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velocity from seismic data, our ability to discriminate

between different lithologies and fluid phases will increase.

Prestack inversion on individual CDP gathers and invert-

ing directly for V

P

, V

S

, and density have been tested in sev-

eral ways, but the estimated parameters are often poorly

determined.

A more robust approach is to apply poststack inver-

sion on partial stacks. For inversion of the near-offset stack,

AI can be calculated directly from well logs. However, for

the far-offset stack, we need to derive an equivalent of the

acoustic impedance that can be used to calibrate the non-

zero-offset seismic reflectivity. Connolly (1998, 1999)

derived such an equivalentelastic impedance (EI)and

demonstrated how, by using elastic impedance logs (which

requires shear-wave logs), he was able to perform well cal-

ibration and inversion of far-offset data.

This article describes a new functionshear-wave elas-

tic impedance (SEI)for linking converted-wave stacks to

wells using a linearization of the Zoeppritz equations. SEI

is similar to EI but adapted to P-S converted seismic data.

It can be computed from acoustic log data (P- and S-wave

velocities and density) and used for well calibration,

wavelet estimation, and inversion of P-S reflectivity data

leading to improved interpretability of converted wave

data. (Equation 4 in Appendix 1 is the key mathematical

formula in this approach to SEI).

Example of SEI. To test the SEI technique, we used a 3-D

four-component (4-C) ocean-bottom cable (OBC) survey

acquired in 1997 that covers approximately 10 km

2

of the

Statfjord Field (Rogn et al., 1999). Both P-wave and con-

verted-wave data were 3-D prestack time-migrated. The

hydrophone (P) and the vertical geophone (Z) component

were summed to attenuate receiver side water-layer rever-

berations and both data sets (PZand P-S) were decimated.

The summed P and Z data are hereafter denoted PZ data.

1222 THE LEADING EDGE NOVEMBER 2000 NOVEMBER 2000 THE LEADING EDGE 0000

Shear-wave elastic impedance

KENNETH DUFFAUT, TRINE ALSOS, Statoil, Trondheim, Norway

MARTIN LANDR, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

HEGE ROGN, NAZIH F AL-NAJJAR, Statoil, Trondheim, Norway

Figure 1. Logs from well A, including (left to right)

gamma log superimposed on net sand; EI; Zs; SEI; and

EI (blue) and scaled SEI (orange).

Figure 2. The elastic impedance well tie in P-P time

(left) and the shear elastic impedance well tie in P-S

time (right).

Figure 3. Estimated wavelets for the PZ (green) and P-S (red) volumes on the left and corresponding amplitude

spectra on the right.

The area used in the poststack inversion consists of 70 in-

lines and 110 cross-lines with a common bin size of 25

25 m. The estimated angle range for the individual stacks

is 5-25 for the PZ volume and 7-47 for the P-S volume.

Figure 1 shows several logs from well A. The two main

reservoir units, the Brent Group and the Statfjord

Formation, are mainly sandstone and shales. The Cook

Formation is the only prolific unit within the Dunlin Group

composed of sand interbedded with shales.

The EI and SEI logs were computed by integrating

over the given angle ranges. In computing the SEI log, we

estimated an average K (=V

S

/V

P

) value of 0.52 and an aver-

age incidence angle of about 27. This explains the simi-

larity between the shear-impedance (Zs) and the SEI log

in Figure 1. The EI and the SEI logs, scaled with an aver-

age value for the reservoir interval, are broadly similar

1224 THE LEADING EDGE NOVEMBER 2000 NOVEMBER 2000 THE LEADING EDGE 0000

Figure 4. Cross-sections of PZ (left) and P-S data (right) through Statfjord Field. Data in both cross-sections have

the same polarity.

Figure 6. Elastic impedance plotted against shear elastic impedance log (left). The EI (blue) and scaled SEI (orange)

logs on the right show an opposite impedance contrast near the Top Cook interface.

Figure 5. Cross-sections through inverted PZ (left) and P-S seismic volumes with superimposed impedance logs

from well A. The sections display absolute elastic and shear elastic impedance obtained from combining inverted

seismic and low-frequency trends from log data.

except near Top Drake, Top Cook, and Top Nansen.

Figure 2 shows examples of PZ and P-S seismic stacks

tied to elastic and shear elastic impedance logs in well A.

The central part of the log interval (Top Dunlin [Drake] to

Top Statfjord [Nansen]) has a good fit between synthetic

seismograms and stacks. The discrepancy between the

synthetic and real data near the top and bottom of the reser-

voir interval may be caused by the high deviation angle

of the well (54) and variation in data quality. The synthetic

seismograms for EI and SEI are computed using 1-D con-

volution.

Wavelet analysis was done separately for the PZ and

P-S volumes. In each case, data were matched to the com-

puted elastic impedance and the shear elastic impedance

logs at the wells. The PZ (green) and P-S (red) wavelets

are close to zero phase (left side of Figure 3). The two

wavelets have similar phase properties; however, there

are significant frequency bandwidth differences. Their cor-

responding amplitude spectra are on the right of Figure 3.

The passband of the PZ wavelet is centered at 20 Hz, and

the P-S wavelet is centered at 10 Hz.

Figure 4 shows final processed PZ and P-S stacks for

in-line 430. Note the significant difference in the frequency

content. This makes time interpretation challenging

because the seismic response of the reflecting interfaces

within the PZ and P-S data appears quite different. The

vertical resolution is, however, quite similar for the PZand

P-S volumes. There is a significant amplitude difference

between the P-S and PZ synthetic seismograms (Figure 2)

for the Cook interval. This amplitude difference is also

apparent on the real seismic sections (Figure 4). Figure 6,

a plot of EI versus SEI from well A, indicates that the sandy

Cook interval will be easier to detect in the inverted P-S

volume than the inverted PZ volume.

The corresponding inverted sections are shown (Figure

5) with overlays of EI and SEI logs from well A. The data

were inverted using a sparse spike algorithm with con-

straints from the EI and SEI logs. In the SEI section, a large

continuous impedance contrast separates the Cook

Formation into low and high SEI layers. This impedance

increase correlates with the porosity decrease through the

Cook interval. Asimilar impedance boundary is less appar-

ent in the inverted PZvolume. Another interesting feature

is a continuous low impedance layer below Top Statfjord

in the EI section. A similar feature is less apparent in the

SEI section, which is expected due to a smaller SEI con-

trast across the Top Statfjord interface (Figures 2 and 3).

This feature corresponds to the position of the gas-fluid

contact in the upper part of the Statfjord Formation. Figure

7 compares seismically derived EI and SEI traces (blue) and

their corresponding log impedance (red) at two blind wells.

The seismically derived EI trace and the log-derived EI

match very well especially within the reservoir below the

Top Viking. A good match is also obtained between the

seismically derived SEI trace and the log-derived SEI in

the lowermost part of the reservoir interval.

Estimation of V

P

/V

S

from inverted seismic data. Two

cubes are output from the poststack inversion of the OBC

data: an elastic impedance cube and a shear elastic imped-

ance cube. These were combined to compute an instanta-

neous V

P

/V

S

volume. Figure 8 shows a V

P

/V

S

cross-section

of in-line 430 (position of line shown in Figure 9). Proper

P-P and P-S event correlation is crucial because it has con-

siderable effect on the outcome of this sample-by-sample

based V

P

/V

S

computation. Prior to V

P

/V

S

computation, the

SEI volume is transformed to P-Ptime using interval V

P

/V

S

ratios derived from the event correlation. In addition, to

perform the computation, we need to choose a mean value

for K (V

S

/V

P

= 0.5) and density (2.24 g/cm

3

).

To reduce the impact of minor mismatches in the event

correlation, average interval V

P

/V

S

maps can be computed

from average impedance maps. Figure 9 shows attribute

maps extracted over the upper part of the Statfjord

Formation.

A band of low V

P

/V

S

trending nearly N-S appears in

the eastern part of the map. This coincides with the posi-

tion of the gas-fluid contact within the formation. Asim-

ilar feature is seen as a low-impedance boundary on the

EI map to the left but not on the SEI map (middle).

Conclusions. Anew quantity derived from acoustic well

log measurements, denoted shear-wave elastic impedance,

is presented. Computing shear-wave elastic impedance in

addition to acoustic and elastic impedance logs makes it

possible to compare the relative strength between P-P and

P-S events and to predict which interfaces might give

strong P to S conversions. When V

S

/V

P

is close to 0.5 at

incidence P-wave angles around 30, the SEI log is approx-

imately equal to the shear impedance log.

We have shown, with real data from the Statfjord Field,

how SEI links converted-wave data to well logs. SEI can

be used for P-S data as EI is used for P-P data. The tech-

nique is easy to implement in conventional interpretation

packages where the SEI log can constrain the poststack

inversion. The output from such an inversion could be

directly compared with the shear-wave elastic impedance

curve derived from acoustic well logs. Finally, elastic

impedance and shear-wave elastic impedance can be com-

bined to compute instantaneous V

P

/V

S

. The V

P

/V

S

estimate

is based upon amplitude and may therefore serve as com-

plementary (and more detailed) information for travel-

time estimates of V

P

/V

S

.

Suggested reading. SumicAnew strategic tool for explo-

ration and reservoir mapping by Berg et al. (EAEG Expanded

Abstracts, 1994). Calibration and inversion of nonzero-offset

seismic by Connolly (SEG 1998 Expanded Abstracts). Elastic

1226 THE LEADING EDGE NOVEMBER 2000 NOVEMBER 2000 THE LEADING EDGE 0000

Figure 7. Blind well comparisons for EI (left) and SEI

(right) for two wells show that the inversion (blue)

corresponds fairly well with the log-derived imped-

ance (red).

impedance by Connolly (TLE, 1999). Well calibration of

seabed seismic data by Landr et al. (SEG 1999 Expanded

Abstracts). The Alba Field ocean bottom cable seismic sur-

vey: Impact on development by MacLeod et al. (TLE, 1999).

The Statfjord 3-D, 4-C OBC survey by Rogn et al. (TLE,

1999). Elastic impedance inversion by VerWest and Masters

(SEG 2000 Expanded Abstracts). Converted-wave imaging of

Valhall Reservoir by Thomsen et al. (EAGE 1997 Expanded

Abstracts). L

E

Acknowledgments: We thank Statoil and the Statfjord license partners

for permission to present the sea bed seismic data.

Corresponding author: K. Duffaut, kdu@statoil.com

Appendix 1

Connolly (1998, 1999) derived the angle or offset equiv-

alent of acoustic impedance, and used the term elastic

impedance (EI). According to Connolly, EI is defined as:

(1)

where EI() is the elastic impedance log at incidence P-

wave angle ; V

P

, V

S

, and denote the P-wave and S-wave

velocity and density, respectively; and K is the average

V

S

/V

P

.

The basic assumption about elastic impedance is that

it should play the same role for angle-dependent P-wave

reflectivity as AI does for zero-offset reflectivity. If that con-

dition is fulfilled, one can apply poststack inversion

schemes on partial stacks. For an incidence angle of zero,

EI equals AI. However, note that the magnitude and units

of EI vary with angle. VerWest and Masters (2000) pre-

sented a dimensionless version of this equation. EI logs

are now being used as a quick way of assessing AVO char-

acteristics expected from a given well, and as a tool for cal-

ibration and inversion of partial stack volumes.

An approximate equation (assuming weak contrasts

and small angles) for P to S reflectivity, R

PS

(), as a func-

tion of incidence P-wave angle at a plane interface is:

(2)

1228 THE LEADING EDGE NOVEMBER 2000 NOVEMBER 2000 THE LEADING EDGE 0000

Figure 9. Average EI (left), SEI (middle), and V

P

/V

S

maps computed within the upper part of the Statfjord

Formation. White line shows position of cross-section.

Figure 8. Cross-section through V

P

/V

S

volume with V

P

/V

S

logs superimposed (left) and a wiggle trace comparison

between seismically derived V

P

/V

S

(blue) and log-derived V

P

/V

S

(orange) at well A (right).

EI Vp

1 tan

2

Vs

8K

2

sin

2

4K

2

sin

2

( )

p

p p p

+ ( ) ( ) ( ) 1

Rps

1

2

1

Vs

Vs

sin ( ) ( )

p K K p + + + ( )

1

]

1

2 4

Vs

Vs

sin

3

K K

K

p + +

_

,

_

,

1

]

1

( )

1

2

2

4

where

and

denote the fractional changes in density and S-wave veloc-

ity across an interface and the bar denotes the average.

To relate SEI to P-S reflectivity in the same way that AI

relates to P-P reflectivity, the following equation must be

fulfilled:

(3)

Subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the layer above and below the

interface, respectively. To derive SEI with a similar depth

trend as acoustic, elastic, and shear impedance, we choose

to use the negative offsets of CCP (common conversion

point) gathers. Aone-term version of SEI (using only the

first term in equation 2 in the derivation) is given by

Landr et al. (1999). A higher-order approximation is

obtained by combining equations 2 and 3

(4)

where

K is assumed constant in the derivation of equation 4. For

an incidence angle of zero, SEI(p=0) equals 1 (no con-

trasts), corresponding to no P-to-S conversion (as expected).

Figure A1 compares P-S reflectivity using the one-term SEI

equation, the two-term SEI equation, and Zoeppritz equa-

tion for a two-layer model. For incidence P-wave angles

above 25, the one-term SEI equation is probably not suf-

ficiently accurate. One should bear in mind that most con-

verted waves are generated at higher incidence angles,

hence we should use the two-term SEI equation (4).

Asimpler P-S reflectivity function using only the shear

impedance contrast can be written

(5)

where

denotes the shear impedance contrast and

is an angle dependent scalar.

It is assumed in this derivation that the density con-

trast is small compared with the shear impedance contrast,

and that the average V

S

/V

P

ratio equals 0.5. Figure A2 illus-

trates the P-S reflectivity error between equations 5 and 3

at incidence angles of 10, 30, and 40. The error curves

are computed by varying only the V

P

. Given the model in

Figure A1 (V

S

/V

P

= 0.6), the error is approximately -15%

for all three angles. For an incidence angle of 30 and K

equal to 0.5, SEI is approximately equal to the shear imped-

ance. For other incidence angles and K values different from

0.5, the error in P-S reflectivity increases.

0000 THE LEADING EDGE NOVEMBER 2000 NOVEMBER 2000 THE LEADING EDGE 1229

Figure A1. Comparison of P-S reflectivity versus inci-

dence P-wave angle for one- and two-term SEI equa-

tions and Zoeppritz equation. Layer properties are

given in the table.

Figure A2. Estimated P-S reflectivity error plotted

against V

S

/V

P

between the simplified express (equation

5) and the two-term SEI equation (equations 3 and 4).

Vs

Vs

Rps Rps

+

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

p p

SEI p SEI p

SEI p SEI p

2 1

2 1

SEI Vs

m n

( )

, ,

p

K p K p

( ) ( )

m K

p

p p , ( )

( )

( ) ( )

1

]

1

+ 4Ksin 1

1

2

1 2K sin

2

n K

p

p p , ( )

( )

( ) ( )

1

]

1

1

1

+

+

+

_

,

( )

1 2K sin 1

K 1

3

2

K

1 2K

sin

2

Rps

Zs

Zs

( ) p S

p

( )

Zs

Zs

S

p p p

( )

sin cos

2

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