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History of India

Chronology of Indian history

Ancient India

Prehistoric India and Vedic India
Religions, Society, Mahajanapadas

Mauryan Period
Economy, Spread of Buddhism, Chanakya, Satavahana Empire

The Golden Age
Discoveries, Aryabhata, Ramayana, Mahabharata

Medieval India

The Classical Age Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Rashtrakuta Empire
Art, Philosophy, Literature

Islam in India
Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Music, Guru Nanak

Mughal India

Maratha Confederacy

Modern India

Company Rule
Zamindari system, Warren Hastings, Mangal Pandey, 1857

British Indian Empire
Hindu reforms, Bengal Renaissance, Independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi

The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.[1] The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE, was the first major civilization in India.[2] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.[3] This Bronze Age civilization collapsed before the end of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Mahaviraand Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their śramanic philosophies. Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It became fragmented, with various parts ruled by numerousMiddle kingdoms for the next 1,500 years. This is known as the classical period of Indian history, during which time India has sometimes been estimated to have had the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world, with its huge population generating between one fourth and one third of the world's income up to the 18th century. Much of northern and central India was united in the 4th century CE, and remained so for two centuries, under the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindureligious and intellectual resurgence, is known among its admirers as the "Golden Age of India". From this time, and for several centuries afterwards, southern India, under the rule of the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas, experienced its own golden age. During this period, aspects of Indian civilization, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia. The southern state of Kerala had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE. Islam was introduced in Kerala through this route by Muslim traders. Muslim rule in the subcontinent began in 712 CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in [4] southern Punjab in modern day Pakistan, setting the stage for several successive invasions from

which provided opportunities for the Afghans. and Edakkal Caves Bhimbetka rock painting.[5] Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century. flourished contemporaneously in southern. Balochis. a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and later joined by the Muslim League. large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka. Sikhs. Mughal rule came from Central Asia to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. During the first half of the 20th century. after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline. In addition to the Mughals and various Rajput kingdoms. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857.000 years old) .Central Asia between the 10th and 15th centuries CE. The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.eastern and northeastern India respectively. such as the Vijayanagara Empire. and Marathas to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia. Madhya Pradesh. 30. Eastern Ganga Empire and the Ahom Kingdom. western. the Maratha Empire. several independent Hindu states. India (c. Pre-Historic era Stone Age Main article: South Asian Stone Age Further information: Mehrgarh. after the British provinces werepartitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. Mughal rulers introduced Central Asian art and architecture to India.

000 years ago. Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era. spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE. Neolithic agriculture cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE. India. India. The first urban civilization of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilization. Pakistan. when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12. somewhere between 500. Early Neolithic culture in South Asia is represented by the Mehrgarh findings (7000 BCE onwards) in present-day Balochistan. radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE. Pakistan.000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh.[17] Bronze Age Main article: Indus Valley Civilization See also: Economic history of India and Timeline of the economy of India The docks of ancient Lothal as they appear today. and Nepal.[15] Traces of a Neolithic culture have been alleged to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India. The first confirmed semipermanent settlements appeared 9.[14] The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period. . the one dredged piece of wood in question was found in an area of strong ocean currents.000 years ago.[6][7] Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.[16] However.000 and 200. and in later South India.Stone age (5000 BC) writings ofEdakkal Caves in Kerala. in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE.[8][9] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements[10] and some of its major civilizations. Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India.[11][12] The earliest archaeological [13] site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.

seal carving). It was centered on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the GhaggarHakra River valley. bronze. and Mohenjo-daro in modern-day Pakistan.[23] laying the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. Historically part of Ancient India. marking the beginning of the urban civilization on the subcontinent. and multistoried houses. This period succeeded the prehistoric Late Harappan."Priest King" ofIndus Valley Civilization The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilization. and Lothal in modern-day India. during which immigrations of Indo-Aryan-speaking tribes overlaid the existing civilizations of local people [24] whom they called Dasyus. along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley. and produced copper. and Harappa. the Harappans. The Vedic period lasted from about 1500 to 500 BCE. Ganeriwala. Rupar. particularly in the Gangetic Plain. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India[22] and next to some writings in Egypt and Mesopotamia are the oldest in the world. The Aryans. Punjab. Rakhigarhi. it is one of the world's earliest urban [21] civilizations. sacred to Hindus. The civilization included urban centers such as Dholavira. roadside drainage system. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas.[20] The civilization is primarily located in modern-day India (Gujarat. and Balochistan provinces). and tin. originally came from the Caspian Sea area of Asia. developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products. Punjab and Rajasthan provinces) and Pakistan (Sindh. The Mature Indus civilization flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE.[19] and southeastern Afghanistan.[18] Gujarat. Haryana. The Aryans established Vedic civilization all over north India. Kalibangan. Settling . The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick.[11] the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. lead. Early historic period Vedic period Main article: Vedic Civilization See also: Vedas and Indo-Aryans Map of North India in the late Vedic period. which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit.

the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period.first in Bactria and then in the Hindu-Kush area of India. called mahajanapadas. discoveries of advanced civilizations in the Indus River valley. Indeed when the Aryans moved into India. Many scholars throughout history have maintained that the Aryans subjugated the "backward aboriginies" that had previously lived in northern India.[31] The swastika is a major element of Hindu iconography. the principal texts of Hinduism. the first Indian text to mention iron. in part. Aryan society became increasingly agricultural and was socially organized around the four varnas.[34] The events described in the shorter. today. with late Harappan urbanization having been abandoned. the origins of the later Hindu belief in India that cows are sacred may have started during this time. which existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE.[30] During this period of time. Early Vedic society consisted of largely pastoral groups. around 1000 BCE. caused many scholars to change their theories in this regard. they had no regular legal institutions and their religion was a very basic form of animism. as śyāma ayas. to the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts." The Painted Grey Ware culture spanned much of northern India from about 1100 to 600 BCE. Mahajanapadas .[26]However. as well as with the composition of the Atharvaveda. The basis of the Aryan economy had always been centered around cattle raising. before settling in the Ganges and Yamuna [25] River valleys. The later part of this period corresponds with an increasing movement away from the previous tribal system towards the establishment of kingdoms. In addition to the Vedas. their [28] [29] clothing was simple.[35] The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds. literally "black metal. Thus.[32] After the time of the Rigveda. the longest single poem in the world.[36] The Kuru kingdom[37] corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Grey Ware cultures and to the beginning of the Iron Age in northwestern India. the cow began to be venerated in Aryan society. or social classes.[33] The Mahabharata remains. Ramayana are from a later period of history than the events of the Mahabharata.[36] The Vedic Period also established republics such as Vaishali. they were semi-nomadic pastoralists. The Aryans may have received as much from the neighboring cultures of northern India as they [27] contributed.

located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. Nalanda is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. Kosala.Gautama Buddha undertaking extreme ascetic practices before his enlightenment on the bank of river Falguin Bodh Gaya. many mentioned in Vedic. The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful kingdoms and republics of the era. from the Kalpa Sutra. Anga. Chedi. and Kamboja — stretched across the Indo-Gangetic Plain from modernday Afghanistan to Bengal and Maharastra. sixteen monarchies and "republics" known as the Mahajanapadas — Kasi. Matsya (or Machcha).Panchala. By 500 BCE. . a number of small kingdoms or city states had covered the subcontinent. c. Gautama Buddha. It was the center of Buddhist learning and research in the world from 450 to 1193 CE. however there were a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India. and History of Jainism See also: Adi Shankara. Detail of a leaf with. Indian philosophy. Vatsa (or Vamsa). Magadha. Bihar. The Birth ofMahavira (the 24th Tirthankara ofJainism). Malla. Surasena. Assaka. early Buddhist and Jaina literature as far back as 1000 BCE. This period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilization. Kuru. Indian Religions. Vajji (or Vriji). Gandhara. and Mahavira Further information: Upanishads.1375-1400. and Ancient universities of India In the later Vedic Age. Avanti. History of Buddhism. Main articles: Mahajanapadas and Magadha Empire Main articles: History of Hinduism.

Alexander the Great. The Vedas are believed to have documented a few Tirthankaras and an ascetic order similar to the shramana movement. The impact of Persian ideas . the concept of the cycle [42] of birth and death. during the reign of Darius I of Persia. Buddhist nunsand monks eventually spread the teachings of Buddha to Central Asia. The Buddha was a [39] [40] [41] member of this movement. which helped them gain acceptance amongst the masses. yoga.Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent. accorded status as the 23rd Tirthankara. was a historical figure. Under Persian rule the famous city of Takshashila [50] became a center where both Vedic and Iranian learning were mingled. These four were Vatsa.[47] The Buddha's teachings and Jainism had doctrines inclined toward asceticism. Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism) propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism. Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Many of the sixteen kingdoms had coalesced to four major ones by 500/400 [38] BCE. Nanda Empire.[46]However. and they were preached in Prakrit. The Brahmanical ashrama system of life was an attempt to institutionalize Shramana ideals within the Brahmanical social structure. while the languages of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits. In 530 BCE Cyrus. King of the Persian Achaemenid Empire crossed the Hindu-Kush mountains to seek tribute from the tribes of Kamboja. Some of these kings were hereditary. and the concept of liberation.[48] By 520 BCE. other states elected their rulers.[44] The Buddha found a Middle Way that ameliorated the extreme asceticism found in [45] the Sramana religions. The area remained under Persian control for two centuries. the Nanda Empire and Gangaridai Empirein relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors. and Magadha. Greco-Buddhism. Avanti. While the geographic impact of Jainism was limited to India. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit. They have profoundly influenced practices that Hinduism and Indian spiritual orders are associated with. Jain orthodoxy believes the teachings of the Tirthankaras predates all known time and scholars believe Parshva. The Brahmanical tradition was paralleled by the non-Vedic Shramana movement. Around the same time. Tibet. Shramana also gave rise to Jainism. much of the northwestern subcontinent (present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. East Asia. the concept ofsamsara. Gandhara and the trans-India region. Persian and Greek conquests See also: Achaemenid Empire.[43] The Shramana movement also influenced the Aranyakas andUpanishads in the Brahmanical tradition. including vegetarianism.[49] During this time India supplied mercenaries to [48] the Persian army then fighting in Greece. by the time of Gautama Buddha. and Gangaridai Asia in 323 BCE. Kosala. prohibition of animal slaughter and ahimsa (non-violence).

after the meeting with his officer. exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River. By 326 BCE. and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture. Pakistan) and conquered much of [52] thePunjab. Alexander the Great had conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire and had reached the northwest frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. was convinced that it was better to return. Coenus. became a melting pot of Indian. Greco-Buddhism. 3rd century BCE. Persian. . The Persian and Greek invasions had important repercussions on Indian civilization. which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism. including the administration of the Mauryan dynasty. Persian ascendency in northern India ended with Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia [51] in 327 BCE.was felt in many areas of Indian life. mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River) and refused to march further East. Maurya Empire Main article: Maurya Empire Further information: Chandragupta Maurya. and Ashoka the Great Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great Ashokan pillar at Vaishali. There he defeated King Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum. Bindusara. the region of Gandhara. Persian coinage and rock inscriptions were copied by India. or present-day eastern Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Central Asian. Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal. His army. However. In addition. Alexander. The political systems of the Persians were to influence future forms of governance on the subcontinent.

including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces.[63] Chandragupta's minister Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra. Indeed.[60] Although there was no banking in the Mauryan society. This war forced Ashoka to abandon his attempt at a foreign policy which would unify the Maurya Empire. annexing Balochistanand much of what is now Afghanistan. and religion produced in Asia. The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath. this policy caused considerable opposition within the government. but it excluded extensive unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga which were subsequently taken by Ashoka. the Maurya Empire needed to have a unified administrative apparatus. usury was customary with loans made at the recognized interest rate of 15% per annum. military arts. Ashoka became involved in a war with [57] the state of Kalinga which is located on the western shore of the Bay of Bengal. The empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara. the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire [55] for 37 years from 268 BCE until he died in 232 BCE. Archaeologically. To the west. In this regard Ashoka established many Buddhist monuments. However. ruled by the Mauryan dynasty.[62] Religious opposition to Ashoka also arose among the orthodox Brahmanists and the adherents of Jainism--a religion based on non-violence toward all living beings.[61] As might be expected. one of the greatest treatises on economics. war. Ashoka pursued an active [56] foreign policy aimed at setting up a unified state. Ashoka put a strain on the economy and the government by his strong support of Buddhism.[59] The Mauryan Empire was based on a modern and efficient economy and society. However.[54]At its greatest extent. foreign affairs. Ashoka's reign propagated Buddhism. during the Mauryan Empire slavery developed much more rapidly. The empire was established [53] by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha what is now Bihar. the sale of merchandise was closely regulated by the government. politics.The Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE). During that time. . it reached beyond modern Pakistan. is the national emblem of India. it stretched to the north to the natural boundaries of the Himalayas and to the east into what is now Assam. administration. This opposition rallied around Sampadi. [58] Slavery had begun in India during the Vedic era. towards the end of his reign he "bled the state coffers white with his generous gifts to promote the promulation of Buddha's teaching. Early Middle Kingdoms — The Golden Age Main article: Middle Kingdoms of India  Ancient India during the rise of theSunga andSatavahana empires. The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are primary written records of the Mauryan times. Like every state. Ashoka's grandson and heir to the throne. However. was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India. The empire flourished under the reign of Ashoka the Great.

Pallavas. The kingdoms warred with each other and the Deccan states for domination of the south. Burma. . Satakarni. defeated the Sunga Empire of north India. The Satavahana dynasty.[64] ruled a vast empire and was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in the Indian subcontinent. Vietnam. the sixth ruler of the Satvahana dynasty. and Java. Different dynasties such as the Pandyans. ruled in southern and central India after around 230 BCE.[64] The Kharavelan Jain empire included a maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka. Cambodia. now in Orissa. They were the successors of the Indo-Scythians and contemporaries of the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in central and southern India. Cheras. The Kushanas migrated from Central Asia into northwestern India in the middle of the 1st century CE and founded an empire that stretched from Tajikistan to the middle Ganges. dominated the southern part of the Indian peninsula at different periods of time. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka. Sumatra. The Kuninda Kingdom was a small Himalayan state that survived from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE. The Western Satraps (35-405 CE) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India. Borneo. as well as the Maldives and Maritime Southeast Asia. Several southern kingdoms formed overseas empires that stretched into Southeast Asia. Western Gangas. also known as the Andhras. Kharavela. The Kharavela Empire. Cholas.  Kushan Empire andWestern Satraps ofAncient India in the north along with Pandyans andEarly Cholas in southern India.  Gupta Empire The middle period was a time of cultural development. and Chalukyas. Thailand. Afterwards. Kadambas. Bali. the warrior king of Kalinga. Burma.

the Indo-Parthians (also known asthe Pahlavas). in the Gandhara region. first into Bactria. By the 3rd century. at least as far as Saketa and Pataliputra. where the mingling of Indian culture and the culture of Iran gave birth to a hybrid culture under the Indo-Sassanids. the Indo-Scythians. about the middle of the 1st century CE. Indo-Scythians. Lasting for almost two centuries. extending his rule over various parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Sassanid empire of Persia. the Indo-Greek Kingdom. they had conquered most of northern India. who was contemporaneous with the Gupta Empire. expanded into the region of present-day Balochistan in Pakistan. who were often in conflict with each other. The Indo-Scythians were a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians) who migrated from southern Siberia. subsequently into Sogdiana. Roman trade with India Main article: Roman trade with India . Kashmir. Yet another kingdom. their empire in India was disintegrating.The Kalabras. Northwestern hybrid cultures The founder of theIndo-Greek Kingdom. The first of these. after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises. Arachosia. andGandhara. their last known great emperor being Vasudeva I (c. Kanishka. 190-225 CE). a Buddhist dynasty. Cheras. See also: Indo-Greek kingdom. the Indo-Parthians. Kujula Kadphises. (whose era is thought to have begun c. Kushan Empire Main article: Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor. briefly interrupted the usual domination of the Cholas. and finally into India. and the Indo-Sassinids. Indo-Parthian Kingdom. and probably as far as the Bay of Bengal. 127 CE). came to control most of present-day Afghanistan and northern Pakistan.Demetrius I "the Invincible" (205–171 BCE).[65] They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China. and Pandyas in the south. By the time of his grandson. and Indo-Sassanids The northwestern hybrid cultures of the subcontinent included the Indo-Greeks. was founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the region in 180 BCE. the kingdom was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Greek kings. Their kingdom lasted from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. in the middle Ganges Valley.

and according to Strabo (II. and Kama Sutra . Roman trade with India started around 1 CE.South India. Vishnu Sharma. So much gold was used for this trade. The maritime (but not the overland) trade routes. Aryabhata. which had been India's biggest trade partner in the West. Historia Naturae 12. Kumaragupta I. Kumārasambhava.5. China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. Chandra Gupta II. For what percentage of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?" [67] —Pliny.Coin of the Roman emperor Augustusfound at the Pudukottai. and Vatsyayana Further information: Meghadūta.101) complained about the drain of specie to India: "India. harbours. Samudragupta. Abhijñānaśākuntala. by the time of Augustus.41.[66]). and Skandagupta Further information: Kalidasa. Aryabhatiya. and trade items are described in detail in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Varahamihira.84. Gupta rule Gupta Empire (240 to 550 AD) Main article: Gupta Empire See also: Chandra Gupta I. Indian numerals. up to 120 ships set sail every year fromMyos Hormos on the Red Sea to India. during the reign of Augustus and following his conquest of Egypt. that Pliny the Elder (NH VI.12. Panchatantra. The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing. and apparently recycled by the Kushans for their own coinage.

The military exploits of the first three rulers—Chandragupta I (c. Varahamihira. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and established it as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma. and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture. depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta. The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule. who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century. dialectic. mathematics. The Classical Age refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy... 320–550 CE).astronomy. imperial deity by one of the Hindu gods (except under the Palas of eastern India. and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields. Sri Lanka. 335–380 CE. Samudragupta(c. with their capital at Bamiyan.[74] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa. and Chandragupta II (c. and Indochina.. Vaishnavism. and Shaivism Ronald Inden notes: "before the eighth century. They successfully resisted the northwestern kingdoms until the arrival of the Hunas. logic.[73] The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture. literature. much of theDeccan and southern India were largely unaffected by [78][79] these events in the north. 335–376).[71] The decimal numeral system..[77] However. and painting.Queen Kumaradevi and KingChandragupta I.[72] The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors in India. Vishnu Sharma. sculpture.. Brahmanical Expansion at the Expense of Buddhism Main articles: Decline of Buddhism in India. the Buddha's homeland). The Buddha was replaced as the supreme. 376–415) —brought much of India under [76] their leadership. Now as one of the Hindu gods replaced the Buddha at the . engineering. the Buddha was accorded the position of universal deity and ceremonies by which a king attained to imperial status were elaborate donative ceremonies entailing gifts to Buddhist monks and the installation of a symbolic Buddha in a stupa. including the concept of zero.[75] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era.Previously the Buddha had been accorded imperial-style worship (puja). art.Aryabhata.[68][69] This period has been called the Golden Age of India[70] and was marked by extensive achievements in science. 319– 335). Maritime Southeast Asia. was invented in India during this period. but they also patronized Buddhism.This pattern changed in the eighth century. technology. religion.

1030 C. the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja [80] worship.imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system. Late Middle Kingdoms — The Classical Age Main articles: Middle Kingdoms of India . . royal proclivities for the cults of Vishnu and Shiva weakened Buddhism's position within the sociopolitical context and helped [81] make possible its decline. Western Chalukyas .E. and Vijayanagara Empire Pala Empire under Dharmapala Pala Empire under Devapala Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. Eastern Ganga dynasty. Badami Chalukyas . Rashtrakuta . " The replacement of the Buddha as the "cosmic person" coincided with the same period of time that the Buddha was incorporated and subordinated within the cult of Vishnu as an avatar. Although Buddhism did not disappear from India for several centuries after the eighth.

and small Rajput dynasties later ruled much of northern India. The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire. One Gurjar[82][83] Rajput of the Chauhan clan. due to pressure from the invaders to the north. The first recorded Rajput kingdoms emerged in Rajasthan in the 6th century. From the 7th to the 9th century. the Palas of Bengal. The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan. This period produced some of India's finest art.the Rashtrakutas ofDeccan. and the Palas of Bengal. and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. and Kashmir from the mid-7th century to the early 11th century. Prithvi Raj Chauhan. . three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa. the Gurjara Pratiharas ofMalwa. until Indian independence from the British. and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism. The "Classical Age" in India began with the Gupta Empire and the resurgence of the north during Harsha's conquests around the 7th century CE. King Harsha of Kannauj succeeded in reuniting northern India during his reign in the 7th century. Buddhism and Jainism. These were the first of theRajput states. considered the epitome of classical development. and ended with the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in the south in the 13th century. was known for bloody conflicts against the advancing Islamic sultanates.Badami Chalukya Empire The Kanauj Triangle was the focal point of empires . after the collapse of the Gupta dynasty. and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. northern Pakistan.theEastern Ganga dynasty of Orissa. His kingdom collapsed after his death. a series of kingdoms which managed to survive in some form for almost a millennium.

Muslim trading communities had flourished throughout coastal south India. Arab Islamic Caliphate incorporated parts of what is now Pakistan around 720 CE. and the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and the Pegu islands. their expansion was checked and contained to Sindh in Pakistan[citation needed]. After several wars including the Battle of Rajasthan. occupying coasts fromBurma to Vietnam. Rajaraja Chola I conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. the Lakshadweep (Laccadive) islands. mainly from the Arabian . The Islamic Sultanates Main article: Islamic Empires in India See also: Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan Sultanates Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur. The Pallavas of Kanchipuram were their contemporaries further to the south. giving rise to the Vijayanagar empire. By 1343. Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. Kakatiyas of Warangal. and a southern branch of the Kalachuri. the Pandyan Empire emerged in Tamil Nadu. The ports of south India were engaged in the Indian Ocean trade. Later during the middle period. has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.[84] the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In 712 CE an Arab Muslim general calledMuhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region in modern day Pakistan. 72 km (45 mi) north of modern Hyderabad in Sindh. With the decline of the Chalukya empire. chiefly involving spices. Rajendra Chola I's navies went even further. Pakistan.[85][86] Literature in local vernaculars and spectacular architecture flourished until about the beginning of the 14th century. as well as the Chera Kingdom in parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. many short-lived Islamic kingdoms (sultanates) under foreign rulers were established across the north western subcontinent over a period of a few centuries. and then again from Kalyani between 970 and 1190. to be made the "As-Sindh" province with its capital at Al-Mansurah. for the Umayyad empire. The Vijaynagar Empire eventually declined due to pressure from the first Delhi sultanates that had managed to establish themselves in the north around the city of Delhi by that time. their feudatories. Additionally. the Hoysalas of Halebidu.The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India from Badami in Karnataka between 550 and 750. The Hindu Vijayanagar dynasty came into conflict with the Islamic Bahmani Sultanate. Sumatra. and the clashing of the two systems caused a mingling of the indigenous and foreign cultures that left lasting cultural influences on each other. where Muslim traders arrived in small numbers. with the Roman Empire to the west and Southeast Asia to the east. divided the vast Chalukya empire amongst themselves around the middle of 12th century.[87]which was a rich region.[88] with a flourishing international trade and the only known diamond mines in the world. particularly in Kerala. After conquering Persia. The Chola Empire at its peak covered much of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. when southern expeditions of the sultan of Delhi took their toll on these kingdoms. last of these dynasties had ceased to exist. The Muslim rulers were keen to invade India. where the Hindu Rajput clans defeated the Umayyad Arabs.

Main article: Delhi Sultanate In the 12th and 13th centuries. attacked the reigning Sultan Nasir-u [90] Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city ofDelhi. literature. but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting the subcontinent. while the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India. after Timur's army had killed and plundered for three days and nights. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture. and the other Muslims. the Bahmani Sultanateand Deccan sultanates founded by Turkic rulers.000 war prisoners were put to death in one day. scholars. 100. The Sultan's army was defeated on December 17. 1398. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked. The Delhi Sultanate is the only IndoIslamic empire to have enthroned one of the few female rulers in India. destroyed. A Turco-Mongol conqueror in Central Asia. music. Turks and Afghans invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Rajput holdings. and Arabic under the Muslim rulers. following Judaism and Christianity. flourished in the south.[91] The Mughal era . He ordered the whole city to be sacked except for the sayyids. and clothing. often in puritanical form. This had marked the introduction of a third Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion. and left in ruins. commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty. approximately equal in extent to the ancient Gupta Empire.peninsula. Timur (Tamerlane). Razia Sultana (1236–1240). It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian.[89] The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhi managed to conquer large areas of northern India. Later. religion. Delhi Sultanate Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret. Turkic.

After Sher Shah's death. liberally patronising Hindu culture. However. who had won 22 battles from Punjab to Bengal and had established a secular Hindu Raj. Babur. who was the grandson of Babar. his son Humayun was defeated by the Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri in the year 1540. The famous emperor Akbar. ruled North India from Delhi till 1556. later emperors such asAurangazeb tried to establish complete . The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by 1600. it went into a slow decline after 1707 and was finally defeated during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. covering [92] modern day Afghanistan. swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire. Pakistan. However. when Akbar's forces defeated and killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat on 6 November 1556.India and Bangladesh. and Humayun was forced to retreat to Kabul. his son Islam Shah Suri and the Hindu king Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya. Taj Mahal. tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus.Extent of the Mughal Empire in 1700. most of whom showed religious tolerance. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors. built by the Mughals Main article: Mughal Empire In 1526. also called the 1857 War of Independence. a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan).

Nizam. After this victory. emperor of Iran. had a policy of integration with Indian culture. Akbar the Great was particularly famed for this. which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed. imposed relatively nonpluralistic policies on the general population. Hyderabad State. Sikh Empire.which fought an increasingly weak Mughal dynasty. The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. and also by the increasing activities of European powers (see colonial era below). defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal. it had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire under the rule of the peshwas (prime ministers). later on. Gordon explains how the Maratha systematically took control over the Malwa plateau in 1720-1760. The Mughal emperors married local royalty. and as a result several historical temples were destroyed during this period and taxes imposed on non-Muslims. Nader Shah. Akbar declared "Amari" or nonkilling of animals in the holy days of Jainism. Main articles: Maratha Empire. Oudh. the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and. Ranjit Singh. creating a unique Indo-Saracenic architecture. who unlike previous emperors. several smaller states rose to fill the power vacuum and themselves were contributing factors to the decline. Rajputs.Muslim dominance. while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire. He rolled back the jizya tax for non-Muslims. [93] Nader captured and sacked Delhi. It was the erosion of this tradition coupled with increased brutality and centralization that played a large part in the dynasty's downfall after Aurangzeb.The last Hindu empire of India. and Durrani Empire See also: History of Sikhism Further information: Shivaji. By the 18th century. including the Peacock Throne. During the Mughal era. Tippu Sultan. During the decline of the Mughal Empire. and Ahmad Shah Abdali Maratha Empire The post-Mughal era was dominated by the rise of the Maratha suzerainty as other small regional states (mostly late Mughal tributary states) emerged. collecting ransom from villages and . They started with annual raids. and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles. allied themselves with local maharajas. which often inflamed the majority Hindu population. Kingdom of Mysore. The Maratha kingdom or confederacy was founded and consolidated by Shivaji. In 1739.including the Maratha confederacy . Post-Mughal period Maratha Empire (orange) in 1758. The Mughals. the rising successor states . carrying away many treasures.

was defeated by the Britishin the Third Anglo-Maratha War. the domain of the Marathas stretched across practically the entire subcontinent. but mostly against the British. seized control of Hyderabad and declared himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. By 1760. Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well qualified generals for his army. existed from 1799 to 1849. was a political entity that governed the region of modern-day Punjab. The Maratha built an efficient system of public administration known for its attention to detail. The last peshwa. Following a brief Mughal rule. In stages. and Tibet in the east. based around thePunjab region. on the foundations of the Khalsa. He primarily used his highly disciplined Sikh army that he trained and equipped to be the equal of a European force. Sikh Empire The Punjabi kingdom. Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple is culturally the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs. Under their rule. Other Kingdoms The Kingdom of Mysore in southern India was founded around 1400 CE by the Wodeyar dynasty. in the 19th century. up to levels previously enjoyed by the Mughals. a Mughal official. the Peshawar Valley. It was forged.towns while the declining Mughal Empire retained nominal control. and the Derajat to his kingdom. the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west. The defeat of Marathas by British in three Anglo-Maratha Wars brought end to the empire. Colonial era Main article: Colonial India . The rule of the Wodeyars was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. to Kashmir in the north. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British. Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas. His came in the face of the powerful British East India Company. ruled by members of the Sikh religion. Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in 1591.[95][96] At its peak. the modern state of Nepal was formed by Gurkha rulers. It succeeded in raising revenue in districts that recovered from years of raids. Asif Jah. Both Mysore and Hyderabad became princely states in British India. He consolidated many parts of northern India into a kingdom. under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls. It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from 1724 until 1948. However in 1738 the Marathi defeated a Mughal army. he added the central Punjab. Around the 18th century. toSindh in the south. with Mysore receiving some aid or promise of aid from the French. the provinces of Multan and Kashmir. Baji Rao II. The empire. and in 1741 the Mughal emperor ceded Malwa to them. The first and second Anglo-Sikh warmarked the downfall of the Sikh Empire. The cornerstone of the Maratha rule in Malwa rested on the 60 or so local tax collectors (kamavisdars) who advanced the Maratha ruler '(Peshwa)' a portion of their district revenues at [94] interest.

The next to arrive were the Dutch.In 1498. Diu and Bombay. The Portuguese soon set up trading posts in Goa.Daman. Nasir Jung. The French supported Muzaffer Jung in this civil war. Daman and Diu. Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India. 1746. Muzaffer Jung. the Dutch port of Travancore. Although these continental European powers controlled various coastal regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century. Among the prisoners captured at Madras was Robert Clive himself. and a grandson. French troops attacked and captured the British city of Madras located on the east coast of India on September 21. In 1617 the British East India Company was given permission by Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade in India. and the Portuguese colonies of Goa.[99] Gradually their increasing influence led the de-jure Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty free trade in Bengal in 1717. of the deceased Nizam-ul-Mulkof Hyderabad to take over Nizam's thone in Hyderabad. opposed British attempts to use these permits. the Second Carnatic War broke out as the result of a war between a son. The internal conflicts among Indian kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands. . the British supported Nasir Jung in this conflict. Following the capture of a few French ships by the British fleet in India. Company rule in India Main articles: East India Company and Company rule in India Map of India in 1857 at the end of Company rule. the British—who set up a trading post in the west coast port of Surat[98] in 1619—and the French.[100] The Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah. they eventually lost all their territories in India to the British islanders. Consequently. In 1749. the de facto ruler of the Bengal province. The First Carnatic War extended from 1746 until 1748 and was the result of colonial competition between France and Britain. with the exception of the French outposts of Pondicherry andChandernagore. two of the countries involved in the War of Austrian Succession. which paved [97] the way for direct Indo-European commerce. The war was eventually ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which ended the War of Austrian Succession in 1748.

all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown. Early in this war. which began to administer most of India as a number of provinces. In 1756. Wandiwash and Pondicherry that. the British East India Company gained exclusive control over the entire Carnatic region of India. By the 1850s. and trained. against Chanda Sahib. along with wider British successes during the Seven Years War. The rebels were disorganized. It favoured the princely states (that helped suppress the rebellion). They were absorbed into the independent nation in 1947-48. [102] The British East India Company extended its control over the whole of Bengal. which within the next century engulfed most of India and extinguished the Moghul rule and dynasty. The Second Carnatic War finally came to an end in 1754 with the Treaty of Pondicherry.[105] In the aftermath. and tended to favour Muslins (who were less rebellious) against the Hindus who dominated the rebellion. defeated the French-supported Nawab's forces. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal-like structure in Bengal. Anwaruddin Muhammad Khan. the John Company's lands were controlled directly. 1757.Meanwhile. led. [104] The rebellion of 1857 and its consequences Main article: Indian rebellion of 1857 The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion by soldiers employed by the British East India in northern and central India against the Company's rule. armed forces under the French East India Company captured the British base of Calcutta in north-eastern India. After the Battle of Buxar in 1764. They were brutally suppressed and the British government took control of the Company and eliminated many of the grievances that caused it. the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent. In 1751. the conflict in Hyderabad provided Chanda Sahib with an opportunity to take power as the new Nawab of the territory of Arcot. Clive was appointed by the company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in 1757. This led to the Battle of Plasseyon June 23. reduced French influence in India. Robert Clive led a British armed force and captured Arcot to reinstate the incumbent Nawab. and India became a theatre of action. which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families. where it was called the Third Carnatic War. Thus as a result of the three Carnatic Wars. and only three were large (Mysore. This was the first real political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. but only 21 had actual state governments. the Seven Years War broke out between the great powers of Europe. the company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.[101] This was combined with British victories over the French at Madras. often with zamindars set in place. In this conflict. which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. Hyderabad and Kashmir). had differing goals. The British supported the son of the deposed incumbent Nawab. There were officially 565 princely states in 1947. and had no outside support or funding.[106] British Raj Main article: British Raj .[103] The East India Company monopolized the trade of Bengal. however. and were poorly equipped. taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. However. this marked the beginning of its formal rule. The government also was determined to keep full control so that no rebellion of such size would ever happen again. the French supported Chandra Sahib in his attempt to become the new Nawab of Arcot. while it had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India. in which the Bengal Army of the East India Company. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule. led by Robert Clive. armed forces under Robert Clive later recaptured Calcutta and then pressed on to capture the French settlement of Chandannagar in 1757.

[107]Meanwhile the Muslims for the first time began to organize. the population of the Indian subcontinent. had reached 389 million by 1941. famines in India. and by distrust of Hindus.The British Indian Empire at its greatest extent (in a map of 1909) Reforms When the Lord Curzon (Viceroy 1899-1905) took control of higher education and then split the large province of Bengal into a largely Hindu western half and "Eastern Bengal and Assam.3 million people died[109] and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 in which 1." When the Liberal party in Britain came to power in 1906 he was removed.[108] Famines During the British Raj. setting up the All India Muslim League in 1906. which stood at about 125 million in [111] 1750. including the Great Famine of 1876–78 in which 6.1 million to 10. were some of the worst ever recorded. The Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 provided for Indian membership of the provincial executive councils as well as the Viceroy's executive council. The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged from 25 to 60 members and separate communal representation for Muslims was established in a dramatic step towards representative and responsible government. especially in the north west. It was not a mass party but was designed to protect the interests of the aristocratic Muslims. The new Viceroy Gilbert Minto and the new Secretary of State for India John Morley consulted with Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale. spreading plague to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone. It was internally divided by conflicting loyalties to Islam. and India.25 to 10 million people [109] died. Bengal was reunified in 1911." a largely Muslim eastern half. The Third Plague Pandemic started in China in the middle of the 19th century. the British.[110] Despite persistent diseases and famines. The Indian independence movement Main articles: Indian independence movement and Pakistan Movement See also: Mahatma Gandhi and Freedom fighters of India . The British goal was efficient administration but Hindus were outraged at the apparent "divide and rule" strategy. often attributed to failed government policies.

Hindus and Muslims in these provinces and spread to several other parts of India. Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan (which gained [114] independence on 15 and 14 August 1947 respectively). Provincial Councils with Indian members were also set up. The councillors' participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils. The British built a largeBritish Indian Army. Historiography In recent decades there have been four main schools of historiography regarding India: Cambridge. They were finally closed down in 1947-48. with the British holding the more senior positions. Following the controversial division of prepartitionPunjab and Bengal. . with a total of 12 million Hindus. inscrutable. Nationalist. in 1861. they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the foreign Raj. History of the Republic of India.[115] The "Cambridge School. From 1920 leaders such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi began highly popular mass movements to campaign against the British Raj using largely peaceful methods. [118] [119] Washbrook. has died out in serious scholarship." led by Anil Seal. with a population of 73 million. and subaltern. revolutionary activities against the British rule took place throughout the Indian sub-continent. In 1971. The British Indian territories gained independence in 1947. The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like non-cooperation.civil disobedience and economic resistance. The civil service was increasingly filled with [113] natives at the lower levels. Some others adopted a militant approach that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle. Independence and partition Main articles: Partition of India. 1944. Bombay. [117] Richard Gordon. seceded from Pakistan. Bangladesh. yet they were able to rule two-thirds of the subcontinent directly and exercise considerable leverage over the princely states that accounted for the remaining one-third of the area. [116] Gordon Johnson. History of Pakistan. downplays ideology. the first Indian was appointed in 1909. Marxist. and David A. and wholly spiritual India. tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years. extremely weakened by the Second World War. These movements succeeded in bringing independence to the new dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947. with the senior officers all British. In general. The once common "Orientalist" approach. The Muslims had always been a minority within the subcontinent. or one person in five. leaving some 500. The British. and History of Bangladesh Along with the desire for independence. and the Raj left them alone. formerly East Pakistan and East Bengal. The numbers of British in India were small. and many of the troops from small minority groups such as Gurkhas from Nepal and Sikhs.[114] Also. with its the image of a sensuous. There were 674 of the these states in 1900. rioting broke out between Sikhs.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi andMuhammad Ali Jinnah. after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence. although Gandhi called for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership.000 dead. promised that they would leave and participated in the formation of aninterim government.[112] The first step toward Indian self-rule was the appointment of councillors to advise the British viceroy. the princely states were strong supporters of the British regime. this period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history.

and Gandhi's 'Quit India' begun in 1942. proverbs.[122] It focuses attention away from the elites and politicians to "history from below.[120] The Marxists have focused on studies of economic development. The "subaltern school. as defining historical events. It focuses on the colonial era before 1947 and typically emphasizes caste and downplays class. and class conflict in precolonial India and of deindustrialization during the colonial period. Gandhi. potentially revolutionary forces for [121] its own ends.The Nationalist school has focused on Congress. landownership." looking at the peasants using folklore. The Marxists portrayed Gandhi's movement as a device for the bourgeois elite to harness popular. Naga Tribesmen in their full War-paint A Jungle Kitchen. Hindu nationalists have created a version of history for the schools to support their demands for "Hindutva" ("Hinduness") in Indian society. poetry. Cooking in Bamboo Utensils . songs. Nehru and high level politics. More recently. to the [123] annoyance of the Marxist school. oral history and methods inspired by anthropology. riddles. It highlishted the Mutiny of 1857 as a war of liberation." was begun in the 1980s by Ranajit Guha and Gyan Prakash.