CAPSTONE PROJECT

COOLING WATER AND TREATMENT PLANT FOR POWER PLANT UNDER GUIDENCE OF DR. Y.S GOEL SIR A ONE YEAR PROJECT REPORT
PROJECT COMPLETED: - HALF (AFTER ONE SEM.)

SUBMITTED TO:
MR HIMANSHU KAUSHAL (MENTOR) DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (M3904) Sig: ……………………………………………………………..

SUBMITTED BY:
OMKAR KUMAR JHA - 10902923 SHEKHAR PATAKU - 10902017 PRANAV KUMAR - 10903323

LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY PHAGWARA (PB)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that.................................... Bearing Registration no. ...................... Has completed capstone project titled, “............................................................................................” Under my guidance and supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the present work is the result of their original investigation and study. No part of the dissertation has ever been submitted for any other degree at any University. The dissertation is fit for submission and the partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of partial degree

Signature and Name of the Research Supervisor Designation School Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab. Date:

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DECLARATION

We hereby declare that each contents of this project report are our own. Anything here mentioned is for educational purpose; hence some contents are being taken/analyzed from data from internet, Tata steel, books etc. So, there for, it is solely dedicated to the project guide, student and Lovely Professional University, under department of mechanical engineering (M3904) for capstone project purpose.

- OMKAR KUMAR JHA PRANAV KUMAR - SHEKHAR PATAKU

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, On behalf of the Department of Mechanical Engineering (M3904), we wish to extend our heartfelt gratitude to LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, PHAGWARA (PB) for giving the opportunity to get familiar with and conduct project work. We took this opportunity to convey our sincere thanks to Mr. Manish Gupta (COD-S) for providing guidance, moral support and modalities to conduct this project. We would like to thank our Mentor Mr. Himanshu Kaushal for coordinating and helping us during the project. We also extend our sincere thanks to all other officials of LPU for providing valuable information and their inputs for the study over project to us. We would like to express our thanks to all the people at LPU and MECHANICAL SCHOOL as well who made our project duration very pleasant and comfortable and for all their hospitality extended to us. We sincerely thank to all the people who have given a lot of effort by guiding the project for so many days.

-Thanks and Regards

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE PROJECT 3. PROJECT PHASES 4. CHEMICAL AND REACTIONS 5. ANALYSIS 6. DESIGN 7. CALCULATION 8. CONCLUSIONS/FUTURE 9. REFRENCES

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INTRODUCTION

In this academic year 2011-12, we have to submit a capstone project on any engineering application based project. According to curriculum it is mandatory to complete a working project to understand the necessity of real time problems which are not mentioned in general study content. Water, obviously is a basic human need. Providing safe and adequate quantities of the same for all rural and urban communities is perhaps one of the most important undertakings, for the public works Dept. Indeed, the well planned water supply scheme is a prime and vital element of a country's social infrastructures as on this peg hangs the health and wellbeing of its people. The population in India is increasing , with an estimated 40% of urban population. This goes on to say that a very large demand of water supply; for Domestic, Industrial, Firefighting, Public uses, etc.; will have to be in accordance with the rising population. Hence, identification of sources of water supply, there conservation and optimum utilization is of aramount importance. The water supplied should be 'Portable' and 'Wholesome'. Absolute pure water is never found in nature, but invariable contains certain suspended, colloidal, and dissolved impurities (organic and inorganic in nature, generally called solids), in varying degree of concentration depending upon the source. Hence treatment of water to mitigate and lor absolute removal of these impurities (which could be; solids, pathogenic micro-organisms, odor and taste generators, toxic substances, etc.) become indispensable. Untreated or improperly treated water becomes unfit for intended use proves to be detrimental for life. The designed water treatment plant has an experimental setup as the basic source of water. The type of treatment to be given depends upon the given quality of water available and the quality of water to be served. However such an extensive survey being not possible in the designed water treatment plant but somehow the data has been taken and collected from different sources. It is assumed that all kinds of treatment processors are necessary and an elaborate design. So hereby we 3 classmate decided to construct a working model of a water treatment plant on small scale with some new techniques which can further attached to power plant for their cooling water necessity as well.
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This project is decided because in daily life we encountered with so many problems regarding water recycling, reuse and treatment. For this we have also setup so many plants which can do all the operations indeed. But in real time we have to setup new plant for each operation separately because of their certain limitations like space availability, operating cost, maintenance etc. This prospective proposal of project can remedies the entire problem and can produce single point output station of the water having less energy consumption for different uses which are further explained in details.

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THE PROJECT

The project is solely based on the working of the water treatment plant. In water treatment process, we generally treat water for drinking purpose but here in this project not only we will produce drinking water but also water used for other purposes like industrial as well as power plant based cooling water which is high grade water having no salt or other additive dissolved into it. Because if there will be any contaminant there it may cause the rust, blast or other accidental cases due to unwanted particles. In other ways or words treatment is mainly based upon removal of unwanted particles from raw water so this removal depends upon our need .where we want to use or product and how much efficiency we need to develop upon it. For good performance of the product we have to ensure about its all quality and services. Like how much is this acidic or basic in nature, how much contaminant it includes in itself. For good reason of required criteria we have to identify pros and cons of the input and output and the process applying as well. So in water treatment we mainly consider about TURBIDITY, PH, DISSOLVED PARTICALS, ODOR, COLOR etc. These are the key factors to control the water quality in output. So for all above quality we have certain procedure and process which gives us 97% desired output. But for optimum quality of product we can leave the product in SETTLING TANK for some hours to settle down and then we can further pump it to stations for other uses. Corrosion is also a big problem due to chemical mixed in it like Alum, PaCl, CaOCl, Chlorine Gas etc which can corrode the surface of the pipe if not controlled. In industry corrosion failure are the one which are occurring every year at large scale. For this a company has to make certain arrangement like control the PH value, reserve the inventory of the commonly corrosive components etc. Water treatment has mainly some initial stages mentioned here with diagram shown below:

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Flow Diagram
WATER LAKE/ POND
PUMP HOUSE

RAW WATER RESERVIOR

CHEMICAL MIXING

FILTERED WATER
FILTRATION BED

CLARIFLOCCULATOR

PUMP HOUSE

CWPH

CHLORINATION

DEMINERLIZATION/ REVERSER OSMOSIS/ ION EXCHANGE

CONDE -NSER

O.H TANK DISTRIBUTION FOR DRINKING PURPOSE

BFP
COOLING TOWER 8

Standard working cycle
First of all the raw water is pumped to mixing channel where it got mixed with alum for coagulation which make the dissolve particles more heavy and settle them down to the base. Then the pre chlorination occur, which controls the color and other bacteria inside the water by adding up continuous amount of chlorine gas into water .then further water moves to flocculate chamber where flocculation is done. Means this point rotates regularly and agitates the water to help to settle down the particles again. Then it further moves to filter house which consist of BED made by sand 5-6” grits 3-4”,gravels 3-4”, then the big gravels 4-5” in depth. In the bottom a pipe is fitted to suck the water (clean) . This pipe is also used for back BED WASH with the help of high jet of air which vibrates all the particles of bed and removes the contaminants from the sand surface. Then further treated water moves to post chlorination stage where after checking all the values (desired as ph, color, odor etc) then adds extra amount of chlorine gas. Then this final water is sent to settling tank or reservoir where treated final water is finally taken in rest for at least of 3-4 hours then pumped to different stations for transporting to different location according to use.

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PROJECT PHASES

This capstone project is decided for 2 phase 1 sem each. In 1 semester only simple water treatment will be verified then after in next semester the treated water will be again treated for power plant with the help of reverse osmosis principle.

In power plant basically water is used for various purposes. All the other purpose can be solved from the above steps itself but the cooling water or working fluid cannot be used as same. For this purpose the treated water will be again treated by some methods like reverse osmosis, ultraviolet treatment, chemical treatment etc. But our main aim is to control the salt present inside the water. If not then this salt can corrode the cooling surface of the power plant and can reduce the thermal efficiency of the cycle by absorbing excess heat.
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So one stage is to be completed in present semester and the treatment of cooling and working water will be finalized into next or final semester. So hereby we are submitting the project in analysis, calculation and design segment comes under our 1 year project so far. In this academic session the project has finally reached at the mid evaluation with above stated criteria and hence submitting the raw data of the ideal plant with important components likewise...

CHEMICAL AND REACTIONS
Antifoams Foam is a mass of bubbles created when certain types of gas are dispersed into a liquid. Strong films of liquid than surround the bubbles, forming large volumes of non-productive foam. The cause of foam is a complicated study in physical chemistry, but we already know that its existence presents serious problems in both the operation of industrial processes and the quality of finished products. When it is not held under control, foam can reduce the capacity of equipment and increase the duration and costs of processes. Antifoam blends contain oils combined with small amounts of silica. They break down foam thanks to two of silicone's properties: incompatibility with aqueous systems and ease of spreading. Antifoam compounds are available either as powder or as an emulsion of the pure product. Powder Antifoam powder covers a group of products based on modified polydimethylsiloxane. The products vary in their basic properties, but as a group they introduce excellent antifoaming in a wide range of applications and conditions. The antifoams are chemically inert and do not react with the medium that is defoamed. They are odorless, tasteless, non-volatile, non-toxic and they do not corrode materials. The only disadvantage of the powdery product is that it cannot be used in watery solutions.

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Emulsions Antifoam Emulsions are aqueous emulsions of polydimethylsiloxane fluids. They have the same properties as the powder form, the only difference is that they can also be applied in watery solutions. Coagulants When referring to coagulants, positive ions with high valence are preferred. Generally aluminium and iron are applied, aluminium as Al2(SO4)3- (aluin) and iron as either FeCl3 or Fe2(SO4)3-. One can also apply the relatively cheap form FeSO4, on condition that it will be oxidised to Fe3+ during aeration. Coagulation is very dependent on the doses of coagulants, the pH and colloid concentrations. To adjust pH levels Ca(OH)2 is applied as co-flocculent. Doses usually vary between 10 and 90 mg Fe3+/ L, but when salts are present a higher dose needs to be applied. Corrosion inhibitors Corrosion is a general term that indicates the conversion of a metal into a soluble compound. Corrosion can lead to failure of critical parts of boiler systems, deposition of corrosion products in critical heat exchange areas, and overall efficiency loss. That is why corrosion inhibitors are often applied. Inhibitors are chemicals that react with a metallic surface, giving the surface a certain level of protection. Inhibitors often work by adsorbing themselves on the metallic surface, protecting the metallic surface by forming a film. Organic inhibitors will be adsorbed according to the ionic charge of the inhibitor and the charge on the surface. Disinfectants Disinfectants kill present unwanted microrganisms in water. There are various different types of disinfectants: · Chlorine (dose 2-10 mg/L) · Chlorine dioxide · Ozone · Hypochlorite

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Chlorine dioxide disinfection ClO2 is used principally as a primary disinfectant for surface waters with odor and taste problems. It is an effective biocide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm and over a wide pH range. ClO2 penetrates the bacterial cell wall and reacts with vital amino acids in the cytoplasm of the cell to kill the organisms. The by-product of this reaction is chlorite. Chlorine dioxide disinfects according to the same principle as chlorine, however, as opposed to chlorine, chlorine dioxide has no harmful effects on human health. Hypochlorite disinfection Hypochlorite is aplied in the same way as chlorine dioxide and chlorine. Hypo chlorination is a disinfection method that is not used widely anymore, since an environmental agency proved that the Hypochlorite for disinfection in water was the cause of bromate consistence in water. Ozone disinfection Ozone is a very strong oxidation medium, with a remarkably short life span. It consists of oxygen molecules with an extra O-atom, to form O3. When ozone comes in contact with odour, bacteria or viruses the extra O-atom breaks them down directly, by means of oxidation. The third O-atom of the ozone molecules is than lost and only oxygen will remain. Disinfectants can be used in various industries. Ozone is used in the pharmaceutical industry, for drinking water preparation, for treatment of process water, for preparation of ultra-pure water and for surface disinfection. Chlorine dioxide is used primarily for drinking water preparation and disinfection of piping. Every disinfection technique has its specific advantages and its own application area. In the table below some of the advantages and disadvantages are shown:

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Technology Environmentally Byproducts Effectivity Investment Operational Fluids Surfaces friendly costs Ozone UV Chlorine dioxide Chlorine gas Hypochlorite Flocculants To promote the formation of flocs in water that contains suspended solids polymer flocculants (polyelectrolytes) are applied to promote bonds formation between particles. These polymers have a very specific effect, dependent upon their charges, their molar weight and their molecular degree of ramification. The polymers are water-soluble and their molar weight varies between 105 and 106 g/ mol. There can be several charges on one flocculent. There are cationic polymers, based on nitrogen, anionic polymers, based on carboxylate ions and polyampholytes, which carry both positive and negative charges. Neutralizing agents (alkalinity control) In order to neutralize acids and basics we use either sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH), calcium carbonate, or lime suspension (Ca(OH)2) to increase pH levels. We use diluted sulphuric acid (H2SO4) or diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) to decline pH levels. The dose of neutralizing agents depends upon the pH of the water in a reaction basin. Neutralization reactions cause a rise in temperature. + ++ +/+ ++ +/++ + ++ +/++ + ++ + ++ + ++ ++ ++ --

---

---

-

+ +

++ ++

+/+/-

---

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Oxidants Chemical oxidation processes use (chemical) oxidants to reduce COD/BOD levels, and to remove both organic and oxidisable inorganic components. The processes can completely oxidise organic materials to carbon dioxide and water, although it is often not necessary to operate the processes to this level of treatment A wide variety of oxidation chemicals are available. Examples are: · Hydrogen peroxide; · Ozone; · Combined ozone & peroxide; · Oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is widely used thanks to its properties; it is a safe, effective, powerful and versatile oxidant. The main applications of H2O2 are oxidation to aid odour control and corrosion control, organic oxidation, metal oxidation and toxicity oxidation. The most difficult pollutants to oxidize may require H2O2 to be activated with catalysts such as iron, copper, manganese or other transition metal compounds. Oxygen Oxygen can also be applied as an oxidant, for instance to realize the oxidation of iron and manganese. The reactions that occur during oxidation by oxygen are usually quite similar. These are the reactions of the oxidation of iron and manganese with oxygen: 2 Fe2+ + O2 + 2 OH- --> Fe2O3 + H2O 2 Mn2+ + O2 + 4 OH- --> 2 MnO2 + 2 H2O Species (Other than H2O) Contained in Water Chemical analysis of virtually any freshwater sample reveals that "water"-- even water that has been rigorously cleaned and treated-- is really a solution containing many dissolved species. A solution is a homogenous system (a system that is uniform throughout) containing more than one substance. A solution in which H2O is the solvent is known as an aqueous solution. In addition to H2O (which is the solvent), water samples may include:
 

ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, F-, and HSO4-) dissolved gases (e.g., O2 and CO2)
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 

other natural dissolved molecules (e.g., organic by-products of decaying leaves) dissolved molecules from human activity (e.g., industrial and agricultural wastes)

Reactions are:
Mg2+ (aq) + Ca2+ (aq) + 2 OH-(aq) ---> Mg(OH)2 (s) + Ca2+ (aq) From water Ca2+ (aq) from water + from lime precipitate

Ca2+ (aq) + 2 CO32-(aq) ---> 2CaCO3 (s) precipitate

from lime from soda ash CO2 (g) + H2O (l) ---> H2CO3 (aq)

H2CO3 (aq) + OH- (aq) ---> H2O + HCO3- (aq)

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ANALYSIS
The treatment plant or any other plant has some criteria to work upon or the certain condition to follow so that good and efficient working may obtained. The combination of following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide:  Pre-chlorination: - for algae control and arresting any biological growth  Aeration: - along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese and oxygen.  Coagulation: - for flocculation  Coagulant aids: - also known as polyelectrolyte‟s- to improve coagulation and for thicker flock formation...  Sedimentation: - for solids separation, that is, removal of suspended solids trapped in the flock.  Filtration: - removing particles from water  Desalination: -Process of removing salt from the water.  Disinfection: - - for killing bacteria. The above mentioned technologies are well developed and generalized designs are available which are used by JUSCO utilities (public or private). In addition to the generalized solutions, a number of private companies provide solutions by patenting their technologies.  Final testing: water (treated) is finally checked for its turbidity then sent to its respective towers or storages. So hereby some steps of analysis are mentioned so far.
          

Management of a design project Preliminary studies Basic design procedure and general considerations Coagulation and chemical application Flocculation process Sedimentation (clarification) process Chemical feed system Instrument and process control Disinfection process Sludge handling and disposal Intake system/pumping system
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     

Flow measurement/piping system Elements of detailed design Lime-soda ash softening Iron and manganese removal Membrane separation Overall process design

Water quality results showed high removal rates of turbidity based on the mechanism of pore size exclusion, these results would indicate that a significant fraction of matter contributing to turbidity was in the particulate fraction (i.e., particle size >0.04 μm. Lower removal rates for organic matter as measured by TOC indicate that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may represent a considerable fraction of the TOC (TOTAL ORGANIC COMPOUND) present in the raw water. These results are supported by color and technical measurements, for which Reduced removal rates were achieved with filtration indicating that the concentration of dissolved organic material in the raw water would warrant pretreatment (i.e., coagulation) to enhance overall removal efficiencies. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl), ferric salts such as ferric sulphate [Fe(SO4)3] or ferric chloride (FeCl3), or Synthetic coagulating agents such as poly-acryl amides would also be Viable coagulants that could be evaluated with this water. • Particle count analysis: would provide additional data on permeate water quality in terms of removal of particles within size range of (2 – 15 μm) and other cryptosporidium, 2 – 5 μm). As a surrogate monitoring technique, particle counting determines particle size and thus warns of particles in the size range of 2-6 μm. • Dead-End Flow Configuration: Recirculation pumps and associated piping is required resulting in reduced capital costs and operational cost Savings due to reduced energy input.

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DESIGN
Before END OF SEM. we have completed our design, analysis, calculations phase for 1st set of project. The design is attached under as created into PRO-E wildfire v4.0:

SEDIMENTATION TANK

OUTPUT WATER PIPE

SIDE VIEW

FINAL STORAGE

Now after midterm the analysis and design work has been done and thereafter the calculation part also. In the calculation and analysis phase we have encountered problem related to scale the prototype of the project related to actual one. The problem faced is totally genuine in terms of actual cycle of the plant. As the cycle starts the power input to components and the specific rating of different component always counter the actual process including overflow, dry run and so on; . At some stages we found that the water did not clean according to necessity or the other ratings are not matching with specific data so then reconsideration of project with recalculation becomes necessary.
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GUIDE PIPE

STORAGE TANK

CHEMICAL DOSER CHEMICAL MIXING CHAMBER FLOCCULATOR MAIN WATER ENTRANCE PIPE

COUNTER AGITATOR SHAFT

PUMP 1 PUMP 3 ROTATING ARM

CLOSE BED AREA PUMP 2

FILTER BED

POROUS PIPE

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COMPONENTS OF PROPOSED DESIGN
In this project we tried to overcome the energy loss and tried to use the conventionally available component so that operating and maintenance cost with setup cost may get reduced.

Due to previous analysis following units are required to be designed for treatment plant

(1)
    

Intake Structure:
Intake well Gravity main Jack well Rising main Pump

(2)
        

Treatment unit:
Aeration unit Coagulant dose Lime soda dose Chemical dissolving tank Chemical house Flash mixer Clariflocculator Rapid sand filter Chlorination unit

(3)

Storage unit:
 Underground storage tank  Elevated storage

Schematic diagram of each of the unit is shown in THE PROJECT section

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PUMPS

The following four types of pumps are generally used.
         Buoyancy operated pumps Impulse operated pumps Positive displacement pumps Centrifugal pump Type of duty required. Present and projected demand and pattern and change in demand. The details of head and flow rate required. Selecting the operating speed of the pump and suitable drive. The efficiency of the pumps and consequent influence on power consumption and the running costs.
4𝑓𝑙 𝑣 2 2𝑔𝑑

The following criteria govern pump selection. :

Losses 𝑕𝑓 =

Total head of pumping = hs + hd + hf + minor losses Design Criteria for Mechanical Rapid Mix Unit Velocity of flow = m/sec. Depth = Power Required = Impeller speed = Loss of head = Mixing device be capable of creating a velocity gradient = m/sec/m depth Ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter = (C) Design Calculation Design flow Detention time Ratio of tank height to diameter Ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter Rotational speed of impeller Assume temperature = m3/day

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Design Criteria: (Flocculator)

Depth of tank = Detention time = Velocity of flow =. Total area of paddles = Range of peripheral velocities of blades = Power consumption = Outlet velocity =

FILTER BED
Design Criteria: (Clarifier)

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Surface overflow rate = Depth of water = Weir loading = Storage of sludge = Floor slope = 1 in 12 or 8% for mechanically cleaned tank. Slope for sludge hopper = Scraper velocity = 1 revolution in 45 to 80 minutes Velocity of water at outlet chamber = not more than 40 m/sec.

CALCULATIONS
A sample data is tabulated as under. This tabulation shows the standard specifications for the specific properties of treated water. This scale is used for 1 MLD of water to be treated on one cycle of plant. So hereby we can scale it according to our basic need for standard project . Standard formulas : Flow of water required = water volume (MLD) * 3600* 24 Volume of well = 𝜋 ⋰ 4𝑑 2 ∗ l.57 m3 (Damming‟s standard) Discharge rate = area * velocity per unit time Intake well of diameter = d Power generated =℘𝑔𝑕 Velocity obtained = cd 2𝑔𝑕 Power output from shaft =
2𝜋𝑛𝑇 60

watt

Cross-sectional area of intake well = 2𝜋𝑟𝑙 Diameter of intake well = (d)

Design of Rapid Gravity Filter:
(a) Rapid Sand Filter The rapid sand filter comprises of a bed of sand serving as a single medium granular matrix supported on gravel overlying an under drainage system, the distinctive features of rapid sand filtration as compared to slow sand filtration
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include careful pre-treatment of raw water to effective flocculate the colloidal particles, use of higher filtration rates and coarser but more uniform filter media to utilize greater depths of filter media to trap influent solids without excessive head loss and back washing of filter bed by reversing the flow direction to clear the entire depth of river. . The removal of particles within a deep granular medium filter such as rapid sand filter occurs primarily within the filter bed and is referred to as depth filtration. Conceptually the removal of particles takes place in two distinct slips as transport and as attachment step. In the first step the impurity particles must be brought from the bulk of the liquid within the pores close to the surface of the medium of the previously deposited solids on the medium. Once the particles come closer to the surface an attachment step is required to retain it on the surface instead of letting it flow down the filter. The transport step may be accomplished by straining gravity, setting, impaction interception, hydrodynamics and diffusion and it may be aided by flocculation in the interstices of the filter.

(a) Design Criteria: (Rapid Sand Filter)
 . Rate of filtration = m3//hr  . Max surface area of one bed = m2 o Min. overall depth of filter unit including a free board of 0.5m = m o Effective size of sand = mm o Uniformity co-efficient for sand = 1.3 to 1.7 (standard)  . Silica content should not be less than 90%  . Specific gravity =2.55 to 2.65 (standard)  . Wearing loss is not greater than 3%  . Minimum number of units = 2  . Depth of sand = 0.6 to 0.75  . Standing depth of water over the filter = 1 to 2m  . Free board is not less than 0.5m

(b)
     

Problem Statement

Net filtered water Quantity of backwash water used Time lost during backwash Design rate of filtration Length - width ratio Under drainage system
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 Size of perforations

Alum Dose:

Coagulation:
The terms coagulation and flocculation are used rather indiscriminately to describe the process of removal of turbidity caused by fine suspension colloids and organic colors. Coagulation describes the effect produced by the addition of a chemical to a colloidal dispersion, resulting in particle destabilization. Operationally, this is achieved by the addition of appropriate chemical and rapid intense mixing for obtaining uniform dispersion of the chemical. The coagulant dose in the field should be judiciously controlled in the light of the jar test values. Alum is used as coagulant.

Softening
Water is said to be hard, when it does not form leather readily with soap. The hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium ions in most of the cases. The method generally used is lime-soda process. Softening with these chemicals is used particularly for water with high initial hardness ( > 500 mg/L) and suitable for water containing turbidity, color and iron salts. Lime-soda softening cannot, however, reduce the hardness to values less then40 mg/L. Design of Mechanical Rapid Mix Unit  Flash Mixer Rapid mixing is and operation by which the coagulant is rapidly and uniformly dispersed throughout the volume of water to create a more or less homogeneous single or multiphase system. This helps in the formation of micro floes and results in proper utilization of chemical coagulant preventing localization of connection and premature formation of hydroxides which lead to less effective utilization of the coagulant. The chemical coagulant is normally introduced at some point of high turbulence of water. The source of water for rapid mixing to create the desired intense turbulence is gravitational and pneumatic. The intensity of mixing is dependent upon the temporal mean velocity gradient „G‟. This is defined as the rate of change of velocity per unit distance normal to a section. The turbulence and resultant intensity of mixing based on the rate of power input to the water. Flash mixture is one of the most popular methods in which the chemicals are dispersed. They are mixed by the impeller rotating at high speeds
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Summary Design of Pen stock And Bell Mouth Strainer

(a)Pen stock
This are the pipes provided in intake well to allow water from water body to intake well. These pen stocks are provided at different levels, so as to take account of seasonal variation in water level (as H.W.L, M.W.L, and L.W.L). Trash racks of screens are provided to protect the entry sizeable things which can create trouble in the pen stock. At each level more than one pen stock is provided to take account of any obstruction during its operations. These pen stocks are regulated by valves provided at the top of intake wells.

Design Criteria
 Velocity through pen stock  Diameter of each pen stock  Number of pen stock for each intake well

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After the specific design conditions the special operating conditions are given below: (in introductory in nature)

Sr. No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Characteristics Turbidity ( scale) Color (platinum cobalt scale) Taste and odor PH Total dissolved solids(mg/L) Total hardness (mg/L as CaC03) Chlorides (mg/L as C1) Sulphate (mg/L as 804) Fluorides (mg/L as F) Nitrates (mg/L as N03) Calcium (mg/L as Capacity) Magnesium (mg/L Mg) Iron (mg/L Fe) Manganese mg/L as MnO Copper (mg/L Cu) Zinc (mg/L as Zn) Lead (mg/L as Pb) Anionic Detergents (mg/L as MBAS) Mineral oil (mg/L)

Acceptable 2.5 5 units Unobjectionable 7.0 to 8.5 600-800 200 200 200 1 22 75 30 0.1 0.05 0.05 5 0.002 0.01 0.01

Cause for Rejection 10 25units Unobjectionable 6.5 to 9.2 1500 600 1000 400 1.5 45 200 150 1 0.5 1.5 15 0.1 1 2

17 18 19

Notes:
 The figures indicated under the column 'Acceptable' are the limits upon which water is generally acceptable to the consumers.  Figures in excess of those mentioned under 'Acceptable' render the water not acceptable, but still may be tolerated in the absence of alternative and better source upon the limits indicated under column 'Cause for Rejection' above which the supply will have to be rejected.  It is possible that some mine and spring waters may exceed these radioactivity limits and in such cases it is necessary to analyze the individual radio nuclides in order to assess the acceptability for public consumption.
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Comparison Of Given Data and Standard Data during process cycle (Totally introductory in nature)

Sr. No
1 2

Particulars
pH Turbidity

Actual
7.5 50

Standard
7 to 8.5 2.5

Difference Means for Treatment
O.K 47.5 Not necessary Clarifier & rapid sand filter Softening Increase volume of water Aeration Softening

3 4

Total Hardness (mg/L) Chlorides(mg/L)

550 120

200 60-70

350 50-60

5 6

Iron (mg/L) Carbonates

2.5 110

0.1 -

2.4 -

This data shows at some important stages the failure has been detected at the initial of plant. So according to scale it may be setup and according to laboratory report data may calibrated to control the big differences. Means time this is not an actual calculation of the project hence it can‟t be same in each case neither it is a standard data or scaled data. This data is only for understanding the condition in which different steps is to be taken.

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CONCLUSION
Hence we conclude that this project is very efficient for 1 whole city because it can complete all the water need of the city itself. It can reduce the other cost and can be setup in small area which can also graded as low energy consumption unit having high efficiency. In this project we have tried to implement the ideas which are easy to use and cost effective. Further during project it is taken in consideration that the energy consumption should be lesser as possible. The efficiency of this project is tried to enhanced with the help of design and operating conditions like head difference, gravity flow, natural circulation etc with respect to the conventional operational conditions. These effects may visualize in final project submission. Further we would like to include that this project is taken for enhance the working procedure and efficiency thus the efficiency of plant may increase from 40% to 60% approx. During process cycle it is mandatory that the water for drinking should be maintained as “Basic side (PH 7-8.5)” at some point so that it can meet the human comfort because the human system the controlling of acid base side is very important which can‟t be neglected for maintaining good drinking grade. Other benefits are: o o o o o o To ensure low cost of treated water To reduce water wastage by recycling Reduce load of electricity / operating cost One point operation Low maintenance due to one plant on only one location High capacity regarding individual plant

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Future
In this era of new technology the main consideration is to decrease the total cost with efficient output. For this a numerous kind of implementation has been made to the exiting design of plant. The price including into setup defined by the accuracy and type of output needed from the plant. As per new policies of Indian government the specific condition of uses of input energy and the waste should be fruitfully maintained. This can be done by various kind of implementation such as uses of low power input component and the conventional system of work. But in the case of good efficiency we have to compromise with some of the point like enviournment, health, input power, life of plant etc. which maybe counter by the hierchy policies applied over the industry. So all this condition may reduce the efficiency of the plant or output , thus a efficient plant must contains good quality of output in terms of less input and wastage as well. So in future water, as it is a essential item for life, is very important and much more needed thing to live. So good and required quality may obtained by efficient process and technical help. So as a engineer it is very important to use good and low waste component and process to increase efficiency, the day by day regular increment in quality system is necessary.

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REFRENCES
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Dr. Y.S Goel sir (DEAN) Mr. Himanshu kaushal (Mentor) Tata steel (JUSCO) web page :www.wikipedia.org Text book : Power plant Engineering ( Tata McGraw hills pub) Text book: P.K NAG PRO-E Wildfire v4.0 (for modeling) Articles published in wordpress.com, scribed.com http://www.lenntech.com/products/chemicals/water-treatmentchemicals.htm#ixzz1emcAngX1  http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Water/PublicWat erSupply/PublicWaterSupply.html  Project report submitted by IIT Delhi , Mumbai and others for the same

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