This version: 22/10/2004

Chapter 1 An introduction to linear control theory
With this book we will introduce you to the basics ideas of control theory, and the setting will be that of single-input, single-output (SISO), ﬁnite-dimensional, time-invariant, linear systems. In this section we will begin to explore the meaning of this lingo, and look at some simple physical systems which ﬁt into this category. Traditional introductory texts in control may contain some of this material in more detail [see, for example Dorf and Bishop 2001, Franklin, Powell, and Emani-Naeini 1994]. However, our presentation here is intended to be more motivational than technical. For proper background in physics, one should look to suitable references. A very good summary reference for the various methods of deriving equations for physical systems is [Cannon, Jr. 1967].

Contents
1.1 1.2 1.3 Some control theoretic terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An introductory example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Mechanical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electro-mechanical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 7 7 10 11 12 13 14

Linearisation at equilibrium points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What you are expected to know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 Some control theoretic terminology
For this book, there should be from the outset a picture you have in mind of what you are trying to accomplish. The picture is essentially given in Figure 1.1. The idea is that you are given a plant, which is the basic system, which has an output y(t) that you’d like to do something with. For example, you may wish to track a reference trajectory r(t). One way to do this would be to use an open-loop control design. In this case, one would omit that part of the diagram in Figure 1.1 which is dashed, and use a controller to read the reference signal r(t) and use this to specify an input u(t) to the plant which should give the desired output. This open-loop control design may well work, but it has some inherent problems. If there is a disturbance d(t) which you do not know about, then this may well cause the output of the plant to deviate signiﬁcantly from the reference

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1 An introduction to linear control theory
d(t) e(t) − s(t) u(t)

22/10/2004

r(t)

controller

plant

y(t)

sensor

Figure 1.1 A basic control system schematic

trajectory r(t). Another problem arises with plant uncertainties. One models the plant, typically via diﬀerential equations, but these are always an idealisation of the plant’s actual behaviour. The reason for the problems is that the open-loop control law has no idea what the output is doing, and it marches on as if everything is working according to an idealised model, a model which just might not be realistic. A good way to overcome these diﬃculties is to use feedback . Here the output is read by sensors, which may themselves be modelled by diﬀerential equations, which produce a signal s(t) which is subtracted from the reference trajectory to produce the error e(t). The controller then make its decisions based on the error signal, rather than just blindly considering the reference signal.

1.2 An introductory example
Let’s see how this all plays out in a simple example. Suppose we have a DC servo motor whose output is its angular velocity ω(t), the input is a voltage E(t), and there is a disturbance torque T (t) resulting from, for example, an unknown external load being applied to the output shaft of the motor. This external torque is something we cannot alter. A little later in this section we will see some justiﬁcation for the governing diﬀerential equations to be given by dω(t) 1 + τ ω(t) = kE E(t) + kT T (t). dt The schematic for the situation is shown in Figure 1.2. This schematic representation we
T (t)

kT u(t)

E(t)

kE

d 1 + dt τ

=u

ω(t)

Figure 1.2 DC motor open-loop control schematic

ω0 t ω0 ω(t) Figure 1.D (t) dt 1Σ (t) Supposing. E0 = 3. Let us provide a constant input torque E(t) = E0 and suppose that e3 (t) y(t) the disturbance torque T (t) = 0. Re Im 1 We give a numerical plot for kE = 2.. this all x1 2 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 10 ωζ. 1N. For example. i. The objective is to be able to drive the ıve e(t) constant velocity ω0 . kE However.22/10/2004 1. we need only provide the input voltage E0 = τω0 . If we follow our simple rule of letting the input voltage E0 be determined by the desired ﬁnal angular velocity by our rule E0 = kω0τ .2 An introductory example 3 give here is one we shall use frequently. The diﬀerential equation is then dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 − kT T0 . and it is called a block diagram. ω(0) = 0. In this event.3 Open-loop response of DC motor looks too easy. the worse we do—in . the larger is the disturbance torque. dt and if we again suppose that ω(0) = 0 the initial value problem has solution ω(t) = (kE E0 − kT T0 )τ 1 − e−t/τ . hN.1 PSfrag replacements Let us just try something na¨ and open-loop. We then have the diﬀerential equation u(t) hΣ (t) dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 . the solution to the initial value problem is φ (t) fj (t) ω(t) = kE E0 τ 1 − e−t/τ . what if there is a disturbance torque? Let us suppose this to be constant for the moment so T (t) = −T0 for some T0 > 0. there are decidedly problems lurking beneath the surface.e. You1 (t) e2 decide to see what you might do by giving the motor some constant torques to see what happens. To get the desired output velocity ω0 after a suﬃciently long time. This constant desired output is then our reference motor at a speciﬁed e (t) trajectory. that the motor starts with zero initial velocity. then we will undershoot our desired ﬁnal velocity E by ωerror = kT T0 τ .3. and τ = 1 in Figure 1. we say. Well.D (t) as is reasonable.

The error we multiply by some constant K. we can do pretty darn bad if the disturbance torque is large. after being appropriately scaled by a factor ks . For example.6. In this case. To take all this into account. so do not worry if you think it in nontrivial to get these equations. This situation is shown in Figure 1.ω0 t ω0 ω(t) 22/10/2004 10 Figure 1.4 Re Im x1 1 An introduction to linear control theory x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 ωζ. The eﬀect is illustrated in Figure 1. ˜ ˜ The ﬁnal value will then be in error by the factor τ . Another problem arises when we have imperfect knowledge of the motor’s physical characteristics. but in the Laplace transform domain. to get the actual voltage input to the system. This voltage. is then compared to the voltage needed to generate the desired velocity by feeding it back to our reference signal by subtracting it to get the error. the actual ˜ diﬀerential equation governing behaviour in the absence of disturbances will be dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 . ˜ Okay. It simply does not account for the inevitable imperfections we will have in our knowledge of the system and of the environment in which it works. ˜ dt which gives the solution to the initial value problem as τ ω(t) = kE E0 τ 1 − e−t/˜ .5 τ 5 1 for τ = 8 . dt We shall see how to systematically obtain equations such as this.4 with kT = 1 and T0 = 2.4 Open-loop response of DC motor with disturbance fact. let us measure the output velocity of the motor’s shaft with a tachometer. called the gain for the controller. we may not know the time-constant τ as accurately as we’d like. The tachometer takes the angular velocity and returns a voltage. Note that the input to the system is. While we estimate it to be τ . 1 . it might be some other value τ . you will see that the thing in the blocks are not diﬀerential equations in the time-domain. I hope now that you can see the problem with our open-loop control strategy. The schematic now becomes that depicted in Figure 1. in some When we come to use block diagrams for real. The diﬀerential equations governing this system are dω 1 + ( τ + kE kS K)ω = kE Kωref + kT T.

2 An introductory example 5 2 4 t 6 8 10 Figure 1.e. we wish to achieve a ﬁnal velocity of ω0 = E0 τ kE as t → ∞.ω0 ω0 1. i. the same velocity as we had attained with our open-loop strategy.7 where we have chosen kS = 1 and K = 5. The solution to the diﬀerential equation. but the reference signal ωref . Notice that the motor no longer achieves the desired ﬁnal speed! However.. Let us suppose again a constant disturbance torque T (t) = −T0 and a constant reference voltage ωref = ω0 . As previously.Re Im 22/10/2004 x1 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ ω(t) ωζ.5 Open-loop response of DC motor with “actual” motor time-constant T (t) plant kT u(t) controller ωref − E kE K d 1 + dt τ =u ω(t) sensor kS Figure 1. 1 + kE kS K τ Let us now investigate this closed-loop control law. We see the results of this in Figure 1.6 DC motor closed-loop control schematic sense. In this case. we have improved the response time for the system . no longer the voltage. again supposing ω(0) = 0. is then ω(t) = 1 kE Kω0 − kT T0 1 − e−( τ +kE kS K)t . let us ﬁrst look at the case when T0 = 0 and where we suppose perfect knowledge of our physical constants and our model.

Re Im 6 x1 1 An introduction to linear control theory x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 PSfrag replacements 6 φm ζ e(t) 4 e1yos (t) ζ e2 (t) 2 tos(t) ω0 e3 ζ y(t) 2 4 6 8 ωζ. I hope this helps to convince you that feedback is a good thing! As mentioned above.ω0 t ω0 Figure 1. In this case the closed-loop ˜ 8 2 response is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1.ω0 u(t) t ω0 hΣ (t) hN.8. This simple example.3). although we still (unsurprisingly) cannot reach the desired ﬁnal velocity. as this is the major deﬁciency of our very basic controller “designed” above. We x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 10 ωζ. the performance is somewhat better than that of the open-loop controller (cf. Finally we look at the situation when we have imperfect knowledge of the physical constants for the plant.5). Figure 1.9. does demonstrate that one can achieve improvements in some areas (response time ω(t) .4). The result is displayed in Figure 1. however. We 1 again consider having τ = 5 rather than the guessed value of 1 . Again. but Re we will get to that only as the course progresses. we shall see that it is possible to design a controller so that the steady-state error is zero.8 Closed-loop response of DC motor with disturbance see that the closed-loop controller reacts much better to the disturbance (cf. although we have incurred a largish ﬁnal error in the ﬁnal velocity.7 Closed-loop response of DC motor 1N. It is possible to remove the ﬁnal f (t) error by doing jsomething more sophisticated with the error than multiplying it by K.D (t) ω(t) 22/10/2004 10 φ (t) signiﬁcantly from the open-loop controller (cf. Now let’s see what happens when we Im x1 add a constant disturbance by setting T0 = 2.D (t) 1Σ (t) Figure 1.

3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 7 2 4 t 6 8 10 Figure 1.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices We will be considering control systems where the plant. say.1 Mechanical gadgets In Figure 1. The problem of how to assemble such devices to. build a controller for a given plant is something we will not be giving terribly much consideration to. although sometimes at the expense of deterioration in others (steady-state error in this case). as we F (t) m y(t) k d Figure 1.9 Closed-loop response of DC motor with “actual” motor time-constant in this case).10 Simpliﬁed automobile suspension know. We suppose that at y = 0 the mass m is in equilibrium. The spring. We also suppose there to be an externally applied force F (t).Re Im 22/10/2004 x1 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ ω(t) ωζ. then supplies a restoring force Fk = −ky and the dashpot supplies a force Fd = −dy. ˙ d where “ ˙ ” means dt .10 is a really feeble idealisation of a car suspension system.3. the controller. what are the equations governing the behaviour of this system?” . 1. For this reason it makes sense to provide some examples of devices whose behaviour is reasonably well-governed by such equations. “Isaac. If we ask Isaac Newton. and the sensors are all modelled by linear diﬀerential equations.ω0 ω0 1. 1.

the governing diﬀerential equation is J ω(t) + dω(t) = τ (t) ˙ where J is the moment of inertia of the rotor about its point of rotation.11 Rotor on a shaft proportional to the angular velocity: Fd = −dω. θ) = (θ0 . We write the solution near the equilibrium as θ(t) = θ0 + ξ(t) where ξ(t) is small. π}. . However. the governing equations are linear diﬀerential equations. F = ma. 3 5 We also use the Taylor expansion for sin x around x = 0: sin x = x − x + x + . we are often interested in the ˙ behaviour of the system near the equilibrium points which are (θ. but rather the angular displacement θ(t) = θ0 + ωt. y ˙ This is a second-order linear diﬀerential equation with constant coeﬃcients and with inhomogeneous term F (t). In either case. let us linearise the equations near these points.11 is a rotor ﬁxed to a shaft moving with angular velocity ω. be it true or false.8 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 he would reply. . We then have ¨ ¨ ¨ θ + g sin θ = ξ + g sin(θ0 + ξ) = ξ + g sin θ0 cos ξ + g cos θ0 sin ξ. you will notice. “I thought on it. Viscous dissipation may be modelled with a force ω(t) Figure 1. then one must consider not the angular velocity ω(t) as the dependent variable. π}. Keeping 3! 5! This is in reference to the story. 0) where θ0 ∈ {0. is nonlinear. So. “Well. he replied. If we sum moments about the pivot we get ¨ ¨ m 2 θ = −mg sin θ =⇒ θ + g sin θ = 0.” 2 . If one wishes to include a rotary spring.”2 After doing so you’d arrive at m¨(t) = F (t) − ky(t) − dy(t) y ˙ =⇒ m¨(t) + dy(t) + ky(t) = F (t).12). that when Newton was asked how he’d arrived at the inverse square law for gravity. The same sort of thing happens with rotary devices. In Figure 1. and see what we get. Now note that sin θ0 = 0 if θ0 ∈ {0. In the presence of an external torque τ (t). and cos θ0 = 1 if θ0 = 0 and cos θ0 = −1 if θ0 = π. Now this equation. Let’s look at a simple pendulum (see Figure 1. now go think on it. .

22/10/2004 1. This methodology has been applied to the examples above. Jr. and often very well. Deﬁne a reference frame from which to measure distances. For each component determine all external forces and moments acting on it. Separate the system into its mechanical components.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 9 θ Figure 1. 0): ¨ ξ + g ξ = 0. 1967] for details on the method we outline. the sum of moments about a point that is either (a) the centre of mass of the component or (b) a point in the component that is stationary should equal the moment of inertia of the component about that point multiplied by the angular acceleration. In each case. Also. Thus each component should be either a single point mass or a single rigid body. θ0 = π. . we have a linear diﬀerential equation which governs the behaviour near the equilibrium. see [Cannon. For each component. 1. We discuss linearisation properly in Section 1.1 Deriving equations for mechanical systems Given: an interconnection of point masses and rigid bodies. 4. and other methods. 1. This technique of linearisation is ubiquitous since there really are no linear physical devices. θ0 = 0 ¨ ξ − g ξ = 0.12 A simple pendulum only the lowest order terms gives the following equations which should approximate the behaviour of the system near the equilibrium (θ0 . express the position of the centre of mass in terms of the chosen coordinates. We refer to the exercises for examples that are somewhat more interesting. Choose a set of coordinates that determine the conﬁguration of the system. The sum of forces in any direction on a component should equal the mass of the component times the component of acceleration of the component along the direction of the force. but linear approximations seem to work well. 6. Let us recall the basic rules for deriving the equations of motion for a mechanical system. 7. 2. particularly in control. 3. For each component.4. although they are too simple to be really representative. 5.

An inductor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the time rate of change of current through the device. Note that 1 the proportionality constant for the capacitor is not C but C . The current I is related to the charge q by I = dq . The three devices are typically given the symbols as in Figure 1. The methodology relies on the notion of a tree which is a connected collection of branches containing no loops.10 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 1. Let us present a methodology for determining the diﬀerential equations for electric circuits. 3 .3.13 Electrical devices R is called the resistance of the resistor. a tree branch is a branch in the tree. A capacitor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the charge in the device. We can then imagine assembling these electrical components in dt some conﬁguration and using Kirchhoﬀ’s laws3 to derive governing diﬀerential equations. The quantity I(t) E = RI q(t) E= 1 Cq I(t) E = L dI dt Resistor Capacitor Inductor Figure 1. The voltage drop around the circuit R + E − C L Figure 1.14 we have a particularly simple conﬁguration. we have a linear equation.14 A series RLC circuit must be zero which gives the governing equations 1 ˙ E(t) = RI(t) + LI(t) + C q(t) =⇒ 1 L¨(t) + Rq(t) + C q(t) = E(t) q ˙ where E(t) is an external voltage source. the quantity C is called the capacitance of the capacitor. Kirchhoﬀ ’s voltage law states that the sum of voltage drops around a closed loop must be zero and Kirchhoﬀ ’s current law states that the sum of the currents entering a node must be zero.2 Electrical gadgets A resistor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the current through the device. This may also be written as a current equation by merely diﬀerentiating: 1 ˙ ¨ ˙ LI(t) + RI(t) + C I(t) = E(t). and the quantity L is called the inductance of the inductor. In either case. and a link is a branch not in the tree.13. In Figure 1. and again one with constant coeﬃcients. For a given tree.

one need to know the relationship between current and θ. Jr. and inductors. one adds these elements in sequence until one gets the largest possible tree. A DC servo motor works by running current through a rotary toroidal coil which sits in a stationary magnetic ﬁeld. see [Cannon. 4. Use Kirchhoﬀ’s Laws to derive equations for the voltage and current in every tree branch in terms of the state variables. We also refer to [Cannon. capacitors. The torque developed is proportional to the current through the coil: T = Kt I where T is the torque supplied to the shaft. capacitors. 2.” The voltage drop across the motor is proportional ˙ to the motor’s velocity. Thus the motor will be governed by Newton’s equations: ¨ ˙ J θ = −dθ + Kt I =⇒ ¨ ˙ J θ + dθ = Kt I. resistors. That is to say. This gives us coupled equations ¨ ˙ J θ + dθ = Kt I dI ˙ L + RI = E − Ke θ dt which we can write in ﬁrst-order system form as        ˙ 0 1 0 θ 0 θ Kt    vθ  = 0 − d vθ +  0  E ˙ J J 1 ˙ I 0 − Ke − R I L L L . along with voltage and current sources. Jr. Write the Kirchhoﬀ Voltage Law and the Kirchhoﬀ Current Law for every loop and every node corresponding to a branch assigned a state variable. Now we suppose that the rotor has inertia J and that shaft friction is viscous and so the ˙ friction force is given by −dθ. The states of the system are taken to be the voltages across capacitors in the tree branches for the tree of part 1 and the currents through inductors in the links for the tree from part 1.2 Deriving equations for electric circuits Given: an interconnection of ideal resistors. As current is run through the coil. then read a book on the subject. and θ is the angular position of the shaft. inductors. I is the current through the coil. The exercises contain a few examples that can be used to test one’s understanding of the above method. 1967] for further discussion of the equations governing electrical networks. the induced magnetic ﬁeld induces the rotor to turn. For example. then apparently Ke = Kt .22/10/2004 1. if the circuit has resistance R and inductance L then we have L dI ˙ + RI = E − Ke θ dt with E being the voltage supplied to the circuit. For example. If one is using a set of consistent units with velocity measured in rads/sec.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 11 1. 1.3 Electro-mechanical gadgets If you really want to learn how electric motors work. Add elements in the following order of preference: voltage sources. This ˙ is provided by the relation Em = Ke θ and the dynamics of the circuit which supplies current to the motor. Deﬁne a tree by collecting together a maximal number of branches to form a tree. and current sources. Em = Ke θ where Em is the voltage drop across the motor. 1967]. 1. To complete the equations. and Kt is the “torque constant. 3. Ke is a constant.3.

4 Linearisation at equilibrium points When we derived the equations of motion for the pendulum. . .3 Example The nonlinear diﬀerential equation we derived was ¨ θ + g sin θ = 0. We then did this in a sort of hacky way. If the response of the circuit is much faster ˙ than that of the motor.1) It really only makes sense to linearise about an equilibrium point. fn (x)). . We suppose that we have vector diﬀerential equations of the form x1 = f1 (x1 . . . . . . . . ˙ The n functions (f1 . (1. . . Note that the constant function x(t) = x0 is a solution to the diﬀerential equation if x0 is an equilibrium point. . ∂fn (x0 ) ∂x1 ∂fn (x0 ) ∂x2 ··· ∂fn (x0 ) ∂xn This matrix is often called the Jacobian of f at x0 . For an equilibrium point x0 deﬁne an n × n matrix Df (x0 ) by   ∂f1 ∂f ∂f1 (x0 ) ∂x1 (x0 ) · · · ∂xn (x0 ) ∂x1 2  ∂f2 (x0 ) ∂f2 (x0 ) · · · ∂f2 (x0 )   ∂x2 ∂xn Df (x0 ) =  ∂x1 . The diﬀerential equation can then be written as ˙ x = f (x). . This is what we saw in our introductory example. . Let’s see how this goes with our pendulum example. . then this gives E = Ke θ + RI and so the equations reduce to K ˙ ¨ J θ + d + KtR e θ = Kt E. The linearisation of (1. and it is these to which we will be restricting our attention. .. the equations we obtained were nonlinear. An equilibrium point is a point x0 ∈ Rn for which f (x0 ) = 0.g. . 1. . .   . then we could content ourselves with linearising the equations. We then decided that if we were only interested in looking at what is going on near an equilibrium point. . . R Thus the dynamics of a DC motor can be roughly described by a ﬁrst-order linear diﬀerential equation in the angular velocity.12 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 ˙ where we deﬁne the dependent variable vθ = θ. Hopefully this gives you a feeling that there are a large number of physical systems which are modelled by linear diﬀerential equations. . Let us denote x = (x1 . xn ) and f (x) = (f1 (x). xn ). .1) about an equilibrium point x0 is then the linear diﬀerential equation ˙ ξ = Df (x0 )ξ. xn ) are known smooth functions. . . xn = fn (x1 . . . . . 1. . Let’s see how to do this methodically. . . fn ) of the n variables (x1 . . . . xn ) ˙ . e. if the inductance is small. .. . . . xn ) ˙ x2 = f2 (x1 . .

although you should try to make sure you are asking the computer to do something which you in principle understand how to do yourself. and 5.5 What you are expected to know There are ﬁve essential areas of background that are assumed of a student using this text. we may write the linearised equations at each equilibrium point. ˙ Thus f1 (x1 . x2 ) = − sin x1 . This makes sense as it means that the pendulum should not be moving. These are 1. 4. Note that at an equilibrium point we must have x2 = 0. . 0) we thus have Df (x1 ) = 0 1 . We must also have sin x1 = 0 which means that x1 ∈ {0. π) we thus have Df (x1 ) = 0 1 . x2 ) = x2 . The equations can then be written ˙ x1 = θ = x2 ˙ ¨ x2 = θ = − g sin θ = − g sin x1 . Many of the systems we will look at in the exercises require in their analysis straightforward. g f2 (x1 . It should not be the point of the book to make you go through such tedious calculations. 2. Appendices review each of these in a cursory manner. π}. You will be well served by learning to use a computer package for doing such routine calculations. For an arbitrary point x = (x1 .22/10/2004 1. Now let us linearise about each of these equilibrium points. linear algebra. calculations. basic facts about polynomials. including the matrix exponential. so there should be no need for anything but rapid review in class. x2 ) we compute 0 1 . g 0 With these matrices at hand.1) since it is a second-order equation. But we can put this into ˙ ﬁrst-order form by introducing the variables x1 = θ and x2 = θ. especially Fourier and Laplace transforms. Students are expected to have seen this material in detail in previous courses. 3. This is what we determined previously. ordinary diﬀerential equations. Df (x) = g − cos x1 0 At the equilibrium point x1 = (0. 1. basic complex analysis. −g 0 and at the equilibrium point x2 = (0.5 What you are expected to know 13 This is not in the form of (1. but tedious. transform theory.

ca/~math332/. Also available are Maple® and Matlab® . especially through the use of feedback in the DC motor example. 4 . and make sure you know what you are doing and that you are not going too far into black box mode. Matlab® has a control toolbox.6 Summary Our objective in this chapter has been to introduce you to some basic control theoretic ideas. Just make sure you let us know that you are doing so.14 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 I have used Mathematica® to do all the plotting in the book since it is what I am familiar with. and to motivate such an investigation we presented some physical devices whose behaviour is representable by linear diﬀerential equations. In the remainder of these notes we look at linear systems.4 You are encouraged to use symbolic manipulation packages for doing problems in this book. perhaps after linearisation about a desired operating point. We wrapped up the chapter with a quick summary of the background required to proceed with reading these notes. Mathematica® and Maple® packages have been made available on the world wide web for doing things such as are done in this book. See http://mast. and is the most commonly used tool for control systems. Make sure you are familiar with everything discussed here. 1.queensu.

for that value of α. Determine conditions on the controller gain K so that the voltage E0 required to obtain a desired steady-state velocity is greater for the closed-loop system than it is for the openloop system. In each of the blocks we get to insert an ampliﬁer stage with the large Vin − K1 K2 KN Vout α Figure E1.4 Derive the diﬀerential equations governing the behaviour of the coupled masses in Figure E1. by a schematic like that of Figure 1. E1. However.Exercises for Chapter 1 15 Exercises E1. and assume that the motor model is accurate. Does your system have feedback? Are there disturbances? E1. (a) For N ampliﬁer stages and a given value for α determine the relationship between Vin and Vout . A number of single ampliﬁer stages is available and the gain of any single stage may drift anywhere between 25 and 75. we can assume that α can be exactly speciﬁed by the designer. output. (b) Based on this information ﬁnd a value of α in the interval (0. Thus. 1) and. so that the ﬁnal ampliﬁer design meets the speciﬁcation noted above. 75]. How do the equations change if viscous dissipation is added between each mass and the ground? (Suppose that both masses are subject to the same dissipative force.2.1 Probe your life for occurrences of things which can be described. You may neglect the disturbance torque.2 Consider the DC servo motor example which we worked with in Section 1. E1.2. do not use the numerical values used in the notes—leave everything general. input.1. the minimal required number of ampliﬁer stages.) The following two exercises will recur as exercises in succeeding chapters.1.3 An ampliﬁer is to be designed with an overall ampliﬁcation factor of 2500 ± 50. Nmin . controller. The conﬁguration of the ﬁnal ampliﬁer is given in Figure E1. . sensor. perhaps roughly. Identify the components in your system which are the plant. etc. The feedback gain α is known precisely since it is much easier to design a circuit which provides accurate voltage division (as opposed to ampliﬁcation).1 A multistage feedback ampliﬁer and unknown gain variation (in this case the gain variation is at most 50). The element in the feedback path is a constant 0 < α < 1. Thus the gain in the forward path is K1 K2 · · · KN where N is the number of ampliﬁer stages and where Ki ∈ [25. Since the computations can be a bit involved—certainly they ought to be done with a symbolic manipulation package—it is advisable to do the computations in an organised manner so that they may be used for future calculations.

2 Coupled masses x θ Figure E1. Derive the full equations which govern the motion of the system using coordinates (x.4. θ. 0. The ﬁrst link (i. E1. The length of the pendulum arm is .3. θ) = (x0 .6 Determine the full equations of motion for the double pendulum depicted in Figure E1.e. x.3 Pendulum on a cart E1. x. The links have a uniform mass density. 0. Here M is the mass of the cart and m is the mass of the pendulum. You may assume that there is no friction in the system. the one connected to ground) has length 1 and mass θ1 θ2 Figure E1. 0). ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ where x0 is arbitrary.5 Consider the pendulum on a cart pictured in Figure E1.. 0) and (x. You may assume that . and the second link has length 2 and mass m2 . Linearise the equations about the points (x. 0.4 Double pendulum m1 . θ. so their centres of mass are located at their midpoint. π. θ) as in the ﬁgure.16 1 An introduction to linear control theory x1 x2 22/10/2004 k m k m k Figure E1. θ) = (x0 .

5 Electric circuit need to select two system variables. and IL .7 Yet another electric circuit age across the capacitor and the current through the inductor.6.7.9 For the circuit of Figure E1. the current through the capacitor. Using IC . the current through the inductor. What are the equilibrium points for the double pendulum (there are four)? Linearise the equations about each of the equilibria. use the volt- RL + E − L RC C Figure E1. Derive diﬀerential equations for the system as a ﬁrst-order system with two variables.6 Another electric circuit the resistor R1 in terms of the voltage E(t). As dependent variable for the circuit.7 Consider the electric circuit of Figure E1.Exercises for Chapter 1 17 there is no friction in the system. determine a diﬀerential equation for the current through R1 + E − R2 C Figure E1. .8 For the circuit of Figure E1.5. derive a ﬁrst-order system of equations in two variables governing the behaviour of the system. To write equations for this system we R + E − C L Figure E1. E1. E1. E1.

2 in terms of Fin and α. α. you must deﬁne the necessary variables yourself.2 in terms of a1 . In this scenario. a1 .8 (the tanks Figure E1. In this problem. provide two coupled diﬀerential equations for the heights h1 and h2 in the tanks. E1. Now suppose that the areas of the output nozzles for the tanks are a1 and a2 . the input is the volume ﬂow rate Fin which gets divided between the two tanks proportionally to the areas α1 and α2 of the two tubes. (d) What is the equilibrium input ﬂow rate ν? (e) What is the height δ2 of ﬂuid in tank 2? . and that the cross-sectional areas of the tanks are A1 and A2 . Let us denote α = α1α1 2 . Denote the water levels in the tanks by h1 and h2 . Here we will use the Bernoulli equation for ﬂow from small oriﬁces. and g. A2 . A1 . Suppose that the system is in equilibrium (i.10 The mass ﬂow rate from a tank of water with a uniform cross-section can be roughly modelled as being proportional to the height of water in the tank which lies above the exit nozzle. Suppose that two tanks are conﬁgured as in Figure E1. then the velocity ﬂowing from a small √ nozzle at the bottom of the tank will be given by v = 2gh.1 and Fin. Determine the equations of motion which give the mass ﬂow rate from the bottom tank given the mass ﬂow rate into the top tank. a2 . (c) Using mass balance (assume that the ﬂuid is incompressible so that mass and volume balance are equivalent).1 and Fout. give an expression for the volume ﬂow rates Fout. and h2 . The equations should be in terms of Fin .8 Coupled water tanks are not necessarily identical). h1 .18 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 E1. (b) Using the Bernoulli equation above.11 Consider the coupled tanks shown in Figure E1. the heights in the tanks are constant) with the equilibrium height in tank 1 being δ1 .e. where g is the gravitational acceleration. as well as the dependent variables h1 and h2 ..9. In the next exercise we will consider a more complex and realistic model of ﬂow in coupled tanks. a2 . This says that if a tank of uniform cross-section has ﬂuid level h. +α (a) Give an expression for the volume ﬂow rates Fin.

2 A2 a2 Fout.1 Fin.1 A1 a1 Fout.Exercises for Chapter 1 19 Fin α1 Fin.9 Another coupled tank scenario .2 α2 Figure E1.

20 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 .