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9/26/2007

Second Punic War I

Between the Wars
Rome takes advantage of a Carthaginian mercenary revolt
Indemnity increased 1,700 talents Sardinia and Corsica taken Rome earns Carthage’s permanent enmity

Tumultus Gallicus
Gauls in northern Italy defeated, two colonies across the Po River

Two new praetors elected to serve as governors of Sicily and Sardinia-Corsica
These territories are their provincia, a word originally meaning “area to conquer” but now also referring to sphere of responsibility, where they can exercise their imperium

9/26/2007

10. Second Punic War I

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10. Second Punic War I

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and Massilia Rome’s ally Massilia had connections in Spain. 21–30.C. Second Punic War I 4 10. mercenary recruiting ground 9/26/2007 10. metals Manpower. feared Carthaginian expansion towards Gaul 390 of sack of Rome and the interwar Tumultus Gallicus had the Romans nervous about Gauls! Multi-front war.1 = Mellor2. 9/26/2007 10. 218–201 B. Second Punic War I 2 . Gaul. son of Hamilcar Spain Resources. Second Punic War I 3 Causes of II Punic War Major source: Livy. 21. 242) Sardinia incident Spain.9/26/2007 Carthaginian Revival Barcid expansion in Spain Hamilcar Barca. Italy threatened. son-in-law of Hannibal Note theophoric name Accomplished more by diplomacy than by arms Ebro treaty with Rome Hannibal. also Polybius Pretext: Saguntum Ebro Treaty conundrum—where is the Ebro river? Actual causes Hatred from I Punic Hamilcar and Hannibal’s oath (Liv. veteran of I Punic Hasdrubal.

Second Punic War I 3 . Picturesque. of Livy (21. 272–73) Romans disturbed by portents and ill-omens Superiority of Carthaginian horse demonstrated Scipio doubles back but loses skirmish Entry into Italy gets Sempronius Longus recalled from Sicily. and dramatic account.18 = Mellor1.C. 22. Cornelius Scipio in Gaul. 218 B. Second Punic War I 5 Carthage’s Offensive Hannibal: a tactical genius Can win battles.) Independent Fabii (Italian focus when war breaks out) Claudii Marcelli This plebeian branch of the Claudii follows an independent policy from the rest of the gens Declaration of War: Roman Commission sent to Carthage Q. Fabius: “Here we bring you war and peace.9/26/2007 The War and Roman Politics Roman expansion after the I Punic War—planned imperialism or entangling alliances? Peace Party Claudii Agitators in I Punic have no vested interest in a new war Aemilii War Party Cornelii Scipiones (foreign war advocates) “plebeian hotheads” (Varro.000 men Ticinus (Liv.45–47 = Mellor2. 259–260) Roman plan: Invade Spain and Africa Hannibal beats them to the punch by invading Italy first! 9/26/2007 10. but in the end his strategy fails Crossing the Alps. take what you please . enters Italy with 26.” (Liv. 21. Second Punic War I 6 10. African invasion cancelled 9/26/2007 10.35-36 = Mellor?) Passes P. . etc. .

285– 86) Thought that the sick Scipio was just depressed from his loss at Ticinus Worried that elections would be held and new consuls come into office before he had a chance to defeat Hannibal Fresh Carthaginian forces meet the Romans on the opposite side Elephants frighten the Roman horses! Carthaginian special forces under Mago attack the Roman rear Hannibal provokes a Roman attack with his Numidian calvary Roman forces freeze in the water of the Trebia Scipio leads Roman survivors to the Roman colonies of Placentia and Cremona Sends his brother Gnaeus to Spain with two legions 9/26/2007 10. convinced that the Senate would delay him In Livy’s mind he destroyed the pax deorum! Roman forces caught unaware between lake and the Carthaginian forces in then hills Flaminius—and most of the army—perish Q. Second Punic War I 7 Battle of Trasimene 24 Jun 217 B.63 = Mellor1. 266–277) The plebeian consul enters office outside of Rome. few supplies.C. 284–89) Livy portrays the plebeian consul Ti. C.53–54 = Mellor1. little support Strategy eventually wins war 9/26/2007 10. Fabius Maximus Cunctator (the “Delayer”) appointed dictator Opts for war of attrition Hannibal has no siege ability. Second Punic War I 8 10. Flaminius wiped out at Lake Trasimene Livy portrays Flaminius as impulsive. 21.52–57 = Mellor1. Sempronius Longus as rash and glory-seeking (Liv. Second Punic War I 4 . 22.C. rash (Liv. (Liv. 21.9/26/2007 Battle of Trebia 18 Dec 218 B.

C. (see Liv. 22. Second Punic War I 5 .” (Polyb. now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman Power. before that fateful day. Aemilius Paullus and C. 271–277) The abandonment of the Fabian strategy of delay leads to disaster L. ) Hannibal now has what he needs in terms of logistical support and supplies The war is going to go on! 9/26/2007 10. = Mellor2. Southern Italy. their loyalty remained unshaken.9/26/2007 Cannae.44–51 = Mellor2. 216 B. Second Punic War I 9 Results of Cannae Complete Roman defeat leads to revolts of Capua. and Syracuse “How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae. Terentius Varro Livy portrays the patrician and plebeian as being in constant conflict Classic weak center strong flanks trick! 9/26/2007 10. than those which preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome’s allies. Second Punic War I 10 10.