Chapter 1: The Present Tense

A. Simple Present Tense • To make statement about fact:: • Examples: • Rubber trees grow well in Malaysia. • The weather is hot in Mecca. • • To express something habitual/daily: Examples: • Habit: I wake up at 6.30 o’clock every morning. • Daily Activities: KFC closes at 11.00 p.m. every day. Singular & Plural • Put “s” when the subject is singular. • No “s” when the subject is plural. • Look at the table:

Subject

Verb
grows is has

Singular Ina He She It Plural I You They We Ina and Lana

grow are have

Examples: My mother is working as a nurse in the hospital. Not necessarily at the moment of speaking. An activity that happens over a given period. Be (verb) + verb. Present Continuous An activity that is happening at the moment of speaking. Examples: The train is arriving at 3 o’clock. • Ina and Lan are jogging at the park now. Lona is trying to get into a university. To form the Present Continuous: Look at following chart. I am taking two tuition classes this year.ing Is + washing are + washing am + washing .• • • B. • The small boy is eating ice cream.ing • • • • • • • • Subject Singular Ina He She It Plural You They We Ina and Lana I Verb Be (verb) + verb. Examples: Lan is talking to his best friend on the phone. To express future time.

• Examples: • Lan has lived in Karak for ten years.en = has eaten have + work-ed = have worked have + eat-en = have eaten • • • • . • An activity that has been repeated before the present time. • Examples: They have flown in an aeroplane many times We have taken four Maths tests this semester. • Examples: Ina has eaten lunch. To form the present perfect: have/has + verb – ed or en Examples: Singular Plural has + work-ed = has worked has + eat. • They have always liked going to the beach. • An action that happened in the past at an unspecified time. Present Perfect Tense • An action/ emotion that happen in the past & continue into the present. • I have studied in this school for five years. Lan and Ina have read that story book.C.

D. Exams are just around the corner. To form the Present Perfect Continuous: i) Positive form ii) Negative form Examples: Singular has + been + cook. Present Perfect Continuous • Used to show the duration of an action that happened in the past and still continuing to the present time.ing = has not been cooking (-ve) have + been + wait-ing = have been waiting (+ve) have + not + been + wait-ing = have not been waiting(.ing Plural . I have not been getting enough sleep lately. Examples: • Lan and Ina have been studying hard.ing = has been cooking (+ve) has + not + been + cook. • Examples: • Lan have been studying for five hours.ve) : : has/have + been + verb. It expresses a general activity in current progress. • We have been waiting for you since 3 o’clock.ing has/have + not + been + verb. • I am extremely exhausted. • • Also used without mentioning the time.

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