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Group 4 Reporters: Bermudez, Jay Clark Pagapulaan, Erica Payor, Honey Lhou Roa, Joddy Ann
CHAPTER 1: ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS AND METHODS
What is Architectural Design? Concept that focuses on the components or elements of a structure or system and unifies them into a coherent and functional whole, according to a particular approach in achieving the objective(s) under the given constraints or limitations What is Process? o o a systematic series of actions a continuous action, operation, or series of changes taking placein a definite manner
What is Methods? o o o a procedure, technique, or way of doing something, especially inaccordance with a definite plan a manner or mode of procedure, especially an orderly, logical, or systematic way of instruction, inquiry, investigation, experiment,presentation, etc order or system in doing anything.
Stages in Designing 1. Design Analysis - Design involves problem solving and solving demands idea production. Creativity needs a positive attitude. So don’t dismiss your own or another’s idea too quickly. Articulate them, listen to them fully, and if possible add other ideas to them. Talking through ideas with other person or a group can help in their development. - An example is the spider’s web and the honey comb 2. Tentative Solutions - It is a process for generating creative ideas and solutions through intensive and freewheeling group discussion. Every participant is encouraged to think aloud and suggest as many ideas as possible, no matter seemingly how outlandish or bizarre. 3. Criticism - The analysis and judgment of the merits and faults of an artistic work Important traits: o Faith and Confidence – Say what you feel. Question what you do not understand. Speak out when you disagree with something. Let your thoughts be known; maybe someone else will hear them and will help you to develop them into a successful venture. Tenacity - the quality or fact of being very determined. Tenacity means to stick with something even
when the going gets tough. Never give up. Never surrender! Tenacity all so means the quality or state of being.
4. Operational Process o Conceptual Design - A phase where abstract information were gathered to create a more specific idea.
To some people, conceptual design is nothing more than making prototypes. These same people may believe that a prototype can either be something that will eventually be a finished product, or something that is simply a futuristic design that is not practical.
Operational Design - A framework in the course of designing that develops the specifications of a design - The phase of stability development
5. Geometric - The detailed visual intern-relationships between all the parts of the building as the operational stage develop.
Methodology o o o Also called systematic method of problem solving Builds upon the concept by helping to make the best use of the design tools acquired in creativity Organization – a process that can save time, make better use of your time and know what you do with your time.
Design method and design tools 1. Design Method - Is the vehicle you use to get a project from its beginning to its end destination o Imagineering - Means to let your imagination soar and then engineer it back to reality and achieve a balance
E.g. In the past people used to imagine themselves flying towards the sky, now after the invention of airplane, they can now go to the sky; it is now a reality. 2. Design Tools a. Prestatement - A statement of the problem that you and the designer will have to resolve E.g. Client says “we don’t have enough room for all of our good students.” All we need from you is a regular room for the kids to learn in-30 desks, chair, and a blackboard. Just tell us where to put this room, order the furniture for it, and we’ll do it.
b. Information - Exhaustible stage at which you uncover all of the details that relate to your problem - Sources of information 1. Literature 2. Experienced Persons 3. Observations
Example: o o o o o o o o o Good colours for concentration are pastel yellow, pink, green, and blue Small group discussion and lectures will occur in the space Outside distractions, such as noise, are undesirable Twenty-six students will be accommodated Carpeting will help cut down on noise Strong contrasts of colours will enliven the space Free space will add flexibility for furnishings and classroom activities The atmosphere must be conductive to learning The students are usually unmotivated toward learning
c. Problem Statement o In this phase you can identify the true problem based on the information you had collected o E.g. the school needs a space in which low-achieving students will feel motivated to learn and investigate. It should be away from unnecessary environmental distractions but near the other classrooms and students. The area should support variety of classroom activities, including lectures, group discussions, and physical activity. Flexibility is highly desirable d. Analysis(Think stage) - You should be thinking about the situation in parts methodically and arrange it into an order you determine to be the best o o o Example: Partial Solution 1. Carpeting should be placed where lectures occur so that the space will be quitter 2. Strong colour contrasts should be used where discussions will occur 3. Audio-visual aids should be placed where the entire class can benefit from them 4. Audio-visual aids that can be operated individually by each student should be provided e. Synthesis Combined Solution Two classroom sections will be created; one for small group discussions will utilize contrasting colour schemes; a lecture space will be painted as paste colour. For acoustical purposes, the entire space will be carpeted. Venetian blinds, allowing the light and visual control of the outside surroundings, will be installed at outside windows. Audio-visual aids and other teaching aids will be available throughout the space for individual and group use. Partial Solution – a solution to one part of the problem Combined Solution – combination of all partial solution that deals with the final decision made for the major aspect of the problem
Conceptualization of the project’s solution in a graphic manner. Use visual material and show what the final product will be.
Example: All drawings, sketches, verbal descriptions, models, or other visual that relate to the project belong here.
Evaluation - It can take place in different time. It can be done after the project has been finished and has been use for a while. - By visiting the space, you can effectively judge the result and make whatever changes are necessary. Or checking your design before actual construction of the project by questioning yourself based on what you set out to accomplish Example: 1. Does the space accommodate twenty six students in both physically active and sedentary activities? 2. Is the space flexible? 3. Does space contain a variety of teaching aids and areas? 4. Are outside destructions minimal? In any given locality the height of buildings/ structures shall be governed by the following factors: a. Population density Consider both the present and projected density in the area b. Building bulk - For a given volume of building/structures, that w/c has a lesser area of ground coverage may be built higher than that of greater area of ground coverage c. Widths of streets - Provide for adequate light and ventilation and accessibility d. Traffic conditions and parking/loading requirements - Provide effective control of traffic and adequate parking/loading facilities e. Provisions of land use plans and zoning ordinances f. Geological conditions: - Consider soil characteristics, location in relation to fault lines and earthquake belts and proximity of volcanoes g. Hydrological conditions: - Consider the water table at the site and distance to waterways and shorelines h. Meteorological conditions: - Consider the frequency and intensity of destructive typhoons, prevailing wind direction, relative humidity, amount of precipitation and the prevailing ambient i. Environmental condition - Provide effective control of air, noise and thermal pollution. Promote growth of vegetation. Optimize natural light and ventilation. j. Availability and capacity of public utility/service systems: - Consider availability and adequacy of electric power, potable and non-potable water supple, drainage and sewerage, transportation and communication facilities.
Energy and Architectural Design Heat, light, sound, and water are important elements in the design of spaces, along with colour, texture, material, and form. All the elements mentioned can be blended to give each place its distinctive character.
Energy Consumption in Buildings The energy demands of a structure are a function of (1) its design, (2) the environment in w/c it is located, and (3) the way in w/c it is operated
Priorities Nationwide the systems which consume the most energy in order of magnitude are heating and ventilating, lightning air conditioning (cooling) and ventilitating, equipment and processes, and domestic hot water. However, the systems which consume the most energy in order of magnitude of energy use among the first three systems will change, depending on the climate ; the building construction use and mode of operation , and type , control and efficiency of the mechanical and electrical equipment . Example : a. The amount of energy required for domestic hot water is significant in hospitals, housing, and athletic or cooking facilities in schools and colleges. b. Religious buildings and public halls, which frequently include meeting rooms, offices and school facilities are most likely to conserve energy in the same pattern as office buildings in the same geographic location –but in smaller quantities per square meter of floor area. c. In those retail stores with high levels of general illumination and display lightning, and /or a large number of commercial refrigeration units, electricity consumes the greatest amount of energy. d. Where the designers should concentrate his design effort on his perceptions of problems essence and its unique characteristics. e. What the physical elements to be manipulated one with in each of the issue categories.
Building Process Successful Conservation techniques have three aims : i. ii. iii. Design team The energy core of the design team consist of the : 1. Architect – chief of the design team. 2. Mechanical Engineer – has responsiblity for plumbing , heating , ventilating , air conditioning , electrical , and other mechanical systems required by the building or its occupants. 3. Energy Consultant – An emerging specialist created by the energy crisis . To make the client both aware of conservation as one of many needs and willing to provide the money to satisfy it. To create a similar awareness in the designer to include conservation as a design consideration. To ensure that the builder capably incorporate these determinations into the final structure.
Design Sequence 1. Schematic design – which is a time for becoming acquainted , for examining requirements , for exploring assets , for investigating controls , and setting timetables. o The following information should be gathered and made available for discussion: a. Current and projected availability of energy fuels(oil, gas, electricity) and similar data w/ respect to energy prices or rate schedules. b. Current energy consumption by buildings similat in scope. These data will provide energy budgets that can be valuable points of reference as the design process moves along. c. Current energy conservation techniques being employed in similar structures. In a fastchangeing field like energy, constant updating is critical and the latest input from professional, government, trade and academic sources shoud be sought. d. Recent changes in design criteria. Codes and criteria w/c affect energy are undergoing substanial revision in the wake of the energy crisis. e. Implications of alternate energy sources(solar,wind) with respect to the proposed structure. 2. Designing Development – in this phase, various enegry options are explored and assessed, and final strategies agreed upon. One of the danger of this phase, particularly as it affects energy, occurs when the Architect pursues and completes design development work with only minimal input from the other consultant. Having conducted their investigation first, the consultants will be able to advise the architect on such matters as: Fenestration - the percentage of openings for each orientations. Insulations - For walls , roof and cellar levels, at interior partitions separating spaces which are treated differently. Spaces and Structural Requirements: together with optimal locations for major items of equipment such as reservoirs for energy . Horizontal Spaces Requirements: Ceiling and Roof Plenums. Vertical Space Requirements :For Ducts, Shafts, and insulations. Exterior Equipment :On roofs , adjacent to to build on the ground , louver openings, and any other items visible on the outside of the building.
Reserve Spaces : Not needed for energy supply situation projected for initial building occupancy , desirable to accomodate future changes deemed probalble in the light of continuing changes in energy availability. 3. Construction Documents – every element of structure is committed to paper during this phase 4. Bidding or Negotiaitons – it emphasizes lower initial costs rather than lower life-cycle costs. 5. Constructions Administration. – it is advisable for the staff who will operate the structure to be on hand while the final tuning up is being accomplished. Environmental Planning o o o o o o On ground Over Ground In Ground Underground On Slope At base over slope o o o o o o In Slope under Slope In Valley Bridging Valley Over Valley Build Around Hill Around natural rocks and trees Contrasr slope with profile
Mimic slope with profile Relate building profile to land
Contrast people with land
Elements of Site Control The purpose of site control is to modify adverse climatic forces at a distance before they impact the building. The elements of site control include windbreaks, shade trees, ground surfaces, orientation to the sun and to the wind, and underground structures.
1. o o 2. o
Solar Shading in summer. Shading by structural elements- This influence affects the facades of buildings. They are being designed to intercept exteriorly the rays of the sun in summer. Powered Louvers to Diminish Heat Gain White Roofs and Desert Cooling Evaporative Cooling- in hot arid regions, a method of cooling simpler than that of the compressive evaporate refrigeration cycle can be very effective. Evaporating cooling is an ancient method of lowering air temperature. As water is evaporated to vapor, heat is drawn from the air, reducing its temperature. White roofs- in reflecting heat away instead of absorbing it, which increases the temperature of rooms below , while roofs are effective Passive Solar Planning
In utilizing the sun, the first principles are to exclude it from interior space in summer and to accept interiorly (with adjustable drapes) for warmth in December, January and Mid- February the cold months. It is achieved by: Orientation- By carefully considering the location of the building, how it will relate to the sun and breezes. Materials- For passive design approach materials to be used should not absorb heat, For instance metal should be avoided. Features- the building should designed to allow the free flow of the breeze to all work spaces. Orientation to the wind- Windbreaks consist of either a fence or a row of trees or shrubs which reduce air infiltration through windows by diminishing the wind pressure.
Natural Heating and Day lighting
If the sun’s energy is to be used directly for heating in the cold season (winter), it can also contribute to the illumination of the heated space. Heat storage- By avoiding transport systems duct , pipes, fans, and pumps as well as heat exchangers and complicated controls , significant amounts of money are saved , the operation and maintenance are simplified and reduced in cost, and in comfort and efficiency can actually be increased.
5. Windowless Buildings- it is quite evident that glass frequently a problem sometimes it can be omitted. Buildings or large sections thereof can be enclosed by opaque walls. An example of a department’s store. 6. Utilization of Natural Growth
Shades trees- Deciduous trees provide shade in the summer and admit light in the winter. Every green provide shade in the summer and reduce window heat loss to right sky in winter. Trees reduce window heat gain not only by blocking direct sunlight penetration but also by lowering the ground surface temperature. 7. o o Equipment on the Roof Entering Services- can comprise Electricity, oil, gas, and water. Leaving the Building- (sewage and storm water, obviously relate to lower levels of the structure.
8. Utilization of Water Air- when a fire is produced, the cold air around the hollow heated and hot air goes above to the duct which goes to bedrooms through the ceiling. 9. Thermo siphoning- in some cases , it is possible to move fluids (liquid) without mechanical aid by natural convection or THERMOSIPHONING 10. Building Configuration
The overall shape of a building affects the amount of energy consume. In general, a configuration that resists unwanted heat transmission for a given enclosed volume, a building should be constructed with minimum expose surface area. This exception to this generalization about a buildings configuration is the situation where the primary thermal load id the result not of the environment , but rather of internally generated conditions. o o o o o o o 11. 12. Tall Buildings Floor-to-Ceiling height Ceiling Plenum Height Roofs Exposed Floors Building Forms Zigzag Walls Ground Surfaces Underground Structures
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