12/12/2007

The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity

Constantius II and Julian
First “Byzantine” emperor Sacred, Christian autocracy Pride of place to the East Constantius’ Caesars Gallus (cousin, executed) Julian (relative, to Gaul)
Extant portion of Ammianus Marcellinus highlight’s Julian’s success on Western fronts

Constantius asks Julian to come East to help fight Persians Julian’s troops declare him Augustus in Paris instead Constantius dies suddenly before the two clash Julian sole emperor, A.D. 360–364

12/12/2007

38. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity

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38. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity

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second ban on pagan sacrifice A. first ban on pagan sacrifice (Julian restores in A.4 = Mellor2. is killed by Visgoths at Adrianople “Settled” Goths on imperial territory Begins the process of allowing Germanic military units into the Roman empire to serve as Roman auxiliaries In the end they do not “invade. theurgist. converts to paganism as a student following a vision! Neoplatonist.12/12/2007 Julian “the Apostate” Raised a Christian. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 2 . 186.” they are already there! Fervent Christian. 385. 356. Tried to help Jews rebuild their temple Persian War Dies after spear thrust Killed by a Christian? 12/12/2007 38. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 4 38. 392.D. A. Eleusinian. 603–606) Favored Jews? • No.D. temples closed. . Cybele Hostile to Christianity • Revoked its privileges • Passed some anti-Christian legislation • law against Christian teachers (see Ammianus Marcellinus 25. Christianity official religion See anti-pagan legislation from the Theodosian Code (LR II no. Sol. 360) 382. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 3 Theodosius. 331. Valens. 187.D. Ambrose and Symmachus: the Altar of Victory controversy at Rome See letters of Ambrose and Symmachus to Emperor Valentinian (LR II no. Constantine’s “inventory” of pagan temples A.D. just pro sacrifice .D. completed progressive ban on paganism A. 378-395 Becomes emperor when a predecessor. . paganism banned.packet 20–22) Permanently divided Empire at death Arcadius (East) Honorius (West) 12/12/2007 38. packet 19–20) A.D.

Africa to Arabs Eastern. . retired But . Zeno. A western emperor.D. 476 German “kings” enter empire as mercenary warlords.D. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 3 . the child Romulus Augustulus. still rules from Illyricum Ostrogothic kings in Italy still suffer Senate at Rome to function. . making and unmaking emperors Last puppet emperor. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 6 38. or “Byzantine” Empire survives in various forms until A. consuls to be selected East reconquers some of west under Justinian Conquests are not permanent: Italy to Lombards. 1453! 12/12/2007 38.12/12/2007 The End of Rome? The West limps on until A. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 5 Europe after Rome: the Germanic Kingdoms and the Byzantine Empire 12/12/2007 38.

. upper classes decline (discredited) Government mismanagement and failure of frontier defense Chief proximate cause 12/12/2007 38. The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 4 .12/12/2007 Causes? Moral Collapse and Vice? Careful here . . The Lasts Gasps of Pagan Antiquity 7 38. This is a predominately Christian Empire External pressures Yes. but the Germans are inside before the (Western) empire falls! Augustine’s City of God and the dilemma of Christian political decline Disease and plague Economic collapse Exhaustion of land and minerals Tax base cannot support necessary military Triumph of Barbarism and Religion (Gibbon) Dysgenic breeding. race suicide.

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