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Revision 1.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois – June 2010

1 – Copyright A. so that's a good point to start The air in which the plane flies is viscous .About viscosity The error message is indirectly a consequence of the fluid's viscosity. Deperrois – June 2010 .ν Revision 1. its viscosity is characterized by The dynamic (absolute) viscosity : or by the kinematic viscosity : µ [kg/m/s] ν [m²/s] or [centistokes] Both constants are linked by : where ρ is the fluid's density [kg/m3] µ = ρ .

The Reynolds Number in general CV Re = ν With C being a reference length V is the fluid's freestream speed ν is the fluid's kinematic viscosity The Reynolds Number Re : is a dimensionless coefficient is a measure of the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces : the greater the speed.1 – Copyright A. the lower the impact of viscous forces Revision 1. Deperrois – June 2010 .

1 – Copyright A. Deperrois – June 2010 . the Re Number depends on the span location High Re at the root Low Re at the tip Revision 1.The Reynolds model applied to an aircraft The usual reference length C is the local chord Hence.

the viscous drag is a result of the fluid's viscosity : Viscous Drag = ½ ρ S V2 VCd VCd depends on the plane's speed. Deperrois – June 2010 .1 – Copyright A. and therefore on the Reynolds Number We illustrate this graphically in the next slide Revision 1. and depends on the plane's speed : Induced Drag = ½ ρ S V2 ICd ICd does not depend on the plane's speed As can be guessed.Induced drag and viscous drag The induced drag is related to the kinematic energy given by the plane to the fluid.

Deperrois – June 2010 . VCd is high Revision 1.1 – Copyright A. VCd is low Low Re Viscous forces are important. but that is not the case.The viscous drag coefficient VCd It would be easier if VCd did not depend on Re. It can be seen by running a batch analysis with XFoil XFoil is 2D. like ICd. Inertia forces are more important. hence ICd = 0 and Cd = VCd High Re.

the viscous drag cannot be ignored Since there is no adequate theory to take into account viscosity in 3D analysis for the Re numbers of our model aircraft.1 – Copyright A.Viscous and non-viscous behaviour The classic (linear) LLT. the VLM. but is the best we can do Revision 1. Deperrois – June 2010 . and the 3D panel methods are derived from non-viscous (inviscid) assumptions for the fluid Therefore the results from these methods ignore the viscous drag are independent of speed Unfortunately. we extrapolate it from 2D Not really satisfactory. for the size and speed of our model aircraft.

20 m The tip chord is 30 mm = 0. Deperrois – June 2010 .1 – Copyright A.5 10–5 = 200.5 10–5 m²/s The foil is the NACA 2412 for the whole span ReRoot = 0.An example Consider a wing with span 1 500 mm The airplane flies at 15 m/s The root chord is 200 mm = 0.03 m The air's kinematic viscosity is ν = 1.5 10–5 = 30.2 x 15 / 1.03 x 15 / 1.000 ReTip = 0.000 Revision 1.

1 – Copyright A. using the "Polars/Run Batch Analysis command" Our foil polar mesh runs from Re=40 000 to Re=500 000 Revision 1. Deperrois – June 2010 .First we generate the viscous polars for the foil This is done in the "Application/XFoil Direct Analysis" menu.

Next we analyze the wing We generate a polar analysis And we launch the analysis for α=1° Revision 1. Deperrois – June 2010 .1 – Copyright A.

Calculating the vortices circulations.Alpha=1..log file from the "Operating Point" menu Note : the ".... nothing is generated : why ? The error messages showed up too fast to read during the analysis. Creating the influence matrix.25 is outside the flight envelope 0. Re = 36 786. The interpolation fails Cl = Cl = 0. Solving the linear system..... Calculating aerodynamic coefficients... check the association if nothing shows up Test Wing July 25.00 Calculating induced angles..00 mm...00 mm.. so we call the XFLR5. Deperrois – June 2010 . Span pos = 679. 2008 at 20:27:04 ___________________________________ Solving the problem. which is 40 000 We illustrate this graphically in the next slide Revision 1. Re = 36 786.Results Unfortunately. .25 is outside the flight envelope We have a problem at the tip The calculated Re at 15 m/s is less than the min value of the polar mesh...log" file extension is usually associated by default to the notepad.1 – Copyright A. Calculating wing. Span pos = -679.

Deperrois – June 2010 .1 – Copyright A.25 cannot be interpolated Revision 1.Interpolating from 2D results at tip chord The local Operating point Re = 37 000 / Cl = 0.

Deperrois – June 2010 .The Fix We extend the polar mesh down to Re =30 000 The local Operating point Re = 37 000 / Cl = 0.1 – Copyright A.25 can now be interpolated No more issue for α = 1° … so we boldly run an analysis from α = 0° to α = 10° Revision 1.

1 – Copyright A. Deperrois – June 2010 . the analysis does not run higher than α = 5° : why ? We check again the log file Revision 1.Wing Analysis Results from α = 0° to α = 10° Unfortunately.

Calculating aerodynamic coefficients. Solving the linear system.. Calculating wing. Creating the influence matrix.. Calculating wing..00 Calculating induced angles.. Span pos = -679...1 – Copyright A.65 could not be interpolated 0...65 for Re=30 000 : the interpolation fails Cl = Cl = 0. Re = 36 786.00 mm.Using the log file information Test Wing July 25....Alpha=6..Alpha=0... Unfortunately the foil's Type 1 polar mesh does not extend to Cl=0. Calculating aerodynamic coefficients.00 mm.... 2008 at 20:45:17 ___________________________________ Solving the problem. ... […] . Re = 36 786.....65 could not be interpolated The problem is still at the tip The Re is OK We illustrate this graphically in the next slide Revision 1. Span pos = 679.. Calculating the vortices circulations.00 Calculating induced angles. Deperrois – June 2010 .

Interpolating from 2D results at high incidence The local Operating point Re = 37 000 / Cl = 0.65 cannot be interpolated Revision 1.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois – June 2010 .

In fact.65 we have fixed the issue and may run the wing analysis with success 2. Deperrois – June 2010 . The XFoil analysis does not converge we have reached the limits of the 2D approximation for the viscous drag .a for Re = 30 000 to achieve Cl values higher than 0. the approximation is most probably quite questionable long before this point is reached Revision 1. The XFoil analysis converges for Re =30k and Cl>0.o.1 – Copyright A.65 Two possibilities : 1.The fix We try to extend the foil polar mesh at high a.

1 – Copyright A.In the hope that this helped ! Revision 1. Deperrois – June 2010 .

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