Transforming Education Transforming India

CAPSTONE PROJECT-II

MODIFICATION IN CHOPPER FOR UNIFIED USES

SUBMITTED TO:
MR. SUDARSHI RAKESH (MENTOR) DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (M3904) Sig: …………………………………………………………….. LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY PHAGWARA (PB) 1|P ag e

SUBMITTED BY:
OMKAR KUMAR JHA - 10902923 SHEKHAR PATAKU - 10902017 PRANAV KUMAR - 10903323

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that.................................... Bearing Registration no. ...................... Has completed capstone project titled, ............................................................................................ Under my guidance and supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the present work is the result of their original investigation and study. No part of the dissertation has ever been submitted for any other degree at any University. The dissertation is fit for submission and the partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of partial degree

Signature and Name of the Research Supervisor Designation School Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab. Date:

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DECLARATION

We hereby declare that each contents of this project report are our own. Anything here mentioned is for educational purpose; hence some contents are being taken/analyzed from data from internet, Tata steel, books etc. So, there for, it is solely dedicated to the project guide, student and Lovely Professional University, under department of mechanical engineering (M3904) for capstone project purpose.

- OMKAR KUMAR JHA PRANAV KUMAR - SHEKHAR PATAKU

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, On behalf of the Department of Mechanical Engineering (M3904), we wish to extend our heartfelt gratitude to LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, PHAGWARA (PB) for giving the opportunity to get familiar with and conduct project work. We took this opportunity to convey our sincere thanks to Mr. Aditya Veer Gautam (COD) for providing guidance, moral support, and modalities to conduct this project. We would like to thank our Mentor Mr. Sudarshi Rakesh for coordinating and helping us during the project. We also extend our sincere thanks to all other officials of LPU for providing valuable information and their inputs for the study over project to us. We would like to express our thanks to all the people at LPU and MECHANICAL SCHOOL as well who made our project duration very pleasant and comfortable and for all their hospitality extended to us. We sincerely thank to all the people who have given a lot of effort by guiding the project for so many days.

-Thanks and Regards

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

INTRODUCTION………………………………………06 TYPES…………………………………………………..07 FLIGHT MECHANISM/WORKING…………………..08 THE PROJECT………………………………………....13 CHOPPER ANATOMY………………………………...15 THE MODIFICATIONS………………………………..16 MODIFICATION DETAILS…………………………...17 FINAL WORK DESCRIPTION ……………………….21

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INTRODUCTION
In general aeroplane is abbreviated by the words aero means air and plane means which can float over it. In early of 1700 , the invention take place by wright brothers based on the imagination over the great poet, scientist, musician, artist, and a multitalented people named leo-nardo-da-vinchi.(name may pronounced differently). He (leo) imagined that like an bird human can also fly or float on air. He also designed a gladiator type equipment which cause some of the human life in danger .further in late 19th century Wright Brother completed the successful experiment to fly its machine in the sky for some hours. That was the best milestone of the world science. Our project is mainly based over the different types of chopper, its specifications, working, special aspects, and study of possible modification in it to ease human beings. Technically there is no any full stop in the invention into the science. If there is one science or equipment is under working then there will be more and more introduce in the new technology further days continuously. In this project we have studied the all components working and tried to modify it according to our project requirements that are solely based upon certain criteria discussed further in detail section.

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TYPES
Mainly in nature and working in present time there are some types of airplane is listed • Commercial Transport Planes :These planes are generally used in general purpose aviation where simple travel and fly is under consideration. • •

General Aviation Planes :-a aviation purpose which is used for the transportation

Military Planes: - These are the most efficient and highly cost aviation vehicle used under the extremely critical condition during war and emergency.

Sea Planes: - These planes are very good for private uses like it can be landed over the water surface and simple land.

Special Purpose Planes: - these planes are used for very crucial purpose like during natural disasters so that it can lift the mass and the transportation of the peoples and the vehicles.

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WORKING
Aircraft/chopper can be sub-divided according to the means of propulsion they use. (i) Unpowered Aircraft that primarily intended for unpowered flight include gliders (sometimes called sailplanes), hang gliders, and para gliders. These are mainly used for recreation. After launch, further energy is obtained through the skillful exploitation of rising air in the atmosphere. Gliders that are used for the sport of gliding have high aerodynamic efficiency. The highest lift-to-drag ratio is 70:1, though 50:1 is more common. Glider flights of thousands of kilometres at average speeds over 200 km/h have been achieved. The glider is most commonly launched by a towplane or by a winch. Some gliders, called motor gliders, are equipped with engines (often retractable) and some are capable of self-launching. The most numerous unpowered aircraft are hang gliders and paragliders. These are foot-launched and are generally slower, smaller and less expensive than sailplanes. Hang gliders most often have flexible wings which are given shape by a frame, though some have rigid wings. This is in contrast to paragliders which have no frames in their wings. Military gliders have been used in war to deliver assault troops, and specialised gliders have been used in atmospheric and aerodynamic research. Experimental aircraft and winged spacecraft have also made unpowered landings. (ii) Propeller Smaller and older propeller aircraft make use of reciprocating internal combustion engines that turns a propeller to create thrust. They are quieter than jet aircraft, but they fly at lower speeds, and have lower load capacity compared to similar sized
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jet powered aircraft. However, they are significantly cheaper and much more economical than jets, and are generally the best option for people who need to transport a few passengers and/or small amounts of cargo. They are also the aircraft of choice for pilots who wish to own an aircraft. Turboprop aircraft are a halfway point between propeller and jet: they use a turbine engine similar to a jet to turn propellers. These aircraft are popular with commuter and regional airlines, as they tend to be more economical on shorter journeys. (iii) Jet

A Ukrainian An-225 Mriya is the world's largest fixed-wing aircraft. Jet aircraft make use of turbines for the creation of thrust. These engines are much more powerful than a reciprocating engine. As a consequence, they have greater weight capacity and fly faster than propeller driven aircraft. One drawback, however, is that they are noisy; this makes jet aircraft a source of noise pollution. However, turbofan jet engines are quieter, and they have seen widespread usage partly for that reason. The jet aircraft was developed in Germany in 1931. The first jet was the Heinkel He 178, which was tested at Germany's Marienehe Airfield in 1939. In 1943 the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first jet fighter aircraft, went into service in the German Luftwaffe. In the early 1950s, only a few years after the first jet was produced in large numbers, the De Havilland Comet became the world's first jet airliner. However, the early Comets were beset by structural problems discovered after numerous pressurisation and depressurisation cycles, leading to extensive redesigns.

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Most wide-body aircraft can carry hundreds of passengers and several tons of cargo, and are able to travel for distances up to 17,000 km. Aircraft in this category are the Boeing 747, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787 and Airbus A350, Airbus A300/A310, Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Airbus A380, Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, McDonnell Douglas MD-11, Ilyushin Il-86 and Ilyushin Il-96. Jet aircraft possess high cruising speeds (700 to 900 km/h, or 400 to 550 mph) and high speeds for take-off and landing (150 to 250 km/h). Due to the speed needed for takeoff and landing, jet aircraft make use of flaps and leading edge devices for the control of lift and speed, as well as thrust reversers to direct the airflow forward, slowing down the aircraft upon landing.
(iv) Supersonic jet

Supersonic aircraft, such as military fighters and bombers, Concorde, and others, make use of turbines (often utilising afterburners), that generate the huge amounts of power for flight faster than the speed of the sound. Flight at supersonic speed creates more noise than flight at subsonic speeds, due to the phenomenon of sonic booms. This limits supersonic flights to areas of low population density or open ocean. When approaching an area of heavier population density, supersonic aircraft are obliged to fly at subsonic speed. Due to the high costs, limited areas of use and low demand there are no longer any supersonic aircraft in use by any major airline. The last Concorde flight was on 26 November 2003.

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(v) Solar-powered A solar-powered aircraft generates the needed energy by means of solar cells. On 8 July 2010 the manned Solar Impulse became the first solar-powered aeroplane to fly through an entire night. (vi) Unmanned

An aircraft is said to be 'unmanned' when there is no person aboard the aircraft and control is achieved remotely or via other means such as gyroscopes or other forms of autonomous control. The aircraft is controlled only by remote controls or other electronic devices. (vii) Rocket-powered

Experimental rocket powered aircraft were developed by the Germans as early as World War II , and about 29 were manufactured and deployed. The first fixed wing aircraft to break the sound barrier in level flight was a rocket plane – the Bell X-1. The later North American X-15 was another important rocket plane that broke many speed and altitude records and laid much of the groundwork for later aircraft and spacecraft design. Rocket aircraft are not in common usage today, although rocket-assisted takeoffs are used for some military aircraft. SpaceShipOne is a well known current rocket aircraft; it is the prototype for development of a commercial
sub-orbital passenger service. Another rocket plane is the XCOR EZ-Rocket.

The construction of the aircraft is basically based over the frame body and use as well.

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If the craft is going to use for navigation only it will have different characteristics regarding the weight and frame with respect to drag force over it. So for the different purpose the craft is crafted under crucial conditions which are highly precise in nature and the construction needed 100% accuracy as well. Main consideration is the weight of the craft as well as the speed gain by its engine, its height of fly and the propulsion system. The above figure is the ray diagram of the jet having different views. During the construction various forces are also comes into consideration. Mainly some forces are essential that are drag, air pressure over plane,exhaust pressure and lift pressure. so over all the main thing that Is taken in mind that the body of the craft is made so much light weight that less power should be consumed and greater efficiency can be obtained within the limit. Further the safety can’t be ignored. So proper insulation and the body under atmospheric pressure condition should be maintained within the craft for public safety. There for the optimum light weight and good quality product and technology is used which have 99.99% of accuracy to every component either it is a single screw or a rotor or engine.

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WORKING OF JET ENGINES Generally the jet engines were traditionally made but further in the era the new invention comes into science and they replaced some components but over all process is remain constant yet. Here in the diagram:

This diagram shows that air comes to inlet where it is already compressed to 40 times its volume and the mixture is rich enough as 1:20(fuel: air).the mixing is takes place into the fuel injection area before the converging section of the engine. After then the combustion occurs and the heavy blast caused the axial thrust over the back section of the plane or called supersonic exhaust in the exhaust area which gives the engine a boost to move forward.

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Further the new invention came which is introduced into the mainframe of the craft engine technology. Here from the picture it will be well noticed:

In fig (c) the converging section is as it was in the past. But in fig (b) there is the two sections extra which provides more compression and the combustion of the fuel. And so the greater efficiency can be obtained. Further in fig (a) the compression area is again shifted in long section but it consist more advanced technology and hence used some compressors which give more and more efficient compression of the air more than 40 % to the conventional technique. And so the combustion area is with the exhaust…

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THE PROJECT
CHOPPER (CONSTRUCTION AND COMPONENT WORKING)
Let’s start with the
FUSELAGE: - it is the main front of the craft which is used to cut the air pressure

and safety of the body when the turning and bending occurs
CABIN DOORS: - the doors which are totally air locked and pressure controlled,

used to in and out of the pilot and the passengers.
ENGINE MOUNT: - the space which is used to mounting the heavy engine

assembly where it can be well function able and is situated at the center of the body because the craft having weight is concentrated over the mid point where if the extra load is applied further then the controlling is very well easy due to normalization of all the force component working during flight
TRANSMISSION: - the assembly of the gears and the shaft MAST: - the shaft which is used to transfer the torque to the blades to rotate. CRAWLING: - It is the cover which saves the engine from dust, water and other

partials.
SWASH PLATE: - the two or more rode which is installed to keep the blades

stationary to its axis during rotation and due to centrifugal force.
STABLIZER BAR: - the bar or locker which is used to fasten the blade over the mast

so that due to force (centrifugal and weight) acting downward over the craft can be prevented to unbolted or breakdown.
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ROTOR: - the blades which rotate and lift the craft upward by creating the air

density difference to upside down having 1500 rpm at final.
TAIL ROTOR DRIVE SHAFT: - a shaft which is used to transmit the power to the

rear blades which help to steer the craft in the air.
SYNCHRONISED ELEVATOR: - the elevator which can control the movement of

the craft by reducing or increasing the air pressure over the craft.

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CHOPPER ANATOMY

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THE MODIFICATIONS

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix)

ROTOR BLADES POWER AND TRANSMISSION COMPONENT SYNCHRONISATION REMOTE CONTROL GEAR BOX REPLACEMENT MULTI USE HOUSING SURVILIANCE MONITOR/SPY CAM INSECTISIDE SPRAY COMPONENTS HIGH ALTITUDE AND CONTOLE FUNCTION

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 MODIFICATION DETAILS:-

 ROTOR BLADES:-

Spec:-

    
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Shape: Symmetrical wing Length:500mm Width:13mm Shaft Diameter:70mm Weight:40.3g/set

It helps the chopper to cut the upper side air to reduce the density of air on upper section which helps it to drift upward. The selection of special rotor was totally under consideration of actual use as the project is based trails so the prototype was available for low altitude thus after replacing high capacity carbon fiber blades that reduces the weight as well as less friction to air resulting in more power over less RPM.

POWER AND TRANSMISSION:-

According to our design requirements it was necessary to fly at least 100-150 feet During project checkup so that its efficiency for long time fly may increased.

 COMPONENT SYNCHRONISATION

As per high speed requirement and for obtaining high altitude it is necessary to modify the power transmitting shaft to enable high power transmission with less friction and other losses.

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As per requirement of the present project the circuit also gets replaced by higher degree of specification like:Manufacturer: - align corp. Type: - Starter STQ 100 Voltage 20-30 volts Rpm regulation -1700-3600 Receiver- 500 feet (L and H)

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Four stroke 1 hp gasoline engine
Displacement: Bore*Stroke: Rated Power: Max Power: Start Type: Fuel Volume (L): Fuel Consumption: Cooling System: Ignition system: Size (L*W*H):
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37.7cc 39*30mm 4kw/7000r/min 5.8-.9kw/7000r/min Recoil starter 4lit. 400-480/Kw h. Forced air TCI 204*234*230

US $ 90 - 120 / Set This proposed engine is basic requirement for the power generation. This engine is capable of lifting ~11-12 kg for 2.5 max hours. With this specified engine a propeller can rotate with such thrust that multi operation can be done.

Sprinkler
Automated sprinkler irrigation achieved by automatically rotating the sprinkler pipe or boom, supplying water to the sprinkler heads or nozzles, as a radius from the center of the field to be irrigated. Water is delivered to the center or pivot point of the system. The pipe is supported above the crop by towers at fixed spacing and propelled by pneumatic, mechanical, hydraulic, or electric power on wheels or skids in fixed circular paths at uniform angular speeds. Water is applied at a uniform rate by progressive increase of nozzle size from the pivot to the end of the line. The depth of water applied is determined by the rate of travel of the system. Single units are ordinarily about 1,250 to 1,300 feet long and irrigate about a 130acre circular area. Bill of extra material are as follows:EQUIPMENT Storage cylinder Connecting pipes Connecting gear set Connecting shaft(gear) Sprinkler cup Rotating impeller Base rods Electrical Wire Soldering rod and heater Body sheet Welding system RATING 8-10 kg (l/B acc. To size) 10-12 mm dia. and 1 m long 10:1 ratio to driver a/c to gear hub 60-70 mm dia. a/c to initial design -do-d0Aluminum ( sheet work) Initial QUANTITY 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1m 1 a/c to design Initial

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STORAGE CYLINDER

SOLENIOD VALVE
DRIVER GEAR DRIVEN GEAR 1 DRIVEN GEAR 2

SPRINKLER CUP 1

SPRINKLER CUP 2

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Sprinkler nozzle

FINAL WORK DESCRIPTION:

1. SO FINALLY WE HAVE CAME TO THE CONCLUSION THAT IN CASE OF FARMERS IN INDIA, HAVING PROBLEM IN CULTIVATING THEIR CROPS WITH MODERN TECHNLOGY.OUR PROJECT IS BASED ON THE INVENSION AND INTRODUCING OUR PROJECT INTO FARMERS LIFE. OUR PROJECT MAY HELP THEM TO SPRAY INSECTICIDES IN THE CROPS AND CAN PREVENTS FLIES TO SET THEIR HOME IN CROP AS THE CHOPPER APPLIES GREAT THRUST IN DOWNWARD DIRECTION .DUE TO HEAVY FLOW OF AIR THE CROPS GOT SAPERATED.AND HENCE PROPER MIXING IS POSSIBLE. 2. FURTHER PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS ARE UPON THE SECURITY MATTER AS WE ARE UPTO ATTACHING A WIRELESS, NIGHTVISION, ULTRA POWERD CAMS THAT CAN SEND THE REMOTE VIDEO ONLINE TO OUR CONTROL STATION. WITH THE HELP OF ONLINE STREAMING/TRANSMISSION SECURITY AND SURVILIANCE WILL BE EASE FOR PERSONAL AND INDUSTRIAL OR OTHERS. WITH THE HELP OF CAM THE TRAFFIC INFORMATION CAN ALSO BE OBTAINED WHICH HELPS THE RIDERS. FIRE FIGHTING CAN ALSO BE EASE IN CASE OF EMERGANCY AND IF THE MACHINE IS PROPERLY INSULATED AND MODIFIED THEN IT CAN SPRAY THE CO2 REMOTELY IN FIRE ZONE 3. OTHER PROPOSAL IS BASED UPON INTEGRATION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD SUCH AS SOLAR ENERGY.WE HAVE DECIDED TO COVER UP THE WHOLE SURFACE BY THIN SOLAR PANNEL/PLATES SO THAT IN DAY HOURS THE BATTERY POWER CAN BE SAVED AND HENCE IT GOT CHARGED REGULARLY WITH FLYING.DUE TO SOLAR POWER THE BATTERY WILL BE AUTOMETICALLY CHARGED AND REST ENERGY MAY UTILISE TO FLY OF THE CHOPPER AND HENCE THE MACHINE CAN BE

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STABLE FOR LONG TIME IN AIR.HENCE INCREASE IN EFFICIENY WITH CONSERVATION ON ENERGY. 4. AS IT CAN FLY IN AIR, IT CAN ALSO RUN IN WATER ALSO BY SOME BASIC MODIFICATION IN BASE WITH ATTACHMENT OF COMPONENT IN BASE OF CHOPPER..

Due to money problem the actual machine is not feasible to construct/assemble on this stage because it costs total of 20-25k Rs. But this project is very good and innovative for farmer to spray their crops without entering into field. Entering into field cost more money and time with destroy some crop plants. Due to chopper mechanism and its high density of air flow to downward direction the medicine can uniformly sprayed without any loss.

SO HERE IT IS CONCLUDED THAT AFTER SOME MODIFICATION A SIMPLE CHOPPER CAN UTILZE IN MULTIPLE WAYS... IF YOU HAVE ANY NEW IDEAS OR RECOMANDATION, IT WILL BE AN HONOUR TO US TO IMPLIMENT ON IT.

THANKS…..

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REFRENCES
                http://yaymicro.com/stock-image/crop-field-sprinkler/1260080 www.kifco.com www.waterreels.com/SportsFields.ivnu www.ul.com › Building Materials › Sprinklers en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engine www.alibaba.com/showroom/1-hp-gasoline-engine.html www.nextag.com/motor-1-hp/stores-html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chopper_(electronics) www.edaboard.com/thread241672.htm pminmo.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=607 www.physicsforums.com › Engineering › Electrical Engineering www.aviastar.org/theory/rotor.html kyvivek.tripod.com/flymec.htm www.copters.com/mech/tail_rotors.html www.rc-airplane-world.com/how-helicopters-fly.html www.glue.umd.edu/~leishman/Aero/history.html

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