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TERM PAPER

Sub. :- Mechanics of solids (MEC-201)
Topic :-SCREW JACK(strength and analysis)










Submitted to, Submitted by,
MR AJAY SIR, Omkar Kumar Jha
RH-4901-A12
10902923
MECHANICAL ENGG. (III rd TERM)
SCREW JACK
A screw jack is a portable device consisting of a screw mechanism used to
raise or lower the load.
There are two types of jack are named-hydraulic and mechanical. Hydraulic
jack consists of cylinder and piston mechanism. The movement of piston
rod is used to raise or lower the load.
Mechanical jacks can be either hand operated or power driven. Although a
jack is a simple and widely used device, the use of any lifting device is
subjected to certain hazards. In screw-jack application, hazards are
dropping, tipping or slipping of machines or their parts during the
operation. These hazards may result in serious accidents are as follows:
1. the load is improperly secured on the jack
2. The screw jack is overloaded.
3. The centre of gravity of the load is off centre with respect to the axis
of the jack.
4. The screw jack is not placed on hard and level surface.
5. The screw jack is used for a purpose, for which it is not designed.
Proper size, strength and stability are the essential requirements for the
design of the screw jack from safety consideration…
A screw jack consists of a screw and a nut. The nut is fixed in a cast iron
frame and remains stationary. The rotation of the nut inside the frame is
prevented by pressing a setscrew against it.The screw is rotated in the nut
by means of a handle that passes through a hole in the head of the screw.
The head carries a cup, which supports load and remains stationary, while
the screw is being rotated. There is a collar friction at the head of the
screw. A washer is fixed to the other end of the screw inside the frame that
prevents the screw to be completely turned out of the nut.
PROBLEM SPECIFICATIONS
It is required to design a screw jack supporting the machine parts during
their repair and maintenance on the shop floor. It should be a general
purpose jack with a load carrying capacity of 100KN and maximum lifting
height of 0.5 m. The jack is to be manually operated.
۞SELECTION OF MATERIALS:-
(i) The frame of the screw jack has complex shape. It is subjected to
compressive stress. Grey cast iron of grade FG200
(
S
ut
=
mm N
2
) is selected as the material for the frame. Cast
iron is cheap and it can be given any complex shape without
involving costly machining operation. Cast iron has higher
compressive strength compared with steel. There fore, it is
technically and economically advantageous to use cast iron for the
frame.
(ii) The screw is subjected to torsional moment, compressive force and
bending moment, from strength consideration, plain carbon steel of
grade 30C8 ( s
yt
=400
mm N
2
and E=207000
mm N
2
) is
selected as martial for the screw.
(iii) There is relative motion between the screw and the nut that results
in friction. The friction causes wear at the contacting surfaces.
When some martial is used for these two components, the surfaces
of both components get worn out, requiring replacement. This is
undesirable. The size and shape of the screw make it costly
compared with the nut. Therefore, if at all a component is to be
replaced due to wear. It should be the nut, which is less costly
compared with the screw. The wear is always restricted to softer
surface. Therefore, the nut should be made of softer material. This
protects the screw against wear. Cast verity of phosphor bronze of
grade-1 (
S
ut
=190
mm N
2
) is selected as the material for the
nut. Phosphor bronze is soft compared with hardened steel screw.
In addition to this consideration, phosphor, bronze has a low
coefficient of friction, which reduces the torque to overcome
friction at the thread surface. it has excellent conformability and
machine ability .conformability is the ability of the material to
yield and adopt its shape to that of the screw. Cost is the main
limitation of phosphor bronze. For steel screw and phosphor
bronze nut, the permissible bearing pressure (
s
b
) and coefficient
of friction
µ
are taken as 10
mm N
2
and0.1 respectively.
(iv) The handle is subjected to bending moment and yield strength is
the criterion for the selection of material .plain carbon steel of
grade 30C8 (
S
ut
=400
mm N
2
) is selected as the material for
the handle.

(v) The shape and dimensions of the cup are such that it is easier and
economical to make it by casting process. Grey cast iron of grade
FG200 is used for the cup.

۞GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS :-
1) The screw jack is manually operated. According to ergonomists, hand
force should not exceed 130 N. however; this value is permitted in
prolonged work. Jack is never operated continuously and as such a
higher value of 400 N is assumed for hand force in this analysis. It is
further assumed that two workers are required to raise the load of 100
kN. When two workers are at work, there is inconvenience and the
resultant force is less than twice the individual force. A coefficient of
0.9 is assumed in the case to account for reduction in force due to
inconvenience. Therefore, total hand force exerted on the handle by
two worker( p ) is given by,

p
= (0.9×2×400) N
2) Screw jack is lifting device and subject to certain hazards. Breakdown
of the jack has serious consequences, such as injury to the operator
and damage to the machine parts. The jack should be robust and idiot
proof. To account for this safety aspect, a higher factor of safety of 5
is used for the component of the screw jack.
DESIGN
BILL OF MATERIAL:-

۞DESIGN OF SCREW:-
Screw jack is intermittently used device and wear of the threads is not an
important consideration. Therefore, instead if trapezoidal, threads, the screw
is provided with square threads. Square threads have higher efficiency and
provision can be made for self-locking arrangement. When the condition of
self-locking is fulfilled, the load itself will not turn the screw and descend
down, unless the handle is rotated in reverse direction with some effort.
SR.NO NAME OF
COMPONENT
QUANTITY MATERIAL
1 FRAME 1 GREW CAST IRON
FG200 (IS : 210-1993)
2 SCREW 1 STEEL
30C8 (IS : 1570-1978)
3 NUT 1 PHOSPHOR BROZE
GRADE-1
(IS : 28-1975)
4 HANDLE 1 STEEL
30C8 (IS : 1570-1978)
5 CUP 1 GREY CAST IRON
FG200 (IS : 210-1993)
6 SET SCREW 1 COMMERCIAL STEEL
7 WASHER 1 -- DO --
|
.
|

\
|
d
c
W
2
4
t
|
.
|

\
|
×
d
c
2
2
4
10
100
t


The portion of the screw between the handle and the nut is subjected to
maximum stress, when the load is being raised. The screw is subjected to
torsional moment, compressive force and bending moment which is
illustrated in fig. the screw is made of plain carbon steel
(
s
yt =400
mm N
2
) assuming,
s s
yt yc
=
=400
mm N
2

And the factor of safety of 5,
o
e
=
fs
s
yc
=
5
400
=80
mm N
2

fig. no. 4,

o
e
=


Where,
d
c
is the core diameter of the screw. Substituting the values

80=


d
c
=39.89 or 40 mm.
There are additional stresses due to torsional and bending
moments. The diameter should be increased to account for these
stresses. As a first trial, a square threaded screw with 60 mm
nominal diameter and 9 mm pitch (table) is selected.









LOAD IN RAISED POSITION TORQUE DIAGRAM









COMPRESSION OF SCREW BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM
Trail no-1:-
d
=60 mm and p =9 mm
From eqs.

d
c
= p d÷ = 60-9 = 51 mm
d
m
= p d 5 . 0 ÷ =60- 0.5(9) = 55.5 mm
It is assumed that the screw has single-start threads.
p
l
=
=9 mm
d
m
t
o
1
tan =
=
( ) 5 . 55
9
t
or,
95 . 2
-
= o

The coefficient of friction between steel screw and bronze nut is normally
taken as 0.1. the maximum possible value of the friction is maximum on
account of poor lubrication. we will consider the worse case where the
operator is careless about the lubrication of the screw.
18 . 0 tan = = µ |
Or,
-
= 20 . 10 |

Since,
o | >
. The screw is self locking. Now
( ) ) tan
2
o | + =
Wd
M
m
T

=
( )
) 95 . 2 20 . 10 tan(
2
5 . 55
10 100
3
+
×

=648316.3 N-mm


The torque diagram for the screw is shown in fig. it is important to note
following points with respect to this diagram .
(i) The portion of the screw between the nut and the axis of the handle
is subjected to torque
Mt
only.
(ii) The portion of the screw between the cap and the axis of the
handle is subjected to torque
( )
c T m
.
(iii) The external torque ( )
ln
P× exerted at the axis of the handle consists
of addition of
Mt
+
( )
c T m
.
(iv) No cross-section of the screw is subjected to addition of
Mt

+
( )
c T m
.
At section X-X,
d
M
c
t
3
16
t
t = =
( ) 51
3
) 03 . 648316 ( 16
t
=24.89
mm N
2
------ (i)
|
.
|

\
|
=
dc
c
W
2
4
t
o
=
( )
2
3
51
4
10 100
t
×
=48.95
mm N
2
------ (ii)
The portion of the screw with the side view of the handle is shown in fig.
The hand force P acting on the handle cause a bending moment at
section X-X. The bending moment is given by,

l M
P
b 1
× =
The lifting height of the jack is 500mm and the distance
1
l can be assumed
as,
1
l =500 + 50 +20 =570 mm
l M
P
b 1
× = =(0.9×2×400)(570)
=410400 N-mm
Therefore,
o
b
d
M
c
b
3
32
t
=
( )
= =
3
51
) 410400 ( 32
t
31.51
mm N
2
------ (iii)


Stresses at section XX,
a) Direct compressive stresses
b) Bending stresses
c) Resultant stresses
Fig. shows the superimposition of direct compressive stress and bending
stress as determined by (ii) and (iii). In this fig., tensile and compressive
stresses are shown as positive and negative respectively. The resultant
stresses are compressive. Compressive stress closes the crack, while tensile
stress opens the crack. In general , failure is associates with tensile stress
rather than compressive stress. To be on the safe side, we will neglect the
compressive stress as determined by eq. (ii) and consider the effort of
combination of torsional shear and bending stresses as determined by eqs (i)
and (iii) respectively. The principle shear stress at section X-X, is given by,
( )
2
2
max
2
t
o
t +
|
.
|

\
|
=
b
=
( )
2
2
89 . 24
2
51 . 31
+
|
.
|

\
|
=29.46
mm N
2

The factor of safety is given by,
( ) fs
max
t
xy
s
=
max
5 . 0
t
yt
s
=
79 . 6
46 . 29
) 400 ( 5 . 0
= =

Since the factor of safety is more than 5, the design is safe. Therefore, the
screw with single start square threads of 60mm nominal diameter and 9mm
pitch is suitable for the screw jack.









BUCKLING CONSIDERATION
The buckling of columns is discussed in chapter 23; section 23.5 on buckling
of columns explains Johnson’s equation and Euler’s equation. When the load
is raised through a distance of 500 mm , the portion of the screw between the
nut and the handle acts as a column. For the purpose of buckling, the length
of the column (
l
) is taken as,
mm l 550 50 500 = + =

For a circular cross-section of diameter
c
d
,
l
=
64
4
d
c
t
and
4
2
d
c
A
t
=

A
l
K = 

Substituting values of
l
and
A
,
mm
d
K
c
75 . 12
4
51
4
= = =

Therefore, the slenderness ratio of the screw is given by,
( ) mm
k
l
14 . 43 =
-------- (i)
Since one end of the screw is fixed in the nut and the other end is free ,the
end fixity coefficient is 0.25. the borderline between the short and long
columns is given by,
( )
2
2
2
k
l
E n
s
yt
t
=

Substituting values,
( )
2
2
) 207000 ( ) 25 . 0 (
2
400
k
l
t
=

Or,
( ) 53 . 50 =
k
l
--------- (ii)
The critical slenderness ratio is 50.53. The slenderness ratio of screw
(43.14) is less than critical slenderness ratio (50.53). Therefore, the screw
should be treated as short column and Johnson’s equation is applied.
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
× ÷ =
2
2
4
1
k
l
E n
s
A S p
yt
yt ct
t


( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
) 207000 ( ) 25 . 0 ( 4
) 14 . 43 ( 400
1 51
4
400
2
2
2
t
t

=519386.04 N
The factor of safety from buckling consideration is given by,
( ) 19 . 5
10 100
04 . 519386
3
=
×
= =
W
P
fs
er

Therefore, the screw is safe against buckling.

NUT
The permissible bearing pressure between steel screw and bronze nut is
2
/ 10 mm N
. The number of threads required to support the load is Z .
( )
75 . 12
) 51 60 )( 10 (
) 10 100 ( 4 4
2 2
3
2 2
=
÷
×
=
÷
=
t t
c b
d d s
W
Z
Or, 13.
The axial length of nut (H) is given by,
H=ZP= (13) (9) =117 mm
The transverse shear stress at the root of the thread in the nut is given by,
2
3
/ 07 . 9
) 13 )( 5 . 4 )( 60 (
) 10 100 (
mm N
dtz
W
n
=
×
= =
t t
t

47 . 10
07 . 9
) 190 ( 5 . 0 5 . 0
) ( = = = =
n
ut
n
u
S S
fs
t t
o

The dimensions of the nut are shown in fig. the outer diameter of the nut is
assumed to be twice of the nominal diameter of the thread.


CUP
As shown in fig. the annular area of collar friction has outer diameter of
1.6d. the inner diameter is assumed as 0.8d
mm d D 96 ) 60 ( 6 . 1 6 . 1
0
= = =

mm d D
i
48 ) 60 ( 8 . 0 8 . 0 = = =

The collar friction torque ( )
c t
M is given by,
( ) ) (
4
i o
c
c t
D D
W
M + =
µ


mm N ÷ = +
×
= 720000 ) 48 96 (
4
) 10 100 )( 2 . 0 (
3

The total torque ( )
t t
M required to raise the load is given by,
( ) ( ) mm N M M M
c t t t t
÷ = + = + = 03 . 1368316 720000 03 . 648316

The external torque, which is exerted by two workers, is given by,
( ) ) 400 2 9 . 0 (
h
t
t
l M × × × =

mm l
h
43 . 1900 =

The length of the handle h
l
is too large and impractical. It is, therefore,
necessary to change the design of the cup and replace the sliding friction
with rolling friction by using thrust ball bearing. In thrust ball bearing, the
friction torque
( )
c
t
M
is so small, that it can be neglected.
Thrust ball bearing shown in figure is suitable for purely axial load. It is a
single-direction thrust ball bearing, because it can support axial load in one
direction only. i.e. vertically downward. This ball bearing should not be
subjected to the radial load. Single-direction thrust ball bearing are separable
and the mounting is simple as the components can be mounted individually.
There are three separable parts of this bearing known as a shaft washer, a
housing washer and the ball and cage assembly. The mounting of thrust
bearing is shown in fig. The inner diameter of the shaft washer is press fitted
in the screw body. The outer diameter of the housing washer is press fitted in
the cup. These two components are separable before final assembly.




The procedure for selection of the ball bearing from manufacture’s catalogue
is explained in section. The screw jack is intermittently used and as such the
life of the thrust bearing is assumed as 300hr. The handle is rotated manually
and it is not possible to find out the speed of rotation accurately For the
purpose of bearing selection, it is assumed that the handle rotates at 10 rpm.
Therefore, the life of the bearing in million revolutions is given by.
L = 6
10
60
bl
n

the dynamic load capacity of the bearing is given by, it is assumed that the
bore diameter of the bearing is 50mm. For this diameter, following four
bearing table are available. From above table, bearing no. 51410 with
dynamic load carrying capacity of 159000 N is selected for the jack. The
dimension of the bearing are follows:
The dimensions of the cup are shown in figure. The section thickness is kept
20 mm throughout as far as possible.








BEARING SELECTION
0
c
=static load capacity C=dynamic load capacity

Sr.
no.
d
(mm)
D
(mm)
H
(mm)
C
(N)
0
c
(N)
) (
1
mm D

Designation
1 50 70 14 25500 50000 52 51110
2 50 78 22 41600 73500 52 51210
3 50 95 31 97500 160000 52 51310
4 50 110 43 159000 250000 52 51410
HANDLE
The handle is subjected to bending moment. The force exerted by two
workers on the handle is given by,
N P ) 400 2 9 . 0 ( × × × =

The handle is made of steel 30c8 (
SYT
= 400
mm N
2
). There is no collar
friction torque. Therefore,
( )
t
t h b
M l p M = × =

And,

3
32
h
b
b
d
M
t
o =


The handle is inserted through a hole in
the head of the screw as shown in figure.
Two holes are provided, at right angles to
each other, for changing the position of
the handle after a quarter revolutions.
The dimensions of the cast iron frame are
shown in figure.



.


SAFETY ASPECT
To guard against injury to the workers and prevent damage to the machine
parts, following safety measure should be taken:
1. After fabrication the mechanical jack should be proof tested. In proof
test, the jack is loaded to 150%of its rated load, with the lifting
member at approximately 90% of full extension. After this text, the
jack should be functional for full extensions under 100% of lifting
rated load.
2. The jack should be provided with a warning. a sample of warning is as
follows:
“WARNING; DOES NOT OVERLOAD JACK. PLACE LOAD ON
THE CENTER OF CUP ONLY. PLACE THE FRAME OF JACK ON
HARD LEVEL SURFACE. LOAD AND STAND SHALL BE STABLE,
STUDY,UNDERSTAN AND FOLLOW ALL INSTRUCTIONS.
FAILURE TO HEED THIS WARNING MAY RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR PROPERTY DAMAGE.”
3. Following operational instructions should be given in the manual or
leaflet of the jack:
i) Jack shall be visually examined for general condition before
each shift or each use, which ever is less frequent.
ii) A determination of the load shall be made to assure that it is
within the load rating of the jack.
iii) The jack shall be firmly supported at the base such that it is
stable under load.
iv) Operators shall be instructed in proper use of the jack.
v) Remove the handle when not in use to avoid accidental
dislocation of the jack and reduce tripping hazard.
vi) Take precaution to ensure that all personnel are clear of the
load before lowered.
vii) Ensure that there is sufficient swing area for the handle.
viii) Off-centre loading of jacks should be avoided.
4. The rated load should be legibly and durably marked in a prominent
position on the jack.
5. The nut and the thrust ball bearing of the jack should be regularly
lubricated with grease.
The analysis of strength and stability considerations in design is no doubt
essential for safety. However, they are not enough to prevent an accident.
It is also essential to have personal involved in the use and operation of
jack to be careful, component, trained and qualified in safe operation of
the screw jack and in proper use…….

NOTE:-
ALL THE DATA AND CALCULATION MENTIONED HERE IS TAKEN
AS VARIABLE AND THE VALUE MAY DEPANDS UPON SIZE AND
WORKING CONDITION..BUT THE FORMULA WILL ALWAYS
CONSIDERD AS STANDERD….

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