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Chai1*, Marfaisal Marzuki1, Het Kaliang2 and John Sabang1
SARAWAK FORESTRY Corporation 1Sarawak Forest Tree Seed Bank, Semengoh, KM 20, Jalan Puncak Borneo, 93250 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia 2Botanical Research Centre, Semengoh, KM 20, Jalan Puncak Borneo, 93250 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia *

Abstract Plantation-grown Kelampayan trees were subjected to serious attacks by stem borer. A study was conducted to evaluate stem borer infestation intensity in Kelampayan plantations in Sarawak. An average of 70% stem borer attacks were found in a few selected local forest plantations. Analyses on the impact of stem borer attack on growth suggested that stem borer attack did not affect the growth performance of Kelampayan trees. Attacks were concentrated at the lower part of the trunk, less than 1 m from the ground level. Intensive silvicultural practice, however, might reduce the susceptibility of stem borer attack. Biological, chemical and silvicultural control and prevention trials are in progress. Keywords: growth performance, intensive silvicultural practice, biological, chemical and silvicultural control.

Introduction Establishment of forest plantations is essential to avoid shortage of timber from the natural forests for exportation and to avoid impact of logs as a temporarily solution. In relation to this, Sarawak is targeting in establishing one million hectares of planted forest by the year 2020, which requires an estimate of 30 million seedlings per annum (Anon, 2009). Since 2003, Kelampayan has been introduced as a potential fast growing tree species suitable for forest plantation establishment in Sarawak. To date, 18,851 hectars of Kelampayan were planted, however, Kelampayan plantations declined from 14% in 2007 to 8% among the entire tree species planted. Kelampayan plantations have reported that Kelampayan planted in the field in Sarawak has low survival rate and its growth performance is not as expected. Pest problem in the Kelampayan plantation is widespread especially for stem borers (Marzuki, 2007). Stem borers are economically important, causing degradation of the wood quality and results in the loss of the timber value. Nevertheless, the extent of damage relating to the wood quality, mortality and growth performance has never been determined. The objectives of the present study were to determine the relative importance of the borers by evaluating their infestation intensity in Kelampayan plantations in Sarawak, and to study the control and prevention methods in overcoming stem borer problem in the plantations.

From the observation. of sample tree 63 96 109 27 Percentage of trees being attacked (%) 78 54 63 81 In general. as well as the distribution of the sites. . However. up to an average of 70% of stem borer attack were detected within the Kelampayan trees aged 1-4 years. therefore our studies were largely restricted to this species. We also surveyed trees at the age of 1-6 months after planting. selected based on the plantation scale. The visual observation on the cross-section indicates that the wood could still be utilized for reconstituted wood using technology such as finger jointing (Lai Jiew Kok. certain trends were reasonably clear. From the surveillance.). comm. pers. Cross sections of several Kelampayan trees showing symptoms of attack were made to determine the extent of wood damage (Figure 1). the first emergent occurred as early as 6 months after planting. Our appraisals indicated that Endoclita sp. severe stem borer attacks did not have a momentous contribution to the high mortality rate of Kelampayan in local forest plantations. The larvae bore at the base of the tree stem. usually less than one meter from the ground level. giving the overall notion of the incidence. such consistency was not found in our two provenance trial plots. of sample plot 3 (60x25 m) 3 (60x25 m) 9 (20x20 m) 1 (20x20 m) Age (year) 3-4 <3 1-3 2 No. particularly in those where the young trees had been stressed by weed competition. The borer attacks were common in those where the trees had been stressed by grass competition or inappropriate silvicultural practices.Incidence of Stem Borer Attacks in Kelampayan Plantations and Its Extent of Damage Inspections were made within the year 2008-2009 at four local forest plantations. The tunnels created by the stem borer were observed to be generally about 15-30 cm deep with diameter of around 1-2 cm. was at that time the most widespread of the insect pests present in Kelampayan plantations (Marzuki. Table 1 shows the prevalence of stem borer attacks in Sarawak Kelampayan plantations. Whereas the pattern of abundance of stem borer was broadly consistent in most local forest plantations. The sampling data obtained were inadequate to describe the incidence and distribution of the stem borer attacks in Kelampayan plantations in Sarawak. high incidences. 2007). Nevertheless. Stem borers were common in many plantations. Table 1: Incidence of attacks by the Kelampayan stem borer in Kelampayan plantations in Sarawak Stand Song Kanowit I Kanowit II Kapit I No. we also predict that there is an invariably association between the peak of occurrence and the difference in seasons.

C & D) Dead Kelampayan tree with its borer attack.A B C D E F Figure 1: Symptoms of stem borer attack and the extent of damage. B) Presense of pupal exuvia indicating recent adult emergence. . A) Symptom of stem borer with the present of frass and sap oozing from the entry point. E & F) Well-grown Kelampayan tree with multi-attack of stem borer.

33 0.63 5.3yr) 24 (2.7 8.0 50.1yr) 27 (2.7 50.18 2.0 66.04 4.53 2.12 4. .60 0.00 0.08 0.3 20.0 79.70 0 1.3 33.11 0.1 0 Past Attacks 93.2 88.83 0.20 0.63 0 % of trees with Present Attacks 40.32 4.57 1. The incidence of the attacks is summarized in Table 3 and Figure 2.21 4.04 Mean Annual DBH Increment (cm) 3.15 2.0 63.02 9. Table 2: Plot parameters and number of samples Block No.91 6.67 0.3 0 16.90 4.69 2.0 *Percentage of trees with at least one past and/or one present attack.72 9.0 60. Height and diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured for each sample tree and mean annual increment (DBH/year) were calculated for each stand.10 2.18 2 6 7 10 11 12 15 18 40 Table 3: Data illustrating the degree of attacks exhibited by stem borer in Kanowit II plantation.60 3.3 55.82 4.3 72.2yr) 27 (2.70 Mean Annual Height Increment (m) 2.57 5.9yr) 28 (2.20 0.3yr) 25 (2.30 5.82 4.60 0.24 10.0yr) 23 (1. of attacks per tree Past Present 1.62 5.7 33.30 0.23 9.2 66.93 10.75 4.4yr) Mean Height (m) 4. of sample trees 18 10 21 3 6 13 18 10 10 Age (month) 26 (2.3 27.3yr) 29 (2.8 11.02 8.70 2.22 0.28 1.96 Mean DBH (cm) 8.12 5.Analyses of Attacks by Kelampayan Stem Borer The analyses of attacks were based on Kanowit II Kelampayan stands. The plot parameters and the number of sample trees are shown in Table 2.3yr) 27 (2. The number of holes bored by stem borers was recorded for each sample tree.0 26.30 10.0 33. between the visits in December 2008 and July 2009 Block 2 6 7 10 11 12 15 18 40 No.0 Attacks* 100.6 77.58 7.57 2.70 0.9 50.8 50.36 3.

22-1.70. The density of past and present attacks per tree ranged from 0.83 and 0-0. On the other hand. Various factors are to be considered: the presence of slashing and clearing maintenance in the plantation within December 2008 and July 2009 and season distinction between December (wet season) and July (drought season). There was a noticeable decrease of stem borer attacks in July 2009 comparing to December 2008. The data signifies that multi-entry point per tree is possible (Figure 1E). the stem borer numbers will decline to an insignificant level. Such information would be beneficial in planning a cost-effective pest control and prevention regime. Stem borer infestation seemed to be peculiar to certain sites. .B2 B6 B7 B10 B11 B12 B15 B18 B40 Figure 2: Percent of trees with symptom of stem borer attack between the field assessments in December 2008 and July 2009 Attacks of stem borer were observed ranging from 33. We are in great interest to comprehend whether as the plantations mature. which implies that attack of stem borer did not affect the growth performance of Kelampayan trees. there seemed to have a fair positive correlation between the densities of past attacks and the DBH classes.3% to 100. There was no significant correlation between the density of past attacks per year and mean annual increment (Figure 3).0%. respectively.

and (LEFT) mean annual height increment . (RIGHT) mean annual DBH increment No. of past attacks/tree DBH Class Figure 4: Difference in density of past attacks by Endoclita sp.Figure 3: Relationship between density of past attacks per year by Endoclita sp. among 5 cm DBH classes .

2007). Stem Borer Control and Prevention Trials A few trials were currently carried out in the aim to reduce the susceptibility of pest attacks in Kelampayan plantations. Basically the feeding habits of weaver ant have yet to be investigated in depth for the prevalence and success of relocated colonies. 1988. . Approximately 10 g of systemic insecticide (carbofuran 3%) was applied into the ground in a crescent shape on the upper slope of each tree. we also study the insect pest life cycle as pesticides are generally only used as required and often only at a specific time in their life cycle. More study on conserving and augmenting existing and relocated colonies are to be initiated. circle weeding. Stem borer control were carried out intensively after three years of planting until harvesting. According to Stone and Clarke (1998). Kelampayan is not listed as host plant for weaver ant to date and yet considering on possibilities of using weaver ant to reduce stem borer problem in kelampayan planted forest in Sarawak. Focusing on stresses such as weed competition and nutrient deficiencies that are easier to manage may reduce the potential impact of other stresses such insect attack and weather on plantation performance (Norris. Chemical control A few trial plots were installed to test the effectiveness of insecticides in Kelampayan plantation. A recent visit to successful Kelampayan plantation and trial plots in Sabah suggested that intensive management practice is necessary in maximizing productivity. Browning 1998). Monitoring of pest attack and tree growth will be done every month for up to 6-12 months periods to test the efficacy of the pesticide.. From the records. Biological control The weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) has been a promising biological control agent on mahogany shoot borer (Lim et. In conjunction with this. Surveillance on weaver ants nesting habit and host plants has been conducted since 2008 in few planted forest and natural forest in Sarawak. plantation management requires a holistic multidisciplinary approach rather than focusing on a single specific stress such as pest attack. Al. blanket slashing and manuring were conducted quarterly for three years after planting. It is perhaps not surprising that Kelampayan survival rate is considerably low as the trees were left to nature after planting and only a minimal care was taken. a collaborative research work has been initiated.Pest Susceptibility of Kelampayan under Intensive Management Practices and Its Implications for control of stem borer From our survey. most of the Kelampayan plantations in Sarawak do not practice intensive silvicultural management.

weed control and other silvicultural practices will accelerate the growth of the trees. and current studies in Kanowit II Kelampayan plantation. with the knowledge on the seasonal outbreak of this pest.Silvicultural control A trial site designed to measure benefits of weed control in a 6-month old Kelampayan plantation was used to test whether young trees benefiting from such silvicultural practices were more resilient to stress from stem borer damage. Catalysing Planted Forest Development and Biodiversity Conservation. Ariffin. and others who were involved to make this study successful. 1-2 November 2007 . Kok. Sarawak Timber Association Review 188 : 2 Browning. Together with the knowledge in site characteristics and associated tree growth. 2009. Conclusion Surveys of Kelampayan stem borer during the past two years.T. We also thank the commercial plantation agencies. 2007..T. and Pfeiffer. therefore shortening the period of maximum susceptibility to attack. S. we expect that. 1998. Partnering the weaver ant to control the mahogany shoot borer in peninsular Malaysia. permit certain generalizations concerning the incidence of stem borer attack in Sarawak to be made. is rarely the cause of significant loss of growth increment or high mortality rate of Kelampayan. References Anon..G. Applied Forest Science Research Seminar 2007. L.. Seminar to boost forest plantation activities. G. S. Our data obtained in the past 4-months of monthly circle weeding treatment was insufficient for us to come into any conclusion yet. Acknowledgements Empenit Empawi and Lily Encharang assisted in surveillance and trials. The use of silvicultural practices known to promote tree vigour which also reduce the susceptibility of attack is to be considered. L.G. Sarawak. D.A. One phytopathologist’s growth through IPM to holistic plant health: The key to approaching genetic yield potential. Wisma STA. However. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that Endoclita sp. Annual Review of Phytopathology 36: 1-24 Lim. Kirton.. J. these practices can be tailored to improve cost efficiency and to maximize productivity. Kuching. M. Salom.

P. Pp. 144-152 . and Clarke. A. G. Proceedings of Sixth Australasia Applied Entomological Research Conference.R. R.Marzuki.. Applied Forest Science Research Seminar 2007. Sensitivity of insect-damaged plants to environmental stresses. Drew. Catalysing Planted Forest Development and Biodiversity Conservation.M. M. In: Heinrichs. John Wiley and Sons. E. (eds). Kuching. 1-2 November 2007 Norris.). Pest Management – Future Challenges. M. A phytocentric approach towards future pest management in Australia eucalypt plantations – an alternative to classical IPM. 2007. Wisma STA. 1988. Sarawak.I. C. D. Australia. Endoclita aroura Tindale: Stem Borer of Kelampayan Species. 29 September – 2 October 1998.A.A. In: Zalucki. (ed. Brisbane. 1998. and White. Plant Stress-Insect Interactions.G. New York Stone.