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St. Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology Palai Department of Computer Science & Engineering S7 CS RT702 Computer Graphics Module 1 Website:

Computer Graphics - Module 1

Introduction to Computer Graphics: Basic concepts in Computer Graphics – Applications of Computer Graphics, Interactive Graphics system – Raster scan and Random scan systems – Generating a raster image, Application of raster scan graphics. Video Display Devices, Display processors – Display files – graphical input & output devices



Applications of Computer Graphics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Computer Aided Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Presentation graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education and Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6


Raster Scan Displays 9 10 11 12 Refresh buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raster Scan Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 8 8 8

Raster Scan Display Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Random Scan Displays 13 14


Random Scan Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Display files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

14.1 Display File Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2



Video Display Devices 15 16 17 18


Refresh Cathode Ray Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Color CRT monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Direct view Storage Tubes (DVST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Flat Panel Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

18.1 Liquid Crystal Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 18.2 Plasma Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 18.3 Thin film Electroluminiscent displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


Input Devices 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29


Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Trackball and Spaceball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Joystick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Data Glove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Digitizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Image Scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Touch Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Light Pens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Voice system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Hardcopy devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Part I. Applications of Computer Graphics
[Hearn2009] Computer graphics is used in a lot of areas such as science, engineering, medicine, business, industry, government, art, entertainment, advertising, education and training. The different applications of computer graphics discussed below are Computer aided design, Presentation graphics, Computer art, Entertainment, Education and training, Visualization, Image processing and,

It is used to summarise financial. Some examples softwares are Paint and Photoshop. spacecraft. Some mechanical parts are manufactured by describing how surfaces are are formed with machine tools using CNC lathe machines. Networks for communication and water supply can be designed using graphics packages. Also artists can use a digitizer and stylus which can be used to paint pictures. scientific and economic data for reports. Artists use a variety of techniques such as paint packages. aircraft. watercraft. . The data can be represented in the form of bar charts and graphs. 2 Presentation graphics It is an area of computer graphics in which slides are designed to be used with projectors. statistical. computers. In the first stage of design. When object designs are complete. 3 Computer Art Computer graphics techniques are used in fine art and commercial art applications. textiles etc.. mathematical. automobiles.1 Computer Aided Design 4 Graphical user interfaces. 1 Computer Aided Design Computer graphics is used in the design of engineering and architectural systems such as buildings. ligting and shading models are applied to produce displays the final product. special hardware. An example picture generated using this way is shown below. CAD packages and animation packages for designing objects. objects are displayed in wireframe format that shows the overall shape and internal details of the object as shown below. The manufacturing process also can be computerised which will automate the construction of the product.

5 Education and Training Computer generated models are used as financial aids. aircraft pilots and heavy equipment operators. Graphics objects can be combined with live action. . For example movies such as Jurassic park. Virtual reality systems are used for training ship captains. Flight simulators are used for training aircraft pilots. Music videos use graphics in several ways.4 Entertainment 5 4 Entertainment Computer graphics methods are used in making motion pictures and television shows.

Medical applications widely use image processing techniques for surgery. 8 Graphical User Interfaces Nowadays all operating systems provide graphical interfaces. They contain a number of windows. To apply image processing techniques. Then digital methods are applied to rearrange picture parts. This is referred to as visualization. scientists use graphical representations of mathematical functions or processes. high frequency sound waves are used to generate digital data. In ultrasonics. Cross sections of the body are obtained using imaging techniques.6 Visualization 6 6 Visualization Scientists. engineers often need to analyze large amount of information to analyze certain processes. Mathematicians. to enhance colors and improve the shading. trends can be analyzed. . Nuclear medicine scanners collect data from radiations. They are used to monitor internal functions and show cross sections during surgery. Image processsing and computer graphics can be used in computer aided surgery. Tomography is used to reconstruct cross sections from digital data. Two applications of image processing are improving picture quality and machine perception of visual information. Other image processing techniques in medical field are ultrasonics and nuclear medicine scanners. But if these data are converted to visual form. User can interact with the computer system by making some clicks instead of typing commands. a photograph is digitized first using a scanner. tomography and for picture enhancements. Satellite cameras collect thousands and even millions of images faster than they can be interpreted by human beings. 7 Image Processing Image processing apply techniques to modify or interpret existing pictures.

7 Part II. Picture definition is stored in a memory area called refresh buffer or frame buffer. This memory area holds the set of intensity values for all the screen points. In a raster scan system the electron beam is swept across the screen one row at a time from the top to bottom. Raster Scan Displays [Hearn2009] The most common type of display used in a graphics monitor that uses CRT is raster scan display. Stored intensity values are retrieved from the refresh buffer and pointed on the screen one row ( scan line) at a time as in the above figure. Each screen point is referred to as a pixel. As the electron beam moves across each row the beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots. (picture element) .

A fixed area of the system memory is reserved for the frame buffer. On a black and white system with one bit per pixel the frame buffer is called a bit map. For systems with multiple bits per pixel the frame buffer is referred to as a pixmap. The frame buffer or refresh buffer can be anywhere in the system memory.9 Refresh buffer 8 9 Refresh buffer Home television sets and printers are examples of systems that uses raster scan methods. Intensity range for pixel positions depends on the capability of the raster scan system. Refresh rates are commonly described in units of cycles per second. Refreshing on raster scan displays is done at the rate of 60 to 80 frames per second. 11 Video Controller The above fig shows a commonly used organization for rater scan systems. . the electron beam returns to the left side of the screen to begin displaying the next scan line. Video controller accesses the frame buffer to refresh the screen. 2 megabytes of storage for frame buffer. When color and intensity variations are to be displayed. Video controller is given direct access to the frame buffer memory. Organization of a simple raster scan system is shown below. A system with 24 bits per pixel and a screen resolution of 1024 by 1024 requires (24/8 * 1024*1024) bytes ie. Thus a refresh rate of 60 frames/sec means 60 Hz. In a black and white system each point is either on or off. additional bits are needed. At he end of each frame (displayed 1/80 th to 1/60 th of a second) the electron beam returns (vertical retrace) to the top left corner of the screen to begin the next frame. At the end of each scan line. So noly one bit per pixel is needed to control the intensity of screen positions as in the above fig that shows a refresh buffer that stores one bit per pixel. For eg. In addition to the CPU a special processor called video controller or display controller is used to control the operation of the display device. Hertz where a cycle corresponds to one frame. 10 Raster Scan Systems Interactive raster graphics systems employ several processing units. The return to the left of side of the screen after refreshing each scan line is called the horizontal retrace of the electron beam. Upto 24 bits per pixel are included in higher quality systems.

(In many Personal computer systems. Pixels along this scan line are then processed and the procedure is repeated for each successive scan line. the next block of pixel values is retrieved from the frame buffer. These values are stored in a separate register and can be used to control the CRT beam intensity for a group of adjacent pixels . When that group of pixels has been processed. . Along each scan line screen pixel positions are labeled from 0 to Xmax . To speed up pixel processing video controller can retrieve multiple pixel values from the refresh buffer. Since screen must be refreshed at the rate of 60 frames per second. After cycling through all pixels along the bottom scan line the video controller resets the registers to the first pixel position on the top scan line and the refresh process starts over. Then the x register is incremented by 1 and the process is repeated for the next pixel on the top scan line. the coordinate origin is defined at the lower left screen corner. the coordinate origin is referenced a the upper left corner of the screen. In some monitors. After the last pixels on the top scan line has been processed. Initially x register is set to 0 and y register is set to Ymax .y) .) Scan lines are labeled from Ymax at the top of the screen to 0 at the bottom.11 Video Controller 9 Frame buffer locations and screen positions are referenced in Cartesian coordinates (x. the basic refresh operations of the video controller are shown. In the following figure. the x register is reset to 0 and y register is decremented by 1. the above procedure will not work with typical RAM. Two registers are used to store the coordinates of screen pixels. The value stored in the frame buffer for this pixel position is retrieved and used to set the intensity of the CRT beam. This is because the cycle time is too slow.

The main memory. and blue. That means functions such as clipping. the application program. The task of the display processor is to digitize a picture definition given in an application program into a set of pixel intensity values for storage in the frame buffer. ie. y): The current position CP is set to x and y. dy): The value of dx and dy are added to x and y register. Move (x. The main memory contains data plus programs that execute on CPU. . The frame buffer contains the displayable image created by the scan conversion and raster operations. This digitization process is called scan conversion. and performing certain transformations and manipulations on displayed objects. Scan converting a straight-line segment means that we have to locate the pixel positions closest to the line path and store the intensity for each position in the frame buffer. for various instructions in a raster displays is below.y) . Display processors can perform a number of other operations such as generating various line styles. The display processor memory holds data plus programs that perform scan conversion and raster operations. This position is the new CP. For eg. There are 8 bits per pixel. Now there are 3 memory areas. displaying color areas. Move R (dx. window to viewport transformation. The main CPU and special purpose display processor. green. This display processor is referred to as graphics controller or display coprocessor. Now there are 2 processors. In most systems. Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan converted into a set of discrete intensity points. That is 4 each for red. display processor memory and frame buffer. y) : A line is drawn from CP to (x. using its local memory to store list of display instructions etc. A separate display processor memory area can also be provided in addition to system memory. graphics package and operating system.12 Raster Scan Display Processor 10 12 Raster Scan Display Processor Fig shows a way to set up the organization of a raster system. Each contains 12 bits. Here our simple graphics display processor performs only some of the graphics related operations. The task of the system designer is to free the main CPU more and more by adding functionality to the display processor. the frame buffer is 1024 by 1024 pixels. Line (x. which contains a separate display processor. The purpose of the display processor is to free the CPU from graphics chores. An eg. There is 256 entry look up table.

0 Rect 1023.0. y) Text(n. y) : The pixel at (x. red.Draw the line The above program uses many instructions that we have not discussed.dy) : The line is drawn from CP to CP + (dx. Enable writing to all planes Pixelvalue 5 . y) is set. Circle(radius) : A circle is drawn centered at CP LuT(index. Point(x. The component lines of a picture are drawn as in the following fig.Z’F’.y) : A rectangle is drawn between CP and (x.Turn on the FILL flag Pattern 32Z’FF’ . Random scan monitors draw a picture one line at a time and for this reason they are called vector displays or stroke writing or calligraphic displays. dy). Rect (x.11 Line R (dx. 767 . In this a picture will be interpreted as a number of lines.100 Line R 500.Look up table entry 5 is black LuT 6. green.0. A white line on a complete background is created as follows LuT 5. Point r(dx. address) : The n character at memory location address are displayed.Z’F’. This position is the new CP. This is the new CP. There is a queue (FIFO) buffer placed in between the display processor and graphics package.Z’F’ .visible part of frame buffer now black Pixelvalue 6 .Look up table entry 6 is white Wmode replace AreaFill true . blue) : Entry index in the look up table is loaded with the given color specification. . dy) is set. The graphics package places commands in to the queue and display processor accesses the instructions/commands from the queue and executes them.400 .0 .dy) : The pixel at CP + (dx.32 bytes of all 1s for solid pattern Mask Z’FF’ . There are more commands. Part III.Scan convert using pixel value of 6 Move 100. This position is the new CP. the electron beam will be directed only to the parts of the screen where the picture is to be drawn.Scan convert using pixel value of 5 Move 0. Eg: programming the display processor is similar to using a graphics package. Random Scan Displays [Hearn2009] When a display monitor that uses CRT is operated as a random scan display unit.

To display a specified picture. The display processor cycles through each command in the display file program once during every refresh cycle. This display file is accessed by the display processor to refresh the screen. Lines are defined by the values for their coordinate end points and these i/p coordinate values are converted to x and y deflection voltages. drawing each component line in turn. Graphics patterns are drawn on a random scan system by directing the electron beam along the component lines of the picture. An application program is input and stored in the system memory along with a graphics package. the system cycles through a set of commands in the display file. After all line drawing commands in the display file is processed the system cycles back to the first line command in the list. A scene is drawn one line at a time by positioning the beam to fill the line between specified end points. Random scan systems are designed for line drawing applns and cannot display realistic shaded scenes. Random scan displays are designed to draw all the component lines of a picture 30 to 60 times each second. . Graphics commands in the application program are translated by the graphics package into a display file stored in the system memory. 13 Random Scan Systems The organization of a simple random scan system is shown below. Display processor in a random scan system is also called as a display processing unit or a graphics controller. Random scan systems produce smooth line drawings because the CRT beam directly follows the line path.13 Random Scan Systems 12 Picture definition is stored as a set of line drawing commands in the memory called as display list or display program or refresh buffer.

The DPU then executes the display program until it is told to stop by the graphics package. It goes through the instruction fetch. The random scan graphics display processor is also called a display processing unit (DPU) or a graphics controller. Since there is no pixmap. The DPU has an instruction set and instruction register.13 Random Scan Systems 13 Architecture of Random Scan display Processor [Foley2001] A large number of hardware and sofware systems are now available. The appln program and graphics package also resides in main memory. A JUMP instruction at the end of the display program transfers control back to its start so that the display continued to be refreshed without CPU intervention. The main memory is shared by CPU and DPU. decode execute cycle as in any Computer. The program executed by DPU is in main memory. The processor has X. The following shows a set of instructions and mnemonics for a simple random scan DPU.Y registers and an instruction counter. We can use a wide variety of input devices and graphics software packages with personal computers. Mnemonic Meaning LD {X/Y} {R/A }M Load and move LD {X/Y} {R/A }P Load and point LD {X/Y} {R/A }L Load and line LD {X/Y} {R/A } Load JUMP {R/A} L1 R->Relative . The graphics package creates a display program of DPU instructions and also tells DPU where to start program. the display processor must execute its program in 30 to 60 times per second in order to provide a flicker free display. They are executed by the main CPU.

now y has 100 then move to that point).Line to (900.Line to (900.450) LDYR 350 .100) . LDYAM 100 means move to (100.Move to (200. Random displays can work at higher resolutions than can raster displays and can draw smooth lines.100) LDXR 400 .450).Lineto (500. LDXRL 800 means move relative to X (and draw line).Regenerate picture.Line to (100. It means the x value is set as 100. LDYRL -350 . That is add the current value of X that is 100 with 800. LDYRL 350 .800) LDXRL -800 .450) DIAMOND:LDXZ 100 LDYAM 450 . SQUARE: LDXA 100 LDYAM 100 .900) for text CHAR ‘DEMONSTRATION t’ . . Then the value of X will be 900.point at (300.100) LDXRL 800 . t is terminate code JUMPRL SQUARE . LDYAM 450 .100) LDYRL 700 .13 Random Scan Systems 14 A->Absolute The following shows a simple DPU program that uses the above instruction.100) POINT: LDXA 300 LDYAP 450 .Lineto (900. the starting point for diamond TEXT : LDXA 200 LDXA 200 LDYAM 900 . The final instruction jumps back to the start of the program. LDXRL -400 .100) to (900. bit manipulation and look up table commands.Line to (100. frame lock In the above program.moveto (100. in this way the procedure follows. That is draw a line from (100.000 short vectors in a refresh cycle allowing real time animation.100). The program generates a square and diamond as in the fig.800) LDYRL -700 .Linkto (500.800) LDXR -400 . The fastest random scan displays can draw about 100. the first instruction LDXA 100is absolute. The random display processor lacks area filling.moveto (100. (x has 100.move to (100.450) LDXR 400 .

The value of D is 1 to draw a line. . the instruction will set the x x-cooordinate value to 40. a line will be drawn to (40+20. ie. In the next two instructions. Here the D value and I value for the last instruction is set to 1. the line will be displayed (intensified). That is endpoints defined in terms of the current beam position. In that case. The following gives the syntax of four different types of instructions that can be present in a display file. the instructions will display a line from (40.50) to (60. Here the first field has value 2 which is for x position.14 Display files 15 14 Display files [Newman1997] Display file is a part of memory used by a randon scan display system. Here the first two instructions will set the beam position to (40. For example.80). The next field is 0 whic hdenotes unintensified and the last field is 40 which indicates the x position. Thus in a display file.50). The value for I=0 for unintensified and I=1 for intensified. Here relative endpoint coordinates are used. to (60. 50+30). the following instructions are present. For example. It contains line drawing and point plotting instructions as we saw in the previous section.80). It contains the program for graphics display. An example for the content of a display file is shown below.

CloseSegment. Segment is a collection of display file instructions representing different pictures that we can manipulate asa single unit. CloseSegment. OpenSegment (s). 780). Line To (200. We can modify the display file selectively by grouping the instructions into different segments. For example.200). 100). and this display file can be modified at any time. Line To (300. The segment is a unit of display file. Move To (100.100). 1024.200).14 Display files 16 This will display the following picture on the screen. OpenSegment (t). Line To (400. The picture is maintained on the screen by repeated regeneration from a stored display file. We may use the following statements in a high level language program. Line To (400. Line To (100. Line To (300. Move To (300.200). 100). SetWindow (0.100). the two pictures given below can be defined in two segments within the display file. Line To (150.100). Initgraphics(). . 0.100).

14 Display files 17 In the above program two segments s and t are defined. We can locate any segment by stepping along the linked list of segments. segments are stored as a linked list structure as shown below. The display file will contain these two segments. T oerase a segment from the display file. For example. The head of the segment contains a pointer to the next segment.1 Display File Structure One possible structure for a display file for storing segments is shown below. For easier manipulation. 14. . DeleteSegment(t) will erase the triangle defined in the segment t. The following represents a three segment display file. This is one possible structure for a display file. a display file for our previous example will be represented as follows. s for rwctangle and t for triangle. the command DeleteSegment() can be used.

When the beam strikes a position on the screen. The electron gun emits a beam of electrons called cathode rays.18 Part IV. a computer’s monitor. Such a type of display is called a refresh CRT. They direct the beam toward specified positions on the phosphor-coated screen. The operation of most video monitors is based on the standard Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) . Video Display Devices [Hearn2009] Normally. the main output device in a graphics system is a video monitor. For eg. . This electron beam passes through the focusing and deflection systems. 15 Refresh Cathode Ray Tubes The following figure shows the basic operation of a CRT. the phosphor emits a small spot of light at that position. some method is needed for maintaining the screen picture. One way to keep the phosphor glowing is to redraw the picture repeatedly by quickly directing the electron beam back over the same positions. The primary components of electron gun in a CRT are the heated metal cathode and a control grid. Since the light emitted by phosphor disappears very rapidly. Now several other technologies exist.

An accelerating anode is placed inside the CRT envelope. CRT are now constructed with magnetic deflection coils mounted o the outside of the CRT envelope. Coils in each pair are mounted on opposite sides of the neck of the CRT envelope. The amount of light emitted by the phosphor coating depends on the number of electrons striking the screen. The focusing system is placed in the CRT. Then cathode will get this heat. After a short time. The remaining beam energy causes electrons in the phosphor atoms to move upto higher quantum energy levels. Normally. The magnetic field produced by each pair of coils results in a transverse deflection force. This heat provided from the filament causes electrons to be boiled off the hot cathode surface. Spots of light are produced on the screen by the transfer of the CRT beam energy to the phosphor. Control grid is a metal cylinder that fits over the cathode. This free negatively charged electrons produced from the cathode are accelerated toward the phosphor coating by a high positive voltage generated from accelerating anode. When the electrons in the beam collide with the phosphor coating. Otherwise the electrons in the beam will repel each other and beam will spread out as it approaches the screen. Horizontal deflection is accomplished with one pair of coils and vertical deflection by the other pair. Focusing can be done by either electric or magnetic field. giving up their extra energy as small quantums of light . One pair is mounted on the top and bottom of the neck and the other pair is mounted on the opposite sides of the neck. the excited phosphor electrons begin dropping back to their stable ground state. Part of the beam energy is converted by friction into heat energy. they are stopped and their kinetic energy is absorbed by the phosphor. The action of focusing anode focuses the electron beam at the center of the screen. Two pairs of coils are used. The brightness of the display can be controlled by varying the voltage levels on the control grid. The proper deflection amounts are attained by adjusting the current through the coils. It will stop the beam from passing through the small hole at the end of the control grid by repelling the electrons. The deflection of the electron beam is controlled by either magnetic or electric fields.15 Refresh Cathode Ray Tubes 19 A coil of wire called the filament is placed inside the cylindrical cathode structure. in tv and computer monitors electrostatic focusing is commonly used. The inside od CRT envelope is vacuum. The intensity can be controlled by setting voltage levels on the control grid. Control grid is used for controlling the intensity of this electron beam. Thus as the amount of –ve voltage applied to the control grid is increased the intensity of electron beam can be reduced. With electrostatic focusing electron beam passes through a positively changed metal cylinder. Its function is to make the electron beam to converge into a small spot in the screen as it strikes the phosphor. A current is passed through this coil of wire then heat will be produced.

One phosphor dot emits red light another has 3 guns one for each color dot and a shadow mask grid just behind the phosphor coated screen. The quality of the picture is also not good. A beam of very fast electrons penetrates through the red layer and excites the inner green layer. Different kinds of phosphors are available for use in a CRT. A beam of slow electrons excites only the outer red layer. Two layers of phosphor usually red and green are coated on how far the electron beam penetrates into the phosphor layers. Beam penetration has been an inexpensive way to produce color in random scan monitors. We are seeing the combined effect of all the electron light emissions. This gives the ratio of vertical points to horizontal points necessary to produce equal length lines in both directions on the screen. The maximum number of points that can be displayed without overlap on a CRT is referred to as the resolution . Fig below shows the shadow mask used in color CRT systems. A shadow mask CRT has 3 phosphor color dots at each pixel position. That is how long they will continue to emit light after the CRT beam is removed. Thus resolution of a CRT is dependent on the type of phosphor. The speed of the electrons and hence the screen color at any point is controlled by the beam acceleration voltage. The physical size of a graphics monitor is given as the length of the screen diagonal with size varying from 12 inches to 27 inches or more. Resolution is the number of points per centimeter that can be plotted horizontally and vertically. Graphics monitors are usually constructed with persistence in the range from 10 to 60 microseconds. the size of spot will increase. the intensity to be displayed and the focusing and deflection systems. orange and yellow. The beam penetration method for displaying colour pictures has been used with random scan monitors. Some phosphors have persistence greater than 1 second. By combining the emitted light from the different phosphors a range of colors can be generated. Lower persistence phosphors require higher refresh rates to maintain a picture o the screen without flicker. but only 4 colors are possible. An aspect ratio of ¾ means that a vertical line plotted with 3 points has the same length as a horizontal line plotted with 4 points. . At intermediate speeds combinations of red and green light are emitted to show two additional colors. Besides color a major difference <> phosphors is their persistence. Thus two adjacent spots should appear distinct. As the number of electrons in the beam increases or the intensity of beam increases more electrons will strike a spot. Typical resolution in high quality systems is 1280 by 1024. Another property of video monitors is aspect ratio. Shadow mask methods are usually used in raster scan systems b’se they produce a much wide range of colors than the beam penetration method. Two methods for producing color displays with a CRT are the beam penetration method and shadow mask method.16 Color CRT monitors 20 energy. The frequency or the color of the light emitted by the phosphor is proportional to the energy difference b/w the excited quantum state and the ground state. 16 Color CRT monitors A CRT monitor displays color pictures by using a combination of phosphors that emit different coloured light.

allowing 256 voltage settings for each electron gun and nearly 17 million color choices for a pixel. green and blue directly from the computer system without any immediate processing. When the 3 beams pass through a hole in the shadow mask they activate a dot triangle that appears as a small color spot on the screen. green. The phosphor dots in the triangles are arranged so that each electron beam can activate only its corresponding colour dot when it passes through the shadow mask. Two electron guns are used in a DVST. The colour we see depend on the amount of excitation of the red. An RGB color system with 24 bits of storage per pixel is generally referred to as a full color system or a true color system. by setting intensity levels of the electron beams. Color CRTs in graphics systems are designed as RGB monitors. These monitors use shadow mask methods and take the intensity level for each electron gun (red. the flood gun. One called the primary gun is used to store the picture pattern. several million colors can be generated. Shadow mask contains a series of holes aligned with the phosphor dot patterns. High quality raster systems have 24 bits per pixel in the frame buffer. The second. maintains the picture display. 17 Direct view Storage Tubes (DVST) [Newman1997] Another method for maintaining a screen image is to store the picture information inside the CRT instead of refreshing the screen.17 Direct view Storage Tubes (DVST) 21 The 3 electron beams are deflected and focused as a group on to the shadow mask. since our eyes tend to merge the 3 colours into one composite. We obtain colour variations in a shadow mask CRT by varying the intensity levels of the 3 electron beams. By turning off the red and green guns we get only the colour coming from the blue phosphor. . Also. A white area is the result of activating all the 3 dots with equal intensity. A direct view storage tube stores the picture information as a charge distribution just behind the phosphor coated screen. Magenta is produced with the blue and red dots. Yellow is produced with the green and red dots only. Other combinations of beam intensities produce a small light spot for each pixel position.

These electrons pass through the collator at a low velocity and are attracted to the positively charged portions of the storage mesh. The normal erasing method is to apply a +ve voltage to the storage mesh for one second or more.18 Flat Panel Displays 22 A DVST monitor has both advantages and disadvantages. Electrons not repelled by the storage mesh pass through it and strike the phosphor. Thin film electroluminiscent displays are examples of flat panel displays. DVST can be compared with a CRT having an extremely long persistence phosphor. the entire screen must be erased and the modified picture redrawn. One of the problems with the DVST is in fact the difficulty in removing the storage charge to erase the picture. Plasma Panel. They are classified into Emissive displays and Non. The erasing and redrawing process can take several seconds for a complex picture. These are devices with inherent image storage capability. The beam writes on a fine mesh wire grid coated with dielectric and mounted just behind the screen. can be hanged on walls and they consume less power compared to CRT monitors. Because no refreshing is needed. but repelled by the rest.emissive displays. A line written on the screen will remain visible for upto an hour before it fades from sight. Its main purpose is to smooth out the flow of flood electrons. This removes all the charge but generates an unpleasant flash over the screen surface. A separate flood gun issues a flood of electrons and as a result this pattern is transferred to the phosphor. Disadvantages of DVST systems are that they ordinarily do not display color and that selected parts of a picture cannot be erased. They are thin. A second grid called the collector is placed just behind the storage mesh. have less weight. very complex pictures can be displayed at very high resolutions without flicker. . To eliminate a picture section. 18 Flat Panel Displays [Foley2001] Liquid Crystal displays (LCD). A pattern of positive charge is deposited on the grid.

thin film electroluminiscent displays. Next is a layer with thin grid wires.18 Flat Panel Displays 23 Emissive displays convert electric energy into light. the front layer is a vertical polariser plate. eg. LCD display screens are becoming dominant. . LCD dsiplays contains liquid crystal material. 18. LCD displays. Next is a thin liquid crystal layer. eg. They started replacing traditional CRT monitors. Plasma panel. Next is a horizontal grid wire next . then a horizontal polarizer. These liquid crystal materials are made up of long crystalline molecules. Non emissive displays convert sunlight or light from some other source into graphics patterns. then a reflector.1 Liquid Crystal Displays Nowadays. The individual molecules are normally arranged in a spiral fashionsuch that the direction of polarisation of polarised light passing through is rotated 900 . A liquid crystal display is made up of six layers as shown below.

they all line up in the same direction. In the normal or in the ON state. so the light now passes through the rear polarizer (horizontal polarizer). The light is absorbed. A pixel is defined by the intersection of horizontal and vertical grid wires. the polarization is rotated 900 through the horizontal. A set of vertical conducting electrodes are attached to the other glass plate. When electricity is applied to liquid crystal materials. . so the viewer sees a dark spot on the display. and thus will have no polarizing effect. 18.18 Flat Panel Displays 24 Light entering through the front layer (vertical polarizer) is polarized vertically. Neon gas is filled in between the glass plates. In this. this happens. so the light remains vertically polarized and does not pass through the rear horizontal polarizer. is reflected from the reflective layer and returns through the 2 polarizers and crystal. liquid crystals in the electric fileld do not change the polarization of transmitted light. as the light passes through the liquid crystal. A set of horizontal conducting electrodes are attached to one glass plates.2 Plasma Panel Plasma panel consists of two glass plates.

data gloves. various devices are available. trackball. some devices are mouse. Thus the plasma panel is an array of tiny neon bulbs. image scanners and voice systems. 18. Part V. dials. Cursor control keys are used to select displayed objects or coordinate positions by positioning the cursor. touch panels. A numeric keypad is often included on the keyboard for fast entry of numeric data. joystick. When electricity (firing voltages) is applied to pair of horizontal and vertical conductors.000V). Function keys allows users to enter commonly used operations in a single key stroke. Input Devices [Hearn2009] In order to input data on graphics workstations. the space between the glass plates is filled with a layer of electroluminiscent material. This will emit light when in an electric field (100. spaceball. A keyboard is an efficient device for inputting data such as picture labels associated with a graphics display. cursor control keys and function keys are provided.3 Thin film Electroluminiscent displays Electroluminiscent displays has the same grid structure as in the plasma panel discussed above. We know that most Compter systems have a keyboard and one or more additional devices For interactive input. Sometimes a trackball or a spaceball are included on the keyboard. . digitizers. the gas between that pixel position will glow. 19 Keyboard Graphical system uses a keyboard to enter text strings.25 The intersection of horizontal and vertical conductors defines a pixel position. In keyboards. button boxes. such as zinc sulphide doped with manganese instead of neon gas. But in this.

The distance that the stick is moved in any direction from its center position corresponds to screen cursor movement in that direction. Instead of this an optical sensor can be used to detect mouse motion. Spaceballs are used in 3 dimensional positioning and selection operations. 22 Joystick A joystick consists of a small. With a m Z mouse we can pick up an object. Z mouse is used in virtual reality. Spaceball does not actually move. In one type of joystick. the stick is used to activate switches that cause the screen cursor to move at a constant rate in the direction selected. wheels or rollers are provided which record the amount and direction of movement. For these the mouse is moved over a special mouse pad that has a grid of horizontal and vertical lines. 2 or 3 buttons are provided on the top of the mouse for signaling the execution of some operation. Trackballs are often mounted on keyboards or Z mouse. a trackball on the top and a standard mouse ball at the bottom. It is a 2 dimensional positioning device. Potentiometer mounted a thte base of the joystick measure the amount of movement and springs return the stick to the center position when it is released. . The optical sensor detects movement across the lines in the grid. a thumbwheel on the side. rotate it. A spaceball provides 6 degrees of freedom. Joystick select screen positions with actual stick movement. This design provides 6 degrees of freedom to select positions. Strain gauges measure the amount of pressure applied to the spaceball to provide i/p for spatial positioning and orientation as the ball is pushed or pulled in various directions. and move it in any direction. The mouse is used for making relative changes in the position of screen cursor 1. The Z mouse includes 3 buttons. rotations and other parameters. Addition devices can be included in the basic mouse design.20 Mouse 26 20 Mouse Mouse is a small box used to position the screen cursor. Some joystick respond to pressure on the stick. CAD and animation. 21 Trackball and Spaceball Trackball is a ball that can be rotated with the palm of the hand to produce a screen cursor movement. Potentiometers attached to the ball measure the amount and direction of rotation. vertical lever mounted on base that is used to steer the screen cursor around. At the bottom of mouse.

Acoustic tablets use sound waves to detect a stylus position. . The artists digitizing system uses electromagnetic resonance to detect the 3d position of the stylus. Input from the glove can be used to position or manipulate objects in a virtual scene. An advantage of 2 dimensional acoustic tablets . This allows an artist to produce different brush strokes with different pressures on the tablet surface. Electromagnetic coupling between transmitting and receiving antennas is used to provide information about the position and orientation of hand. 24 Digitizers Digitizer is a device for drawing. A stylus is a pencil shaped device that is pointed at positions on the tablet. Electromagnetic pulses are generated in sequence along the wires and an electric signal is induced in a wire coil in an actuated stylus or hand cursor to record a tablet position.23 Data Glove 27 23 Data Glove Data glove can be used to grasp a virtual object. The glove is constructed with a series of sensors that detect hand and finger motions. Graphics tablets provide a highly accurate method for selecting coordinate position. Graphics tablet is a type of digitizer. Many graphics tablets are constructed with a rectangular grid of wires embedded in the tablet surface. These are used to i/p coordinate values in either a 2d or a 3d space. It is used to i/p 2d coordinates by activating a hand cursor or stylus at selected positions on a flat surface. The position of the stylus is calculated by timing the arrival of the generated sounds at the different microphone position. A 2 dimensional projection of the scene can be viewed on a video monitor. Strip microphones or point microphones are used to detect the sound emitted by an electrical spark from a stylus tip. A hand cursor contains cross hairs for sighting positions. painting or interactively selecting coordinate positions on an object.

These detectors are used to record which . One appln of touch panels is for the selection of processing options that are represented with graphical icons. we can process that picture. a wire frame outline of the surface is displayed on the computer Screen. we can store these in a Computer for processing with an image scanner. 25 Image Scanners If we have drawings. graphs recorded in a paper and also color and b/w photos or text. The gradations of gray scale or color are then recorded and stored in an array. 26 Touch Panels Touch panels allow displayed objects or screen positions to be selected with the touch of a finger. electrical or acoustical methods. The opposite vertical and horizontal edges contain light detectors. Optical touch panels employ a line of infrared LEDs along one vertical edge and along one horizontal edge of the frame. A coupling between the transmitters and receiver is used to compute the location of a stylus as it means over the surface of an object. Touch input can be recorded using optical. Once we have an internal representation of a picture. A s the points are selected on a real world object.25 Image Scanners 28 is that the microphones can be placed on any surface to form the tablet work area. Three-dimensional digitizers use sonic or electromagnetic transmissions to record positions. Image scanner contains an optical scanning mechanism that moves over the information to be stored.

27 Light Pens It is a pencil shaped device. The screen position at the point of contact is calculated from a measurement of time interval b/w the transmission of each wave and its reflection to the emitter. When the outer plate is touched. . In acoustical touch panels. It is used to select screen positions by detecting the light coming from points on the CRT screen. This contact creates a voltage drop across the resistive plate that is converted to the coordinate values of the screen position. high frequency sound waves are generated in the horizontal and vertical directions across a glass plate. Touching the screen causes part of the each wave to be reflected from the finger to the emitters. generates an electrical pulse that causes the coordinate position of the electron beam to be recorded. it is forced into contact with the inner plate. The 2 crossing beams that are interrupted identify the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the screen position selected. They are sensitive to the short burst of light emitted from the phosphor coating at the instant the electron beam strikes a particular point. one of the plates is coated with a conducting material and the other plate is coated with a resistive material. These recorded light pen coordinates can be used to position an object or to select a processing option. An electrical touch panel is constructed with 2 transparent plates separated by a small distance. An activated lightpen pointed at a spot on the screen as the electron beam lights up that spot.27 Light Pens 29 beams are interrupted when the panel is touched.

The voice system i/p can be used to initiate graphics operations. xerographic processes to get images on to the paper. We can send images to devices that will produce 35mm slides or overhead transparencies. we need slides. 29 Hardcopy devices We can obtain hard copy o/p of images in several formats. Character impact printer have a dot matrix print head containing a rectangular array of wire pins with the no of pins depend on the quality of printer. Printers produce output by either impact or non impact methods. a line printer. Voice i/p is typically spoken into a microphone mounted on a handset. We can put our pictures on paper by directing graphics o/p to a printer or plotter. Individual character or graphics patterns are obtained by retracing certain pins so that the remaining pins form the pattern to be printed. For presentations. the system searches the dictionary for a match. A dictionary is set up for a particular operator by having the operator speak the command word to be used into the system. Inkjet methods produce output by squirting ink in horizontal rows across a roll of paper wrapped on a drum. Later when a voice command is given. The quality of the pictures obtained from a device depends on dot size and the no of dots / inch that can be displayed. Impact printers press formed character faces against an inked ribbon o to the paper. Non impact printers and plotters use laser techniques. inkjet sprays. Toner is applied to the drum and the transferred to the paper. Eg.28 Voice system 30 28 Voice system Speech recognizers are used in some graphics work stations as i/p devices to accept voice commands. Each word is spoken several times and the system analyses the word and form a frequency pattern for the word in the dictionary along with the function to be performed. These systems operate by matching an i/p against a predefines dictionary of words and phrases. The . In a laser device a laser beam creates a charge distribution on a rotating drum coated with photoelectric material.

Explain video display devices (4 marks). Then the paper is exposed to a toner. Enumerate the fields of application of computer graphics (4marks). OR b. Explain the construction and working of graphics display unit. Explain raster scan and random scan systems. MGU/Nov2010 1. 8. a. MGU/Nov2009 7. OR b. . An electrostatic device places a negative charge on the paper one complete row at a time along the length of the paper. 6. 3a. a. OR b. 2. Distinguish between raster scan and vector scan display systems (4marks). The toner is positively charged and is attracted to negatively charged areas where it adheres to produce the specified output. 3. a. Explain the basic concepts of computer graphics (4marks). What is the general structure of the input device? OR b. How will you classify the display devices used in computer graphics (12marks) ? MGU/May2010 4. Explain the generation of a raster image in detail (4marks). Questions MGU/April2011 1. 5. Electro thermal methods use heat in a dot matrix print head to output patterns on heat sensitive paper. 9. Discuss the applications of computer graphics (4marks). Explain with neat diagram the display processor for a random scan display devices (12 marks). Explain a vector refresh system (4marks). What is interactive graphics system? (4marks) 2. Briefly explain the working of any two interactive graphic input devices. Explain in detail about the graphical input devices and output devices (12marks). Explain in detail the application of raster scan graphics.29 Hardcopy devices 31 electrically charged ink stream is deflected by an electric field to produce dot matrix pattern. Compare the functions performed by display processors in random scan and in vector scan systems (12marks).

Briefly explain different graphical input devices and output devices. What is interactive graphics system (4marks)? 11.29 Hardcopy devices 32 MGU/May2009 10. MGU/Dec2007 19. a. Explain the generation of a raster image (4marks). Explain the different structures that can be used for display file representations (12marks). 20. What are the classification of display devices used for computer graphics? (4marks) 18. Explain with neat diagram the display processor for a random scan display device. 23. With a neat schematic. Write briefly on the logical classification of input devices (4marks). List some of the applications of computer graphics (4marks). 12. OR b. Explain the principles of graphical input and output devices with neat sketches (12marks). OR b. 14. Explain the principle of video display devices with neat sketches. Explain the working of the following input devices: i) Mouse ii) Touch panel iii) Joysticks (12marks). a. 24. Give the applications of raster scan graphics (4marks). MGU/May2008 16. Or b. a. Explain with neat diagram the display processor for raster scan display device. a. Explain the basic concepts in computer graphics (4marks). OR b. Explain the operation of color CRT monitor wit hthe help of neat schematic (12marks). Or b. List different tpes of video display devices. graphical input and output devices (12marks). . What are the basic concepts in computer graphics (4marks). a. 21. 15. MGU/Nov2008 13. MGU/Jan2007 22. Explain in detail the applications of ratser scan graphics. explain the architecture of a raster scan graphics system (4marks). 17. Briefly explain the different application areas of computer graphics (4marks). Explain in brief about: display files.

Computer Graphics. J. S. C Version. (12marks) References [1] Foley. What is raster scan graphics (4marks)? 30. 29.. M. F (2001). R. Explain the potential applications of computer graphics (4marks). Baker. Enumerate the applications of raster scan graphics (4marks). Pearson Education. Sproull.29 Hardcopy devices 33 MGU/June2006 25. M. J. F. OR b. a. A. Hughes. Tata McGraw-Hill . Explain the basic principles of graphical input and output devices (12marks). Feiner. Explain in detail the basic concepts in computer graphics. D. Explain in detail the working principle of any two graphical input devices. MGU/Nov2005 28. (1997]. Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics. P (2009). D. Or b. Pearson Education. Computer Graphics. Explain the following in detail: i) display processors ii) generation of a raster image. VanDam. a. 27. [3] Newman. W. What is interatcive graphics system (4marks)? 26. K. [2] Hearn.