11/2/2007

Augustan Succession

The aggrandizement of the imperial family, the domus Augusta, provided a vehicle for preparing and establishing imperial succession

Dynastic Element of Roman Politics
Family promotion was an implicit part of the Republican system
Election to the consulship ennobled the entire family, members of which were henceforth nobiles Factional politics had as their object the promotion of younger family members through family alliances and elections

Inheritance and Advancement
Heirs in inherited the name, clientele, and even auctoritas Individuals still needed to pursue and succeed at at public career
Potestas and imperium was awarded through election and appointment Individuals successes and actions added to one’s auctoritas

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26b. Augustan Succession

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26b. Augustan Succession

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Agrippa was the apparent successor Died soon thereafter Agrippa married Iulia in 21 B. Octavia’s son. and Iulia. Augustan Succession 4 26b.C. Augustan Succession 2 .C. Augustan Succession 3 Early Dynastic Efforts Marriage of Marcellus. serving early as aedile Still not experienced or old enough when Augustus became ill in 23 B. Augustus’ daughter Marcellus was Augusts’ expected heir in his will Marcellus received an accelerated career. could not be inherited Advance a relative with his own blood Had no sons. select a close male relative as heir Cultivate male grandsons through his only daughter. 11/2/2007 26b. make his personal heir his political successor 11/2/2007 26b. who became Gaius and Lucius Caesar Agrippa died unexpectedly in 12 B.C. Their sons were Augustus’ grandsons Several times consul and most experienced military commander Received grants of imperium maius and tribunicia potestas in 18 B. eventual successors Augustus adopted oldest two boys.11/2/2007 Augustus’ Dynastic Goals Position of principate was constitutional. Iulia Provide political and military opportunities “Jump start” the careers of potential successors Give them political and military experience. advance through the senatorial hierarchy Incrementally award them extraordinary powers Tribunicia potestas and imperium pronconsulare could be held jointly with Augusts In sum.. prestige Help them be elected to magistracies. Could serve as immediate successor and guardian of Augustus’ grandsons.C.

Augustan Succession 3 .11/2/2007 Octavia’s Descendants Augustus’ Blood Relatives 26b.

Tiberius and Drusus As stepsons of the princeps.C.D. they received moderately accelerated careers and military experience Tiberius was consul in 13 B.. Drusus died during his consulship Tiberius and Iulia Augustus had Tiberius divorce Vipsania and marry Iulia in 11 B. 4 11/2/2007 26b. Drusus in 9 B. Drusus.C.C. in 6 B. 2 and Gaius in A. to introduce Gaius and Lucius to public life Both began accelerated careers Both died unexpectedly. Became stepfather to Gaius and Lucius Caesar After serving as consul II. Tiberius received tribunicia potestas for 5 years Marital difficulties caused Tiberius to retire to Rhodes later that year Augustus briefly held the consulship in 5 and 2 B. Augustan Succession 4 .D.C. Augustan Succession 7 The Julio-Claudian Dynasty –or the Livio Claudian family? 26b.11/2/2007 Tiberius.C. and the Young Caesars Livia’s sons. Lucius in A.

who had Iulian blood through his mother Antonia (daughter of Octavia) Germanicus and Tiberius’ own son. the younger Drusus.D. Germanicus. preparing him to become Augustus’ successor Germanicus Iulius Caesar Tiberius adopted his nephew.11/2/2007 The Adoptions of A. began accelerated public careers The Domus Augustus Propaganda and religion began to emphasize the adoptive house of Augustus as the vehicle of succession 11/2/2007 26b. Augustan Succession 9 The Domus Augustus 26b. 4 Deaths of Gaius and Lucius forced Augustus to develop a new dynastic plan Tiberius Iulius Caesar Augustus adopted Livia’s son Tiberius Claudius Nero Tiberius thus became Augustus’ personal heir Tiberius received a second grant of tribunicia potestas. Augustan Succession 5 .

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