Mrs. Gurinderjit kaur,

Omkar kumar jha RH4901-A12 10902923 Mechanical Engg.. IV Sem(LEET)



I hereby submit my term paper given to me by my teacher of the subject ‘MATH-142’ namely ‘Mrs. Gurinderjit kaur’.I have prepared this term paper under the guidance of my subject teacher. I would thank my class teacher, my subject teacher and my friends who have helped me to complete the term paper. I am also highly thankful to all the staff and executives of the esteemed university namely ‘LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, PHAGWARA, JALANDHAR’.

Omkar kumar jha RH-4901-A12 10902923 B-tech ME(IV Sem)

In mathematics, a Fourier series decomposes a periodic function or periodic signal into a sum of simple oscillating functions, namely sines and cosines (or complex exponentials). The study of Fourier series is a branch of Fourier analysis. Fourier series were introduced by Joseph Fourier (1768–1830) for the purpose of solving the heat equation in a metal plate. The heat equation is a partial differential equation. Prior to Fourier's work, there was no known solution to the heat equation in a general situation, although particular solutions were known if the heat source behaved in a simple way, in particular, if the heat source was a sine or cosine wave. These simple solutions are now sometimes called eigensolutions. Fourier's idea was to model a complicated heat source as a superposition (or linear combination) of simple sine and cosine waves, and to write the solution as a superposition of the corresponding eigensolutions. This superposition or linear combination is called the Fourier series. Although the original motivation was to solve the heat equation, it later became obvious that the same techniques could be applied to a wide array of mathematical and physical problems. The Fourier series has many applications in electrical engineering, vibration analysis, acoustics, optics, signal processing, image processing, quantum mechanics, econometrics, etc. Fourier series is named in honour of Joseph Fourier (17681830), who made important contributions to the study of trigonometric series, after preliminary investigations by Leonhard Euler, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and Daniel Bernoulli. He applied this technique to find the solution of

the heat equation, publishing his initial results in his 1807 Mémoire sur la propagation de la chaleur dans les corps solides and 1811, and publishing his Théorie analytique de la chaleur in 1822. From a modern point of view, Fourier's results are somewhat informal, due to the lack of a precise notion of function and integral in the early nineteenth century. Later, Dirichlet and Riemann expressed Fourier's results with greater precision and formality.

Since Fourier's time, many different approaches to defining and understanding the concept of Fourier series have been discovered, all of which are consistent with one another, but each of which emphasizes different aspects of the topic. Some of the more powerful and elegant approaches are based on mathematical ideas and tools that were not available at the time Fourier completed his original work. Fourier originally defined the Fourier series for real-valued functions of real arguments, and using the sine and cosine functions as the basis set for the decomposition. Many other Fourier-related transforms have since been defined, extending the initial idea to other applications. This general area of inquiry is now sometimes called harmonic analysis. A Fourier series, however, can be used only for periodic functions.

To recapitulate, Fourier series simplify the analysis of periodic, realvalued functions. Specifically, it can break up a periodic function into an infinite series of sine and cosine waves. This property makes Fourier series very useful in many applications. We now give a few. Consider the very common differential equation given by: x00(t) + ax0(t) + b = f(t) (23) This equation describes the motion of a damped harmonic oscillator that is driven by some function f(t). It can be used to model an extensive variety of physical phenomena, such as a driven mass on a spring, an analog circuit with a capacitor, resistor, and inductor, or a string vibrated at some frequency. There are two parts to the solution of equation (25). The first part is a transient that fades away (generally) fairly quickly. When the transient is gone, what remains is the steadystate solution. This is what we will concern ourselves with. If f(t) is a sinusoid, then the solution is also a sinusoid which is not very difficult to find. The problem is that the driver is generally not a simple sinusoid, but some other periodic function. In electronics, for example, a common driving voltage function is the square wave s(t), a periodic function (whose period we shall say is 2π) such that s(t) = 0 for −π ≤ t < 0 and s(t) = 1 for 0 ≤ t < π. The physical property of oscillating systems that makes Fourier Analysis useful is the property of superposition in other words, suppose the driving force

f1(t), along with some initial conditions, produces some steady state solution x1(t), and that another driving force, f2(t) produces the steady state solution x2(t). Then the driving force f3(t)= f1(t) + f2(t) produces the steadystate response x3(t) = x1(t) + x2(t). Then, since we can represent any period driving function as a Fourier series, and it is a simple matter to find the steady state solution to a sinusoidallydriven oscillator, we can find the response to the arbitrary driving function f(x) = a0 +(ancos(nx) + bnsin(nx)). So suppose we had our square wave equation, where f(t) is the square wave function. We could then decompose the square wave into sinusoidal components as follows:

and then just combine the cn and c−n terms as before. The result would be an infinite sum of sin and cos terms of the form in equation (2). The steadystate response of the system to the square wave would then just be the sums of the steadystate responses to the sinusoidal components of the square wave. The basic equations of the Fourier series led to the development of the Fourier transform, which can decompose a nonperiodic function much like the Fourier series decomposes a periodic function. Because this type of

analysis is very computationintensive, different FastFourier Transform algorithms have been devised, which lower the order of growth of the number of operations from order(N2) to order(n log(n)). With these new techniques, Fourier series and Transforms have become an integral part of the toolboxes of mathematicians and scientists. Today, it is used for applications as diverse as file compression (such as the JPEG image format), signal processing in communications and astronomy, acoustics, optics, and cryptography.

Fourier's formula for 2π-periodic functions using sines and cosines. For a periodic function ƒ(x) that is integrable on [−π, π], the numbers


are called the Fourier coefficients of ƒ. One introduces the partial sums of the Fourier series for ƒ, often denoted by

The partial sums for ƒ are trigonometric polynomials. One expects that the functions SN ƒ approximate the function ƒ, and that the approximation improves as N tends to infinity. The infinite sum

is called the Fourier series of ƒ. The Fourier series does not always converge, and even when it does converge for a specific value x0 of x, the sum of the series at x0 may differ from the value ƒ(x0) of the function. It is one of the main questions in harmonic analysis to decide when Fourier series converge, and when the sum is equal to the original function. If a function is squareintegrable on the interval [−π, π], then the Fourier series converges to the function at almost every point. In engineering applications, the Fourier series is generally

presumed to converge everywhere except at discontinuities, since the functions encountered in engineering are more well behaved than the ones that mathematicians can provide as counter-examples to this presumption. In particular, the Fourier series converges absolutely and uniformly to ƒ(x) whenever the derivative of ƒ(x) (which may not exist everywhere) is square integrable Convergence of Fourier series. It is possible to define Fourier coefficients for more general functions or distributions, in such cases convergence in norm or weak convergence is usually of interest.

Fourier Series of Discontinuous Functions
Yes a discontinuous function can be developed into furrier series.. Recall that a generic Fourier series

can converge to a discontinuous function f, so long as three conditions hold: 1. f must be periodic with period 2. f must be piecewise continuous 3. at each position x = q where f is discontinuous, we must have

Suppose we want to construct a Fourier series which converges to the function

on 2 ]. To do this, we define a new function S which agrees with s on s’s domain, and satisfies conditions

1. n_a_Fourier_series 2.

3. nsByFourierSeries/ 4.

5. 6. A HAND BOOK OF HIGHER ENGINEERING METHEMATICS 7. JOURNOULS LIKE Weisstein, Eric W., William E. Boyce and Richard C. DiPrima, Katznelson, Yitzhak, Felix Klein, Walter Rudin

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