a well trimmed beard providing added protection and preserving the natural oils of the skin. Note, however, the drawbacks of a beard if a respirator is likely to be worn. Regular bowel movement and passage of urine. If clothes are wet, they should be removed for sleeping and, dependent upon the temperature, replaced with dry clothing. A useful maxim is - sleep in dry clothes but keep wet clothes nearby so that body warmth will aid their drying. Boots and socks should be removed every night and feet massaged and dried; foot powder will help in this respect. Socks and underwear should be changed as often as possible. Boots should always be kept in a warm place at night, ideally inside the sleeping bag.

d. d.

e.

Rations and Diet 4. Most of what we eat and drink goes towards maintaining our body heat while a relatively small proportion is expended on producing energy for physical work. A larger intake of calories (approx 5000) is therefore required in cold climates. Efficiency will quickly decline if this level is not maintained. Issued rations have been designed to provide the correct amount of calories, carbohydrates, fat and protein for a balanced diet. However, meals should be properly prepared and well regulated. Strong discipline will be required as it will be all too easy for soldiers who are tired or lethargic to miss meals or skimp on preparation. Liquids 6. The body loses more liquid in cold weather conditions and it is essential that this is replaced. The daily requirement will vary from one to five litres depending on work rate and without it the body will dehydrate. This needs to be carefully monitored because dehydration in cold conditions will not always be as obvious as it is in hot climates.

5.

2-2

7.

Water should be available from streams or lakes but in cold conditions it will be frozen. Snow or ice can be melted, preferably the latter because it produces more water in less time and uses less fuel. Snow should never be eaten raw and the temptation to scoop up a handful and melt it with body temperature should be resisted. Whatever the source of water it should be melted and filtered by using the Millbank Bag and then sterilised using water sterilisation tablets with an extended contact period of 30 minutes. The dosage is 1 tablet per water bottle (1 litre). As much as possible of the daily liquid intake should be taken in the form of hot drinks of soup, tea, coffee, cocoa, etc. Main meals should begin with soup and snacks should include a hot drink with plenty of sugar. Alcohol should never be consumed by soldiers in cold climate conditions. Although it may have a transitory effect on morale its true effect will be to give a temporary feeling of warmth which will be quickly overcome by feeling colder than before. Coffee and tea have a stimulating effect. However, with physical exertion such drinks also dehydrate and therefore do not give an increased fluid supply. On the march drinking coffee and tea should be avoided. Tolerance to Cold Conditions

8.

9.

10.

11.

General. Tolerance to cold varies a good deal from one individual to another and is influenced by a number of factors, both physical and mental ones, which are recorded in the following sub paragraphs.
a.

Acclimatization. Actual physiological acclimatization can only be achieved to a limited extent, and only after a long and sustained period. Age. Within the age limits that apply in the Services, age is of little consequence. The youngest soldiers are most resistant to cold injuries, the oldest somewhat more susceptible Nutrition. Undernourishment and hunger will greatly reduce the tolerance to cold, and will also lead to a deficit of water (dehydration

b.

c.

2-3

d.

Physical Stamina. Good physical fitness is of great importance in order to achieve a high degree of tolerance to cold conditions Physical Activity . Too much activity will lead to a large loss of body heat (energy) and increased perspiration. Moisture in the clothes reduces their insulating capacity significantly. The danger of hypothermia grows with inactivity, which results in less heat production and a subsequent drop in body temperature, particularly in the arms and legs Environmental Factors . Frostbite comes easily to passive soldiers with a negative attitude, who do not exert themselves, and who neglect preventive measures such as changing socks when necessary. Overactive soldiers sweat a lot, and will reduce the effectiveness of the clothing worn Alcohol and Smoking. Consumption of alcohol leads to an increased blood stream in the skin and subcutaneous layer, thus increasing the heat loss of the body. The resulting shivering is lessened by alcohol, the judgement of the person can be weakened, and the danger of hypothermia and frostbite increases considerably. Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, which contracts the veins so that the blood circulation is slowed down. This increases the risk of frostbite. Medicines. Some drugs affect blood circulation and perspiration. Advice should be sought if medicines are taken regularly Previous Cold Weather Injuries. A soldier who has been affected by frostbite previously runs considerably increased risk of developing more frostbite later Mnemonic COLD FEET. A mneumonic COLD FEET has been fashioned to provide soldiers with an easy to remember guide on surviving in cold weather conditions. More details are given at Annex A to this Chapter.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

12.

Safety Rules. A suggested list of safety rules for operating in cold weather regions is given in Annex B to this Chapter.

2-4

Cold Weather Injuries 13.

Awareness of the Problem. A cold climate is a healthy environment; infectious and contagious diseases are rare. Cold conditions can, however, cause physical injuries and complicate others by slowing down the healing process and sapping the will to recover. In the winter campaign of 1941/42 the German casualties to cold weather injuries were far in excess of their battle casualties, mainly because they were ill-prepared and equipped. Injury from frost-bite alone accounted for a quarter of a million men out of the battle. An understanding of the effects of cold are essential if its human consequences are to be minimised. Prevention. As always, prevention is better than cure. Following the guidance here will reduce the incidence of cold weather injuries but they will nevertheless occur in some number. It is essential, therefore, that the symptoms of cold weather injuries are identified and treated at an early stage. Types of Injury. The following is a brief description of the more serious cold weather injuries. An aide memoire on symptoms and treatment of these (including battle wounds) and other minor injuries may be found at Annex C to this Chapter.
a.

14.

15.

Hypothermia. Hypothermia is caused when body temperature (the core temperature) drops below about 35C. Symptoms can appear very rapidly and will have been caused by a number of factors such as unfitness, inadequate diet, clothing, lack of rest and shelter. The best treatment is warmth and shelter and sweet tea (but not too hot). Frost-bite. Frost-bite occurs when a part of the body is chilled and the blood supply to that part (normally the extremities - nose, ears, hands, fingers, feet and toes) is diminished. Skin becomes yellowish, waxy and immobile. If the chilling is brief no damage occurs, but if it is intense damage to tissue, tendon, muscle and bone can occur. There are three stages to frost-bite: frostnip, superficial frost-bite and deep frost-bite. The key to treatment is to identify the symptoms early. Annex D provides an easy to read wind chill chart showing the air temperatures and wind speeds that culminate in frost bite.
2-5

b.

c.

Snow-Blindness. Snow-blindness is caused by the reflection of the sun's ultraviolet rays from the white expanse of snow and is particularly likely to occur after a snow fall. It can even occur when the sun's rays are partially obscured by light mist or fog. Invariably snow-blindness occurs through failure to wear goggles. Waiting until the eyes begin to hurt is too late as damage will already have been caused. Immersion Foot.1 Immersion foot is a non-freezing cold injury which occurs when tissue is exposed to cold, wet conditions, but not to temperatures low enough to cause freezing. Close fitting clothing and tight boots will exacerbate the symptoms which are often caused when men have been standing, or sitting with their legs down, for long periods in wet and mud. Casualties should be evacuated as soon as possible. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning . Carbon monoxide is a deadly, odourless gas which can come from vehicle engines, heat sources such as naphtha stoves or due to weapon firing in confined spaces. The early warning signs are smarting of the eyes and feeling drowsy. Ventilation is the method of prevention. Providing the casualty with fresh air is a method of treatment, however, in extreme cases artificial respiration may be required. Falling into Cold Water. A common occurrence, and one that needs prompt first aid and revival techniques, even if the victim is not injured in any other way. Details are explained in Annex E to this Chapter.
SECTION 2 - CLOTHING

d.

e.

f.

Clothing 16. One of the first prerequisites for keeping up the combat efficiency of a unit is good clothing. Some of the best clothing is now available for military

1. 'Immersion Foot', previously known as 'trench foot', has been a feature of previous wars, particularly during the First World War when it was a major problem until the introduction of duckboards, the issuing of dry socks and the imposition of strict foot and hygiene discipline. Some of these basic lessons were lost in the intervening years because trench foot also featured during the Falklands Campaign (Operation CORPORATE).

2-6

TWO EXAMPLES OF DEEP FROSTBITE

operations, but it is essential that troops should know how to make proper use of this clothing under the various conditions expected in cold weather operations. The Human Body 17. When the human body is working it produces heat. Of the energy expended 75% of it is transformed to heat and only 25% to actual work output. In winter it is important to keep the body temperature constant and therefore the heat produced by work should be retained and not lost to the outside atmosphere. The heat is retained by trapping this warm air close to the body with specially designed clothing. The theory of body heat and heat balance must be understood before a close study of clothing design can be made. Heat Exchange 19. In order to keep the body temperature constant it is necessary to neutralise the heat when too much is produced. The body exchanges heat with its surroundings through four main channels: a. b.

18.

Radiation. Heat passing from a hot object to a colder one. Conduction. Heat energy passing from one molecule to another by vibration. Convection. Heat exchange by physical transfer to the liquid or gas with which the body is in contact. Vapourisation. Heat lost when vapourisation of sweat from the skin takes latent heat from the body.

c.

d.

Heat Balance 20. When the skin temperature falls below 30C the skin muscles contract, sweat pores close, the surface blood vessels are constricted and skin tallow is squeezed out. In this way the insulation of the skin is improved.

2-7

21.

If the heat loss is still unbalanced, the muscles will start contracting and the body will shiver from cold in order to create muscle activity which generates heat. When the skin temperature goes above 30C the surface blood vessels dilate and blood is cooled off by conducting heat to the body surface. Sweat production is increased and the evaporation of sweat takes heat, which is known as latent heat, from the skin and cools it. When the body becomes cold blood is first taken from the extremities, ie hands and feet. The contrast to this is the head. When it gets cold the flow of blood to the head is increased and up to 25% of body heat can be lost through the head. It is therefore important to wear adequate headcover in the cold. Removing headgear and clothing and opening air vents in the clothing starts a process resembling chimney ventilation. On the other hand ventilation can be achieved by opening the clothing at the collar, waist and cuffs. For comfort, the body temperature should be kept constant. Work generates heat which has to be trapped but the body should not overheat since evaporation of sweat removes heat. Proper ventilation avoids such an occurrence. Thus, clothing should be used to retain heat but the heat retention has to be controlled by ventilation. Insulators

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

Still air is an excellent insulator and therefore the warmest clothes are those which trap air. The warmth of a woollen sweater lies in the thousands of air cells in the woollen fibre. Materials that resist the flow of air are good insulators. Some furs, such as reindeer skin, have hollow hairs which trap air and are therefore excellent insulators. The insulating property of still air is lost if clothing is too tight. This causes the air to be squeezed out and pressure on the body will also restrict the flow of blood. When air layers are controlled they approach their optimum insulating efficiency at a thickness of about 6mm. A large volume of still air decreases

27.

28.

2-8

efficiency because convective air current will be set up and will cool warm air on the cold side of the air cell. Clothing Design 29. The essential features of cold weather clothing is that it is intended to provide: a.

Insulation. By means of insulating, windproofing and waterproofing in separate layers. Ventilation. To allow the transfer of heat between layers of clothing.

b.

Insulation 30. Insulation is achieved by the design and use of clothing on the layer principle. Several layers of medium weight material keep the body warmer than one layer of heavy clothing even if it is as thick as the combined layers. Layers of dead air trapped between the clothing as well as the minute air pockets within the fibres resist the passage of body heat to the outside. The various layers of clothing are of different design, the inner garments being more porous and having many air pockets, while the outer garments are made of windproof, water-repellent fabric. The outer garments are to prevent the outside cold air from replacing the trapped body warmed air. Using the layer principle clothing can be adjusted according to body temperature by adding or removing garments. Thus the body heat balance can be maintained. Ventilation 33. Ventilation of clothing prevents overheating of the body. Overheating causes perspiration which fills air spaces with moisture and also evaporates thus chilling the body. In order to facilitate ventilation clothing is designed with neck, waist and sleeve draw cords which can be opened or closed to contain or release heat as required. It is important to keep clothing clean to avoid dirt filling air spaces in the same way as perspiration thus reducing the insulative properties. 2-9

31.

32.

34.

Summary 35. The human body has its own method of maintaining heat balance by shivering when too cold or perspiring when too hot. In cold weather conditions the side effects of these natural reactions are cold injury when the body becomes too cold, and chilling when the body is too hot and sweats. Cold weather clothing is designed to assist the body's natural heat balance mechanism by keeping warm air close to the body and cold air away by insulation when the body is cold. When the body is hot the clothing can be ventilated to allow warm air to escape to the atmosphere and be replaced by cooler air. The insulation and ventilation aspects of clothing design rely on trapping the air between the layers of clothing, but also providing the ability to ventilate air away from the body when necessary. Commanders should be responsible for providing overall direction about when certain items of clothing are to be worn or removed. Information on items of cold weather clothing is given at Annex F. SECTION 3 - MORALE, DISCIPLINE AND LEADERSHIP Morale 39. Although morale is, in principle, a state of mind and attitude, it can be altered very rapidly and depends on many factors. Good morale is generally rooted in a shared sense of purpose, a clear appreciation of the aim, confidence, both in oneself and in others, coupled with effective training and firm discipline. This applies to all theatres of war, but the remoteness of terrain and the cold weather conditions can cause severe psychological pressures not experienced elsewhere. Most of these can be overcome by good leadership, but additional supporting measures should be considered and introduced where necessary. Such additional measures could include:

36.

37.

38.

40.

41.

2 - 10

a.

Adverse Conditions. Awareness of the conditions and hardships faced in cold weather, and the provision of suitable training to offset the worst effects of these conditions. Medical. Effective medical and dental preparation and training. Every man must be his own paramedic in cold conditions. Evacuation. Practical casualty evacuation plans that are seen to function properly. Losses/Casualties. Accounting properly for casualties after contact with the enemy. This includes locating, where appropriate, downed or missing aircrew and naval personnel.

b.

c.

d.

42.

The maintenance of morale is an essential prerequisite to success. It is particularly important in a cold climate because many commanders, and their soldiers, will probably be experiencing the conditions for the first time and they should be confident that they have the ability to overcome them. This instilling of confidence is a command function and will be based upon thorough training and preparation and the use of the correct equipment and clothing. Discipline

43.

The attention paid to self discipline and the embodiment of sensible standards of corporate discipline cannot be overrated. It is the glue which binds together the other aspects of morale and allows a commander to achieve the framework of trust and comradeship so essential for the conduct of successful operations. Without this, the difficulties and frustrations of operating in cold conditions will invariably reduce an individual soldier's military performance but also reduce the ability of a commander to achieve any real measure of operational efficiency. Leadership

44.

Operating in cold weather conditions will present additional challenges and pressures for commanders at all levels. More importantly, commanders must be aware of the problems that they are likely to face and mindful that they may easily be among the first to become victims to the cold. The commander who consumes all his mental and physical energy in self 2 - 11

survival will be ill-equipped to lead his men. It should be noted that it is a command responsibility to ensure that soldiers are monitored and directed regularly for symptoms of cold weather injuries and to ensure that personal hygiene standards are maintained. 45. Combat stamina is at a premium in these operations; it can be quickly expended through careless planning and at the very time when a commander would normally expect his men to be ready for battle, they can be at the point of collapse. Battle procedure should take account of the conditions, allowing adequate time for feeding, rest and shelter from the cold. This husbanding of combat stamina is a vital function of leadership. The commander who becomes a slave to the weather will lose the initiative. He must be capable of seeing the opportunities that changing weather conditions can present, using them to his advantge. There will be times when survival will become a more immediate problem than the actions of the enemy, but conditions can rapidly change and the commander should be flexible. Risk taking will be essential but risks must be carefully calculated because the margin for error in cold weather will be narrower. Valuable resources can quickly be divided and consumed by ill-conceived ventures.

46.

2 - 12

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 2 MNEMONIC FOR SURVIVING IN COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS

COLD FEET C Keep clothing CLEAN. Dirty clothing will have lower insulation properties. Avoid OVERHEATING. Sweat wets and chills. Wear clothing LOOSE and in LAYERS. Trapped air insulates. When working hard, loosen clothing to allow ventilation and cooling. Take off layers to cool down. Keep clothing DRY. Socks, boots and underclothes will dry in your sleeping bag with you.

O L

FIT your clothing properly. Take time to adjust your clothes, make good seals at ankles, waist, neck, head and wrist. EXERCISE your face, fingers and toes. Regular exercise of these parts keeps the blood circulating. EAT your rations and drink plenty but NO alcohol. Food gives energy and the body breaks it down to produce heat. Alcohol causes more blood to flow through the skin, thus loosing heat. TIGHT boots are TERRIBLE. They constrict the blood flow and stop movement. Look after your feet, keep your boots waterproofed.

2-A-1

ANNEX B TO CHAPTER 2 SAFETY RULES FOR COLD WEATHER REGIONS 1. Have a map, compass, whistle, pencil, notebook, torch, matches, candle, first field dressing and survival bag. 2. 3. 4. Always wear correct clothing and carry spare. Have rations for emergency. Ensure you have correct equipment.

5. Routes should be planned and a copy of the route card left at the base location (remember snow conditions alter and will affect your pace). 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Never go alone. Stay as a group. Know and plan your nearest place for help, be it a telephone or road. Conserve energy and turn back in time. Stay within the capabilities of the group.

11. Know the international distress signals (6 blasts of a whistle or 6 flashes of a torch to attract attention over a one minute period. 3 blasts or flashes over a one minute period in reply to a signal being given). 12. 13. Seek local advice if it can be obtained. Show respect for the weather and weather forecast.

14. If caught out in bad weather, seek cover in time and provide shelter as necessary.

2-B-1

ANNEX C TO CHAPTER 2 COLD WEATHER INJURIES (SYMPTOMS, PREVENTION AND CURES)

AILMENT/ INJURY 1 Wind-chapping Wind burn

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTATIVE MEASURES * adequate protection from wind and cold * lip salve and skin cream

TREATMENT

a. Frost Nip

* numbness accompanied by blanching of the * good gloves, boots skin and tingling sensation and head gear

If not treated quickly frost nip can develop into frostbite. Treatment: * men should be paired off to inspect and examine each other * any sign of frost nip should be thawed immediately * place fingers under armpits or groin * feet on another man's abdomen * patient may return to work once warming complete

b. Superficial Frostbite

* skin is white and frozen on surface but soft when pressed * becomes numb, blue and mottled after warming and will burn, sting and swell * blisters may occur within 24-36 hrs and dry up leaving thick black skin * throbbing, aching for several weeks * scabs will fall off in time, exposing red tissues

* adequate protection from the cold * regular inspections of face, fingers and feet * immediate warming if any extremity goes white

* gradual rewarming * clothing should be removed from affected area * affected part should not be massaged or rubbed * bandages applied to area with loose sterile dressing * do not attempt to thaw the affected part if there is a likelihood of the part freezing again * treat casualty for shock - warm, sweet drinks * evacuate quickly

AILMENT/ INJURY 3 Deep Frostbite

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTATIVE MEASURES

TREATMENT

more serious, affecting underlying skin and tissue

* skin becomes yellowish, lacking mobility * skin feels waxy * large blisters in 3-7 days, skin blue or mottled grey * shooting or throbbing pain * swelling, blisters and colour change around affected parts * affected parts turn black and shrivel * blisters finally dry up and fall away leaving red tender areas and red sensitive area of new skin itches for many months * * * * * * * * * * headache abdominal pains blurred vision vomiting slow mental reactions clumsiness irrational behaviour bursts of energy followed by lethargy physical resistance to offers of help finally - collapse and coma * adequate clothing * regular meals, hot drinks and rest * dry clothing

The only form of frostbite that can be treated on the spot is frost nip * Evacuate as quickly as possible

Freezing cold injury

Warmth and Shelter. Sequence: * erect shelter * remove wet clothes * place man in sleeping bag * in bad cases - a second man in bag for added heat * head should be kept lower than body * artificial respiration if breathing and heart has stopped * 2 men with casualty at all times * evacuate quickly

Hypothermia

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

A man may collapse with no obvious warning signs

* proper ventilation * do not run engines near accommodation

* Evacuate as quickly as possible

deadly odourless gas


6 Snow Blindness Gritty sensation in the eye, followed by intense pain and blindness * wearing of tinted glasses * Apply cold compress and reassure, usually of 24 hrs duration with 100% recovery * Cover both eyes

AILMENT/ INJURY 7 Sunburn

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTATIVE MEASURES * lip salve * barrier cream * shaving lotions with alcohol content should be avoided (they dissolve the skin's natural oils) * gradual tanning

TREATMENT

* sun's rays are reflected from snow * common areas are lips, nostrils and eyelids

Battle Wounds

* low body temp prevents blood clotting * excessive bleeding cold accelerates * bleeding increases chance of hypothermia all the symptoms through rapid loss of body heat of battle wounds * shock - loss of warmth can lead rapidly to death Dehydration * headache * tiredness * mouth, tongue and throat become parched * swallowing difficult * nausea, fainting, dizziness, vomiting * muscular cramp * urine becomes dark orange colour * * * * * pain in the feet and legs numb and stiff feeling pain and numbness may alternate if pain is severe, casualty looks ill and shocked legs and feet begin to swell

* stop the bleeding * apply dressing * cover with clothing and padding * anti-shock treatment with fluids at body temperature (not cold fluids) * adequate warmth is essential * regular and adequate intake * keep patient warm of fluids and salt * clothing loosened for circulation * liquids should be given gradually by mouth. IV fluids if very dry. * allow plenty of rest

10

Trench Foot

* avoid prolonged immersion of feet in water * use footpowder * dry, waterproof footwear and spare socks

* do not rub and warm the feet * handle foot carefully - do not damage skin or break blisters * clean foot with soap and water and dry * elevate the foot slightly to reduce swelling * foot should be kept at about 0oC * cover foot with blanket over improvised cage, to avoid contact * give hot food and drink and aspirin to reduce pain * evacuate quickly * medical attention should be sought if constipation persists for more than 3 days

11

Constipation

* * * *

similar to dehydration irritability lethargy, nausea stomach cramps

* strict adherence to routine

12 13

Toothache Acute Ulcerative Stomatitis

* lack of Vitamin C and failure to keep teeth clean * swollen, painful and bleeding gums

* dental check-up before deployment * good hygiene and regular teeth cleaning

* aspirin * casualties should be put to bed if possible, fed a fluid diet and given antibiotics * eating utensils should be sterilized

ANNEX D TO CHAPTER 2

WIND CHILL CHART


WINDCHILL FACTOR THE RISK OF FROSTBITE ON BARE SKIN WIND STRENGTH BEAUFORT SCALE WIND MPH +10 +5 0 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 CALM LIGHT BREEZE GENTLE " 0 4.2 8.8 13 10 9 5 2 5 3 -2 -6 -8 -9 AIR TEMPERATURE

-1 -1 -3 -9

-7 -7 9

-12 -18 -23 -29 -12 -18 -23 -29 -15 -21 -26 -32

-34 -40 -46 -51 -34 -40 -46 -51 -38 -44 -50 -56 -50 -57 -64 -71 -58 -65 -73 -80 -63 -71 -79 -87 -67 -76 -84 -92 -70 -79 -87 -96 -72 -81 -90 -98 -73 -82 -91 -100

-16 -23 -30 -36 -43

MODERATE " " FRESH STRONG " " " " "

-14 -21 -29 -36 -43 -50 -16 -24 -32 -40 -47 -55 -18 -26 -34 -42 -51 -59

17.3 0 22.3 -1 26 -2

-11 -19 -28 -36 -44 -53 -61

30.3 -3 -12 -20 -29 -37 -45 -54 -63 34.7 -3 -12 -21 -30 -38 -46 -55 -64

MODERATE GALE

LOW RISK OF FROSTBITE

HIGH RISK OF FROSTBITE

VERY HIGH RISK OF FROSTBITE

2-D-1

ANNEX E TO CHAPTER 2 FALLING INTO COLD WATER 1.

General. In water with a temperature below 20C the body will lose heat according to the temperature of the water. The table below shows what happens at various water temperatures:
Water temperature Person in light summer clothes 12C 0C Helpless due to hypothermia within 2 hours hour Dead within 18 hours 1 hours

2.

Conductivity of Water. The reason why the body temperature drops so quickly in water is that water conductivity is 26 times higher than that of air. The insulating air layer present in clothes is lost in water. It has been proved that people who are dressed stand immersion in cold water better than people who have nothing on. The water will penetrate the various layers of clothing so that a layer of stagnant water will be formed next to the body and will be warmed by the body. It is essential to withhold this warm water. That is why all pieces of clothing and footwear should be kept on. It is also important to stay still because movements will squeeze the warm water out of the clothes and will be replaced by cold water. Waterproof outer garments will thus be an advantage since they hinder water from passing in and out through them. Awaiting Rescue . Take up a "foetal position". If there is a strong wind, it will normally pay to remain immobile in the water instead of clambering on to an upturned boat. In the latter case the water in the clothes will evaporate in the wind, and this will reduce body heat. Moving towards Rescue. If the water temperature is about 10C, it will be very risky to start a swim longer than about 500 metres. If the water temperature is approaching 0C, any swimmer, no matter how skilful, will have his maximum swimming distance reduced to 25-50 metres. Rescue. A person who has been rescued after having fallen into water, is very prone to hypothermia when the temperature is below zero or a wind is blowing. Take him to a sheltered place immediately and remove his wet clothes before they freeze. Change to dry clothes. Further treatment and evaluation will probably be necessary. Look out for local frost-bite or mild hypothermia. If there is moderate or deep hypothermia further treatment should be given in a hospital. 2-E-1

3.

4.

5.

ANNEX F TO CHAPTER 2
COLD WEATHER CLOTHING1 1 Head Face Neck Hands Wrists (b) When it is less cold or a man is working or skiing, the hands become warm and start to sweat. In these conditions either the outer or inner mitt may be worn. The glove inner, stitch cotton, is provided for use by mechanics and technicians engaged in work requiring a high degree of dexterity. A new contact glove made of fire resistant material is being introduced to replace the glove inner, stitch cotton. The heavy glove fire ball should be used for such tasks as handling POL. The wristlet may be worn with gloves and mitts. A really warm wrist, palm and back of the band are essential if fingers are to remain warm. (a) (b) (a) Combination of arctic hat, face mask, ski goggles, hood and headover provide excellent protection. When men are working and perspiring some of this protection must be temporarily removed. Hands should be protected by the outer and inner mitts. Worn together these give protection in the coldest, wind-chill conditions.

(c)

(d) (e)

1. The Guide to Clothing and Equipment for Arctic Operations is regularly updated. The Guide is issued under Reference D/DCT/6/8/36/13 and contains detailed notes and photographs of clothing and equipment currently issued for cold climate operations.

2-F-1

Feet

(a)

Thermal overboots, issued to every man in cold climate conditions, should be worn with insoles and over the ski/march boot when the thermal protection provided by the latter is inadequate. They should always be worn by static guards and observation parties. Snow gaiters will prevent snow and damp from entering boot tops. The Norwegian Army toe cover is issued to all troops for wearing with the ski march boot when temperatures drop below -15o C. It is a clumsy item, requiring the ski bindings to be readjusted. The boot tent arctic is a soft quilted fibre filled arctic boot which can be used as a liner to the thermal overboot or NBC ski/march overboot, for wear in tents and sleeping bags or in emergencies. Clothing should be kept clean for the sake of warmth as well as sanitation. Dirt and grease mat clothing and fill the air pockets. Woollen items should not be boiled or washed in hot water. They should be washed and rinsed in lukewarm water. Soap must be rinsed out of clothing or it will lose its water shedding properties. Spare clothes should be kept as dry as possible by the use of polythene bags. Brush or shake off all snow before entering shelters. Damp articles can be dried by placing them close to the body under the smock, close to the body, under the pack or inside the sleeping bag. Another method is to hang them on the rucksack during a march. Never sleep in damp clothing. Wear dry clothing and, if there are no other spares, wet clothing should be put back on at end of sleep period.

(b)

(c)

Clothing

(a)

(b)

(c) (d) (e)

(f)

2-F-2

CHAPTER 3 LIVING IN COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS SECTION 1 - SHELTERS General 1. Shelter is good for morale as well as being essential for survival and the maintenance of combat effectiveness. Tents should normally be available but improvised shelters may sometimes be desirable, affording more protection and concealment. They do, however, require time to construct. Tents 2. A comprehensive range of tents are currently available in varying sizes. They are quick to erect, comparatively light to carry and can also be joined together to form larger tents for other purposes Full details of the British Army's current range of cold weather tentage may be found in The Guide to Clothing and Equipment for Arctic Operations . (Reference D/DCT.6.8.36.13). The Guide also has details of all survival equipment including sleeping bags and cooking equipment Bivouacs 4. These take longer to erect than tents but can be more easily camouflaged and can be tailored to specific needs. There is much scope for initiative in their design. a. The Single Lean-To Shelter. Should be built with back to wind to avoid becoming cold or smokey. Snow cleared from the ground and the bivouac constructed as shown in diagram. The top cross bar at approximately shoulder height with sufficient width for each inhabitant. Strong timbers required, particularly for the cross bar. Once roof rafters are in place, brushwood should be weaved through with stalk ends outwards with good overlap. The thicker the roof, the more shelter and warmth will be provided. A small fire and reflective wall can also be constructed in front of the shelter. 3-1

3.

WALL FIRE THE SINGLE LEAN-TO

PLAN VIEW OF SINGLE LEAN-TO

HEAT REFLECTION
LOGS SNOW SNOW BRUSHWOOD BRUSHWOOD

A FIRE BASE

b. The Double Lean-To Shelter. Merely two singles facing each other. Economical because one fire can provide for more men. However, in windy weather some of the occupants will be troubled by smoke.
THE DOUBLE LEAN TO SHELTER THE WIGWAM

PLAN VIEW

The Wigwam THE TREE-PIT

c. The Wigwam. Warmest and most draught free brushwood bivouac. However its prominence can be a disadvantage so concealment essential. Overhanging tree can be used also forms a strong base for construction. If no trees are available the main uprights should be tied together. Brushwood can be woven into the frame (as with lean-to shelters) with the apex remaining uncovered to allow smoke to escape.

PLAN VIEW The Tree-Pit Bivouac

d. The Tree-Pit Bivouac. Where there is deep snow in a wooded area, a quick and well concealed bivouac can be made by using the lower branches of a tree as a roof.

3-2

THE FALLEN TREE BIVVY

PLAN VIEW

e. The Fallen Tree Bivouac. Using a broken or fallen tree makes construction easy and aids camouflage. A fire base can be built (see diagram for single leanto shelter) in the front with a reflector wall beyond.

The Fallen Tree Bivouac

Snow Shelters 5.

Introduction. Snow shelters are relatively easy to build provided there is enough snow of the right quality available. They are more esily concealed than tents or bivouacs, they are warm and, because of their reflective white walls, are easily illuminated. Guidelines for Construction. The following apply to all snow shelters:
a. b. Top of the entrance lower than sleeping bench, to ensure that warm air is trapped around occupants. Ceiling to be arched and smooth to prevent dripping. As ceilings melt, so the interior of the shelter will increase. Snow blocks, provided the snow is compact, will be safer because they are less vulnerable to collapse. Snow shovels to be inside in case of collapse. Permanently open ventilation hole in the roof or walls; a hole made with a ski stick is suitable. Floors can be insulated with brushwood, shrub or moss. Wear waterproof clothing for the construction phase. Digging snow is warm work. Strip off to avoid making clothes damp with sweat which may freeze later, and wear your waterproof suit whilst digging. Communication must be maintained with the man who is digging. Ensure that there is adequate ventilation in the snow cavity at all times. Always mark the entrance of your snowhole. This ensures you can find it again during the night. It also assists any rescuers if your snowhole happens to collapse in the night.

6.

c. d. e. f. g.

h. i. j.

3-3

7.

Design. Depends on the depth and condition of the snow, the tactical situation and the time available for construction. The following is a list of proven types of snow shelter.

a. The Snow Hole. Simple to build, requiring a large snow bank or drift. As a general rule, for a two-four man hole, a drift 3 metres wide and 2 metres deep is required while bigger holes will require proportionally larger drifts. Two methods are utilised.
SNOW HOLE (ELEVATION) DUG BY TUNNEL METHOD

SNOW HOLE (PLAN VIEW) 2 MAN

SNOW HOLE (PLAN VIEW) 4 MAN

(1) Tunnel Method. A tunnel is made into snow bank. Once the entrance has been dug by one man there should be room for two men to work. Provided there is sufficient depth of snow sleeping bays should be dug on either side of the tunnel although other configurations are possible. Entrance may be closed with a snow block but essential to keep the snow hole open.

SNOW HOLE (ELEVATION DUG BY BLOCK AND CAVE METHOD)

SNOW HOLE (PLAN VIEW) 2 MAN

SNOW HOLE (PLAN VIEW) 4 MAN

A BLOCK AND CAVE SNOW HOLE

(2) The Block and Cave Method. Preferable to snow hole provided snow can be cut into blocks. Digging easier because more room to work. Once snow hole has been dug and interior layout established, the cave can be sealed up with snow blocks cut at the last stages of excavation from more densely packed snow inside the drift. Again, essential to ensure good ventilation.

3-4

ENTRANCE SHAFT

ENTRANCE

b. The Snow Trench. Trench dug in the snow, covered to provide protection. Easiest, quickest snow shelter to build although not particularly comfortable and entry/exit difficult. To build, at least one metre of deep snow is required and if two men are to use the trench it can be widened towards bottom to allow more room. Top should be kept narrow and can be covered with snow blocks (the best camouflage) or a combination of tent sheet, branches and brushwood with skis (with binders downwards to avoid freezing) and ski sticks as support. Once the trench has been dug, an entrance hole can be dug. c. The Snow House or Igloo. Provides greater protection from the weather, is warmer and stronger than any other snow shelter but construction requires skill and good quality snow. The poorer the snow (powdery or granular snow is useless) the smaller will be igloo but with good snow igloos can be constructed for up to ten men.

FIRST ROW OF BLOCKS ESTABLISHED IN IGLOO

THE SPIRAL STRUCTURE GOES UP

PUTTING THE KEY STONE NEARING THE TOP

COMPLETED IGLOO WITH ANTE ROOM AND TUNNEL

3-5

d. The Snow Mound. When there is only poor snow available, or little depth, an effective method of providing shelter both above and below the treeline is the Snow Mound. To construct, shovel available snow into mound to a minimum of 2 metres in height, c o n t i n u a l l y compressing the snow in order for it to compact. Poles or sticks are placed into the mound to a depth of metre around the mound. Leave to THE SNOW HOLE compact for 30 minutes, then tunnel into the mound, using the poles/sticks as a guide when excavating. A hollow shell is left with walls and roof of metre thickness, beneath which it is possible for 2 men to live. 8.

Guidelines for Living in a Snow Hole. Some useful hints to improve the living conditions inside a snow hole are as follows:
a. b. c. Brush off all loose snow before entering the shelter, this prevents your clothing becoming damp in the warm atmosphere later. All equipment must be brought inside. Remove all wet clothing and place in a rucksack. Do not leave these lying around, but endeavour to dry them during the night. Place boots inside a polythene bag and place in your sleeping bag. Avoid having water simmering or boiling for a long period as this causes vapour inside your shelter, which will cause your clothing to become damp. Sleep with your head towards the door. Only one stove should be burning at any one time. Always have a candle burning and maintain a candle watch.

d. e.

f. g. h. 3-6

SECTION 2 - EQUIPMENT AND WEAPONS Equipment 9.

The Nature of the Problem . The cold affects the performance of equipment and the care required to keep equipment operational. Preventative measures and special maintenance will be necessary; equipment is as vulnerable to the cold as are men and should come a close second in the commander's assessment of priorities. To complicate efficiency, soldiers will also need to become competent in the handling of the additional items of equipment required for cold weather operations. Low Temperatures. In extreme low temperatures exposed skin will freeze to metal. This can be avoided by using gloves but there will be problems when using intricate items of equipment. For example, it may be necessary to remove trigger guards on small arms in order to fire them wearing gloves. There are no easy answers, however it is necessary to outline the problems and suggest some simple methods for getting the best out of equipment in a cold environment. The Germans in the winter of 1941/42 learnt the hard way, but became very skilled at improvisation.
Weapons

10.

11.

The most common effects that the cold has on weapons, weapon systems and optics are as follows: a.

Lubrication. The usual lubricating oils and grease will thicken at low temperatures resulting in sluggish movement of working parts and sometimes a total seizure. If this happens the weapons must be stripped down and cleaned with a solvent such as napthia, cleaning fluid or petrol and special care should be taken to ensure that this task is done in a well ventilated area outside any accommodation. Weapons should then be kept dry and only lubricated when they are in use. Condensation. When a weapon is taken from the intense cold into a heated shelter moisture will condense onto the metal and will continue to do so until the metal has warmed up to the surrounding temperature. The weapon cannot be properly cleaned until this process is complete. If the weapon is taken outside during this
3-7

b.

intervening period the moisture will freeze. This effect of condensation can be minimised by either keeping weapons in the coldest part of a shelter (near the entrance) or by keeping them outside but under cover. c.

Snow and Ice. Weapons can quickly be rendered unworkable by the effects of snow and ice. When not in use, all weapons should be protected with muzzle, sight and breech covers or by improvised covers such as plastic bags. Care should be taken when crawling in the snow and weapons should be checked at each halt to ensure that they are clear. Moving parts that have been frozen should never be forced but warmed slowly. Breakages. When metal is cooled to a very low temperature and then rapidly heated, its temper or hardness may be destroyed and it becomes brittle. This will happen when a weapon is fired rapidly having been exposed to temperatures of approximately -30 oC and below. To avoid this, weapons must be warmed up gradually with single shots and short bursts. Breakages of the less robust working parts (such as extractors and firing pins) will, nevertheless, occur regularly. Spares of such items should, therefore, be kept at hand.1 Zeroing. Another effect will be that weapons that have been zeroed at temperatures above freezing will fire low in extreme cold. Optics. If binoculars, cameras, weapon sights etc are taken from severe cold into heated shelter the rapid temperature change is likely to crack lenses. Condensation will certainly occur and this may result in the freezing up of internal parts when the item is taken outside again. Care and consideration must also be taken of optical sights which have a tendency to gather snow at both ends of the sight, seriously degrading the sight picture. A sight cover should be used, or wide mesh 'tubi-grip' which cover the sight yet allows the firer to peer through and still acquire a target. Use of demisting shields should also be optimised in a cold weather environment.

d.

e.

f.

1. Breakages due to brittle metal can be caused at temperatures above -30C. During the Falklands war, for example, 3 Para's Mortar Pl Post Operational Report recorded the following 'The mean average temperature was around freezing point the whole time. This made the baseplates very brittle and this factor, coupled with prolonged firing on Charges 7 and 8, smashed two of them'.

3-8

STRAW CAN BE USED AS INSULATION TO PREVENT PALLETS FROM FREEZING TO THE GROUND

COMMAND TENT - NOTE STRAW INSULATION ON GROUND

g.

Ice Fog. When a weapon is fired in temperatures below -30C, the water vapour in the air is crystallized as the round leaves the barrel. This creates very small ice particles which produce ice fog. These not only obscure the vision of the man firing but can also reveal his position. Points to note to avoid this situation are:
(1) Automatics should be fired at a slower rate to reduce the amount of fog. Alternative positions must be selected for these and any other weapons likely to be revealed in this way.

(2)

Ammunition 12. Ammunition does not deteriorate in the cold but propellants burn more slowly, so reducing recoil which may affect the reloading cycle of the first few rounds on automatic weapons. Ammunition should be kept at the same temperature as the weapon. When stored, it should be kept in its original container, raised above the ground and covered. Communications Equipment 14.

13.

Radio Receivers and Transmitters . Flexible cabling and some metal parts of sets will become brittle in cold temperatures; they will easily break if roughly handled. All moving parts, such as bearings, dials and switches may become stiff or they may jam because of the varying contractions of different metallic parts. Condensation. Radio equipment is susceptible to the same problems as weapons with the added problem that internal condensation can take some time to dry out and can cause short circuiting. When a radio is brought in from the cold it should be wrapped in a dry blanket and no radio which has moisture within it should be taken out into the cold. Microphones should be protected by a cover or membrane to prevent condensation from human breath. Batteries. Batteries will give less power in low temperatures and the performance of the conventional dry cell battery will deteriorate very
3-9

15.

16.

quickly. If possible, they should be stored at a temperature above -12oC and should be gently warmed before use. Vehicle mounted batteries should, if possible, be insulated from the metal parts of the vehicle. Lead acid batteries should be regularly and thoroughly serviced and should never be allowed to drop below 2/3 of full charge. They should be topped up with electrolyte, not distilled water, and warmed before use. The charging of lead batteries should not take place in temperatures below l0oC; the batteries must be warmed up until the electrolyte melts before charging commences. 17.

Antennae. Insulated manpack antennae are necessary to overcome precipitation static caused by charged particles of snow being driven against them in high winds, often discharging with a high pitched crackle. The problem is largely a frequency orientated phenomenon covering the HF band and can affect vehicle borne sets and those sited near other equipment or buildings. Discharging particles near receiving antennae can produce heavy static, blanketing frequencies for several hours at a time. Other factors affecting antennae include difficulties of erection in frozen ground or deep, soft snow and wet snow and sleet freezing to the mast or wire. Mountain pitons are good anchors and, in severe cold, ropes can be sealed into hard packed snow with guys tied to these anchor ropes. Large, horizontal antennae should be equipped with counterweights arranged to give way before mast or wire breaks from the pressure of ice or wind. Where possible ice should be removed at regular intervals.
Vehicles

18.

Daily maintenance will be essential to keep vehicles at their optimum level of performance. Maintenance must be carried out while the vehicle is hot as this is the only time when oils mix readily and grease will penetrate effectively. Care must also be taken to ensure that coolant is the correct mixture for the expected temperature. Damage to vehicles can often be avoided if engines are warmed up just before the temperature drops to a dangerous level. Tips for driving and maintaining vehicles in cold conditions are given in Section 2 to Chapter 3.

19.

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SECTION 3 - LIVING OFF THE LAND General 20. In most conditions there should be no need to make use of the information contained in this Section, and it is not foreseen that soldiers will be in the position of having to live off the land in order to survive for any length of time. However, experience has shown from operations in Northern and Eastern Europe between 1941-45 and elsewhere that there will be individuals lost, missing or assumed to have perished who may benefit from the contents of this Section. It is included in this Manual for this reason. Food is scarce in cold weather regions, particularly during winter time, as the wild life is migratory, but determined foraging will usually yield some useful foodstuffs. Animals, especially small animals and birds, can often be traced by looking for tracks in the snow, and an attempt can be made to shoot or trap them. Where animals are found there must be animal food and this is often useful as a human diet. The guidance cannot possibly be comprehensive, and on occasions a potential food may have to be tested to ensure that it is not poisonous. A very small quantity should be placed on the tongue and if no ill effect is felt after 30 minutes a mouthful should be eaten. If after eight hours there are still no signs of ill effects then another mouthful could be eaten; after a further eight hours without ill effects reasonable quantities can be consumed with safety. Fish occur in almost all lakes and rivers and in the sea. As they are the most readily available source of nourishing food they are generally the most profitable to pursue and catch. Animals 23.

21.

22.

General. Finding animals is not easy but even the open tundra is seldom lifeless and where there is one kind of animal there are almost sure to be other forms of life. The animals that may be found range from reindeer to rabbits, but any that are killed will depend on the skill of the hunter and the facilities at his disposal; a military party will normally be armed, but if firearms cannot be used, the alternatives are snares and traps which although feasible generally require an unusual degree of luck and skill. Hunting Game. If it is necessary to hunt game the following points can be observed:
a. Keep the wind in your face; few days are windless. 3 - 11

24.

b. c.

Keep the sun at your back. In woods or forests move slowly and carefully; avoid breaking twigs under foot and do not allow swinging branches to hit clothing. In hilly country, big game animals generally watch below them more than above. Keep slightly above the level where the game is most likely to be seen. Avoid crisp snow; try to hunt where snow is soft. Do not expose yourself against a skyline. Never stay on the game trail; all wild game watch their trails for predators. If game is feeding you can attempt to approach it by stalking in the open. Crawl slowly when all heads are down. Freeze motionless (whatever your position) the instant the animal starts to raise its head. When shooting game aim for the vital areas; behind the ears, in the throat, or behind the foreshoulders. Much game is lost because it is fired at when out of range.

d.

e. f. g.

h.

i.

25.

Caribou or Reindeer. Reindeer have long been domesticated in Scandinavia and northern Asia. They are mainly herd animals found in the high plateaux and mountain slopes as well as in the grassy tundra areas. Their favourite food is lichens or reindeer moss, while in the summer their diet consists of grasses, shrubs and brush tips. They are very curious animals and will often approach a hunter merely from curiosity, thus presenting a good target. Sight of a human may have no effect on them but the slightest hint of human scent will send them galloping off. It is possible to attract them near enough for a shot by waving a cloth and moving slowly toward them on all fours. In shooting, the aim should be for the shoulder or neck rather than the head. Mountain Sheep and Goats. These animals are found in many northern areas. They usually live in mountains but during periods of heavy snow come down to the valleys and low ground. Moose. The moose is the largest known species of the deer family. They are found in most areas of the northern hemisphere. Full grown bulls weigh from 1000 to 1200 pounds and may stand two metres high. They require

26.

27.

3 - 12

a large amount of forage and usually are found in areas where grasses, lichens and shrubs are readily available. 28.

Rabbits or Hares . Rabbits or hares can be snared or shot. They should be shot in the head or very little meat will be left. A whistle will sometimes cause a running one to stop long enough for an aimed shot. Marmots. Marmots are burrowing rodents that live above the tree-line in the mountains. They are excellent food, especially in late summer when they are very fat. They should be shot away from their burrow or they may fall back into it. Porcupines, Beavers and Muskrats. These animals are found throughout the colder regions; all are excellent food and when found can be easily killed with sticks. Ground Squirrels . Ground squirrels occur in most cold areas and are easy to catch. They can be dug out of their burrows which are found along streams with sandy banks. Bears. All bears are edible, although the flesh must be thoroughly cooked to guard against trichinosis. The liver of the polar bear should not be eaten because of toxic vitamin A concentration. All bears are dangerous and hard to kill. The shoulder shot is best but if the bear stands up, the aim should be at the base and centre of the throat for a shot which will sever the vertebrae. Wolves and Foxes. Wolves and foxes are edible. They are, however, only to be found where there are other animals, such as reindeer herds, which are usually a more profitable target.
Birds

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

General . The best known winter birds are the ptarmigan or snow partridge, which is rarely fat; the white owl, which is usually fat and tasty; and the raven, which is tough. All birds are good to eat cooked or raw. Their blood and livers are edible. The feathers can be used for insulation. The entrails and toes make good bait for fishing. To obtain the greatest food value from birds, they should be plucked rather than skinned. Bird Catching. Unless a bird is shot through the head it will often be blown apart by a rifle bullet. Ptarmigan are very tame and can be killed with a stick or stone. Gulls can be caught with a hook and line which should be floated on a piece of wood, suitably baited, or pegged out on the beach.
3 - 13

35.

Fish 36.

General. Included here under fish are seals and walrus as well as some shellfish and sea animals. Fish and shellfish which are found dead should never be eaten unless obviously freshly killed. Most sea creatures can be eaten and those which are poisonous can generally be avoided by following some simple rules. The small blackish purple mussel in Northern Pacific waters is poisonous at certain times of the year and should not be eaten. The chief characteristic of poisonous fish is that they lack ordinary scales, and instead have either a naked skin or are encased in a bony boxlike covering or are covered with bristles, spiney scales, strong sharp thorns, or spines. Others puff up like a balloon on being taken out of the water. Cooking does not destroy the poisonous alkaloids in these fish and a rule of thumb is that all types of (known) poisonous or scaleless fish should be discarded. Seals. Seals are widely distributed and their flesh is an excellent food. The liver should be avoided since it may contain toxic levels of vitamin A. Points to note are:
a. Seals should be shot as they come to the surface of the water to breathe or as they are basking on rocks. The aim should be for the head. Most seals shot through the head will float, while about half of those shot through the body will not. Seals will also be found in the open leads in the icepack or may be found at the breathing holes in the ice. However, hunting seals through breathing holes requires extreme patience and the holes are difficult to locate without the use of dogs. In the Spring, mother seals and their pups may sometimes be located under snow hummocks adjacent to and over breathing holes, where they have given birth to their young; seals also lie on the ice and bask in the sun. They must be carefully stalked and the hunter must be close enough at the time he shoots to retrieve the dead seal before it slips into a hole in the ice. It takes great skill to stalk a seal. The Eskimo usually tries to imitate noises made by the seal, and he may use a white screen behind which he crawls while the seal sleeps, remaining absolutely still when the seal raises its head to look around. Seals normally sleep only for a few seconds at a time and then look around for their enemies for a few seconds before sleeping again. Seal meat from which the blubber (fat) has not been entirely removed will turn rancid in a short time.

37.

b.

c.

3 - 14

38.

Walrus. The meat and blubber (fat) of walrus are edible, as are the clams which may be found in their stomachs.
Fishing

39.

Fishing Equipment. A fishing line is not the only means of catching fish. They can also be speared, caught in improvised nets, or stunned with sticks and stones. In shallow water they can even be caught with the hands. A fishing net is, however, by far the most efficient method. Line Fishing . Hooks can be made from stiff wire or tin openers, and lines from nylon string. An effective device is a fishing needle of wood or bone sunk in bait. The needle is swallowed whole and a pull on the line swings it cross-wise, causing it to catch in the fish's throat. The least appetising parts of animals and birds should be used as bait. A white stone can be used for a sinker, or a bit of shiny metal or brightly coloured material tied just above the hook will also attract fish. Jigging. Fish may be caught by jigging for them. The hook, or a cluster of hooks attached below a 'spoon' of shiny metal should be lowered into deep water and then jerked upward at arm's length and allowed to sink back. If the water is deep the weight must be heavy enough to carry the line downwards quickly and so suggest something alive. Narrowing a Stream . To catch fish, a shallow stream may be narrowed by building an obstruction of stones or stakes out from both banks, leaving only a narrow channel through which the fish can swim. An improvised net can then be stretched across this channel and secured firmly with stakes or boulders: an alternative is to stand ready to hit or spear the fish as they swim past, but this requires unusually quick reactions. Diverting a Stream . If a small stream has fish in and the stream can be diverted, the fish will be stranded in the pools in the stream below the diversion.
Plant Food

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

General. Though plant food is not abundant in cold weather regions, it is by no means absent. There are many varieties of berries, greens, roots, fungi, lichens and seaweeds which can be used as emergency food. In forested areas, plants are most abundant in clearings, and along streams and seashores. On the tundra they are largest and most plentiful in wet places. Food is often hidden. The feeding habits of animals, particularly birds, should be watched, they will lead to plants which might otherwise be overlooked.
3 - 15

45.

Poisonous Plants. It is prudent not to eat plants which taste bitter or have a milky sap. The following poisonous plants grow in sub-arctic forests; they normally grow north of the tree-line.
a.

Fungi. The nutritive value of fungi, mushrooms and toadstools is not large and it is best to avoid them unless there is an expert in the party. The two commonest poisonous varieties are all white with white gills and have bulbous roots; anything like this and any toadstool or fungus with any red colouring should be avoided. Baneberry. (Figure 1). The berries are usually red or white but may turn blue as they get older. It can be distinguished from the edible blueberry by the fact that baneberry bushes carry their fruits in clusters and have big leaves made up of several parts; edible blueberries grow singly. Water Hemlock . The water hemlock grows in the wet soil of river valleys in forested areas. On average the plant is four feet tall, but in favourable locations it grows six to eight feet tall. The root is hollow and has cross partitions. The leaves are streaked with purple and when crushed emit a disagreeable odour. (Figure 2).

b.

c.

Figure 1. Baneberry

Figure 2. Water Hemlock

3 - 16

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 3 DUTIES OF A TENT COMMANDER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Correct pitching of the tent. Allocation of sleeping space. Stowage of weapons and equipment. House keeping duties. Sentry rosta and alert state. Drying of clothes. Fire precautions. Maintenance of blackout (if ordered). Maintenance of track and camouflage discipline. De-icing of tent. Foot check. Ensure there is adequate ventilation. Ensure correct stores are taken.

10 11 12 13

3-A-1

ANNEX B TO CHAPTER 3 COOKING IN TENTS AND SHELTERS 1. There are certain procedures and drills concerning cookers, heaters and lamps within the tent that are important to note. These are listed in the following paragraphs. The appliance must not be refilled inside. Refilling must be done outside. The only fuel used is naphtha or its authorised equivalent. The appliance is primed and ignited outside, wherever possible. Only solid fuel priming tablets or meta paste are to be used for pre-heating. Other substances such as crumbled hexamine, methylated spirits, petrol or npahtha are not to be used for priming. If weather conditions are such that the appliance can only be prepared inside, great care is to be taken to ensure that it does not flare up. A knife is to be kept near at hand at all times when an appliance is in use in tentage, so that it may be used to cut the material and permit a means of escape in the event of fire. Reserve fuel must be kept in metal containers which are not to be stored in tents or confined spaces. Plastic containers are not to be used. When different liquid fuels (eg petrol, naphtha or kerosene) are used in the same location, each type of fuel is to be stored separately and each container marked to prevent use of the incorrect type of fuel. When not in use cookers are to be stowed in bergans or in the bell ends of tents as the tactical situation dictates. A tent sentry is to be on duty and alert at all times when a heater or cooker is in use, he is not to be in a sleeping bag. There is to be adequate ventilation whenever any such appliances are in use. The ventilation must allow for a through draft, to remove any build up of poisonous gases, and continue for at least 15 minutes after the appliance has been turned off. Cookers may be used to assist in drying or as heaters, provided the procedures above are in operation. 3-B-1

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

CHAPTER 4 MOBILITY IN COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS SECTION 1 - MOBILITY The Problems of Mobility 1. Mobility is the key to success in cold weather operations for anything less than reasonably unhindered mobility will impose a crucial disadvantage that may not be experienced by an enemy used to the same conditions. Good mobility should be established at all levels. The overall movement of men and material into a theatre and forward from the Point of Entry will be essential for the maintenance of any force while, at the other extreme, small units should be capable of carrying out effective patrolling.1 The effects of the weather will be compounded by the general terrain in the area of operations; lack of roads, thick forests, hills and innumerable waterways could all hinder movement. With cold weather often comes low lying cloud and fog which will affect land navigation and the use of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. Movement by any means in cold weather conditions is likely to be slower and more cautious than in temperate conditions; freezing rain, hard frost and waterlogged ground all affect movement to some degree. Nevertheless the general military procedures for controlling movement in temperate conditions should still apply. It is only when the cold weather conditions include snow or when the air temperatures go down well below 0C that special techniques begin to be applied to all types of movement. It is these circumstances that are described in this Chapter. Seasonal Changes 5. Seasonal changes will have a considerable effect on mobility and often the intervening periods between seasons will create the greatest problems.

2.

3.

4.

1.

For details on patrolling - see Chapter 5.

4 - 1

Local knowledge is therefore essential in planning, particularly where a major operational move is envisaged. 6. The spring thaw and the autumn freeze-up are the most difficult periods for maintaining mobility. The period of thaw may last 3-6 weeks, with snow becoming slushy and incapable of supporting weight. Roads prepared during the winter begin to deteriorate, a process accelerated by use. Ice on waterways and rivers will no longer be load bearing and the melting that follows produces fast flowing currents and flooding. In some areas, however, the cold conditions will be maintained for longer and, generally at night, the temperature will continue to drop below freezing. One hazard will be the unexpected patches of snow and ice which can occur in shady areas, despite daytime temperatures being above freezing.2 The autumn freeze-up can take up to three months but once complete (and before the snows arrive) the ground and waterways will be firmly frozen, providing good movement. During the early stages, however, rain that falls during the day will freeze at night, often leaving deep ruts from daytime vehicle movement. Generally muddy conditions will be one of the main characteristics of the early autumn period. Aids to Foot Movement over Snow 8.

7.

General. There are five recognised methods of increasing mobility in snow conditions. These are:
a.

The Ski . When used by well trained troops, skis provide a fast means of movement, particularly over prepared trails and open country and are less physically tiring than snow shoes. To be effective, military skiers must be capable of carrying their personal weapons and essential equipment. Training will not be achieved

2. In October 1941, for example, the German came to a halt because of impassable Russian roads. Three panzer groups were spread out over 30 miles, giving the Russians their first opportunity to fight on equal terms. The Russian T-34 tank, with its wide tracks and higher hull-to-ground distance came into its own. In January 1942, near Kursk, heavy snowfall stopped the German tanks while the T-34s, having greater ground clearance and lower ground pressure, swept across the flat terrain and destroyed the German tanks.

4 - 2

THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH

MOTORIZED SLEDGE

SNOW CLEARANCE

TRACKED OVERSNOW VEHICLE

quickly; some soldiers will become proficient in four weeks, others will need longer while a few will never master the technique.3 Details of ski waxing are given at Annex A to this Chapter. b.

Ski-joring. This technique allows skiers to be towed behind vehicles. It is efficient, provided the conditions are suitable. The best routes for ski-joring are snow covered roads or trails, paths prepared by tracked vehicles, frozen lakes or river. More details on ski-joring are at Annex B to this Chapter. The Snow-Shoe. Snow-shoeing, although slower than skiing, requires less training and can be mastered by fit troops in a matter of hours. Snow-shoeing is particularly useful in broken country, wooded areas and confined spaces. Although it achieves about the same pace as marching in boots on hard ground, it is physically much more demanding. The Sledge or Pulk. The pulk is a fibreglass sledge, capable of being pulled by one man. It can be used for carrying a wide range of stores as well as for casualty evacuation. High Mobility Carriers. Where possible, the movement of combat supplies and tentage should be carried out by high mobility carriers (tracked, over-snow scooters) in order to lighten the load for dismounted troops. Helicopters will also be useful, although they will be limited by weather and range.

c.

d.

e.

9.

Movement Rates. Many factors will affect the rate of movement by foot: the terrain and weather, the availability of aids such as skis and snowshoes, the loads to be carried, the nature of the operation, the enemy threat and the general level of training. Individual Load . One of the characteristics of cold weather operations is the increase in personal equipment carried by a soldier in order that he can survive and operate in such conditions. The weight of a soldier's load will directly affect his rate of movement and, where possible, loads should be

10.

3. Soldiers have been using skis as an aid to mobility since the Stone Age and there is evidence of their existence some 2000 years ago in Scandinavia, Siberia and China. The Swedes used ski troops to great effect during the Northern Seven Years War of 1563-70 while, in 1590, 600 Finnish ski troops defeated a Muscovite invasion.

4 - 3

minimised. Only essential combat and survival supplies should be carried, the criteria being not what can be carried but how much can be left behind. 11.

The 3 Line System. A method by which loads can be adapted to the demands of mobility and specific operations is the 3 Line System. This is described as:
a.

1st Line . Items required for up to 24 hours and carried on the man. This load can be reduced to a lighter assault order if necessary, with the balance of items added to sledge or vehicle loads. 2nd Line. The balance of those items required to support a soldier for operations of up to a week's duration. These should be in waterproof bags and carried on F Echelon transport. 3rd Line. The remainder of a man's clothing and equipment enabling him to survive for an extended period, normally carried within B Echelon.

b.

c.

12.

Dumping. The success of this system will depend upon the ability of vehicles to follow the route taken by dismounted troops. Where this cannot be achieved, a system of dumping supplies forward should be employed.
Movement by Vehicle

13.

The Effects of Cold Weather. Vehicles become more difficult to maintain and repair as the temperature drops. Simple jobs become difficult, particularly anything requiring dexterity. Performance of vehicles will be degraded, increasing the incidence of breakdown4. Crews, particularly those exposed to the elements, will require frequent stops to restore their circulation. Broken down, crashed and immobilised vehicles will present survival problems for the crews and unusual difficulties for recovery team. This could be made worse if vehicles are not fitted with radio communications.

4. Slopes in northern areas are usually too steep for vehicles - in Korea, Scandinavia, Alaska, Canada, and much of Siberia. A 45-percent slope is "no go" for tracked vehicles, and a 30-percent slope stops wheeled vehicles. However, the BV206 has excellent mobility over snow and could well tackle slopes higher than 45%. The thick taiga forest limits movement, because the trees are too close together for vehicles to pass and too thick for them to run over. Trafficability is a "no go" if the trees are within 15 feet of each other for tracked vehicles and if they are within 12 feet for wheeled vehicles. Tree diameters greater than six inches for tracks and four inches for wheels create a "no go" area.

4 - 4

14.

Types of Vehicle: The characteristics of vehicles used in cold weather conditions are as follows:
a.

Over-Snow Vehicles. Over-snow vehicles have a ground pressure similar to that of a skier. They can be fitted for radio and some will be fitted with a self recovery winch. They provide a useful level of tactical mobility but are not armoured. All Terrain Mobile Platform (ATMP). A light and versatile vehicle, ideal for moving men and small stores. Snow Scooters. Heavy and light scooters, with the ability to operate in woodland and scrub terrain as well as above the tree line, have much potential. They can be used for many tasks such as towing infantry heavy weapons, for reconnaissance and liaison, line laying, route signing casualty evacuation, ammunition resupply and for OP/MFC parties. Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs). The performance of AFVs in snow could depend on the depth of the snow. Tanks should be able to move slowly across country in depths up to twice their ground clearance but, beyond that depth, movement will normally be confined to roads or cleared surfaces, unless the conditions are so cold that the snow is compacted. In these circumstances AFVs should be able to move across deep snow and operate in many ways as if operating in temperate conditions. Light armoured vehicles have a limited cross snow capability as they are likely to throw tracks once snow and slush builds up on their sprockets. When moving on icy roads or tracks, AFVs should take the centre and avoid sudden changes of speed or direction. The crossing of frozen lakes and rivers is possible but the thickness of ice should be checked first, more details are in Annex C. Wheeled Vehicles. Wheeled vehicles should be able to move at normal speeds along roads or tracks if snow is less than 10 centimetres deep. 15 centimetres of new snow on an otherwise clear road will slow progress to a crawl and depths above this level will cause considerable problems for wheeled vehicles.

b.

c.

d.

e.

4 - 5

Helicopters 15.

Operating Conditions. Helicopters are usually able to operate in worse weather and visibility than fixed wing aircraft and helicopter landing sites (HLS) will always be more easily prepared and cleared than runways. While high altitudes degrade performance, only marginal degradation occurs at heights of less than 2500 metres in an air temperature of around 0C. As the temperature drops, operating at or above this height becomes less of a problem. However, there is considerable need for caution in conditions of freezing rain, sleet or wet snow at temperatures around 2C to -3C. Maintenance, recovery, refuelling and rearming can be particularly hazardous in cold weather conditions. Other problems are:
a. b. Featureless terrain and poor map coverage. Helicopter operations in falling snow and over snow terrain can be demanding and requires special training. Tactical low level helicopter operations above the tree line in reduced visibility is potentially hazardous due to loss of visual references and difficulty in judging height above terrain. This 'white out' condition is worse at night, despite the use of Night Vision Goggles (NVG). Passenger payloads are reduced by about one third due to bulky clothing and additional equipment. Camouflage and concealment of larger aircraft is a problem. Farm buildings, schools or commercial premises are ideal provided there is sufficient room for landing sites. Rural sites should be located near to cleared tracks or roads and be accessible to wheeled vehicles. Start-up drills and maintenance below -15C are slow and may require special equipment. Aircrews should be thoroughly trained and equipped for cold weather survival techniques. A commander should be aware that slower reaction times, lower aircraft availability and reduced payload and endurance will all affect helicopter operations in cold weather conditions and there

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

4 - 6

should always be an alternative ground plan to offset the non availability of air assets. Low visibility and high winds will also have a particularly dubilitating effect on helicopter operations during cold weather conditions. This was often the case during the Falklands Campaign in 1982. SECTION 2 - DRIVING IN COLD CONDITIONS General 16. Winter and cold weather conditions are quite unlike those met with elsewhere, and all drivers should know and understand the special techniques which are needed to keep their vehicles roadworthy and to drive them safely and effectively. This Section gives general guidance on the following: a. b. c. d. Winterization of vehicles. Servicing of vehicles. Recovery. Driving techniques.

Winterization of Vehicles 17.

General. Winterization is the preparation of vehicles so that they can operate effectively in extreme cold conditions. This is carried out by workshops and it would be inappropriate to record all the precautions needed for all types of vehicle in this Section. Commanders and drivers should be aware that precise details for the winterization of each vehicle are recorded in the Army Equipment Support Publication (AESP) which is issued with each vehicle. Some practical points are indicated in the following paragraphs. Engine. For the engine block the following points are essential to note:
a.

18.

The Cooling System. To reduce the danger of cracking the engine block of the radiator, the cooling system is filled with an antifreeze mixture of three parts ethylene glycol (AL3) to two parts water, which safeguards the engine down to -40C. Ethylene glycol (AL3) does not evaporate in use, but it does expand a great deal, and
4 - 7

radiators should not be filled to the brim but an inch of free space allowed for expansion. b.

Radiator Blind . To help keep the engine warm, a radiator blind is fitted. This prevents the free flow of cold air through the radiator and stops the cooling system losing too much heat. The blind, which has two positions, should normally be in the one that shuts off the maximum flow of air and must always be kept on the vehicle. It should not be taken off and put in the back of the vehicle where it may get lost or damaged. Coolant Heater . Some vehicles are fitted with coolant heaters. This is a small immersion heater which is fitted into the side of the engine to keep the cooling system warm and thus help to start the engine in severe cold. The leads and contacts should be kept clean and free of oil, water or snow. Kigass Equipment. The starter motor does not turn over a very cold engine fast enough to draw an adequate amount of air in through the carburettor and so the engine remains starved of petrol at a stage when it needs a particularly rich mixture. To help overcome this problem vehicles are fitted with kigass equipment which pumps petrol, under pressure, from a tank under the bonnet into the inlet manifold of the engine. In a four cylinder engine, each cylinder is served by one vaporizer, but in a six cylinder engine there are only three, each vaporizer in this case providing atomized fuel to two cylinders. Three strokes of the pump plunger should be enough, and the kigass tank must always be topped up during refuelling.

c.

d.

19.

Bodywork. Points to note are:


a.

The Heater. Each vehicle is provided with a windscreen heater to keep it free of ice. Warm water is circulated from the engine cooling system and used to heat up air which is then blown along corrugated ducting by an electric fan. The heater is not provided to keep the driver warm, and the warm air must not be divered by removing the clips which secure the ducting. Windscreen Covers. Vehicles are fitted with flaps which can be secured over the windscreen and the side windows. When not in use these are held out of the way by spring clips. When parked at night or for long periods during the day they must be secured in the position over the windscreens and side windows. When taken off in the morning all snow and moisture which may freeze and spoil the material must be brushed off.

b.

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c.

Windscreen Scrapers. A plastic scraper should be issued to scrape ice and loose snow from the windscreen once the heater has started to melt it. In extreme cold conditions de-icing fluid is also issued to speed up the process of cleaning a frozen windscreen. Insulation. Those metal surfaces which are most easily touched by people using a vehicle are covered with foam rubber or plywood, to lessen the danger of skin freezing to the metal. This insulating material must be treated carefully and special care must be taken not to damage the floor insulation. Steering Wheel Glove. This is fitted to give a better grip of the steering wheel when driving with gloves on. It must not become contaminated with grease and oil which will make it slippery and cancel out its advantages.

d.

e.

20.

Electrical System . Relevant points are:


a.

The Battery. Batteries take severe punishment in the cold, and this is also the time when they are least efficient. It is therefore vital to keep them as warm as possible, and in order to do this, battery boxes are lined with special insulating material. This must not be saturated with distilled water or it will freeze and lose the power to insulate. Vehicles may be fitted with a trickle charger, in addition to the normal charging system, which will help to keep the battery warm during recharging. Care is necessary using the trickle charger because the battery can be damaged by over charging or by altering the leads from the charger. Batteries must never be allowed to get flat as this reduces the strength of the electrolyte and makes it more liable to freeze. Slave Leads . To enable a vehicle with a flat battery to be started from another, each vehicle is fitted with an inter-vehicle starting lead (or slave lead) and socket. Vehicles with a positive earth must never be connected to vehicles with a negative earth.

b.

Servicing of Vehicles 21.

General. All drivers and mechanics have to learn to work with gloves on, at all times, and be aware of the limitation that this imposes on them. Small jobs which would readily be undertaken in a temperate climate may mean the removal of a complete assembly so that it can be taken into a warmer place for the task to be completed. Servicing therefore takes a longer time than usual and there will be a temptation to skimp it which must be resisted.
4 - 9

22.

Servicing. All servicing and lubrication in extreme cold should be carried out immediately at the end of the day's running. This is when the vehicle is warm, running components at their most free, and lubricants have the best chance of penetrating. Lubrication. Some points to note are:
a. Cold oil used for topping up will mix more freely if the engine is warm, and a true level will then be obtained when making the next pre-start check. Components which may require only a little lubricant in temperate climates need a great deal more attention in the arctic. Examples which often occur are the freezing of contact breaker points due to lack of the correct lubricant, the failure of automatic advance systems, and starter motor trouble due to the pinion being unable to engage. Oil filled components such as gear boxes and axles will require more attention in cold weather since oil seals contract in the cold, work less efficiently, and the risk of leakage is much greater. Daily inspection and examination of the snow where a vehicle has been parked will reveal leaks. Grease nipples should not be wiped clean, but should have a smear of grease left on them to prevent ice forming over them.

23.

b.

c.

d.

24.

Refuelling. All vehicles must be refuelled immediately at the end of the day's running, before any cooling down has taken place. It is essential to keep the volume of moisture laden air above the petrol level to a minimum, because the condensation from this freezes and forms ice crystals which clog the fuel lines and jets. Special points to note are:
a. Before filling a tank, make certain that the area around the filler neck, and portions of the vehicle immediately above it, are free from snow; otherwise there will be a danger of snow entering the tank and adding water to the contents. The addition of methanol to the fuel in the proportion pint to 4 gallon jerrican will help to prevent ice forming in the fuel.

b.

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Recovery 25. Recovery personnel must remember that in soft snow a situation often tends to look far worse than it is. A little digging will often improve the situation, and at least give a better idea of what needs to be done. Before any winching or towing or lifting takes place it is essential that a firm surface is found from which to operate. All vehicles must carry picks and snow shovels, as well as an axe or machete for cutting brushwood. When leaving the forested area at the tree-line, bundles of brushwood must be cut and loaded onto each vehicle. Driving Techniques 27. Driving technique is achieved by practice and experience. Conditions in cold weather regions are not only very different from those found elsewhere but they can also change rapidly. Drivers must therefore be observant and learn to recognize the signs that indicate change. On mountain roads there is seldom either space or time to rectify mistakes arising from excessive speed or poor judgement. All drivers should anticipate conditions ahead and never accelerate or brake sharply except in emergency; to do so nearly always makes matters worse. When visibility is reduced because of mist, cloud or drifting snow, drivers must slow down and stop, before going on with extreme caution. It is unwise to assume that the road ahead is clear just because nothing can be seen.

26.

28.

29.

30.

Traction. Drivers should note the following points:


a.

Tyre Studs. Tyres are fitted with studs in a regular pattern. This gives greater control of the vehicle on hard packed snow and ice. Vehicles can be driven on ordinary roads with these tyre studs fitted at speeds below 35 mph; above this speed the studs will be strained in the locating holes in the tyre and fly out. Any studs which are lost should be replaced. Chains. Chains are not usually fitted all the time. Drivers should know how to fit them and keep all tensioners and connecting links well greased. When taken off they must be cleaned and oiled at the first opportunity.

b.

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c.

Inner Tubes. In temperate countries most inner tubes are made of synthetic rubber, but in very cold conditions this material becomes brittle and cracks. Tyres are therefore fitted with natural rubber tubes, which must be retained and replaced when necessary. Track Pads. To improve traction, some or all of the rubber pads on a tracked vehicle can be removed; similarly the fitting of grousers to tracks can assist traction in certain circumstances. REME advice should be obtained in the first instance.

d.

31.

Tracked over-snow vehicles, although they have tracks, are designed to travel over soft snow and not perform like small tanks. Drivers should never drive into impossible situations. If there is doubt whether the vehicle is able to negotiate a particular obstacle, a way round must be reconnoitered. When going up or down steep hills or banks, a low gear should be selected and when going down steep slopes the brake should not be used. On flat, or gently undulating, snow surfaces it is difficult to appreciate what may lie ahead because the surface looks flat; it seldom is. Over-snow vehicles should never be driven onto iced up lakes and rivers unless the thickness of the ice is known to be safe for the particular vehicle and load. Track marks on ice may have been there for some time, and the weather situation may have changed since. SECTION 3 - ROUTE SELECTION AND RECONNAISSANCE General

32.

33.

34.

The task of route selection and reconnaissance is particularly difficult in the polar and snow conditions. A number of factors must be considered: terrain, weather, snow conditions and avalanche danger. Route finding is made more difficult by the snow cover which consequently can obscure features and landmarks. For ski-borne operations route selection does not need to be as precise, however for vehicle-mounted operations the selection of a bad route can lead to total failure. Use of Air Photographs

35.

Mapping of many cold-weather regions may be inadequate for military purposes. Available mapping may be old, or be too small scale for use at the tactical level. In addition, detail may be lacking; for instance, maps of parts of Norway only show contours at 30m intervals. Air photographs can

4 - 12

thus be invaluable in route selection and reconnaissance. Suitable cover can be obtained from three sources. a.

Tactical Air Reconnaissance. Imagery from air reconnaissance missions (normally conventional panchromatic cover) will be up-todate and show all relevant detail. Cover can be small scale, from high-level missions, showing a large ground area in less detail, or large scale, normally from low-level missions, which gives good detail but of a smaller area. However, the advantages of current cover must be offset against the risk to scarce assets, and Operations Security (OPSEC) considerations. Commercial Satellite Imagery. Imagery from commercial satellites (eg the French SPOT system) is often available. This imagery is small scale, and recent cover is often available. A further advantage is that both summer and winter cover are often available, allowing snow-covered ground features to be identified, eg crevasses. Disadvantages of imagery from commercial sources are cost, the poor resolution of some systems, and availability may be subject to political constraints. Survey Cover. Most maps are derived from air photographs. For operations in friendly countries, suitable survey cover may be available from national archives. Air survey cover can be small and/ or large scale. Whilst it may be dated, this is unlikely to be significant in an undeveloped region. Again, both summer and winter cover may be available.

b.

c.

36.

Stereoscopic air imagery can be used to establish intervisibility between two points. It can also be used to produce dead ground studies from one or more points on the ground, enabling potential OPs to be identified without prior reconnaissance. Ski-borne Operations

37.

Correctly equipped and well drilled troops will have few problems negotiating even the most difficult conditions and terrain. Trail breaking teams comprising a section will push ahead of the main body, cutting a path through the snow to facilitate the advance of the remainder. The drill is standard and described in the following paragraphs.

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Trail Breaking 38.

General. The purpose of trail-breaking is to use a small body of troops to prepare a track or trail so that the main body can move as easily and quickly as possible either on foot or in vehicles, and arrive fresh at their destination. A trail-breaking party usually has four tasks:
a. b. c. d. Reconnaissance and selection of the route. Navigation. Preparation of the route. To act as an advance guard and prevent the main body, who might otherwise be distracted by the problems of movement, from running blindly into enemy opposition.

39.

Planning. When a move is contemplated which cannot make use of existing tracks, trail-breaking will be necessary; a route must then be selected and a party detailed. The rough direction of the route and the number of routes needed should be selected by the commander in charge of the operation. The detailed course must depend on the conditions under foot, and so final selection must rest with the commander of the trailbreaking party. The initial selection is made from maps, air photographs and reconnaissance reports. The factors which will need to be taken into account are:
a. b. c. d. The tactical situation. The type of equipment and method of movement of the main body. The type of terrain. Snow and weather conditions.

40.

Size of Party. The size of the party will depend on the anticipated difficulties in opening up the route and the likelihood of enemy interference; a covering party will often be needed to protect the trail-breakers. The number of men needed could be up to 25% of the main force; in the case of a battalion move, a rifle company might therefore be given the task and a platoon would form the actual trail-breaking party.

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41.

Timings. Trail-breaking is a tiring and time consuming task, and the rate of progress will depend on:
a. b. c. d. e. The type of terrain, and whether it is wooded or open. Weather and snow conditions. The number of trails to be broken. The degree of improvement needed to the traits. The tactical situation.

42.

Movement. Timings must take account of these factors, and the trailbreaking group should be sent off well in advance of the move of the main body so as to reach the destination and provide local protection before the main party arrive. The difficulty of the task and the capability of the trailbreaking party must be taken into account in order to determine how far ahead of the main body they should move, while remaining within range of fire support. Arrangements have to be made to keep the trail-breaking party in radio communication with the main body. Organization of the Trail-Breaking Party . The trail-breaking party should retain its normal organization. If it consists of a platoon, and only one trail is to be broken, one section will break it, with the others rotating as the leading section tires. If more than one trail is to be broken, a separate section should be detailed to break each trail. This drill should be adapted to a party of any other size. The trail-breaking section is organized as follows:
a.

43.

Section Commander. Selects the route, navigates and rotates the teams within the section. Breaker. This man is at the front of the section. He breaks the trail in the direction indicated by the section commander. He will not attempt to travel in a direct line to his objective, but will take the easiest route. Straightener. Straightens curves and improves the direction of the trail. He forms a team with the breaker and will change tasks frequently with him. Right Cutter. Cuts obstructions from the right side of the trail.

b.

c.

d.

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e.

Left Cutter. Cuts obstructions from the left side of the trail. The two cutters form another team. Trail Packers. The remainder of the section are the packing team; they improve the trail by filling small depressions and ditches, flatten the trail on a transverse slope and mark the route.

f.

44.

Rotation. A company given the task of trail-breaking for a battalion should normally retain this task for a day, the trail-breaking party working for up to half a day. Sections within the trail-breaking party should be rotated as frequently as is necessary to maintain the speed required to complete the march in the time allotted. Within the section duties should also be changed on a regular basis. Trail Breaking Drills. The trail-breaking company should be mounted on skis if the main body is mounted on skis, and on snow-shoes if the main body is snow-shoeing. If the trail is being broken with skis, a quadruple track will usually be necessary as a normal ski track is not wide enough for toboggans. This should be accomplished as follows:
a. b. c. The breaker breaks a trail with his skis. The straightener and section commander ski in his tracks. The right cutter places his left ski in the right track and breaks a new track with his right ski, and the left cutter does the same on the other side. Thereafter, men alternate skiing in the right and left tracks.

45.

d. 46.

Equipment. Depending on the going and ground conditions, over-snow vehicles should accompany the trail-breaking party even if only a foot trail is being broken. The vehicles can carry personal equipment and rations, and can be used for breaking trails in open terrain, and for ski-joring. The equipment required by the leading section is as follows:
a. b. d. d. Section commander: Compass, map, route card. Breaker and straightener: Axe or machete each. Cutters: Axe or machete each. Packers: Shovel each, trail marking material.

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47.

Selection of the Route. The number of routes and their rough course will have been selected by the commander of the operation at the planning stage and given to the commander of the trail-breaking party in the form of a route card; the detailed selection can, however, only be made by this party who should be guided as follows:
a.

Open Country. The minimum number of tracks (preferably one only) should be broken while crossing open ground, and when possible this should give some cover from view, either by following the tree line or a natural feature. If more than one track has been ordered, tracks must be well separated (a minimum of 100m between them) and follow natural features. Over-snow vehicles can often be used in the open to break either a vehicle or foot trail; if they are used, the trail-breaking party can ski-jore behind the vehicles, stopping to improve the track and remove obstacles as necessary. Close Country. A trail should not be selected through dense forest as this will usually impose a considerable delay on the trail-breaking party; the edge of wooded areas or the less dense parts should be chosen. This may mean deviating from the route given but will save time. Deviations of this type should be reported by radio. Multiple tracks will usually be no more than 25-30 m apart. Any turns in the track will have to be wide if the main body is on foot and pulling toboggans. Mountainous Terrain. The trail should be broken along the valleys, and on frozen rivers or streams if their surface is not too rough. If it is necessary to travel on the mountain slope, gentle traverses should be used to climb or descend, and a careful study of the map and the ground should be made to select the slope with the least number of re-entrants. The contours should be followed when possible particularly once the desired height has been reached. Water Routes. Frozen lakes, rivers and stream generally make good routes for trails if the ice is thick enough. If there is water on top of the ice it will cause ice to form on the bottoms of pulks, skis and vehicle tracks; snow must be piled up to form a raised trail, or the route should be abandoned. The trail should be broken close to the shore or bank to gain protection and concealment. Obstacles. Every minor obstacle impedes the progress of the main body, particularly if pulks are being pulled; they should be bypassed if possible. In the case of larger obstacles, for instance a steep hill, ridge or steep river bank, several trails should be broken across
4 - 17

b.

c.

d.

e.

them in order to allow the main body to cross the obstacle as quickly as possible on a wide front. Brushwood should be cut down below the level of the ski or snow-shoe track to avoid it becoming entangled in bindings and tow ropes. Tree stumps should be well marked so that vehicles can avoid them. f.

Snow Conditions . In early winter, snow will be deeper in open areas than in thick woods, and in late winter the reverse is usually the case. In early spring the most snow will remain in ditches and reentrants and on the lee side of hills; crest lines then usually provide the quickest routes. Night Marches . Skiing or snow-shoeing at night can be very slow and exhausting if the night is dark. The trail for a night march must be broken over the easiest possible route. Navigation will be difficult, and advantage must be taken of aids such as streams, ridges and the edges of woods. A trail broken for a night march may therefore have to be longer than one broken for a day march. Guides should be left at any points where there could be any uncertainty about the correct route. Enemy. When moving in forward areas, concealment will generally take precedence over speed and ease of movement. The trailbreaking party may need to clear features overlooking the trail, and on occasions these features may have to be picketed until the main body has passed. Detachments used for this purpose should rejoin the line of march at the rear of the main body. Deception. It may be desirable to create false trails, criss-crossing and angling off in different directions to deceive the enemy.

g.

h.

i.

48.

Trail Marking. The trail will usually need to be marked if it leads over existing trails or if it is to be used over a period of time. Any of the following methods can be used, which should be known to the main body prior to moving off:
a. b. c. d. Branches of tree and shrubs broken in a predetermined manner. Flags, sticks or guiding arrows planted in the snow. Markers made of rags or coloured paper tied to trees. Rock cairs or small piles of brush.

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e. f. 49.

Dye beside the trail. Night lights.

Masking Trails. If a permanent trail is being established, markers tied to the branches of trees should be used, as other types will be covered by fresh falls of snow. Markers should always be placed so that they are readily visible from the ground but are protected as far as possible from enemy ground and air surveillance. Vehicle Mounted Trail Breaking. The oversnow vehicle has a considerable number of limitations when driven across country. It is therefore essential that the following drills are carried out. Failure to do so is simply inviting failure. Points to note are:
a. A comprehensive map study must be made of the proposed routes prior to departure. A reconnaissance team comprising experienced soldiers are required. Additionally a suitable amount of marker poles are required (200 minimum). The route should be marked with 1 pole approximately every 100m and more as required to sufficiently mark bends in the track (mine tape can also be used to assist). Wind driven snow will cover any tracks within a very short space of time and as a result poles are an essential item. It is essential that a good route is chosen as it only needs one poorly reconnnoitred section to seriously curtail vehicle movement. Steep slopes can often be crossed by a few vehicles, but those following find going increasingly difficult as a track develops. Vehicles must limit speed to 5 mph across country in order to avoid cutting deep ruts into the track and creating a roller coaster effect. If the weather is poor two experienced men from the lead vehicle should ski ahead to ensure the best route is selected bearing in mind the number of vehicles still to come through. If necessary commanders in the following vehicles must be prepared to send skiers forward at night or in poor conditions to help find the route. Action on losing the next marker pole; stop, skier out to reconnoitre ahead, vehicle must not move until pole or track is found, skier in, continue on route.

50.

b.

c.

d.

e.

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f.

It is essential that vehicles are driven in a staggered pattern in order to widen the track and crush the central snow column. This will assist those skiing or ski-joring troops following behind. On arrival at choke points every effort must be made to get the vehicles through them. Use shovel parties in deep snow and poles for traction and haulage lines on any steep sections. Sometimes due to the gradient and the conditions the vehicles will have problems. It should be stressed that a maximum of effort from all concerned will be required to negotiate some of these areas. The reconnaissance party should identify suitable muster points for all following vehicles. Ski-borne teams consisting of experienced troops should be immediately despatched to reconnoitre the final route to the platoon FUPs and LDs which should be marked where tactically viable. If necessary parachute cord or string can be used to assist closer to the enemy positions. Left and right edges of LDs are to be marked with either orange mine tape on sticks or right angle torches facing rearward, red for left edge, green for right edge. On arrival at FUPs and LDs troops should be given the following information: (1) (2) (3) Bearing to the enemy position. Distance. Location of positions, strengths, defences and any other relevant up to date tactical information. SECTION 4 - DEALING WITH ICE

g.

h.

i.

j.

General 51. Before ice is used to take a load, its strength or load bearing capacity must be established; this requires knowledge of the type of ice and its condition, and a means of measuring its thickness, all of which are explained in this Section. If these tests show that the ice is not strong enough to take the required load, it can sometimes be strengthened if it is of good quality.

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Types of Ice 52.

Green (or Blue) Ice. Good ice is clear and free from small cracks and air bubbles. It is often described as green ice or blue ice because of its appearance. Cloudiness caused by gas or air bubbles trapped within the ice indicate weakness. Lake Ice . Small lakes generally freeze with a smooth surface, but in large lakes ice ridges may be formed. While the ice is increasing in thickness it shows no crystalline structure and has a dry, polished surface. Lake ice is generally poor in the vicinity of inlets and outlets of streams. River Ice. Ice formed on broad, slow-moving rivers frequently has the same smooth surface as lake ice unless the early ice was broken by warm weather and wind and then refrozen, when a rough surface is formed. Rapidly flowing rivers rarely form thick sound ice because of the inclusion of air bubbles and the continuous erosion of the under surface by the swiftly running water. Anchor (or Bottom) Ice. In permafrost areas ice can form on the bottom and is called anchor (or bottom) ice. This often leads to a condition known as valley icing, as the anchor ice generally forms on the bottom of a stream at about the same time as surface ice. This restricts the channel and puts the water under pressure, causing it to break through the surface ice and spread. Fresh ice then forms on the new surface and in the course of time this may build up in stages to several metres above the normal stream level. Candle Ice (Honeycombing) . Ice may separate into vertical prisms when thawing, leaving an extremely weak structure, even though the thickness still may be over one metre. It is referred to as candle ice or honeycombing, and generally occurs on lakes. Frazil (or Slush) Ice. When fast-flowing streams have been cooled to 0C, the water may remain liquid although ice will begin to form around any solid particles and eventually coagulate into a loose and spongy mass called frazil (or slush) or slob ice. This floats upwards, and if there is any surface ice, it will accumulate underneath it. It can build up to a depth of several feet and become an integral part of ice sheets. It has no load bearing capacity. Rotten Ice. Rotten ice is dull, chalky and brittle and occurs on top of and underneath clear ice; it also has no load bearing capacity.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

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Measuring the Thickness of Ice 59. A hole must first be made in the ice either by chipping with an ice chisel or axe, or by using an ice auger. The thickness can then be measured by using an axe head or a stick with a nail driven through one end; either of these is lowered into the hole, hooked onto the undersurface of the ice and a mark is made at surface level; measurement between this mark and the axe head or nail gives the ice thickness. The position of the water level under the ice must be determined. Ice formed when the water level is high sometimes remains when the water recedes, supported only by the banks and not by the water. It then has little strength as it must support its own weight, and usually contains cracks and weak spots; it should never be trusted for a crossing, irrespective of its thickness. Such ice can sometimes be made to float again by breaking it where it is supported by the banks. Ice over swiftly running water should be checked in several places to determine whether the current has eroded the under-side. Such erosion is particularly likely where the ice has been covered by an appreciable amount of snow. Only the thickness of good clear ice should be measured, and any frazil or rotten ice rejected. Strength and Load Bearing Capacity 63. Once the thickness and quality of ice has been established, the table at Annex C can be used to make an assessment of its load-bearing capacity as follows: a.

60.

61.

62.

Dismounted Troops. Some risk can be taken when dismounted men cross ice as they are in a better position to take evasive action if the ice begins to show signs of weakness; however, the thicknesses given below are only a guide, and when thin ice is to be used for repeated crossings it must be kept under constant observation.
(1)

Troops on Skis or Snow-Shoes. Ice used for repeated crossings should be 50 mm thick, and men should be five metres apart. In 'risk' conditions for individual crossings, ice 4 cm thick can be used. Troops in Boots . The above thicknesses should be doubled to 100 mm for normal repeated crossings and 80 mm for

(2)

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'risk' crossings. Men need only be two metres apart in each case. b.

Vehicles. The bearing capacity of ice which is to be used continuously can only be established by constant observation. On short crossings, only one vehicle should be on the ice at one time, for long crossings, vehicles should not be closer than 60 metres.

Methods of Strengthening Ice 64.

General. If it is particularly important to make a crossing, ice can be thickened, and thus strengthened in several ways if the temperature is low enough; for any method involving freezing it should be at least -10C. When estimating the strength of artificially thickened ice, its strength should be calculated on the basis of the original thickness plus 50 per cent of the added layer. During operations in Russia in 1941/42 the Dnieper River in the Ukraine was an obstacle to resupplying the German 6th Army, which was holding a front from south of Kursk towards Kharkov. The German 88th Infantry Division impressed local labour and built an ice bridge over the river with blocks one to three feet thick. These blocks were laid on the already frozen river in temperatures of -34 degrees Centigrade. The weight of the additional ice caused cracks, but water that was poured in the cracks froze immediately and acted as a weld. The completed bridge was then hosed over to make it a solid four to six feet thick. When a 130ton locomotive was driven across it, the ice structure bowed 18 inches, but it held and provided the 6th Army with a lifeline until the Spring. Snow Clearance. If thin ice has been covered by at least 15 cm of snow, and the temperature is below -10C, its thickness can be substantially increased by clearing away the insulating snow cover from a strip about 50 metres wide. At a temperature of -15C, such ice will then increase in thickness on the under-side by 25 to 30 mm in twelve hours. Flooding and Freezing. The following points are relevant:
a. The thickness of ice can be increased by pumping water onto the surface, allowing time for this water to freeze, and then pumping again, thus building up the thickness in layers by 3 to 6 mm at a time. Annex C gives details of suitable safety thicknesses. A single thicker layer of 20 to 30 mm can be added by constructing snow dams on either side of the selected roadway which is then flooded. The distance between the dams should be at least two and a half times the width of the actual roadway. Although a single thick layer is quicker to produce, several thin layers are much stronger. 4 - 23

65.

66.

b.

Care must always be taken to ensure that a thick layer is completely frozen through before it is used. At -15C, an addition of 20 to 30 mm can be made in about two hours. c. Successive layers of snow can be packed on the surface, and water pumped on to freeze it in place. Each layer is frozen before another is added. This is the least satisfactory method, as, particularly under very cold conditions, the water may freeze quickly, trapping air between the snow particles. Such ice is not as strong as ice thickened by the methods described above.

67.

Ice Paving. Ice blocks can be cut and laid as paving blocks and cemented in place by flooding and freezing. These blocks should be:
a. b. c. A minimum of 1 m long and 100 mm deep for each track. Laid so that there is 600 mm overlap on each side of the track. In good contact with the ice surface (by using a straw and water mixture, or thin layer of a water and snow mixture, or plain water underneath each block).

68.

Reinforced Layers. Brushwood, straw or wire netting can be placed on ice in 10 cm layers and then flooded and frozen.
SECTION 5 - ICE CROSSING TECHNIQUES Selection of a Crossing Point

69.

Crossings which are to take heavy loads and be used repeatedly should only be moved on good ice of adequate thickness. The best conditions for crossings exist where: a. b. The stream is broad and well defined, and follows a straight course. There is no steep gradient and the water is likely to flow at a slow uniform pace. The banks are low and easy to prepare.

c. 70.

These conditions favour the formation of strong, thick ice. Broad flow plains with sand bars and shifting channels should be avoided because surface flooding and valley icing are likely to result in inconsistent ice strength and even open-water channels.

4 - 24

Reconnaissance 71. When making a reconnaissance for a crossing, the thickness of ice should the tested. The safety thickness for certain requirements are set out in Annex C to this Chapter. Particular attention should be paid to the quality of the ice which may be weak in the following places: a. b. Where streams or rivers enter a lake. Near the banks of rivers and lakes where there may be 'false ice', this is ice which is resting on water but is supported by the bank and so has to bear its over weight as well as any load placed on it. Where the water is fast flowing and is therefore likely to have eroded the underside of the ice. Over bogs where decaying vegetation may have released gases which become trapped in the ice and weaken it.

72.

c.

d.

Inspection During Use 73. The route must be checked twice daily while the crossing is in use. The ice should be kept clear of snow on both sides of the roadway, so that it can be properly inspected. Clearing in this fashion has the added advantage that ice not insulated by a layer of snow which conducts the cold through itself and thickens on the under-side, thus strengthening the crossing. The inspection should include: a. b. Measurement of ice thickness. Visual inspection to cover: (1) (2) (3) (4) Erosion and melting. Cracks. Deterioration of the surface through water. Ensuring that route markers are visible.

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Cracks 74. In extreme cold, cracking is caused by ice contraction. These cracks must be noted and watched closely and repaired if necessary during milder weather. New cracks appearing after a route is in use normally result from: a. A single crack which is in the same direction as the flow of river water or in a lake at right angles to the route. It does not necessarily mean weakness but should be kept under observation. Cracks along the axis of the route are signs of weakness and must be repaired or the route reinforced. The ice at a crossing place can be made thicker by the methods used in the next three paragraphs.

b.

Preparation of Approaches 75. Ice along the shore may be thin and weak and may be the first to deteriorate during thaw periods. A smooth approach from the shore must be made to bridge this gap and allow traffic to move onto the ice with a minimum of impact. A timber ramp, with the offshore end supported on a timber mat for load distribution makes a satisfactory approach (see Figure 3-1). A fill of snow and brush-wood, well compacted and frozen, is also suitable.

Timbermat. First timber course at right angles to bank

Snow and ice road surface

Figure 3-1. Construction of an Approach to an Ice Crossing

4 - 26

Cracks 76. Cracks can be repaired by stuffing them with straw then pumping water into them and allowing the water to freeze. If they are relatively large, well seated planks, poles or mats should be placed across them, covered with snow and solidly frozen in place. Should cracks along the axis of the route persist in spite of patching, a new site should be chosen. Reinforcing Crossing Places 77. Crossing places may have to be reinforced to increase or preserve their bearing capacity or to protect the surface from undue wear in prolonged use. A variety of metal and timber materials can be used for this purpose: a. Ice bridges can be reinforced with timber, corduroy mats, deck component bridge equipments, pierced steel planks or square mesh track designed for air surfaces. The ice surface is levelled and the reinforcing material is firmly covered with a light layer of snow and sprinkled or flooded with water to form an integral frozen mass with the original ice. Metal reinforcing material should painted white and covered with ice or snow to keep melting caused by radiation from the sun to the minimum. Planks and small logs can be frozen in place to form tracks or runways for vehicles and toboggans. Each track should be at least one metre wide. When temperatures are only a little below freezing, a crossing can be strengthen by means of timber grillages bedded down on the ice in compacted snow sawdust. Because of the bulk of the materials needed and the labour to put them in place, roadways should only be reinforced in this way if the temperature is above -8 oC; at lower temperatures, reinforcement by freezing methods is more economical. Good quality ice can be protected during milder weather and the Spring than by using insulating materials such as sawdust or moss, or by laying tracks.

b.

c.

d.

4 - 27

78.

Load Capacity of Reinforced Crossings. A guide to the capacity of ice crossing reinforced with natural materials and planks is shown below: Material Thickness of Reinforcing Layer Increase in Bearing Capacity (assuming original thickness of 15 cm) 20%

Ice and snow in three packed layers Straw, one layer

Each layer 4cm

5 to 10cm (approx 3 kg per 30cm run) Each layer 5 to 10 cm (approx 10kg per 30 cm run) 5 to 10cm Two runways, each 1 metre wide

20%

Straw, three layers

25% 25%

Brush Planks, 5cm

50%

79.

A reinforced ice crossing should be located on the downstream side of any adjacent seasonal site to minimize any damage to that crossing and particularly to bridging equipment by debris when the reinforced ice melts in the thaw. Ice Bridges

80.

General. During periods when the temperature is consistently -15oC or colder, open areas in standing or slowly floating water can be bridged by ice bridges. These are made by floating large sections of ice cut from the bank into a transverse position across the water gap. Suitability of Sites. Ice bridges are seldom permanent and their period of usefulness may be very limited. Water movement often erodes the under-surface of the ice, and frequent inspections are essential. The most favourable locations are those where the ice already extends for an appreciable distance from the bank and is of consistent thickness and quality. The site should be clear of all underwater obstacles, and the depth of water should be known in case rescue or repair work is necessary. The condition of the bed should be determined since organic matter at the bottom may affect the durability of the bridge.

81.

4 - 28

82.

Construction. The stages in the construction of an ice bridge are shown in Figure 3-2. Calculating and marking out the dimensions are extremely important if the bridge is to be straight and properly placed. The float must be cut to exactly the right length; if it is too long it will not fit into the prepared notches; if it is too short extra bridging will be required to cross the gaps at either end. The floating section should be 1/2 to 1/3 as wide as it is long, the minimum width for use by a single column of troops being five metres. The notch into which it fits on the far bank should be six to eight metres deep, depending on the thickness of the bank ice, the weight of the floating section and the current; it must be deep enough to prevent the ice from splintering and breaking as the float is set in position. Reinforcement. An ice bridge can be reinforced in the same way as a normal ice crossing. The bridge induces freezing along both sides of it and it will soon be securely frozen into a gradually increasing ice sheet. If there is little or no under-surface erosion, the bridge will gradually strengthen and become more stable. Broken ice floes can be repaired by racking the broken pieces together (as shown in Figure 3-2) when the point of fracture will quickly refreeze.

83.

Figure 3-2. Construction of an Ice Bridge 4 - 29

84.

Repairs. After the bridge is marked out, the sections to be removed (A, B, C, and D in Figure 3-3) are sawn out and floated clear. To make their removal easier, double cuts, 15 to 20 cm apart, should be made at the ends of each sections (as indicated by the thickened lines in Figure 3-3). After the excess ice has been cleared away, the floating section is cut free from the bank. Mooring lines are used to manoeuvre it and to minimize the impact when it is swung into position against the bank ice. If there is any weak ice on the banks at the end of the floating section this must then be bridged with timber or prefabricated decking. The traffic lane and capacity of the bridge must be carefully marked, and normal ice-crossing precautions and procedures enforced.
Skewed Ice Bridge

85.

A skewed ice bridge is more quickly made and is used when the ice is thin. The floating section is cut with semicircular ends swung into a skew position against the far bank (as in Figure 3-3). If the ice along the far bank crumbles and breaks on impact, reinforcement may be necessary to form a stable crossing.

Figure 3-3. Repairs to a Floating Ice Bridge 4 - 30

86.

Swinging Ice Bridge. A skewed bridge as described in para 85 above can be used as a swinging bridge for dismounted troops and light vehicles. The ice is allowed to swing and close the gap for traffic to cross, and is then withdrawn to the bank as soon as possible to save the ice from being unduly scored. The buoyance can be simply worked out to give a quick indication of the weight which the bridge can safely carry. It relies on the fact that water expands one-tenth on freezing. If, for example, the bridge area is 20 m x 6 m and the thickness of the ice 50 cm, the freeboard is 5cm, and the approximate buoyancy is 20 x 6 m x _5_ = 6 tonnes 100 Construction Times. When the temperature is below freezing but there is not enough ice along the banks to build an ice bridge, an ice crossing of limited capacity can be produced by securing brushwood or small trees to a rope stretched across the stream or by making a log boom. Any obstuction to the flow will soon cause ice to form. The table below provides a guide to the construction times for ice bridges.

87.

Type of Bridge Length Width and (metres) Thickness

Men Required

Approximate Construction Time (hours) 4

Straight bridge

100

45 metres wide Minimum ice thickness 40cm Minimum ice thickness 40 cm

32

Skew bridge

100

32

Skew bridge

180

32

88.

Traffic Rules on Ice Bridges. A heavy load crossing momentarily deforms the surface which recovers almost to its original form after the load has passed. Permanent damage can, however, be caused if the load is allowed to stand still. Proper spacing and continuous movement of critical loads is therefore essential for safety. All vehicles should move slowly on an ice crossing and they should not stop or turn round.

4 - 31

SECTION 6 - NAVIGATION The Problem 89. The consequences of getting lost in a cold weather will be more than inconvenient; they can be fatal. Cold weather areas are generally less developed and inadequately mapped and, to compound the problem, usually a featureless terrain, particularly when covered with a blanket of snow and experiencing a low visibility, will present few recognisable landmarks. The handling of maps and compasses in low temperatures will also be more difficult and magnetic disturbances experienced in some cold areas will affect magnetic variation, even over short distances. The responsibility for navigation should never be vested in one person. As a rule, a commander should know where he is at all times and every man should have an awareness of direction, destination and the nearest place of safety or shelter. Aids to Navigation 91.

90.

Use of IPB. At unit level and above the use of IPB and the improving facilities that support the process can save much time and effort in providing information about the nature of the terrain. Visibility, going and other conditions can be recorded graphically on to suitable maps. Grid sections can be matched to air photographs, and up to date mapping can be provided using suitable data links. Air Photographs. Maps will often lack detail and can be usefully supplemented by air photographs, however, the relative absence of relief in snow conditions will some imagery more difficult to read. Compasses. Liquid filled compasses (like the prismatic) must be kept warm as movement of the compass mechanism will become more sluggish as the temperature drops and the liquid thickens. Dry card compasses incorporating a protractor (like the Silva) are easier to handle and will not be affected by the cold. In areas where magnetic disturbances occur an astro compass may be used to calibrate the magnetic compass by giving an accurate indicator of true direction. Stars. The stars can be a useful aid to navigation, particularly during the long polar nights. The polar star is within twenty miles of true north but at latitudes north of 70 it is too high in the sky to give a reliable indication of direction. Other stars can be used as temporary aids but as they are constantly moving in the sky, a compass must be used every fifteen minutes and a new star selected as a marker on which to march.

92.

93.

94.

4 - 32

Satellite Navigation Systems 95. Modern satellite navigation systems (SATNAV), developed commercially for use at sea, now make it possible to fix a position quickly and accurately. The systems currently in use are: a.

Transit System. A US system which will remain operational until the year 2000. Navigation receivers can fix a position to within 0.02 of a nautical mile (or 40 metres). Global Positioning System. This system has now superseded the use of the Transit System. The Global Positioning System (GPS), consists of 21 working satellites, operating above the observer and enables a commercial receiver to fix a position to within +/- 15 metres. The simple hand held receiver weighs less than one kilogram.

b.

96.

Satellite navigation was a battle winner during the Gulf War of 1990-91 and was widely and quickly adopted by those units which participated in that campaign. Some words of caution. a. An over-dependence on satellite navigation is unwise; satellites can go off-line at any time and there are certain times of the day when they may not be functioning. It is also possible that in a general war satellites of this type may be destroyed or subject to electronic attack. Satellite navigation receivers are presently unlikely to be available for every commander or vehicle. Careful distribution to those who need receivers will be essential. This should include CSS units who should not be overlooked.

b.

4 - 33

ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 4 SKI WAXING 1.

General .
a. b. Before waxing, skis must be clean and base binder applied. Check the air temperature and snow conditions, then wax accordingly; for further guidance read the instructions on the wax. Apply the wax evenly over the sole of the ski, but not in the groove (gammel). If the ski will not grip try a softer wax over the middle third of the sole. A softer wax can be put on a harder wax, not the other way around.

c.

d. 2.

Stick Waxes. Generally two kinds of ski wax are used:


a. b. Blue Red For dry snow For wet snow

4-A-1

ANNEX B TO CHAPTER 4

SKI-JORING TECHNIQUES General 1. Ski-joring is the term applied to moving men on skis over the snow by towing them with vehicles; it is a faster and less tiring method of individual movement than skiing or snow-shoeing. Over-snow vehicles, tracked and wheeled vehicles can be used for pulling skiers, the best routes for skijoring being snow covered roads and trails, frozen lakes, rivers, or paths made by tracked vehicles. Speeds up to 25 kph can be kept up on level ground by trained troops, depending on weather and snow conditions and the state of the going. Normally, an over-snow vehicle can tow one section across country or two along a road. Towing more than two sections by one vehicle is impractical because of the length of the column, difficulty in making turns, and the increased problems of negotiating steep or wooded country and of keeping up an even pace in inconsistent snow conditions. Methods of Towing 3. Each over-snow vehicle should carry two tow ropes each 35 metres long. These are attached one to each side of the back of the vehicle, the skiers attaching themselves to the ropes in file and outside the two ropes. While several methods of towing can be used, depending on the tactical situation, the terrain, and the distance involved, the ski pole method is the easiest and least strenuous. a.

2.

The Ski Pole Method. The handgrips of the ski poles are fastened to the tow rope by a half hitch, the basket ends of the poles are then placed under the arm. This leaves the hands free so that they can be kept warm while on the move. The only disadvantage of this method is that the ski poles cannot be disengaged rapidly from the rope and if ski-joring troops have to take immediate evasive action, perhaps because of an ambush, they may have to do so without ski poles. The Rope Loop. This is really two methods according to the size of the loop made:

b.

4-B-1

(1)

A small loop is made by taking a bight of rope and tying an overhand knot about 25 cm long. This loop is held in one hand and the poles are held in the other. Alternatively the rope can be knotted to provide a handgrip. If a large bight of rope is taken and a loop two metres long is made this is then placed behind the buttocks and held in the outside hand; the skier then leans against this loop and is pulled along. This is probably less exhausting than using a smaller loop. The body must never be put through the loop, or the skier will be unable to free himself instantly if he falls or needs to avoid another skier who has fallen. This method uses up a lot of rope for each loop.

(2)

4.

Whatever method of towing is used, individuals must never be allowed to fasten themselves to the tow rope. In case of a fall they must be able to release their hold immediately to avoid injury to themselves or other skiers. Techniques on the Move

5.

The skiers should take up positions beside the rope before moving off, the whole party must be on the same side of the rope and all must use the same method of attachment. The strongest skiers should be at the rear as they are responsible for keeping the ropes at the correct angle. The vehicle should move off slowly, gradually gathering speed and changing gear smoothly, each man on the rope moving forward under his own power for a few steps and placing tension on the towing rope by degrees, so as to prevent a sudden jerk which might cause a fall. When underway, skiers should lean slightly backwards, with knees bent, and the upper body nearly straight. Skis should be further apart than normal skiing with one ski kept slightly ahead. The skier should be relaxed and alert to obstacles and able to side-step quickly if necessary. One man, usually the co-driver in the rear cab, should observe the skiers throughout, and he is responsible for slowing the vehicle when necessary to avoid casualty caused by speed, obstacles or falls. When a man falls all skiers behind him must release the rope immediately. Curves and Turns

6.

7.

8.

When approaching a sharp curve the vehicle must be slowed down and the turn executed at a walking pace. Skiers on the inside of the bend may have to change their positions from the outside to the inside of the rope, if this is necessary it should be done simultaneously as a drill. When the last skier

4-B-2

has passed the turn the vehicle can speed up again; this must be done gradually, starting from a halt. Towing Downhill 9. When descending hills, the skiers should brake by using the snowplough, or half snowplough if space allows, to prevent overrunning the vehicle, or if conditions warrant it, they may move to the side of the track where the softer snow will decrease their speed. If the going does not allow for controlled braking, and collision with the vehicle seems imminent, they should release the rope and disperse to the sides of the track. On short downhill slopes the vehicles should increase speed temporarily so that the skiers need not brake. On long, steep slopes the men can descend independently of the vehicle and reattach themselves after the slop has been negotiated. Wind Chill 10. The effects of wind chill are increased by ski-joring, and face masks should always be worn; the ski-pole method of attachment to the rope leaves the hands free so that they can more easily be kept warm. At temperatures around -10C to -20C the vehicle must be halted after no more than 20 minutes (more often in low temperatures) to allow the skiers to restore their circulation.

4-B-3

ANNEX C TO CHAPTER 4 SAFETY THICKNESS OF ICE


Description Thickness of Ice (cms) Distance Apart (metres)

Man on foot or skis 2 men side by side File (2 pace intervals) Wheeled Tractor 1/2 ton vehicle 3/4 ton vehicle Oversnow vehicle 3 ton truck + load 4 ton truck + load 5 ton truck + load 7 ton truck + load Bulldozer 3 ton Bulldozer 5 ton Bulldozer 7 ton Bulldozer 10 ton AFV 10 ton AFV 20 ton AFV 25 ton AFV 30 ton AFV 40 ton AFV 50 ton Light helicopter Support helicopter
Notes 1. 2. 3. 4.

5 10 10 20 20 25 25/30 30 30 35 35 25 35 40 45 35 40 50 57 65 75 25 30

2-5 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 20 20 25 20 25 30 35 40 45 -

Careful reconnaissance over full distance of an ice crossing is essential before it is used for vehicles. A critical test is to prove the ice is supported by water and not held above it at the water perimeter. The exact parameters of an ice route must be clearly marked and any vehicle restrictions clearly displayed. Traffic will weaken an ice route unless the frost is steadily increasing the ice thickness. Regular checks are therefore necessary.

4-C-1

CHAPTER 5 MINOR TACTICAL FACTORS FOR OPERATING IN SNOW SECTION 1 - CAMOUFLAGE, CONCEALMENT AND DECEPTION General 1. The normal principles of camouflage are as relevant and important in a snow covered landscape as in temperate areas. However, their application requires experience and practice as there are many problems which are peculiar to snow conditions; they are described in this Section with suggestions on how to overcome them. In polar regions there are some areas of unrelieved whiteness which may have to be crossed, lived in or fought over and these present some special problems. However, not all cold weather, or even polar regions are totally snow covered. There are often extensive forests, bushes and scrub; while above it in the mountains, rocks and scree break through the snow and there are places which are too steep and windswept for snow to cling. A broken landscape with a variety of shades and shadows helps concealment, but no artificial white material can ever provide concealment against the brilliance of fresh snow. Because of this and the difficulty of concealing tracks except by a fresh and fairly substantial snow fall, deception is very important. Other conditions which are particularly pronounced in the cold are: a.

2.

3.

4.

Sound. The absence of life in a cold winter landscape can, on a windless day, lead to an almost eerie silence. Unnatural noises, whether of movement, vehicle engines, talking and coughing or even the crisp sound of the snow crust broken by skis or boots are reflected by the smooth surface and carry over unusually long distances. Vapour Clouds. Warm moisture laden air, caused by men's breath, weapons firing, vehicle exhausts etc can freeze into a fog which is easily seen and may take some time to disperse. Smoke from fires will also hang overhead on a still day and may betray an otherwise well concealed position.

b.

5 - 1

c.

Daylight. The long hours of daylight in the summer give little scope for moving under cover of darkness. Conversely, the long winter nights help to cloak ground movement; in the most northerly and southerly regions the sun does not rise for a month, and the day is a short four hours of twilight.

Individual Concealment 5. Artificial aids to individual concealment are provided by the different coloured outer garments which are issued. These enable an all white or all green and black, disruptive pattern outer suit to be worn; and also, by mixing garments, a two-coloured dress (disruptive top, white trousers or the reverse) can be adopted, which is useful in areas where there is snow as well as forest, bushes or exposed rock. The proper use of this clothing requires forethought, and on a long patrol it may be necessary to change the outer garments several times to match the different patterns of country which have to be crossed. As a guide, in the following circumstances the mixture of clothing suggested will usually provide the best concealment: a.

Forests. Consisting mainly of coniferous trees with thick under brush; all dark clothing is best. Lightly Wooded Areas. Many areas are covered with woods, both coniferous and deciduous, of varying density; the best camouflage is white trousers and a dark upper garment. Low Bush or Scrub . Often found in hilly areas with poor soil; in both cases an open snow background predominates and a combination of dark trousers and white top is usually suitable.

b.

c.

Personal Equipment 6. A white rucksack cover should be used when all white or a white top has been selected. In circumstances where a broken camouflage is required, dark trousers, white top and an uncamouflaged rucksack may, however, be effective. Small items of equipment are relatively easy to camouflage with mat white paint or masking tape. White masking tape is particularly useful for camouflaging webbing equipment although it has a tendency to crack and peel at temperatures below -15C. Field Defences and Bivouac Areas 7. The main problem in all defensive and bivouac areas are tracks and shadows. Anything built up, such as shelters, snow walls and tents, will

5 - 2

cast betraying shadows unless the corners are carefully rounded off and the slopes gently shelved. The entrances will also be very obvious unless they are camouflaged; this is best done by making them in the shadow of some natural object such as a tree, bush or overhanging rock or cornice, or otherwise carefully camouflaging them with a net or tent sheet and a covering of snow. Tents 8. Points to note in the concealment of tents are: a.

In Wooded Areas. If the region is relatively thickly wooded the tent can be camouflaged by thickening up the area round it with branches after it has been pitched; another method is to suspend small trees over the tent, breaking up its shape silhouette. Care must be taken not to disturb the snow cover on the trees being cut. Against a suitable background, a white camouflage net with dark patches on it is very effective. The silhouette of the tent can be lowered by telescoping the tent poles and tightening the guys. In Predominantly White Areas. On snow covered areas, tents will be visible for great distances because of their marked contrast to the white background. There are two camouflage methods:
(1) The tent can be dug into a snow drift and the silhouette lowered by telescoping the pole. The excavated snow should be smoothed as much as possible to conceal the changes in texture and make it conform to the surroundings. This will not be necessary in a light wind as the blown snow will effectively cover any irregularity. The tent liner can also be used as a cover in the same way; this will reduce the warmth of the tent, and the liner will be damaged if holes have to be cut in it to accommodate the guys.

b.

(2)

Slit Trenches 9. Trenches should always be dug under or in the shadow of a tree if possible: a. The sides and ends of all trenches should have pronounced slopes and rounded edges to reduce shadow. Trenches should not be dug to ground level as grass, leaves and twigs mix with excavated snow, and the dark bottoms of the slit 5 - 3

b.

trenches are obvious from the air. If this is unavoidable, the dark patches should be covered with snow. c. Snow spoil should be smoothed out and not left in lumps or uneven piles which cause shadows.

Lights 10. Reflections from the snow can be seen from great distances, and during the winter darkness as many duties as possible should be done without lights. Door and ventilation holes in tents and tent sheets should be covered with a loose layer of fir on brushwood to prevent light escaping, and all lights should be turned off, or shielded, whenever anyone enters or leaves the shelter. Torches should have the lenses covered with a red filter so that they produce a diffuse beam. Only one cooker should be used if detection from thermal imagery is a risk. Vapour Cloud 11. In very cold, still air, vapour clouds form above anything that gives off heat. A man's breath can be partially concealed by breathing through the head cover. Tent openings should be kept closed in daylight hours; tent sheet shelters need great care, as eight or nine men living inside will quickly produce a large local cloud if the gaps and openings are not carefully covered. Movement 12. Tracks are almost impossible to camouflage, and their concealment must depend on discipline and intelligence use of ground; no new track should ever be made unless it is operationally necessary. Routes over snow should always be chosen carefully to make use of the cover of trees, shadows, natural faults in the snow which may occur beside streams, in river beds, under a crest or where pressure ridges occur in ice. Tracks can be partially concealed from the air by breaking up the sharp edges that cast shadows. This can be achieved by trailing small pine trees behind the last two men in a section, or in the case of over-snow vehicles, behind each track. When shaded routes are followed, the shadows of the tracks are lost to air photography in the general shadows cast by trees or undulations in the ground. Tracks should never end at a camouflaged object. Within a bivouac area, troops moving back and forth will glaze the snow in the tracks and trenches. New snow must be added frequently to restore the natural surface. Such snow should always be dug from under trees and

13.

5 - 4

areas where it will not contribute to a further problem by disturbing the surface. 14. Routes into bivouac areas can be concealed or made confusing by careful planning. They should never lead straight into a position but should branch off a main track (which must continue in a realistic fashion) preferably in the reverse direction of any movement which the enemy might expect. New snow should be added frequently to restore the natural surface. Such snow should always be dug from under trees and areas where it will not contribute to a further problem by disturbing the surface. Vehicles 15. The principles which apply to tents and field defences also apply to vehicles with the added problem of concealing tracks. Vehicles should be painted in a disruptive pattern using matt paint, and should carry white camouflage nets and have hessian covers for all shiny surfaces, particularly windscreens. The shadow cast by a vehicle should be merged into a natural shadow by parking it against a tree or scrub in the shade cast by a ridge of hill feature. Snow can be piled against the wheels, and snow piles used to break up the straight edges of the outline. Deception 17.

16.

General. Deception at the tactical level can be practised in two main ways, by use of tracks and by dummy positions. No method will, however, be effective unless it fits into the overall tactical plan; for example a track that is made to lead past a position, but which then finishes abruptly in an unrealistic place will not divert but rather arouse suspicion and lead to a more careful search for its true reason. Tracks. Within the deception plan, tracks can be used:
a. To conceal the strength of the position. This can be done by making many tracks, indicating a lot of movement, into a weakly held area, while using a single track to move a large force into another position. To conceal intentions and the direction of a planned attack by making tracks towards suitable assembly areas in a false direction. To conceal camp sites and defended positions by making tracks which draw the enemy's reconnaissance effort into another area. 5 - 5

18.

b.

c.

d.

When existing tracks are difficult to conceal. A few skiers or oversnow vehicles can create a network of trails or tracks to confuse the enemy.

19.

Dummy Positions. Improvised devices can be made of snow, branches and boxes to look like camouflaged vehicles or equipment, and small fires lighted to provide smoke to simulate vehicle exhaust or make a dummy bivouac area appear occupied. A few skiers or over-snow vehicles can provide a network of tracks and trails to mislead the enemy. Dummy equipments and CSS sites can be made from snow, tree branches, or discarded ration and ammunition boxes and should appear camouflaged. Heat Sources. Attention has to be paid to disguising heat sources, or using them to represent dummy vehicles and simulated positions. The use of buildings, UV (not infra-red) reflecting paint and white thermal camouflage sheeting will assist in concealment.1
SECTION 2 - SKI CRAWLS General

20.

21.

Skis and snow-shoes are useful in an approach march, but can become an encumbrance during the assault because they restrict the agility of the individual. Unless the snow is very deep it will therefore be usual to discard skis or snow-shoes in either the assembly area of the FUP and conduct the actual assault on foot. If skis are discarded prior to an attack, all the skis of the section should be brought on by one man who threads a cord through the tips, places each stick in a ski binding and then trails them behind him. If the snow is too deep for boots, then either snow-shoes may have to be worn, in which case troops will generally move more slowly but in a conventional fashion, or skis, in which case there are three possibilities: a. b. c. A swift down hill ski-borne approach relying on speed and surprise. An advance using short rushes. A more stealthy approach using the skis as a platform to slide or crawl forward.

22.

1.

For more information on Deception, see AFM Vol 1 Part 3 Deception in War.

5 - 6

23.

These crawls, with or without skis, may be necessary on other occasions when normal movement is no longer possible because of the proximity of the enemy. A crawl suitable to the snow conditions and to the need to present a low silhouette to avoid detection should be selected from those described. When advancing by short rushes on skis, it is necessary to get up from a lying position, move forward swiftly in a crouching position and then take up another lying position ready to observe, fire or move forward in a further short rush. Advance by Rushes

24.

25.

When carrying out this movement, the rifle (or other type of personal weapon) is held in the right hand throughout, and the ski sticks are held in the left hand. The stages from the prone position are as follows: a. b. Draw up the left knee and kneel on it. Use the ski sticks flat on the snow as support for the left hand, place the rifle butt in the snow and use it as a support for the right hand. Draw up the right foot, turn the point of the ski forward and place the ski flat on the snow under the body. Place the weight on the right ski while moving the left ski into line with it. Using the rifle in the right hand, and both ski sticks in the left, the soldier should now propel himself forward rapidly in a crouching position.

c.

d.

e.

Advance by Sliding 26. This involves sliding forward in a prone position lying on the skis which are placed close together; the soldier slides forward by pushing himself with his hands and toes. When this method is used the poles are placed on the skis with the handles under the bindings and the baskets over the ski tips. The rifle is either slung over the shoulder or laid on the skis in front of the soldier (see Figure 5-1).

5 - 7

FIG 5 - 1. 5-8

ADVANCE BY SLIDING

Advance in a Crouching Form 27. This is a high crawl where the skis are used to give support on soft snow: each binding is used as a handhold by the soldier who kneels with a knee on each ski. The skis are slid forward alternatively, and with practice quite fast progress can be made. The rifle should be slung around the neck, and the ski sticks placed one on each ski with the basket over the tip. Crawling without Skis 28. If the snow is firm enough to crawl without skis, the skis should be attached to the waist by a cord threaded through their tips, and then trailed behind the soldier, the ski sticks being placed through the binding with the basket forward to prevent them slipping out. SECTION 3 - FIRE POSITIONS IN SNOW General 29. When the snow is firm and hard and troops are moving without the aid of skis or snow-shoes, the only differences in weapon handling between cold and temperate climates are the need to keep snow and ice out of the barrel and working parts, and the difficulty of handling very cold metal in snow conditions. However, when the snow is soft and possibly deep and when skis are worn, the normal fire positions need some modifications which are explained in this Section. Prone Position 30. When taking up a prone position in snow, great care must be taken to keep the weapon out of the snow; the muzzle should be kept slightly raised while observing. In soft snow, a measure of cover can be obtained by pressing the body into the surface; this type of snow gives deceptively little cover from fire, and the cover from view will naturally be at ground level only. When assuming the prone position, the firer should lie towards the front with his legs outspread, and if wearing skis with the tips pointing outwards. The rucksack, snowshoes or crossed ski sticks can then serve as a rifle rest. When ski sticks are used, the handles are pushed deeply into the snow and the points are crossed through the baskets. The sticks can also be placed horizontally on the snow to serve as an elbow rest (see Figure 5-2).

31.

5 - 9

FIG 5 - 2. 5-8

PRONE AND KNEELING FIRE POSITIONS

32.

The GPMG bipod legs are fitted with loadspreaders to prevent sinking; a snow-shoe makes a good firm base if these are inadequate, or a piece of canvas can be attached between the legs so that on opening the bipod, the canvas will be stretched between the legs and will stop them from sinking. Kneeling Position

33.

In the kneeling position, the left ski is placed half a pace forward (see Figure 5-2) and the soldier kneels on the right ski, the tip of which is pointed outward at an angle of approximately 45 degrees; the rifle is supported by placing the left arm on the left knee. It is not always easy to assume this position as the bindings tend to pull the right foot down and make kneeling on the ski difficult; if this is the case, the soldier should lower his right leg so that the foot and ankle lie on the snow and the ski is turned up on edge. Crossed ski sticks held firmly together by the hand loops can be used as a rifle rest in all variations of the kneeling position (see Figure 5-3); the sticks must be solidly placed in the snow. Standing Position

34.

In the standing position, the right ski is tilted about 45 degrees and the left ski is advanced half a pace; the sticks remain hanging from the wrist by the hand loops but the left one is planted vertically into the snow and, supporting the left hand, serves as a rifle rest. Alternatively the hand loops can be used to connect both ski sticks and to support the rifle (see Figure 5-4). Machine Guns

35.

The GPMG(SF) must be supported in such a way that the belt is kept free from snow; this means either firing it from the GPMG pulk or making an improvised platform which must have a surface free from any snow which could get onto the belt. SECTION 4 - FIELD DEFENCES

36.

In winter, the ground in cold weather regions will usually be too hard for manual digging, and engineer or pioneer assistance will be needed for those field defences which require earth breaking. In the summer, the soil will often be waterlogged on the surface and too hard for the easy use of hand tools once the permafrost is reached at a depth of 300 to 400 mm. Although defences in summer may use the bullet stopping qualities of the permafrost, and such residual ice as may be available, this Section is mainly concerned with using snow and ice to construct winter defences. 5 - 11

FIG 5 - 3. KNEELING POSITION (FRONT VIEW) 5 - 12

FIG 5 - 4. STANDING POSITION 5 - 13

37.

Snow has a smothering effect on small arms fire and shell fragments but it provides relatively little protection on its own; ice, particularly when it contains stones and rubble, gives much greater protection, but the risks from ricochets are considerable, and ice splinters, split off by a bullet, can themselves be lethal. It therefore follows that the most effective snow and ice defences consist of a core of ice covered with snow; this snow also has the advantage of retarding the thawing of the ice and providing some camouflage. Protective Qualities of Snow and Ice

38.

The different types of snow and ice which may be used in field defences are: a.

Newly Fallen Snow. This gives little protection, but excellent camouflage if it falls after defences have been completed. Wind Driven Snow. This is marginally more effective than freshly fallen snow if it is compacted in drifts; artificial drifts can be encouraged by erecting barriers of wood or snow. Packed Snow. The harder snow is packed, the more stopping power it will have. Snow-Crete. This is a mixture of snow and water which has been allowed to freeze. It makes an effective defensive barrier which can be shaped, it needs a good supply of water. Ice. Ice is effective but it disintegrates under sustained fire. Ice-Crete. This is a mixture of water with gravel or any other solid material which has been allowed to freeze; sand, earth, shingle, pine needles, compressed rubbish and any other reasonably substantial material can be used. Made of good materials and frozen hard, ice-crete is the most effective of all arctic defence materials.

b.

c.

d.

e. f.

39.

The minimum thicknesses needed to give protection against small arms fire and shell fragments are as follows: a. b. Newly fallen snow Wind driven snow 2.5 m 3m

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c. d. e. f.

Packed snow Snow-crete Ice Ice-crete

2m 1.3 m 1m 0.3 m

Features of Construction 40. Defences which are dug into the snow provide the best protection if the snow and ice are thick enough, as they provide all round cover and can more easily be roofed over and camouflaged. Weapon pits can be riveted with logs, ice or snow blocks, and in their final form are very little different to similar defences dug out of the ground in temperate areas. When defences have to be constructed above the level of the snow, supporting walls must be constructed of logs, snow-crete or ice-crete against which the snow can be piled to give protection and concealment. All positions constructed of snow and ice will be strengthened if they are iced over, the ice then being covered with a final layer of snow. If the weather conditions are right, wind driven snow can be encouraged to pile up into natural looking drifts by erecting barriers of wood, ice or snow. Snow and Timber Walls 42. Log walls can be single or double with the intervening space filled with packed ice or snow. The wood gives added protection (half a metre of wood will stop small arms fire), it supports the ice and snow and delays the effects of the thaw. If retaining posts cannot be driven into the ground, some means must be found for anchoring a wall; these are described below for the different types of wall. The three main types of snow and timber wall are: a.

41.

43.

The Tree Supported Wall . Logs are laid on top of one another (as in Figure 5-5) and lashed against two trees. Snow is then piled against them. Tripod Supported Wall. If there are no convenient trees, a wall can be supported by two or more tripods (as shown in Figure 5-6). This sort of wall, with snow banked up to it, provides some overhead cover.

b.

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TREE SUPPORTED WALL (SIDE VIEW)

TREE SUPPORTED WALL (OBLIQUE VIEW)

Figure 5-5. A Tree Supported Wall TRIPOD SUPPORTED WALL (SIDE VIEW)

TRIPOD SUPPORTED WALL (BACK VIEW) Figure 5-6. A Tripod Supported Wall c.

Anchor Supported Wall. To construct this wall, cut two short logs for uprights and one heavy log for an anchor. One end of a rope or signal cable is tied around the top of each upright with the other end around the heavy log. Another rope is tied to the bottom of each upright with the other end around the heavy log. Before securing, the bottom lines should be adjusted so that the tops of the uprights are leaning slightly towards the anchor. Logs are piled in front of the uprights and snow is then banked up.

Ice-Crete and Snow-Crete 44. The easiest method of building an ice-crete wall is to fill ration boxes with a mixture of gravel and water and then pile these up wetting the bottom of each layer so that they are firmly frozen together. Ammunition boxes can

5 - 16

also be used but the metal type should always be placed on an inner wall or they should be well covered with snow to reduce the risk of ricochets. 45. Sand bags can be filled with snow, gravel and other materials and then wetted so that they freeze solid when packed on top of each other, to form an effective and solid wall. If boxes are not available, ice-crete must be made inside a log form, which can be supported by suitable trees. SECTION 5 - MINES AND OBSTACLES General 46. In winter, snow can improve the going for properly equipped troops by smoothing out rough ground; while frozen streams and lakes cease to be the obstacles which they were in summer and instead often provide excellent going for both vehicles and men. A flank which was protected by open water in summer can therefore become a perfectly feasible axis for an enemy attack after the freeze-up, and thus place additional burdens on the defence. The work involved in recreating summer obstacles, in addition to the usual tactical tasks all of which take a long time because of the inevitable slowing up caused by working in the cold, will generally be well beyond the capabilities of the available engineers. It is therefore important that something of the problems and techniques involved should be widely known and appropriate priorities set. Handling Explosives 48. Handling explosives in the cold can only be done with bare hands or while wearing thin contact gloves; a generous amount of time (perhaps two or three times the normal) should therefore be allowed so that the hands can be warmed frequently. Some other problems are: a. At low temperature PE is difficult to handle and charges should be prepared in warm surroundings if the explosive has to be mounted. Cordtex, or detonating cord, becomes very brittle and may not explode along its whole length unless all kinks are carefully removed and the cordtex is stretched between joints. There should be no sharp bends or knots, and joints should be increased in length by a half. Detonators can crack if subjected to sharp changes of temperature; they must therefore be checked prior to blowing. 5 - 17

47.

b.

c.

Mines 49. The preparing, placing and concealing of mines must receive particular attention in cold weather conditions. The fuses, and the mechanical parts of the mine must be free of wax and storage grease, for these ingredients keep the mine from functioning in very cold weather. If the weather and the snow cause icing on mines, the laying unit could consider placing each mine in a white plastic bag. A dark mine placed just beneath the surface of the snow absorbs heat in sunshine and melts the surrounding snow, making the mine visible. Mines and fuses that are to be placed directly under the snow surface should be painted white. Mine fuses attached on the outside have to be tested after the paint has dried. Anti-personnel Mines 50. It is easy to conceal anti-personnel mines in snow. Trip-wires can be attached to the mines. On ski trails, roads, paths, or in shallow snow, pressure mines can be used. The snow reduces the effect of mines; jumping mines are therefore useful in snow. Infantry obstacles should have anti-personnel mines attached; improvised charges with trip-wires are useful. It is important to make a solid foundation for mines placed in snow. Use of Trip-wires 51. Trip-wires placed over the snow will often be covered with frost, and are then fairly easy to discover. Light-coloured wire ought to be used, or the wire can be painted grey. If a trip wire is drawn quite taut, it is possible to hide it under the surface of the snow. On a ski trail trip-wire should be used in places where it is difficult to stop (downhill slopes). Anti-tank Mines 52. It is difficult to camouflage an anti-tank minefield in winter conditions. Moreover, it is difficult to get mines places in a snug position, so that they detonate whenever a vehicle passes. Thus a minefield should be sited in well-tracked terrain. The vehicle tracks should cover a considerably larger area than that to be covered by the minefield. In some snow conditions, the Barmine layer can be used if suitably modified, otherwise minelaying has to be done by hand. Factors which have to be taken into account are:

53.

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a.

Freezing of Mechanism. If water gets into a mine the mechanism will freeze and probably jam; worn and damaged mines should not therefore be used. Depth of Snow. The effectiveness of mines depends on the snow which, if deep, can reduce the power of an explosion by a considerable amount, even up to 50 per cent. After the freeze-up digging will not be possible, and when there is no snow, mines must be laid on the ground. When snow has fallen, the method of laying will depend on its depth:
(1) In snow up to about metre deep, one mine is laid on the ground and covered with snow. In snow over this depth, mines should be supported on a cross of boards below the surface.

b.

(2)

c.

Marking and Recording. Fresh falls of snow can obliterate markings and bury fences unless these are renewed; one method is to use a variation of the Lapland fence (see para 57), which is then lifted to the fresh level after each snowfall. Concealment. The site of an intended minefield should be covered with tracks before laying begins in order to make it more difficult for the enemy to detect the positions of individual mines. Lifting. Mines can drift in snow, and if they are on a slope may be found up to two metres from where they were laid. Mine lifting in snow is a very slow process because of the need to keep warm; men may have to wear special thin gloves or, for very short periods, no gloves at all. This precludes any attempts at mine lifting when wind chill is excessive.

d.

c.

54.

Annex A to this Chapter provides guidance on mines and minefield awareness drills. Ice Demolition

55.

Ice can be cratered by charges laid on the surface, or holed up by charges detonated about 40 cm under the ice; some figures giving guidance on the approximate size of charge needed are as follows:

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Thickness of Ice a. 49 cm

Size of Charge 1 kg 2 kg 3 kg 1.5 kg 2 kg 5 kg 5 kg

Diameter of Crater 5m 6m 8m

Diameter of Hole 4m 5m 8m 2m 2.5 m 4m

b.

65 cm

c. 56.

100 cm

8-10 m

8m

As an alternative to blowing in advance, demolitions can be prepared and then command detonated. If an ambush site is being prepared, a number of charges can be inserted under the ice, with the minimum of disturbance to the surface. The use of explosives attached to cordage or cable and laid under the ice between boreholes by divers, or by some other means, is recommended. Alternatively an appropriately shaped slit or hole should be made in the ice, the explosives positioned and then the ice allowed to freeze over. Wire Obstacles

57.

Conventional wire obstacles can be used whenever the snow is not deep. If there is a heavy fall, or one is expected, then a fence which can rest on top of the snow and be repositioned after each new fall is needed. The Lapland fence is suitable in such circumstances, and is made as follows: a. b. Tripods are made and mounted on a triangular base of wood. Up to six strands of wire are then fastened to each side of the structure so that one face is towards the enemy, one towards own troops and one rests on the snow. These separate sides can be wound round with a single strand of wire and improved as required. After a heavy fall of snow, the tripods can be lifted onto the new surface. The wires along the base will prevent the fence from sinking.

c.

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SECTION 6 - PATROLLING General 58. Patrols provide the means of gaining information, and of maintaining observation and control over ground which cannot easily be covered in other ways; by extending the limits of observation, they can also help to prevent defensive positions, bivouacs and camps from being surprised. The remoteness of polar and sub-polar areas, their limited facilities and the very inhospitable climate means that the forces deployed there are likely to be small in relation to the vastness of the area in which they operate. The scope for patrolling and its importance to commanders will therefore be very considerable. Deep patrols require special preparation and some exceptional skills; their conduct is more closely examined in a subsequent Section. This Section deals with only those points of patrolling which require special emphasis or which differ from the usual practice in temperate areas. Foot Patrols 61. Foot patrols will either use skis, or if there is little snow, boots. It will be most unusual for a patrol to be mounted on snow-shoes which are clumsy and which slow down movement. A patrol must carry survival rations, as well as a snack and a hot drink, if their route takes them away from areas occupied by friendly troops. Toboggans should only be included if special equipment or heavy weapons are needed. Rifles or sub-machine-guns will be the most usual weapons, and because of the need for immediate readiness, the leading members of the patrol, at least, should remove muzzle and breech covers. The barrel and mechanism can be protected by plastic bags, and if the trigger (with the guard removed) is left exposed the weapon can still be fired. Because patrols may often need to crawl or take up lying positions, it is most important to check frequently that weapons remain free of ice and snow. When there is excessive wind chill, frequent halts will be essential to adjust the amount of clothing and check against the onset of cold injury. Even in less rigorous conditions, provision must be made to keep clothing properly adjusted because a suddenly enforced lie-up in the snow will seldom be predictable, and if men have sweated excessively they may get badly frostbitten on even a comparatively mild day.

59.

60.

62.

63.

5 - 21

Vehicle Patrols 64. Although extensive open areas, not unlike a white desert, occur in the tundra it will be unusual to mount vehicle patrols. Vehicles are difficult to conceal in the open, their mobility is inhibited in forests and scrub, and the noise of their engines carries long distances. In addition recovery may be impracticable if they become bogged or casualties. However, if these disadvantages are acceptable the range and scope of a foot patrol can be substantially increased by the addition of an over-snow vehicle. Vehicle patrols mounted by armoured reconnaissance units will only be possible when the countryside is comparatively free of snow; in which case they will operate in the conventional fashion. Control 66. Patrols may range over an unusually wide area with corresponding communication problems; in addition ski-borne patrols have a mobility and speed across country which is considerably greater than that of a man on his feet in a temperate countryside. When these circumstances are coupled with the difficulties of navigating in a featureless and poorly mapped area, the need for careful planning of patrol tasks and control of the movement of patrols is self evident. Boundaries and routes should be chosen carefully to avoid confusion and misunderstanding, and recognition signals must be clear and known to all. Reconnaissance Patrols 67. Reconnaissance patrols usually operate on skis. A toboggan can be useful for carrying rations and fuel and also to evacuate a casualty if necessary. Long patrols may need to be resupplied by air, and should preferably have a tent in case the weather deteriorates rapidly; constructing shelters from snow and timber can be laborious for a small number of men who have been moving long distances and may be exhausted. Short patrols can generally travel light, carrying their ammunition and food and using tent sheets. Fighting Patrols 68. Fighting patrols may move on skis but should be prepared to discard these to fight. They may possibly be accompanied by a vehicle or use one as a mobile patrol base, which will improve their mobility and increase the possible duration of the patrol as well as providing good radio communications.

65.

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Standing Patrols 69. Standing patrols must have adequate shelter and communications. Because of the problems of warmth and shelter, frequent relief of sentries will be needed and a patrol must therefore be larger than in more temperate climates. SECTION 7 - SMALL UNIT TACTICS Background 70. Small unit tactics will be fundamental to cold weather operations because so much will depend upon this level of activity. A wealth of doctrine has been written on this subject and this Section will not attempt to encapsulate all of this. The aim is to make the reader aware of the problems and provide some useful background. The tactical tasks most suitable for small units is as follows: a. b. c. d. 72. Deception tasks, such as using false tracks. Independent operations or raids. Ambushing supply lines. Patrolling, fighting, destructive patrols.

71.

Sub units should be mobile and capable of rapid movement within a larger unit. The enemy should be deprived of his means of existence. This can be achieved as follows: a. b. c. Assault on particular features or locations. Patrolling and raiding. Ambushing activity.

Movement 73.

General. At unit level the ability to move effectively on foot and by vehicle will be crucial and some of the required skills cannot be quickly taught. The commander should, therefore, make an early assessment of the skills required to support the operations. The general problems of mobility and details of aids to mobility are outlined in Chapter 4.
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74.

Guidelines for Movement. The following guidelines apply equally to movement by vehicle, on skis, snow-shoes or in boots:
a.

Planning. The commander should begin by selecting the direction of his route. Factors to consider are the tactical situation, terrain and weather reports and the equipment and method of movement of the main party. Trailbreaking. In order to ensure continuous and uninterrupted movement of the main body, a small team should be despatched forward to prepare a track or trail. The team will act as an advance guard for the main party and be responsible for selecting and, if necessary, marking the detailed route. Orders. The commander should give clear orders and mission to include the route an emergency RVs. All vehicle commanders must carry maps and compasses and be independent of the lead vehicle. Dress. For foot movement, men should be dressed as lightly as possibly, in order to reduce excessive perspiration and subsequent chilling. Additional clothing should be carried and quickly available in the event of deteriorating weather. Most cold weather casualties result from lack of appropriate clothing; unit clothing discipline is therefore essential. Equipment. Men and vehicles should be inspected before the move. Equipment should be evenly distributed for movement on foot. Survival equipment must be readily available either on the man or in vehicles: sleeping bags and emergency rations are essential. External loads and camouflage nets on vehicles should be carefully secured to avoid snagging. Halts. The frequency of halts will depend upon the terrain and method of movement but they should be regular, of short duration and, where possible, taken in sheltered places. Buddy System. Individuals should watch each other for early signs of exposure, frost-bite and wind chill. Even in vehicles there can be a problem with immobile passengers or crew members. Drivers, in particular, need to be monitored at all times; a commander of an AFV can be comfortable and warm in the turret while the driver (often without the heat from an adjacent engine) can be suffering out of sight.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

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HELICOPTER EMPLANING

ARMOURED RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE

ANTI-AIRCRAFT WEAPON

COMBAT ENGINEER TRACTOR

h.

March Formation. Single file is often the best formation; it maintains track discipline and camouflage and reduces the number of reconnaissance parties and trailbreakers. Tactical criteria may, however, require other formations to be used. Long single files, for example, may be slow to react to enemy action.

Ski and Snow Fieldcraft 75. The snow can be an excellent medium for swift movement on skis (assuming adequate training and experience). However, skis can be a problem at crucial stages in a tactical operation. If skis are to be used operationally, then skiers must be taught the range of skills required. For example, ski crawls can be used to avoid detection close to the enemy and skis and ski sticks can be an aid to providing firm fire positions in the snow. Harbour Locations 76. The broad principles for siting tactical harbour locations remain the same for cold weather operations. Four principles should, however, be emphasised. a.

All Round Defence. The snow confers good mobility to an attacker mounted on skis or snow-shoes and, therefore, an assault can be expected from any direction. Rear areas are particularly vulnerable, as the Russians found to their cost in the Russian-Finnish campaign of 1939/40. Mutual Support . Small units will often be isolated and operating independently and therefore mutual support on the ground will be difficult to achieve. The use of helicopters and quick reaction forces may be able to compensation. Concealment. The relative importance of concealment will depend upon the tactical situation. Forests provide the best concealment but could be a focus for the enemy. Open country should be avoided where possible. Thermal signature will be a problem in all areas of habitation. The Enemy. The proximity of the enemy, his level of mobility and the air threat will all have a bearing on the size and location of camp sites.

b.

c.

d.

77.

Details of tentage and improvised shelters are in Chapter 3.

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SECTION 8 - DEEP PENETRATION PATROLS General 78. The great distances, wide spaces and relatively small forces which are likely to operate in polar regions, provide an opportunity for small bodies of troops to move comparatively freely around the enemy flank and in his rear areas. The main problems which need to be overcome are survival and concealment: both these subjects are dealt with at length elsewhere in this Manual, and this section merely draws attention to a few of the salient points while identifying some of the likely tasks and the problems which may arise in their execution. Tasks 79. The most likely tasks for deep penetration patrols are likely to be: a.

Reconnaissance. Deep reconnaissance may be the only method of obtaining information on enemy rear areas, lines of communication, reserves etc during a prolonged period of bad flying weather, and could help in the interpretation of such information can be obtained from aerial imagery in these conditions. Demolition. Patrols given demolition tasks are likely to have one specific target with an alternative should this, for some reason, be unattainable: such targeting will usually be against supply routes or communications. Fighting. Fighting patrols are most likely to operate in a stay-behind role, with the aim of disrupting communications and supplies, and diverting enemy forces away from the main battle: they will usually be drawn from formed bodies of troops, and will be organized and operate in a broadly conventional manner. Aiding Resistance Forces . While resistance forces may exist in the operational theatre, they are unlikely to be strong or active where the climatic conditions are extreme and special techniques and training are necessary for operations. These are not covered further here.

b.

c.

d.

Organization and Strength 80. The smaller the force, the more easily can it conceal itself and the less elaborate need be the arrangements of resupply. All deep patrols and

5 - 26

raiding forces should therefore be organized with the strictest economy in mind and without any frills or over insurance. 81. A patrol of less than three men is impracticable because of the need to carry some form of shelter and cooking equipment. The other load factors which influence the size of a patrol are: a.

Demolition Charges. Explosives and their associated equipment are both bulky and heavy, and usually need special care to ensure that they remain effective. Weapons. While a fighting patrol must be armed appropriately for its task, it will be usual for other patrols to take only those weapons deemed necessary for protection: weapons are heavy, need heavy ammunition, and increase the problem of concealment. Supplies. A patrol lasting up to five days will probably carry all its own fuel, food and batteries, and while it would be possible for a patrol to remain self contained for up to almost a fortnight, it would be very heavily laden and would almost certainly need to be resupplied in this period.

b.

c.

82.

The organization of a patrol should therefore be tailored to its task, and then numbers adjusted to meet the requirement to carry the necessary equipment. While a fighting patrol left behind in country with good cover might be of platoon strength, reconnaissance and demolition patrols should seldom be more than four men, to include a patrol leader and a radio operator; movement on skis will be normal. Insertion into Enemy Territory

83.

Patrols may be inserted by a variety of means: a. b. c. d. Parachute. Helicopter landing. Raiding craft or submarine. Overland.

84.

Air delivery usually needs darkness and, of course, good flying weather. Use of aircraft may well prejudice security of the operation, and a good DZ or LP is essential if snow drifts, thin ice or precipitous slopes are to be 5 - 27

avoided. Such apparently obvious hazards are not necessarily easily identified against the uniform greyness of the winter landscape. 85. Sea landings are only appropriate where there is a suitable sea flank which must be free enough of ice to ensure that the patrol is not thwarted before it is ashore by very difficult going or by finding themselves (not impossibly) on a giant ice-floe. Overland movement will usually entail a long and tiring journey before the operational area is reached. It will, of course, be usual for any patrol to use more than one method, and overland movement is inevitably the final phase whatever the means by which the first leg is completed. Concealment 87. Physical concealment is essential in order that the patrol can cook, eat and shelter from the cold. The countryside must therefore be suitable for this, at least so that the patrol can lie up during daylight between night moves. Physical concealment while on the move must depend on the circumstances: in a populated area, concealment of identity may be possible, while in depopulated areas, the topography and the strength and dispositions of the enemy will dictate the most sensible arrangement. Tracks in snow cannot be hidden except by a heavy fresh fall. If open spaces have to be crossed, deception or evasive measures may be necessary to conceal the existence of the patrol. Existing tracks should of course be used whenever they are available and suitable. Control 89. The type of operation, its location and its operational or tactical significance will usually indicate the level at which control should be exercised. Operational level patrols are normally controlled through a special forces operations room at the theatre headquarters. Tactical operations should be under the control of a suitable ground force commander according to the depth of the operation and its tactical import.

86.

88.

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ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 5 MINES AND MINEFIELD AWARENESS DRILLS 1.

Background. The inherent dangers associated with mines and boobytraps when operating in cold weather and snow conditions are acute. It is therefore imperative that troops operating in such theatres have a sound knowledge of how to locate, record, avoid or defuse them if mines are encountered. Mines. Possible sites.
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Verges of roads and tracks (unmetalled). Part of defensive plan to cover gaps. Part of ambush site. FUP, OP and flanks of enemy axis. Shelter. Hospitable, exposed areas. Defiles (channelled routes). Around diversions and obstacles (on each side). Abandoned vehicles. Disused enemy positions. Likely water crossing points. Gaps in hedgerows.

2.

3.

Indications. Potential indications to show the presence of mines are:


a. b. c. Ground disturbed. Trampled earth or vegetation on the track plan. Footprints, tracks of vehicles. 5-A-1

d.

Packing cases, tubes, wrappers, parachutes, small (craters, blindss) battlefield debris. Trip-wires. Dead leaves and vegetation. Wooden pickets, POL, jerricans.

e. f. g.

5-A-2

ANNEX B TO CHAPTER 5 TROOP DRILLS FOR OPERATING WITH HELICOPTERS Snow Clouds 1. A large snow cloud will be raised when a helicopter is manoeuvring close to snow covered ground, which will severely restrict visibility for the crew and those on the ground. Rotors generate considerable downwash, which can have a high wind-chill factor. The snow cloud can be seen from a considerable distance and may therefore compromise a tactical position and destroy camouflage. Weight 2. Fully equipped troops weigh about 145 kilograms. The additional weight of clothing and bulkiness of packs, skis/snow-shoes and pulks reduces the number of troops a helicopter can carry. It may be necessary to remove or raise some seats to allow room for the additional equipment. Close attention must be paid to the weight and distribution of the aircraft payload. Protective Dress 3. Rotor downwash causes a hazard from flying ice particles. Avoid exposing bare skin in the vicinity of turning rotors. Wear goggles, gloves and cover the head, nose and face. Casevac 4. For aeromedical evacuation there is need for: a. b. Arctic casualty bag and sleeping bag. Thermal protection of any exposed areas of the casualty against frostbite.

Landing Site (LS) Preparation and Marking 5. Snow should be stamped down to form a hard packed 20 square metre surface. Areas in shadow should be avoided. Approaches into the wind should be cleared of obstacles. Care must be taken to ensure that there are no logging wires or high tension cables in the immediate area of the LS.

5-B-1

Approaches over large areas of unrelieved snow should be avoided and ideally should be along the line of a track over rocks, trees or scrub. 6. An object (a snow filled black plastic bag has several obvious advantages) should be placed beside the point on which the aircraft is to land. This provides an external reference for the pilot. Additional methods of marking can be by flare, smoke grenade, the letter H stamped in the snow, a rucksack wrapped in a dayglow panel, or the marshaller himself. A smoke grenade can be used to indicate wind direction when the aircraft is on its final approach. Alternatively, use a streamer tied to a bush or tree, or the letter T marked in the snow with its bar pointing into the wind. Helicopter Marshalling 8. During the final stages of a helicopter approach, swirling snow may obscure the marshaller. As soon as the marshaller is satisfied that the helicopter is approaching the correct site, he should stop marshalling and protect himself from the downwash effects. Marshallers should wear full protective clothing, snow shoes in deep snow and boot spikes, or even crampons if available, on icy surfaces. Their correct position is at 2 oclock from the pilots seat. These drills should be practiced in day and night conditions. International Ground-Air Emergency Code 9. The Ground-Air Emergency Code is detailed in the NATO publication ATP10(C) and is used by all UK Services. The symbols detailed below can be stamped in the snow or laid out with skis: V X N Y Require assistance. Require medical assistance. Negative or no. Affirmative or yes. Proceeding in this direction.

7.

Should personnel be unaware of these symbols, SOS will suffice. Emplaning Drills 10. The normal emplaning drill is: a. Troops are detailed off to chalks and allocated seat numbers.

5-B-2

b.

All heavy equipment and packs are placed in a pile beside the point which will be closest to the door of the aircraft when it touches down. Improvised platforms or membranes may be required to stop the stores sinking into the soft snow. Skis are removed and tied into bundles of not more than five pairs per bundle and added to the stores pile. They can be carried on the racks clipped to the aircraft skids. The chalk moves to a ready position beside their equipment. During landing, chalk members turn away to avoid rotor downwash. When given the affirmative signal the chalk moves to the helicopter and, except for two personnel who act as loaders, emplanes. The chalk commander enters the helicopter first and, if necessary, briefs the pilot whilst the remainder stack the equipment. If possible, loose snow should be brushed from clothing before entering the cabin. The two loaders then load the stores and emplane. Stores are loaded in the following order: (1) (2) (3) (4) Pulks (if carried). Rucksacks. Skis and sticks (carried at the trail). Radios.

c.

d. e. f.

g.

h.

Care must be exercised because of the possibility of ice on the cabin floor. In extreme cold bare metal parts of the aircraft should not be touched. In extreme cold, the increase in cabin temperature may cause weapons to sweat. Weapons should be checked.

i.

j.

5-B-3

Deplaning 11. The normal deplaning drill is followed except that: a. Equipment is unloaded as fast as possible; its fall being broken by the snow. The chalk then deplanes and remains within the rotor disc, lying down on the equipment to prevent it being blown away or buried by rotor downwash. When unloaded, the helicopter carries out a towering take off to reduce wind-chill and snow recirculation.

b.

c.

5-B-4

CHAPTER 6 TRAINING FOR COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS SECTION 1 - ADAPTING TO THE ENVIRONMENT 1. Although the right weather conditions are required to provide fully effective cold weather training, there is much than can and should be done prior to deployment. The aim of this Chapter is to provide some advice on establishing training objectives and priorities both before and after a move into a cold conditions. It is stressed, however, that detailed advice on training should be obtained, at an early stage, from specialised organisations such as the Royal Marines' Brigade Patrol Group, formerly the Mountain and Arctic Warfare Cadre, or the AFM(L) Infantry Battalion. Preparation for cold weather operations will only be achieved with the assistance of specialist instructors. An early priority will therefore be to identify any existing unit instructors, select individuals for external instructor or refresher courses, and request assistance from other organisations or units. The aim of cold weather training is primarily: a. b. To learn how to live and survive in cold conditions. To master the techniques of moving and fighting in conditions of snow and ice and in sub-zero conditions. To overcome the worst aspects of cold weather and to be capable of turning them to advantage.

2.

3.

c.

4.

Many of the fundamental elements of this training are not specifically military in nature. A commander, for example, who encourages arduous adventure training will find that preparations for cold weather operations will be easier. A high level of physical fitness will also improve stamina and make soldiers more adaptable to the harsh conditions. Some of the basic lessons can be taught in a temperate climate, for example the fitting of clothing and practising tent drills, familiarisation with equipment and dry ski training. The natural progression will be to develop these skills in the appropriate environment and therefore it is important that this pre-training is carefully synchronised with real conditions.

5.

6-1

6.

The allocation of time between these various stages of training will depend upon previous experience and the availability of time, equipment and facilities. The following are general and overlapping stages of training for troops who have not hitherto operated in cold weather conditions: a. b. c. ) ) Physical Fitness and Collective Training. ) Basic Skills ) throughout available Instructor and Specialist Training. ) training period. SECTION 2 - INDIVIDUAL TRAINING Individual Training.

7.

Physical Fitness. A high standard of physical fitness is essential in cold weather operations. Physical training should not be confined to running; a vital requirement is the development of stamina and those who lack it will quickly become suspectable to cold injuries. Leadership. Commanders must have a good knowledge of the debilitating effects of the cold in order that they avoid becoming victims themselves and are able to set the right standards and instill confidence in their subordinates. Adventure training is an effective way of developing junior leaders, equipping them with the ability to lead in adverse weather conditions. Important subjects for leadership training are as follows:
a. b. c. Weather Conditions Navigation Living in the Cold A suggested sequence for individual cold

8.

9.

Sequence of Training. conditions is as follows:


a.

Fitness Training. Should be varied, not neglecting stamina and upper body training, and be continuous throughout the available training period. Introductory Training. This may be started in a temperate area and should include the following:
(1) (2) Introduction to Cold Weather Living. Clothing for Cold Weather Conditions.

b.

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(3)

Health and Hygiene and Daily Camp Routine (Tents and Shelters). Weapon Training for Cold Conditions. Dry Ski Training (if available). Helicopter Training. Map Reading and Navigation. NBC Training.

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Preliminary Snow Training. This training can take place in any area c. where there is sufficient snow to ski. It should include the following:
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) d. All at sub para (a). Basic Ski Training.1 Basic Snow-Shoe Training. Construction of Shelters. Small Unit Tactics. Camouflage and Concealment. Survival Training.

Operational Training. The final stages of training should take place in similar conditions to those expected in the area of operations. The training should apply the lessons learned during the introductory and preliminary phases, be directly related to the type of operations envisaged, and be based upon sound tactical principles.

10.

Conduct of Training. The building of confidence is an essential factor of training for cold weather operations. Troops should be introduced to the dangers, hardships and challenges but, at the same time, they must be

1. Some individuals take to skiing remarkably effortlessly while there are those who do not have the balance or natural skill to ever be competent on skis. The latter should be identified early in training; ski equipment will be at a premium and is entirely wasted on the wrong hands and feet.

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taught how to effectively rise above the conditions, enabling them to fulfil their primary roles. 11.

Precautions. The dangers should never be over-estimated because this will merely make soldiers unduly apprehensive. Some sensible precautions to be taken are as follows:
a. At the very beginning of training, troops must be instructed in the buddy system for detecting frostbite. It is a command responsibility to ensure that troops are checked or inspected frequently for frostbite and overheating and to ensure basic standards of hygiene. Commanders (and instructors, during training) must ensure that each man has a full range of serviceable equipment and clothing, properly fitted. During training marches there should be frequent short halts to allow for adjustment of clothing and equipment.

b.

c.

d.

12.

Check List for Training. There will seldom be a requirement to expose soldiers to unnecessary risk in training. Experienced instructors will be able to anticipate and avoid problems and provide special supervision where required. The following is a check list which may be useful to those responsible for training:
a.

Wind-chill. An understanding of wind-chill and how it is measured. Clothing. The mneumonic COLD:
(1) (2) (3) Keep clothing Avoid Dress loosely and in Keep clothing Clean. Overheating.

b.

Layers. Dry

(4) c.

Personal Survival Equipment.


(1) Survival bag.

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(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) d.

Compass. Emergency rations. Matches (or fire lighters). At least 5 metres of nylon line. Plastic whistle. Knife.

Additional Equipment. Each section, when patrolling in light scales, should carry a rucksack containing the following:
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Sleeping bag. Cooking equipment. Snow shovel. Additional rations. Mine flares. Air marker panel.

e.

Care of the Feet.


(1) (2) (3) Regular inspections. Serviceable and dry boots. Socks changed regularly.

f.

Rations and Diet.


(1) (2) (3) (4) Regular meals. Emphasis on hot food. Dehydration. Hygiene - cooking utensils 6-5

g.

Weapons and Equipment .


(1) (2) (3) (4) Preparation and cleanliness. Condensation. Storage. Carriage.

h.

Tent Discipline .
(1) (2) (3) Organisation. Allocation of duties. Fire precautions - including policy on smoking, ventilation, use of cookers.

i.

First Aid and Casualty Evacuation . Apart from first aid instruction, the following should be covered:
(1) (2) Use and carriage of stretchers and improvised stretchers. Accident procedure.

13.

Size of Parties. Commanders should lay down the minimum size of small parties. During the early stages of training or when weather conditions are particularly bad, parties should be no less than four so that, if an accident occurs, one man can stay with the casualty while the remaining two go for help.
SECTION 3 - COLLECTIVE TRAINING

14.

Factors. The normal features of progressive training apply to cold weather training. Once a satisfactory standard of individual training has been achieved, unit and all arms training will follow. Depending upon the tactical situation or the urgency of the impending operation, there is a possibility that training will become simultaneous rather than sequential. This should be avoided where possible as the building of confidence is a vital factor in cold weather operations. Preliminary Snow Training. Sub-unit exercises can usefully be included in preliminary snow training - introducing the individual and group skills listed at para 9c. Other subjects that might be addressed are:

15.

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a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 16.

Rapid deployment and cross-country movement. Action when faced with physical obstacles. Movement at night and in poor visibility. Route selection. Navigation Tactical use of ground in different weather conditions. Use of night viewing aids.

NBC Training. Collective training for operations in NBC conditions is essential if the individual NBC skills and procedures are to be translated into a capability for units and sub units to continue their tasks when faced with an NBC hazard.
SECTION 4 - INSTRUCTOR AND SPECIALIST TRAINING

17.

Instructors. A unit likely to embark on cold weather operations will require a cadre of instructors. In many cases, units warned for operations at short notice will need to borrow from other units. One of the most important functions of these instructors will be to train unit instructors although lack of time may preclude this. Both skiing and winter warfare instructors will be required - although this manual does not attempt to cover these areas of expertise in any detail. Specialists. Units are likely to require certain specialists in greater numbers than normal - for example: medics, tracked vehicle drivers (assuming an increment of over-snow vehicles), specialist vehicle mechanics, equipment repairers, STANOC instructors, NBC instructors, Winter Warfare and Survival Instructors. Details of specialist pamphlets and manuals are in the Bibliography. Advice on specialist training is as follows:
a.

18.

Navigation.
(1) (2) Details of courses may be found in DCIs. Specialist advice may be obtained from the School of Military Survey.

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b.

Surveillance and Target Acquisition.


(1) (2) Details of courses may be found in DCIs. Specialist advice may be obtained from the STANOC Centre

c.

NBC.
(1) (2) Details of courses may be found in DCIs. Specialist advice may be obtained from DNBCC.

d.

Survival Training.
(1) (2) Details of courses may be found in DCIs. Specialist advice may be obtained from: (a) HQ RM (b) G3 AMF(L), c/o HQ 3(UK) Div, Bulford (c) Brigade Patrol Troop RM, c/o Stonehouse Barracks, Plymouth

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PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

PART C HISTORICAL SUPPLEMENT

ARMY FIELD MANUAL VOLUME 2 PART 4 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

PART C

HISTORICAL SUPPLEMENT

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 - AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Section 1 Section 2 The Man Campaign Experiences

CHAPTER 2 - BIBLIOGRAPHY Section 1 Section 2 Experiences of Polar Regions Experiences of Military Operations in Cold Weather Regions

CHAPTER 1 AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE SECTION 1 - THE MAN The Antarctic Polar exploration is at once the cleanest and most isolated way of having a bad time which has been devised. It is the only form of adventure in which you put on your clothes at Michaelmas and keep them on until Christmas, and, save for a layer of natural grease of the body, find them as clean as though they were new. It is more lonely than London, more secluded than any monastery, and the post comes but once a year. As men will compare the hardships of France, Palestine, or Mesopotania, so it would be interesting to contrast the rival claims of the Antarctic as a medium of discomfort. A member of Campbells party tells me that the trenches of Ypres were a comparative picnic. But until somebody can evolve a standard of endurance I am unable to see how it can be done. Take it all in all, I do not believe anybody on earth has a worse time than an Emperor penguin.
The Worst Journey in the World - Antarctic 1910-13.

The Crimea - In the Grip of Winter Rain kept pouring down - the skies were black as ink - the wind howled over the staggering tents - the trenches were turned into dikes - in the tent the water was sometimes a foot deep - our men had neither warm nor waterproof clothing - they were out for twelve hours at a time in the trenches - they were plunged into the inevitable miseries of a winter campaign - and not a soul seemed to care for their comfort, or even for their lives. These were the hard truths, which sooner or later must have come to the ear of the people of England. It was right that they should know that the wretched beggar who wandered about the streets of London in the rain led the life of a prince compared with the British soldiers who were fighting for their country and who, we were constantly assured by the home authorities, were the best appointed army in Europe. As the year waned and winter began to close in upon us, the army suffered greatly; worn out by night work, by vigil in rain and storm, by hard labour in the trenches, they found themselves suddenly reduced to short allowances, and the excellent and ample rations they had been in the habit of receiving were cut off or miserably reduced.
Crimea Despatches, 1854-1855, William Howard Russell Quoted from The Sword and the Pen, Selections from the World's Greatest Military Writings.

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Protective Measures of the Finns The Finn, who learns to use an axe and a saw from childhood on, was able to make use of the means available in the woods and to spend the night in the open even in the most severe cold. The clothing of the Finnish soldier (fur cap with ear and neck protector, warm underwear, woollen scarf, fur gloves, warm footgear) offered good protection against the cold. The Finnish tents, which were made of plywood and could be heated, proved to be very satisfactory. They could be put up quickly and moved easily. In wintertime these tents were set up for even a rest of but a few hours. When tents could not be set up, the Finnish troops built log fires and windbreaks in the open very rapidly. Whenever a pause of several days occurred during an advance, barrack-like huts were constructed with amazing speed. These offered protection against the cold and, in case the troops stayed in the same place for some time, were improved until they were comfortable. Thanks to the background and appropriate training of the troops, frostbite was practically unknown among Finnish soldiers. In December 1941, when news reached Finland about the heavy losses the German Army was suffering in Russia because of the severe winter, Marshal Mannerheim made the following remarks on the subject: Losses among the troops because of frost weigh heavier on the commanders conscience than battle casualties. Because in this case there always remains the disturbing feeling that losses due to the cold might possibly have been avoided if greater precautions had been taken.
Quoted from Warfare in the Far North.

Fitzroy - Falklands, 1982

Living Problems
During this period (July-November 1982), which was the Falkland Islands' winter, the weather turned it on. The Extra Cold Weather (ECW) clothing and wellington boots were indispensable. The wind, on average 25-30 knots, the rain and sleet never let up and the area was a quagmire; and it got worse. Duckboards sunk under the mud and water and hygiene became a growing concern. Seventy five per cent of the Battery on one day went down with 'Galtieri's Revenge' and it was a respecter of no man. The water pump, the settlement's 30 year old fire engine, seized and so we had to deliver water by cans for our own and local needs. The medics inspected the water point and condemned the water as unfit for human consumption; the locals refused to hear anything about it and would not allow any tampering with the water point. They do not like 'Army Water' ie chlorinated water. Then the final problem. The local generator broke 1-2

down and everyone was without electricity. We had little water, no electricity and the settlement was one massive quagmire. The living situation could only improve.

Weather
The weather effects our daily lives and our mobility. The wind is always there, strong and buffeting and calm days are unnaturally quiet. We have had days of winds in excess of 70mph. On such days work stops in the settlement. It is foolhardy to work outside because of the danger of flying debris and subsequent injury . ... The cold and wind produces a wind-chill factor that numbs the body, and in driven sleet and hail it becomes difficult to walk into it without goggles. Freezing mist can suddenly sit for a couple of days and then lift to a beautiful sunny day. The elements can suddenly change, grounding helicopters and leaving the Battery half deployed. So it does affect our personal and Battery mobility. But above all, the elements cannot be trusted and it is a foolhardy individual who goes off without his complement of Extra Cold Weather clothing on any trek or exercise. To counter the elements, training therefore was designed to teach every man how to operate in rather unpleasant conditions.
Major J S M Tulloch. Fitzroy. RA Journal, March 1983. The article describes the living conditions for members of the Falkland Island Garrison based at Fitzroy shortly after the end of the war in 1982.

SECTION 2 - CAMPAIGN EXPERIENCES Finland 1939-40 At the beginning of the Second World War Finland was a young country, having been given its independence from the old Russian Imperial Empire following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Shortly after the granting of independence a civil war broke out between the Finnish socialists (the Reds) and the new bourgeois republic (the Whites). Following a bitter fight, in which the Reds were supported by Russia and the Whites by Sweden and Germany, the Reds were defeated, their leaders fleeing to Russia. In the early days of the Second World War the Russians began to consolidate their Balkan sphere of influence in order to protect themselves from any German threat in the region. Latvia, Estonia and Lituania were quickly absorbed under the guise of a pact of mutual assistance. Although Finland was prepared to make a number of concessions to Russia, negotiations broke down in mid November 1939 and the Finnish government began to mobilise its forces along its eastern frontier. On 30 November 1-3

BARON CARL GUSTAV MANNERHEIM, COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE FINNISH ARMED FORCES DURING THE FINNISH/RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1939/40

BOAT-SHAPED SLEDGES PULLED BY REINDEER, AS USED BY FINNS IN CENTRAL AND NORTHERN FORESTS

FINNISH ARCTIC FRONTLINE DUGOUT - LARGE AND WELL HEATED

REMAINS OF AN AMBUSHED SOVIET COLUMN NORTH OF SUOMUSSALMI VILLAGE

1939 the Russians attacked at eight points along the border while, on the same morning, the Red Air Force bombed the Finnish capital, Helsinki. Although Finland was a small country of limited means with a 1000 mile border facing a considerably stronger Russia, she did have two factors in her favour. The first was the difficult terrain along the eastern frontier with Russia and the second was the quality of the Finnish troops. The most vulnerable part of the frontier was the area of the Karelian Isthmus along which the Finns had constructed a fortified zone known as the Mannerheim Line. The fortifications were old and basic but had been effectively combined with the rugged countryside and thick forest. The Finnish Army, with a total fighting strength of some 200,000, was well equipped to operate along the remote and difficult terrain of the frontier. The area was mostly forest, lakes and swamp and there were few roads. During the warmer months the lakes and swamps formed a natural barrier, while in the winter, when the ground was frozen and the snow thick, only experienced troops would be able to survive, fight and achieve mobility. In this, the Finnish Army was well trained, its tactic being rapid movement to avoid clashes of strength while concentrating on the enemy flanks and rear. It was classic manoeuvre warfare. The key to mobility over the snow clad terrain was one that came naturally to the Finns - the ability to ski. Even the smallest fall of snow can reduce an armys effectiveness and a heavy fall of snow can paralyse it. Along with other Scandinavian armies, the Finnish ski troops were well prepared for such conditions. They had the ability, for example, to cover short stretches of undulating ground at a rate of 8 mph (13 km/h) and at least 30 miles (50 km) a day in full kit. The Finnish ski troops were also able to sustain themselves in difficult winter conditions. They were equipped with warm clothing and were used to the cold. They knew how to survive in the cold, constructing bivouacs and igloos. Their supplies were carried by ski-sledges pulled by men, dogs or horses. They were also able to move heavy machine-guns on sledges and fire them without being dismounted. The Russians had the advantage of the large Soviet war machine behind them but they were comparatively ill-equipped for the type of fighting in which the Finns excelled. Although they had ski troops, they were not as well trained and had not taken to the art of skiing particularly easily.

1-4

The Russians soon began to suffer at the hands of their smaller but determined opponent. During the first two weeks of December 1939 nearly a million men of the Red Army were committed to the Finland front. In the north, a Russian force seized Petsamo, Finlands only ice-free port in the Arctic Sea but its early success was soon reversed. Attacks into central Finland quickly surrendered to the difficult conditions while the main attack, through the Karelian Isthmus, was repelled with heavy losses along the Mannerheim Line. While the temperatures dropped to -40 oC, the Finnish continued to strike back. In Suomussalmi, a village on the central eastern border, the Russians suffered one of their most bitter defeats. With two divisions trapped by the Finns, they suffered losses of over 27000 killed or frozen to death. The Red Army attacked again in early February and, supported by massive artillery bombardments, finally managed to break through the Mannerheim Line. Once the breakthrough had been achieved Finnish resistance quickly collapsed and on 12 March 1940 the small country capitulated. It was, perhaps, inevitable that the Finns would finally succumb to its much stronger neighbour but they put up a remarkable fight. The Finnish Army was well trained and equipped for the local terrain and weather conditions and the tactics employed took advantage of the conditions rather than surrender to them. The Russians underestimated the effects of climate and believed that their superior strength would overcome any problem. They conducted a series of clumsy head-on attacks and suffered high casualties against a numerically inferior and much lighter army. It was only when they concentrated even more forces, with heavier armour and more artillery, that they finally smashed through the Finnish defences. To quote Winston Churchill It was a pretty bad advertisement for the Soviet Army leaving little confidence in their ability and possibly influencing Hitlers later decision to invade Russia. 1 The German Campaign in Finland and Russia 1941-45 In many respects warfare in the arctic follows rules of its own. The German High Command did not realise this fact until after the war was in progress. The German troops which were sent to Finland during World War II were not prepared for the special difficulties they encountered in combat in that

1. 429.

Winston Churchill. The Second World War , Volume 1. London: Casell & Co, 1948, p

1-5

trackless wilderness, in the endless virgin forests, and during the long arctic night. Only after paying dearly for their experiences did they become adjusted to the requirements of that theatre. In the year 1941 Germany had no practical knowledge concerning the effects of intense cold on men, animals, weapons, and motor vehicles.
Quoted from Warfare in the Far North.

Living Conditions. Hot food seldom arrived - it left the kitchens hot only to be frozen solid by the time it was delivered to the trenches. At the beginning of the winter many German soldiers used small stoves, fuelled by solid methylated spirit tablets - but after a while the supply of these ceased because of the greater demand for combat supplies. Lice thrived beneath the clothes that were never changed because all available items of clothing were worn in layers. Socks wore out - leaving feet in contact with the cold leather of the German jack-boot, itself inadequately designed for the cold conditions. The official solution to the problems of cold feet was that jack-boots were to be lined with straw and paper, but even these materials were difficult to obtain. Sentries had to be constantly changed because of their inability to stand guard in the freezing conditions. One of the consequences, compounded by general manning problems, was that sleep and rest periods were often very short. Mobility. Ice and snow on roads can halt movement as the Germans experienced during their withdrawal from the Moscow area in the winter of 1941-2: A few days before the order to retreat from the suburbs of Moscow, 6th Panzer Division, by building a defence around its last five tanks, held off an attack by Siberian troops who presented prime targets in their brown uniforms as they trudged forward in deep snow. This local success facilitated the disengagement of the division and provided time for the destruction of its last 88 mm anti-aircraft guns, necessary because no prime movers were available. Twenty five prime movers were lost in the autumn mud of 1941, and seven had fallen victim to winter cold and snow. The withdrawal proceeded according to plan on the first day but the next day, moving over hilly terrain, vehicles skidded on icy roads, and trucks which had been abandoned during the proceeding muddy season blocked the roads, adding to the difficulties.2
2.

The Effects of Climate on Combat in European Russia. Dept of US Army. 1952.

1-6

The availability of snow moving equipment was crucial. It was always scarce in the German Army and controlled at army or army group level. In order to keep roads open, the Germans used details, in shifts to tramp down snow. The Russians used T34 tanks for the same purpose; the tracks used on German tanks during the first year of the war were too narrow for this purpose. The Germans established relay stations to provide shelter and food for drivers and small units. Other stations, manned by engineers, reported road conditions by 0800 daily. Army Group HQs distributed daily bulletins with maps showing road conditions. Where possible, emergency stations were equipped with a snow plough. The Germans found that, during severe snow storms, at least six ploughs were required to keep a road open for one infantry division. Roads free of snow were often more passable in winter than in summer. To keep roads clear from snow the Germans employed one battalion per thirty miles. Civilian labour was also used. Snow depths of over 40 inches made movement on foot or by vehicle impossible. Snow crusts were sometimes strong enough for small groups. Hard frozen snow could only be used at night because the approach of troops over a snow crust can be heard from a distance. Strong winds caused snow drifts. The Germans routed winter roads through woods, where drifting rarely occurs, or along the crest of a high ground where snow is less deep. Snow fences were erected where roads crossed open terrain. To be effective they were set up on both sides of the road, 50-70 ft from the shoulders. After a snowstorm the fences were placed on top of the snow wall that had formed around them. Some fences were improvised from lattice work, wicker work or branches of coniferous trees. If these were not available, the Germans used snow blocks. Roads can lose their definition following a heavy snowfall and some roads may not be marked on maps. The Germans marked roads with tall poles topped with straw or branches. Stakes with coloured markers were also used. Sand dumps were placed at points along roads and all vehicles carried sand. Vehicles with trailers were banned from icy roads because they were more likely to become bogged. 1-7

The Germans relied heavily on trains for resupply but their own had been built for milder temperatures. During the first winter of the war 70% of German locomotives broke down. On occasions the supply system failed through lack of trains getting forward. Both sides used ice roads for movement. In the winter of 1941-42 the Russians supplied Leningrad with food and ammunition by using an ice road over Lake Ladoga. The road was eighteen miles long and nine to twelve miles from the southern shore. At night the Russians moved units up to divisional size along the road. The Germans shelled the road but the supply route remained open, despite Russian casualties. During the winter of 1941/42 the Germans constructed an ice railway bridge across the Dnieper to supply the 6th Army operating east of the river. The river's ice surface was built up by a series of ice blocks over which tree trunks, sleepers and rails were laid. As the structure bowed, cracks appeared in the ice or holes were drilled, allowing water from below to flow through and freeze - thus strengthening the bridge. Gaps were filled with ice chippings and, when complete, the whole structure was hosed with water which then froze. Before the bridge was opened it was tested with a locomotive weighing 120 tons. Construction of the bridge had taken 12 days and it was in use for about a month. During this period over 4500 wagon loads of materiel crossed the bridge and this number would have been greater had the bridge been on a direct line. Tactics The Germans avoided launching offensives in midwinter, unless forced to do so. The Russians usually attacked along existing roads or prepared paths, Infantry often following close behind the tanks. In mass attacks the Russians usually advanced from woods, burrowing through the deep snow as quickly as possible. Mowed down by machine gun fire, the first wave would be overtaken by the second who advanced over their comrades' dead bodies. Eventually the Russians would either become bogged down or would succeed in penetrating the German defences. The Germans were unable to defend their whole front because they lacked manpower. They therefore defended by holding strong points. The costly but relentless tactics employed by the Russians often succeeded in finding a gap.

1-8

Entrenching tools were useless in frozen ground; dugouts and shelters had to be blasted out using explosives. These shelters were usually pitch black and the small open fires used for heating produced smudge and smoke. Sudden cold snaps left the Germans unprepared. When German troops were attacking Tikhvin in the winter of 1941, cold set in suddenly. Without adequate winter clothing and shelter, the Germans suffered more casualties from cold than from the enemy. The attack had to be halted and the troops withdrawn. The winter conditions favoured the defender - his positions in the snow are very difficult to see except at very close range. The attacker is often seen as soon as he moves. When swamps freeze over, the defender is suddenly faced with a reversal of fortunes; he is now at a disadvantage. This happened to German divisions who fought defensive actions when swamps formed natural barriers, only to fight the same enemy again, in the same place, but without the barrier. Russian Ski Troops On the night 20/21 March 1942 a force of 600 Russian ski troops enveloped the command post of the 269th Division. The flanking movement was made under the cover of darkness over a bog which was only lightly guarded because it had a weak bearing surface. The ski troops were finally beaten off, but only after bitter fighting. In March 1942 a Russian ski brigade assembled by night in a wooded area opposite a strong point held by 114th Panzer Grenadier Regiment and an artillery battalion. At daybreak the Russians attacked - with the main effort to the rear. The Germans held their fire until the attackers were within 200300 yards and then opened up with 500 rifles, 36 machine guns and 16 artillery pieces. The Russian attack was halted with devastating effect. Most of their weapons and all of their ski equipment was captured and the few soldiers who survived buried themselves in the snow to await darkness. One of the main problems encountered by the Russian ski troops was their inability to achieve surprise; noise travels well in cold weather and the approach of skis on snow could be heard over great distances. However, speed of attack could often compensate. Siberian ski troops would suddenly loom out of the snow, camouflaged in white and seemingly

1-9

unaffected by the freezing conditions. Sweeping across German trench lines, they would spray the immobile sentries with their automatic fire and hand grenades, before disappearing as quickly as they came. Infantry Infantry moved slowly in deep snow: Gaytolovo (a few miles south of Lake Ladoga) 21 December 1941

The German infantry attacked at 0900 after a thorough artillery preparation. It took so long for the riflemen to reach the Russian positions that enemy bunkers went into action again, and the assault was delayed. By 1500, when the infantry had penetrated at several points, a withdrawal order was given. The troops would have frozen to death if they had spent the night in the open.
An infantry attack could not be made in deep snow - advancing by bounds was impossible because every movement was exposed to enemy fire. Skis were best for individual movement through snow. The Germans found large ski units ineffective because heavy weapons could not be carried or supplied. Germans used skis up to battalion size; the Russians used them up to brigade size. Ski troops were used for reconnaissance. The Germans always sought areas where the snow was less deep - if these could not be found, infantry worked forward at night, digging as it went, or followed a beaten path against the flank and rear of the enemy. Artillery In deep snow artillery was unable to move forward fast enough to support the infantry. Close liaison was essential to prevent infantry from advancing beyond the range of its supporting artillery. The effectiveness of artillery projectiles, particularly small calibre and mortar ammunition, was seriously hampered by deep snow - which dampened and reduced lateral fragmentation of artillery shells and completely smothered mortar fire and hand grenades. Gun crews kept detonators in their pockets to keep them warm.

1 - 10

Heavy artillery, such as the German 210 mm mortar, remained highly effective. Armour The main shortcoming of German tanks was the narrow width of their tracks. Tanks sank into the snow and, because of their limited ground clearance, became stuck. Russian tanks (particularly the T34, KV1 and KV2) were better suited. Good ground clearance and wider tracks enabled them to drive through deep snow. Following the first winter, German tracks were replaced with wider, removable tracks. Although this solved the problem of snow mobility, the wider tracks prevented the tanks from being carried on German rail trucks, nor could they cross the standard German military bridge. In December 1942 a German armoured division was delayed twelve hours because the snow tracks of its tanks were too wide to cross a military bridge over the Don. The tracks of over 150 tanks and self propelled guns had to be removed in total darkness and remounted on the far shore. Helicopters - Falklands, 1982

... Soon after taking off in the helicopters the snow flurries started and by the time the first wave had reached a position thirty kilometres short of Mount Kent, a full blizzard had reduced the visibility to a few yards. In the darkness, in white-out conditions, the helicopter pilots made several attempts to fly on. They set down and waited, burning and turning, for the weather to moderate but, eventually, wisely decided to return to Port San Carlos and drop their passengers. It was an unnerving experience for the troops crammed in the dark bellies of the helicopters, almost deafened by the roar of the engines, not knowing what sort of reception awaited them at Mount Kent, if they even got there and did not crash into the mountain side, or fly into the ground before reaching the objective. The helicopters bucked and lurched in the turbulence of the near galeforce winds and anyone able to see out of the helicopters from the troop compartments was treated to glimpses of whirling snow in the blackness. Despite the disappointment of not reaching the objective, most felt relief at being back safely on the ground after a hair-raising two hours.
No Picnic, 3 Commando Brigade in the South Atlantic: 1982.

1 - 11

CHAPTER 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY SECTION 1 - EXPERIENCES OF THE POLAR REGIONS 1.

South - The Story of Shackleton's 1914-1917 Expedition


a. b. Author: Publisher: Sir Ernest Shackleton William Heinemann. 1919 and 1970. A classic account of Shacketon's heroic attempt to cross the Antarctic Continent.

2.

The Worst Journey in the World (1922)


a. b. Author: Publisher: Apsley Cherry-Garrard Chatto & Windus First published 1922. An account of Scott's Last Expedition from its departure from England in 1910 to its return to New Zealand in 1913.

3.

Across the Top of the World


a b. Author: Publisher: Wally Herbert Longmans 1969 An account of the British Trans-Arctic Expedition from its departure from England in 1910 to its return to New Zealand in 1913.

4.

Hell on Ice
a. b. Author: Publisher: Ranulph Fiennes Hodder & Stoughton Travels on the North Polar Icecap 1979

2-1

SECTION 2 - EXPERIENCES OF MILITARY OPERATIONS IN COLD WEATHER REGIONS 5.

Mountain and Arctic from Alexander to Afghanistan


a. b. Author: Publisher: Barry Gregory Patrick Stephens Traces the evolution of mountain and arctic forces and examines the special techniques required.

6.

The Winter Soldiers George Washington and the Way to Independence


a. b. Author: Publisher: Richard Ketchum Macdonald 1973 Describes how George Washington's small and illequipped army survived the harsh winter of 1776 and went on to victory the following year.

7.

A Frozen Hell The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939-40


a. b. Author: Publisher: William R Trotter Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill 1991 Describes how the Finnish Army, despite being numerically inferior and equipped with obsolete weapons, managed to inflict considerable delay and high casualties on the Soviet's early attempt to invade Finland.

8.

The Norwegian Campaign of 1940


a. b. Author: Publisher: J L Moulton Eyre & Spottiswood 1966 An account of the short and unsuccessful British campaign in Norway during the early months of the Second World War

2 - 2

9.

Warfare in the Far North


a. b. Author: Publisher: Dr Waldeman Erfurth Centre of Military History, US Army A short pamphlet comparing the tactics of the Russian, German and Finnish Armies during WW2

10.

Effects of Climate on Combat in European Russia


a. b. Author: Publisher: Department of the Army (US) 1952 An historical study of the seasonal conditions during the Russian campaign of 1940/41 and their effect on Russian and German tactics

11.

War on the Eastern Front. The German Soldier in Russia


a. b. Author: Publisher: James Lucas Jane's 1979 An account of the problems faced by the German Army fighting in Russia during the Second World War. Includes chapters on the effects of terrain, climate and how the Germans resolved the problems of winter warfare.

12.

The Korean War


a. b. Author: Publisher: Max Hastings Michael Joseph 1987 A history of the war. Describes the withdrawal from the Chosin peninsula during the winter of 1950.

13.

No Picnic. 3 Commando Brigade in the South Atlantic 1982


a. b. Author: Publisher: Julian Thompson Leo Cooper. Sector of Warburg 1985 2-3