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10/22/2007

C. Iulius Caesar

Patrician and populares, brilliant general and crafty politician, Julius Caesar came center stage with his consulship in 59 B.C. and never yielded his premier position.

Suggested Titles

M. Gelzer, Caesar: Politician and Statesman; C. Meier, Caesar: A Biography; A. Goldsworthy, Caesar: Life of a Colossus; E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic; L. Taylor. Party Politics in the Age of Caesar.

20. The Rise of Julius Caesar

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C.10/22/2007 Caesar’s background The Iulii: An old patrician family Claimed descent from Venus and Aeneas Had declined in the Middle Republic Marius alliance revived fortunes Childhood Aurelia. The Rise of Julius Caesar 2 . from a family claiming descent from the sun Born 13 July 100 B.C. but Caesar refused to divorce Cornelia in 81 B.C. Deprived him of flaminate (actually a favor!) 10/22/2007 20. The Rise of Julius Caesar 4 20. The Rise of Julius Caesar 3 Early Career Early military service Joins staffs of various eastern governors Adventures with pirates Returns to Rome after Sulla’s death Co-opted as pontiff Indicative of his life-long religious interests Speaks in favor of rehabilitating followers of Lepidus and Sertorius Shows populares leanings Elected quaestor in 69 B. Marius Grew jealous of Caesar’s precociousness and promise Tried to handicap career by giving Caesar the “honor” of being flamen Dialis in 87 B.. Arranged marriage to Cinna’s daughter Cornelia Sulla Sulla threatened him. displaying his effigies and trophies Recalled his own distinguished ancestry by praising aunt Reveals a definite populares approach Nevertheless married Pompeia. enters Senate Funeral oration for Aunt Iulia and wife Cornelia Appealed to Marian party by rehabilitating Marius’ reputation. whose family had strong optimates connections (among other things. she was a granddaughter of Sulla!) 10/22/2007 20.C.

. The Rise of Julius Caesar 6 20. The Rise of Julius Caesar 5 Caesar’s Consulship Bid Senatorial opposition to rising Caesar Refused Spanish triumph Worked against election In anticipation of Caesar’s victory. “crashes” women’s religious ceremony in Caesar’s house. Caesar’s daughter): veterans.C. the Senate allotted “forests and cow paths of Italy” as the next consuls provinces Evidently gained support of Pompey and Crassus in political amicitia.. maverick patrician. at last. money Crassus: money.C.. “the first triumvirate” Caesar: popular support Pompey (marries Iulia. election as praetor and pontifex maximus (defeating Catulus) Spoke against executing the Catilinarians 62 B.. The Rise of Julius Caesar 3 . controlled courts Firm optimate. As curule aedile in 65 B. serves as proconsul of Further Spain Crassus relieves Caesar of debts so that he can leave for his province Successful military campaigns Returns with military glory and. junior senators. Bona Dea scandal Clodius.. stages lavish games (Crassus paid for them) 63 B. . in drag! Caesar divorces Pompeia: “Caesar’s wife must be beyond reproach Remains friendly with Clodius! 61 B.10/22/2007 Rising Prominence Spoke in favor of both the lex Gabinia and lex Manilia Movement towards Pompey . money 10/22/2007 20. Bibulus. elected as a check on Caesar 10/22/2007 20.C.C.

Caesar supports Clodius. 59 B. Bibulus Pompey’s veterans and Caesar’s mob resorted to violence Bibulus. The Rise of Julius Caesar 4 .10/22/2007 Consulship of Iulius and Caesar. The Rise of Julius Caesar 8 20. The Rise of Julius Caesar 7 Caesar’s Province Circumvented Senate’s restrictive allocation through tribunician legislation Lex Vatinia gave Caesar Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for five years Caesar planned ambitious campaigns against the Dacians (in modern Romania) and eventual eastern actions Senate later added Transalpine Gaul (southern France) to head off a tribunician disposition Caesar’s use of violence lay him open to future prosecution proconsular imperium protected him in the interim 10/22/2007 20. spent time “watching the heavens. is uncontrollable! 10/22/2007 20.C. no doubt looking forward to future tribunician action on his behalf Clodius.” seeking to invalidate Caesar’s acts through religious scruple Bibulus ignored Election of Clodius as tribune of the plebs for 58 B.C. Embarks upon a populares legislative program Land act for Pompey’s veterans Ratified Pompey’s eastern settlement Strengthened provincial extortion laws Required publication of Senate’s acta Opposed by consular colleague. confined to home. however.

future plans laid 55 B. Crassus gets Syria and the war against Parthia Triumvirate collapses Iulia dies. second consulship of Pompey and Crassus Pompey to have Spain.C. governs Spain through legates Crassus killed at Carrhae 10/22/2007 20. Caesar injects self into the tribal politics of “long-haired” Gaul Ariovistus German chieftain brought in as mercenaries by the Sequani Later turns on Sequani hosts and later dominates and oppresses much of Gaul Caesar invited in to “liberate” Gaul Ariovistus defeated at Bibracte Campaigns throughout Gaul. The Rise of Julius Caesar 5 .. Cicero exiled by Clodius.C.C. The Rise of Julius Caesar 10 20.C.. Luca Conference Pompey and Crassus meet Caesar at edge of his province 300 senators accompany them north Triumvirate reaffirmed. recalled a year later 56 B. Pompey marries a Metella Stays just outside of Rome.10/22/2007 Conquest of Gaul Migration of the Helvetii provides Caesar with his war Helvetii defeated and repelled in 58 B. new province of Gallia Comata Vercingetorix Gallic revolt smashed at Alesia Events at Rome 58 B..