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11/30/2009

Overview of Medieval Europe

The West after Rome. Charlemagne—temporary revival of empire. Th C li i R i The Carolingian Renaissance, a renaissance of i i f letters. Medieval society after the Carolingians. A Look at Romanesque. Economic and Urban Revival in the High Middle Ages. Universities, the Seven Liberal Arts, Peter Abelard. Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism. A Look at Gothic.

The West after Rome
Decline and preservation of Roman civilization

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Widespread collapse of commerce and urban centers Life essentially agrarian Church preserved what was left of literary and cultural civilization—they were the Romans!

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34. Overview of Medieval Europe

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33a. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe

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learning language learning. Overview of Medieval Europe 3 The Role of the Church   Western bishops accepted the authority of the bishop of Rome. Overview of Medieval Europe 4 33a. and literature 11/30/2009 34. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 2 . the pope The Church was the only “international” organization— international catholic or “universal”   Its administrative structure continued to use the provincial and diocese structure of the old empire Its authority extended across political boundaries  This Roman Catholic Church preserved Latin language.11/30/2009 Europe after Rome: the Germanic Kingdoms and the Byzantine Empire 11/30/2009 34.

476 One Ruler.D. Overview of Medieval Europe 33a. One Church Hellenistic dream of the unity of the civilized world  Establishment of the “Holy Roman Empire Holy Empire”   11/30/2009 34. Overview of Medieval Europe 5 The Carolingian World Spanish Muslims 11/30/2009 Saxons Lombards Avars and Slavs 6 34. One Empire.D.11/30/2009 A New Emperor  A. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 3 . 800: Pope Leo II crowns Charlemagne “emperor of the Romans”  First emperor in the west since A. saves Pope Christmas Day A. 771 Charles became sole king of the Franks  Defends his kingdom—and all of Western Europe—from the kingdom and Europe from invading Arabs   Conquered northern Italy from Lombards.D.

Overview of Medieval Europe 8 33a. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 4 .11/30/2009 A New Capital: Charlemagne’s Aachen   Churches and Palaces intended to match the Roman model Palace and cathedral at Aachen  Byzantine models. Overview of Medieval Europe 7 The Cathedral Church at Aachen 11/30/2009 34. especially San Vit l in S Vitale i Ravenna 11/30/2009 34.

Overview of Medieval Europe 9 A Renaissance of Letters Alcuin and the revival of learning    Charlemagne needed bureaucrats to administer his empire Alcuin. Charlemagne’s capital.11/30/2009 Classical columns and arches from Aachen 11/30/2009 34. came from England to establish Charlemagne’s palace school (A.D. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 5 . 782–96) Promising students were brought to Aachen. a student of Bede. and taught Latin and secular as well as religious topics  learning h d b l i had been th province of th Ch h t th t point the i f the Church to that i t 11/30/2009 34. Overview of Medieval Europe 10 33a.

Overview of Medieval Europe 12 33a.11/30/2009 Decline of the Carolingians    After the reign of Charlemagne’s son. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 6 . Overview of Medieval Europe 11 Early Medieval Society  Feudalism — a military and political system based on personal loyalty   vassals and lieges decentralization  Manorialism — economic system based upon limited land ownership and forced labor (serfs)  self-sufficient. local economies 11/30/2009 34. the Empire divided into three. although one grandson is technically emperor Invasions of ninth and tenth centuries Emergence of France and Germany 11/30/2009 34.

11/30/2009 Romanesque Architecture  Use of ancient Roman architecture as a model  “Roman-like. columned aisles. choir.” features elements of Roman building and style t l basilica plan round arches Massive stone walls and vaulted ceilings   Revived Roman elements    Allowed for a clerestory (high wall of windows)  columns for support and decoration 11/30/2009 34. transepts. apse. Overview of Medieval Europe 14 33a. Overview of Medieval Europe 13 Layout of a Romanesque Cathedral Note nave. and ambulatory 11/30/2009 34. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 7 . crossing.

1000–1300 the population of Europe almost doubles Crusades encourage trade (opening of trade routes. Overview of Medieval Europe 15 Economic and Urban Revival    Between A. and political opportunities from feudal society   establishment of communes with town charters the importance of guilds.11/30/2009 Romanesque Interiors 11/30/2009 34. economic. associations to protect special interests 11/30/2009 34. Overview of Medieval Europe 16 33a.D. desire for eastern luxuries) and new ideas Towns become a magnet for those seeking social. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 8 .

1066. 987 Hugh Capet starts expanding the powers of the king over French vassals Capetians make France a relatively centralized state England unifies but not under the sole authority of the kings Norman conquest in A. permanently limits monarchy and establishes the House of Commons New empire formed by the Saxon Dynasty central power rapidly lost and remains “feudal” until the time of Napoleon feudal Emperor become elective and vassal states become effectively independent the pope is a temporal ruler in Italy and tries to exercise secular power throughout much of Western Europe  England — feudalism synthesizes      Holy Roman Empire — feudalism intensifying     Papal States  11/30/2009 34.D.D. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 9 . King John forced to give privileges to nobles.D. 1215. Overview of Medieval Europe 17 Rise of Feudal Monarchies  France — feudalism subordinated   A. Overview of Medieval Europe 18 33a. forerunner of the British House of Lords Parliament (French parler) established by Henry III (1216–1272) to raise money. William the Conqueror imposes a Norman aristocracy over Saxon populace Magna Carta in A.11/30/2009 Development of the University   Complexities of urban life require an revival in literacy and other learning Cathedral schools and then the universities   Originally guilds for students and then their teachers as well—all subjects taught together under the same organization The role of Latin  The University of Paris 11/30/2009 34.

11/30/2009 Learning and the Medieval Church  By the Twelfth Century cathedral schools reach their height  Paris and Bologna based on Roman education and preceded by Alcuin’s curriculum Classical Tradition survives and elements of it flourish in a Christian context trivium (grammar. this compilation is called Sic et Non” (see packet. and dialectic) and quadrivium (arithmetic. geometry. metaphor.” (packet. rhetoric. astronomy)  Seven Liberal arts    11/30/2009 34. 125/182) Reconciles conflicting passages in biblical passages and the writings of the Church fathers  Hierarchy of authority: Scripture cannot be wrong. it follows that the greater authority of the Bible will incite the reader to investigate the truth. Overview of Medieval Europe 19 Peter Abelard  Author of Sic et Non  “Here follow some of the sentences from the writings of the saints that seem to contradict each other. Overview of Medieval Europe 20 33a. 125/182)  Clear distinction between reason and faith “As regards quotations from the Scriptures. Church Fathers can be F th b  Some possible problems in the writings of the Fathers: misattribution. unfamiliar ways of speaking (idiom. Because of these contradictions. context. etc.)   11/30/2009 34. music. ideas later retracted. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 10 .

etc. encyclopedias.11/30/2009 Scholasticism   Application of dialectic (logic) to theology and philosophy Characteristics of Scholasticism       Appeal to authority Manifestation = division and subdivision into parts to bring understanding—esp. collecting categorizing and comparing! Light—illumination. patroness of liberal arts 34. Overview of Medieval Europe 22 33a. di i l ft dipping pen in ink Seven Liberal Arts personified among the figures represented in the archivolt (outer arch)  Dialect personified over Aristotle 11/30/2009 34. in tripartite divisions Reconciliation (compare to the distinction between faith and reason in in Abelard’s Sic et Non) Totality: summa. Overview of Medieval Europe 21 11/30/2009 Tympanum west façade. Chartres    Mary as Sedes Sapientiae Aristotle. lower left.—good Aristotelian collecting. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 11 . reason as light Mary as sedes sapientiae (seat of wisdom).

” i. Thomas was a (moderate) empiricist— knowledge.e. 2669 articles.e. 126/183)  It seems that (videtur quod): We cannot know God by natural reason Boethius says that reason cannot grasp simple (i..     11/30/2009 34. but we can at least be led to know that God exists by our senses. “though spoiled by sin. but Augustine says that knowledge of God belongs only to the good On the contrary (sed contra): We read in Romans 1:19 “What may be known about god is manifest to them. what can be known about him by natural reason I answer that (respondeo dicendum): knowledge that is natural to us has its origin in the senses. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 12 . even of things beyond the senses. p osop y revelation/faith (Bible. and 10.” could tell much about the world  Like Aristotle. god is incorporeal so cannot be known to us by simple reason  Natural Reason is common to good and bad.000 objections 11/30/2009 34. starts with the senses  Aristotelian systematization results in great collections of knowledge and thought  Summa Theologica included 512 questions. Overview of Medieval Europe 23 Example from the Summa Theologica Can We Know God from Natural Reason? (packet. perfect) forms Aristotle says that the soul understands nothing by reason without images.C yg y). Christianity generally). Overview of Medieval Europe 24 33a. Our knowledge cannot reach to the divine essence. philosophy and theology Came to terms with the pessimistic thought of Augustine   Augustine thought that reason was dependent upon human will that had lost its freedom because of the fall Thomas Aquinas believed that the will was free and that reason.11/30/2009 Thomas Aquinas   Author of Summa Theologica Thomism   Tried to harmonize reason (Aristotle and other authorities) and e e at o / a t ( .

Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 13 . by comparison. and ambulatory done i a d in new style Height.” a term coined by Renaissance scholars who preferred Greco-Roman  Gothic architecture. was barbaric  Conceptual models   Hagia Sophia — light Temple of Solomon — loyalty to God  Abbot Suger and the church of St. Overview of Medieval Europe 25 St. Denis—he wanted a high and expansive church full of light    Dionysius the Areopagite = St. Denis Neoplatonism and th Hi N l t i d the Hierarchy of Li ht h f Light Mysticism 11/30/2009 34. light. and upward motion 11/30/2009 34. Overview of Medieval Europe 26 33a.11/30/2009 Development of Gothic  “Gothic. Denis    Rebuilt by Abbot Suger Choir. apse.

11/30/2009 Ribbed Vaulting 11/30/2009 34. Overview of Medieval Europe 28 33a. Heirs of Classicism: Germanic Europe 14 . Overview of Medieval Europe 27 Gothic Example: Chartres 11/30/2009 34.