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of France - destroyed most of the baronial castles; - dismissed the foreign troops; - renewed the charter granted by Henry I. ; and - resumed most of the lands which had been alienated from the crown by Stephen. - Thomas a Becket was elected Archbishop of Canterbury - Constitutions of Clarendon, the exile and murder of Becket, war with France, the king's penance at Becket's tomb, and the repeal of the Constitutions - inumpisahan ang Plantagenet - nagsimula ng regimeng constetunal ng England -nakilala dahil sa kanyang walang- pinapanigang paghahatol - paglublob sa kumukulong tubig ng kamay ng maysala at ng inusente, ang inusente ay walang paso ang kamay pag tinangggal ang benda, barbarong pamamaraan ng hustisya. - nagsimula ang pamamaraang ito sa simbahang romano katoliko - common law – nagpapataw ng pantay na paghahatol sa mga gumawa ng magkakatulad na Kasalanan (trial by jury/ grand jury) - klero – nakukuha sa pamamagitan lamang ng pagkakabisado ng particular na bahagi ng bibliya - hindi maaring patawan ng paarusang kamatayan * John joined his brother Richard in a new rebellion against their father, in which they were aided by Philip Augustus. * Nagkasakit si Henry II dahil sas mga rebelyon sa kanya ng kanyang mga anak lalo na dahil sa rebelyon ni John. Namatay siya sa Chinon Richard I – anak ni henry II at Eleanor of Aquitaine, heir to the duchy of Aquitaine - tinaguriang richard the lion hearted dahil sa kanyang mga pakikipagsapalaran - nanirahan lamang sa England ng 6 na taon sa loob ng kanyang 10 taong panunungkulan - nabankrap ang England dahil sa mga pagpopondo ng kanyang mga ekspedisyon(krusada) sa pamamagitann ng pagbebenta ng mga ariarian at pagpapataw ng malalaking tax. - namatay fahil sa tama ng pana sa balikat John – masamang hari - nanawagan sa papa upang tanggaling ang bisa ng magna carta kapalit ng pagiging utusan nito ngunit namatay na siya pagkatapo nito - namatay dahil sa sobrang pagkain ng Peaches at pag-inom ng alak June 15, 1215 – pinapirma ng mga nobleng English man kasama si archbishop Langton si john sa sulating mayroong 63 artikulo, ang magna carta. Runnymede, malapit sa London Henry III- namuno sa 9 na taong gulang - ibinalik ang magna carta - mahinang hari - pinagrebeldehan sa pamumuno ni Earl Simon de Montford Earl Simon de Montford – pinamunuan ang mga nobleng ingles sa paglulunsad ng unang pagpupulong
nanalo laban sa france sa Agincourt Henry VI – nagmamahal ng kapayapaan at pag-aaral na tao ngunit mahinang hari . at Scotland .pinalitan si Richard II .anak niya si Edward the black prince .tinaguriang Edward longshanks .ang parliament ay mas kilala ngayon bilang house of representatives. ngunit nang kinuha niya ang guyenne * Dinala ang hukbo ng mga Flanders ni Edward III upang lusubin ang france Flanders – pinamunuan ni Guy of Dampierre . ang duke ng flanders *nanalo sa labanan sa Crecy noong 1346 at nakubkob ang bayan ng Calais *Edward the Black Prince – nahuli si john II sa pagkapanalo sa Poitiers noong 1356 .sinakkop ang whales.power of the purse Edward I – pinagbuklod ang great Britain.tinanggalan ng moral ang hukbo ng frances matapos talunin ng maliit na pwersa ng mga ingles ang 1000 mga mandirigma ng france sa Battle of Cressy . Ireland.may lahing saxon at gumagamit ng salitang ingles .nagsiklab ang war of the roses Henry V – nagmana ng trono noong 1413 nang mamatay ang kanyang ama na si henry IV .tinalo ang mga frances sa naval battle at Sluys .nagwagi sa siege of Calais Richard II – apo ni Edward III . Battle of Bannockburn Edward III of England – namuno sa loob ng 50 taon .nakuha ng Scotland ang kalayaan nang mamatay si Edward. unang haring valois * tinakda ng asambleya ng French si Philip IV bilang hari.kung magpapataw ng mga bagong batas kailangan muna itong aprubahan ng nakakarami sa parliamento .ng parliament noong 1265 .sa pamumuno niya nabawi na ng france ang mga lupaing nasakop ng mga ingles Hundred Years War -nang mamatay ang huling capet king ng walang tagapagmana kinuha ni Edward III ang trono Edward III.pinigilan ang pagiging hari ni Edward III dahil ipinagbbabawal dito ang pagmamana ng trono galing sa linya ng kababaihan o female line .brother-in-law ni henry III . .sa kanyang pamumuno.namatay dahil sa pagkagutom Henry IV .nailuklok sa trono si Philip IV. napasok ng England ang Hundred Years War laban sa France .nanay niya ang anak ng hari ng mga French .nasa kanila ang huling desisyon ukol sa pagpapataw ng mga bagong buwis . ang whales at Scotland .duke of Guyenne (part of Aquitaine in southwestern France) and count of Ponthieu (on the English Channel) Charles IV – huling haring capet Batas Salic – batas ng mga franks (france) .
natigil ang unti unti nilang pagbawi ng kanilang mga teritoryo *dahil sa kaguluhan sa loob ng france sinamantala niya ito at nang mamatay si John the fearless. very many striking reverses during this period of the fighting.sa labanan. .napatunayang mahinang hari at dahil dito muling giniit ng mga York ang kanilang paninindigan na sila dapat ang mamuno sa pamumuno ni Earl of Warwick .namatay ng bata Henry VI. In 1453 at .Nagpakasal kay Margaret of Anjou . natalo niya si Richard III nang umatras ang mga heneral nito sa mga labanan (Battle of Bosworth Field) – napatay si Richard III .nagpakasal kay Elizabeth of York The most serious years of fighting between the Yorks and Lancasters occurred between 1459 and 1461.*Pagkkatapos nito napilitan ang France na makipagsundo at mapasailalim ni Edward III ang mga nasasakupan ni Philip IV *nang mamatay si John II. ngaunit ng mamatay siya. ang anak ni John the fearless *noong 1422. nakontrol ng alyansang anglo-burgundian ang aquitaine at buong hilagang france kasama ang paris *Lancastrian war nagwagi si Henry V *nilusob ng mga ingles (England) ang Orleans. and Henry VI was imprisoned in England. iginiit nila ang karapatan ng kanilang anak sa trono at namuno ng mga pwersang military upang ipaglaban ito na nag udyot sa muling labanan 3 bahagi ng labanang naganap Sa unang bahagi natalo at nagapi ang mga Lancasters Sa pangalawang bahagi.Hindi nagkaanak ng tagapagmana sa loob ng 7 taon at nakipagsundo sa mga York at natigil ang mga labanan ngunit ng magkaanak sila ng tagapagmana ng trono. and resulted in a victory for the Yorks—the Lancaster Royal family was sent into exile in France.pinsan ni henry IV na inapo ng mga york na mayroong mas matatag na patunay na siya dapat ang maging hari Henry IV – nagkaroon ng mas malakas na patunay dahil siya ay anak ni John ng Gaunt na maimpluwensya at naging rehente Henry V – nagkaroon ng malakas na kapit sa trono dahil sa pagiging popular dahil sa kanyang mga tagumpay laban sa France . ang anak niyang si Charles V ay hindi kinilala ang kasunduan at nagtuloy ang labanan. nagkaroon ng rebelyon sa loob ng pamilyang York na nagbigay ng oportunidad sa mga lancasters na ipahayag ulit ang kanilang karapatan sa panunungkulan ngunit nabalik ulit ang trono sa mga York Sa pangatlong bahagi. ang lungsod sa France sa siege of Orléans o paglusob sa Orleans sa tulong militar na pinamunuan ni Joan of Arc ngunit nahuli siya ng mga burgundian *naniwala si Philip the good na hindi masasakop ng mga ingles ang franc ng walang tulong galing sa mga bayan nito at lumipat siya ng panig at naibalik ang paris sa pamamahala ng hari ng france *sa huli ang Calais na lang ang natira sa mga ingles War of the Roses Lancaster – red rose York – white rose Henry IV – ang hari ng sumiklab ang labanan ( lancanster) Clarence . nakipag alyansa siya kay Philip the Good. and at times it seemed as though the Yorkish cause was lost. There were however. isang usurper at si Henry Tudor (VII) Henry VII – naniwalang susuportohan siya ng mga kaaway ni Richard III upang kunin ang trono. naglaban si Richard III.
With both Lancastrian claimants dead. as the first monarch of the House of Tudor. asserted his claim to the throne on the Lancaster side. and broke out in rebellion in 1464. who had been imprisoned for most of the last ten years was briefly restored to the throne. one of Edward's brothers. and Henry VI was murdered.a. He first captured the Princes and kept them in the Tower of London for "safe-keeping". Henry Tudor knew that in order to rule England he must reconcile with the Yorks. and failed to heed Warwick's advice on other important issues. London had been. the Lancaster army was defeated and Warwick himself was killed. and most of the nobles stayed loyal to the king. the military leader of the Lancasters. The influential Earl of Warwick (a. the conflicts were temporarily resolved by compromise. fled as soon as Warwick landed with his army and King Henry VI. in December of 1460. the second son of the deceased Duke of York. Richard Neville) had been allied with the father of Edward. several of Richard's generals either deserted to the enemy or held back from battle. Henry gained many followers. Edward IV was crowned King of England and assumed control of the government in the south. This move assured the York family of continued influence in the government. and his claim was no greater that of other cousins—Henry believed he could count on Richard's manifold enemies to assist him. and later put forward accusations of illegitimacy based on an alleged previous marriage of Edward IV. and greatly distained by those who felt he had usurped the throne and murdered his nephews. and the Yorkish forces were scattered. Richard quickly began forming a plan to usurp the throne from his nephews. and Warwick. Towton was as great a disaster for the Lancasters as Wakefield was for the Yorks. Warwick's victory was short lived however— the tide soon turned again in favor of Edward when his faithful brother Richard came to the rescue. Within a year however. and then at Towton. He was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the Wars of the Roses. so his first order of business was to marry Elizabeth of York. It was into this contentious situation that Henry Tudor. and desired a strong. He founded a . and the royal family scarcely escaped with their lives. his eldest son was the heir apparent. Edward IV regained the throne and ruled the rest of his life without opposition. capable and proven leader. and attempted to depose Edward and place Clarence on the throne. but they were never seen alive again. the largest and bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil. Albans. The second phase of fighting in the War of the Roses broke out because of discontent with Edward IV within the Yorkist camp. was killed at the battle of Hexham however. The underlying issues however. When Somerset. but on both of these occasions. Richard was slain in the fiercely fought battle. the king's army was defeated and Edward IV himself. In this he was correct. A few weeks later Prince Henry was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Not content with this honor however. and the Duke of York worsened over time and again broke into open warfare at the battle of Blore Heath. Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur. all armed resistance ceased for almost a decade. his uncle Richard. weary of war. however. a distant cousin. and the crown passed to Henry Tudor. this horrid loss enraged their supporters and over the next few months. from the beginning. The palace politics involved in the elevation of Richard III to the throne of England and the probable murder of the rightful princes was highly contentious at the time. At this point. and again in 1455 at St. The Duke of York and his eldest son were both ambushed and beheaded. the Yorks met with disaster. Warwick dead. whose popularity had suffered significantly over the last few years. the Yorks raised more armies under Edward IV. Albans. but he became disillusioned with Edward when the young king married into a rival family against Warwick's wishes. Edward V. Due to an unfortunate series of setbacks. was captured. Far from discouraging the Yorks however. Edward IV raised an army in Burgundy and met Warwick in the Battle of Barnet. The Yorks prevailed over the Lancasters first at (second) St. and at the Battle of Bosworth Field. and the country. Edward IV. Although his own claim was somewhat dubious —all of the direct Lancaster descendents were deceased. Henry won the throne when he defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. and Clarence back in the fold. would raise and army and invade England on behalf of the Lancaster's claim to the throne.Stamford bridge. and negotiated an agreement by which her son. and the conflict between the Queen. with the help of the French King. so with the Royals in exile. but at the battle of Wakefield. No one is quite sure what happened to the Princes. in 1461. Since Edward V was too young to rule for himself. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. the most curious twist of the war occurred. approached Queen Margaret. and when he died. Once both sides had settled on open war. who was essentially running the country.k. the early victories went in favor of the Yorks. and had orchestrated the Yorkist victories. the conflict between the Lancaster's and Yorks had broken into armed combat. Warwick and Clarence were declared traitors and driven out of England. Edward IV lived for fifteen years after his victory at the Battle of Barnet. Warwick. 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509. the eldest daughter of Edward IV. who had been a faithful ally of his father was appointed regent. his old arch-rival. At the battle of Edgecote. Warwick allied himself with Clarence. Prince Henry would marry Warwick's daughter. a Yorkish stronghold. Landing in Wales. accepted the new monarch. Richard was enthusiastically supported by the nobles who disliked the Queen Mother's family. Lancastrian strongholds in the north continued to hold out. and remains controversial.
economic and diplomatic initiatives. after a reign of nearly 24 years. was peacefully succeeded by his son. Henry VIII. the latter part of his reign was characterised by a financial rapacity which stretched the bounds of legality. and a number of commendable administrative. simple "greed" in large part underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years. . According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil.long-lasting dynasty and. The capriciousness and lack of due process which indebted many in England were soon ended upon Henry VII's death after a commission revealed widespread abuses. Although Henry can be credited with the restoration of political stability in England.
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