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FIRST

BOOK

IN

OLD ENGLISH

GRAMMAR, READER, NOTES, AND VOCABULARY

BY

ALBERT

S.

COOK

PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN YALE UNIVERSITY

SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED

BOSTON,

U.S.A.

GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
1900

Cc

COPYRIGHT, 1894.

BY

ALBERT

S.

COOK.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

TYPOGRAPHY BY

J. S.

GUSHING

&

Co., BOSTON, U.S.A.

PRESSVVORK BY GINN

&

Co., BOSTON, U.S.A.

TO

JAMES MORGAN HART
Author of

"German
and

Universities"

Scholar

in

Old English.

JL
\

PKEFACE.
THE
to

present volume

is

an attempt to be of service

study of our language, or who desire to acquaint themselves with a few specimens of our earliest literature. It has seemed to the
those
are beginning the

who

author
in
its

that

there

were

two

extremes
of

to

be

avoided

compilation
it

though

Old English as consisted of wholly isolated phenomena, and
the treatment

the procedure upon a virtual assumption that the student

was already acquainted with the cognate Germanic tongues and with the problems and methods of comparative philology.

The former treatment robs the study of its significance and value, which, like that of most other
subjects,
is

found in

its

relations

;

the latter repels and
is

confounds the student at a stage when he

most in

need of encouragement and attraction.

How
at

well the author has succeeded must be left to
the masters

the judgment of others

whom

he follows

a distance, and the students whose interests he has

constantly borne in mind.

Of one
in

thing,

however, he
that

can assure such as

may

care to inspect his book

he

has

spared

no

pains

treading the path which

seemed to be thus marked out for him in advance.
there doubtless are,
fact;

Errors

errors of judgment,

and errors of

but for both he must plead the best excuse ever

VI
offered for

PREFACE.
similar imperfections,

that of

King Alfred

in the last sentence on page 162 of this volume.

The

selections have been
just,

made with

reference to giving

though necessarily incomplete, view of the surroundings, occupations, problems, ideals, and sentiments of our English ancestors. The earlier pieces of
a fairly

both prose and poetry are short; the longer ones that
follow either have more sustained interest, or are sup-

ported by their reference to preceding ones
too,
fall into

;

but they,

natural subdivisions, partially indicated in

the printing, so that they
of short extracts.

may

be read as successions

be objected that Latin and Greek have been The reply to such an too freely used for illustration.
It

may

objection

is

twofold

:

that

the

book

is

likely to fall

into the hands of

some who possess

at least an elemen-

tary acquaintance with one or both of these languages,

and that

to these the disclosure of the relations involved

in a comparison with the ancient tongues will materially

increase their pleasure and their gain

;

and, secondly, that

the book

may

be intelligently read, from cover to cover,

without the slightest knowledge of either Greek or Latin. The passages from Bede have been taken from Miller's
edition
;

the portion of
;

M\f ric's Colloquy from

the Wright-

Wtilker Vocabularies

the extracts from Wulfstan from

Napier's edition; the selections from Beowulf and Andreas

upon the Grein-Wiilker edition of the Bibliothek der angelsachsischen Poesie that from the Judith upon my
are based
;

own

edition.

The

originals of the others are either indi-

cated, or will be patent to scholars.

PREFACE.
The normalization
basis
Cosijn's

Vll

of the texts to an Early

West Saxon
be criticised

Altwestsachsische Grammatik being the

chief authority for

norms

will

doubtless
is

by some scholars whose judgment but here again the author has had
for

entitled to respect;

in

mind the

beginner,

whose especial use the book is intended. If he welcomes this introduction on account of its greater ease,
and
is

yet not led astray by

it;

if

he becomes solidly

grounded in the elements, so that further progress is facilitated, while yet he has nothing to unlearn in the
future
;

the author will be consoled by his approbation

for the censure of those

who

entertain a different opinion

on

this head.

To
made

the normalization of the texts exception has been
in the case of the poetry.

For this there are two

In spite of the greater difficulty of the poetry, the student should have had sufficient practice in reading, and particularly in parsing the importance of which
reasons.

cannot be too

to proceed in the upon poetry without great obstruction from the retention of

much

insisted

manuscript forms, especially as the cross-references of the Vocabulary will furnish him with the necessary assistance
;

and, secondly, the normalization of the poetry

would

sometimes have been attended with considerable uncertainty,

an uncertainty which is decidedly less in the case of the prose. Besides, such profit as accrues to the
student from the inspection of the irregular orthography of the manuscripts may, by the literal reproduction of
the orthography, be gained from this part.

The device noted on page 202

is

presented with some

Vlll

PREFACE.
its

persuasion of

utility,

ment on which the
sufficient trial, the

though frankly as an experiauthor would gladly take, after
his colleagues.
Its condensation

judgment of
effected

The Grammar
has

is

the merest outline.

been

largely

by confining
itself,

the

treatment
all refer-

almost entirely to Old English

excluding

ences to the theoretical Primitive Germanic.
is

This method
it

accompanied with

some

loss

;

but,

again,

is

the

beginner
ful,

whom
of

the author has had in view.

More doubtclassi-

perhaps,

is

the expediency of

an empirical

fication

nouns, instead of the scientific arrangement

according to
found,

stems;

many

of

us

have unquestionably

however, that the more purely scholarly classification occasions not a little trouble in practice, and that
its

theoretical

advantages are dearly purchased at this
is

stage,

before there

any adequate conception of comits postulates.

parative philology and

The author

is

not

so clear with regard to the probable utility of paragraphs

12-14, on original and derivative vowels; criticism on this
point will be especially welcome.

The Appendixes include illustrative matter for which there was no natural place elsewhere, or materials and
hints for those
little further.

who would
The
;

prosecute their researches a

first

three of
is

them carry
It

their mean-

ing on their face

the last

provided in order to facilitate
study.
is

the beginning of dialectic

has cost more thought than
surface.

likely

Appendix IV. to appear on the

The
;

dialects
it

discriminated

is

have as yet been but imperfectly easier to say what is non-West Saxon
;

than what

is

Mercian or Kentish

the residuum of demon-

PREFACE.
strably pure

IX
in Caedmon's

Northumbrian forms

Hymn,

for

example, turns out to be surprisingly small. Care has been devoted to the unification of the book
to

making

its

parts mutually coherent;

the illustrations
in

of syntax are therefore taken

from the texts printed

the Reader, and the Vocabulary contains copious ences to the Grammar.
It is

refer-

hoped that

this plan will

prevent distraction on the part of the student, and con-

duce to a nearly absolute mastery of the matter here preThe book ought to occupy at least a semester, sented.

and could readily be used
believes

for a longer time.

The author

that the history of the English language

may

most profitably begin with such a manual, studied under a competent teacher and with access to a few good refermight advantageously be introduced into the earlier part of College courses, and perhaps into the better sort of High Schools and Academies.
ence books.
used,
it

Thus

In conclusion,

it is

a pleasure to the author to acknowl-

edge his indebtedness to Miss Elizabeth Deering Hanscom,
graduate student of Yale University and American Fellow
of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae,

who has rendered

material assistance in the preparation of the Vocabulary.

YALE UNIVERSITY, December

11, 1893.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
THE
has

favorable reception accorded to the

first

edition

encouraged

the

author,

besides
I.,

correcting

several

small errors, to amplify Appendix

and

to

add a new

The provision of a brief bibliAppendix, numbered V. ography has been so generally welcomed that it has
seemed desirable
to

append a

list

of

books of a more

advanced character, while retaining the former one essenNo attempt at completeness has been tially unchanged.
made, but perhaps not many books of primary value have been omitted. The illustration of umlaut from Gothic,
suggested by a reviewer,
Certain
teachers

now

constitutes

Appendix V.
wish
that

having

expressed

a

the

Vocabulary should give the gender of nouns, the author
thinks
it

proper to state the principle upon which the

designation of gender was omitted.
that the

This principle was

Grammar

should be in constant use.

The

car-

dinal use of a knowledge of the gender is with reference
to declension
;

given the declension, and the gender

fol-

lows.

Now

the references to the

Grammar under nouns
If,

primarily indicate the declensions.

then, the student
etc.,

recognizes the meaning of such references as 43, 47,
it

is

a proof that he

is
;

paradigms they indicate he ought to refer to them, and that a mere knowledge
XI

sufficiently acquainted with the if not, it is a clear sign that

Xll

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
would not
suffice.

of the gender

This

is

the

author's

opinion, but he holds himself prepared to defer to the

expressed wish of his colleagues,
that that wish
is

when he can

believe

at all

general

among those who have
a small

given the book a fair

trial.

The author hopes soon

to

issue

companion
chiefly to

volume of exercises in Old English, designed facilitate drill on inflections. These exercises
sist

will

con-

of brief sentences for translation into Old English,

based upon the successive prose selections of the Reader,
together with an English-Old English Vocabulary.

A

final

word
and

to

those

who
it
:

use this book,

a word

based upon experience with
foot-note,

Look up
the

carefully every
to

constantly refer

from

Vocabulary

the

Grammar, with
paradigms.

reference to the speedy mastery of the latter,
to

supplementing this process by the committal

memory of

YALE UNIVERSITY, December

31, 1894.

CONTENTS.
GRAMMAR
INTRODUCTION Dialects and Periods
3 3
5

PHONOLOGY
Letters and Sounds
Effects

5
10

and Relations of Sounds

Consonantal Loss and Change INFLECTION
Declension of Nouns Declension of Adjectives Comparison of Adjectives

21

Formation and Comparison Numerals Pronouns Verbs

of

Adverbs

26 26 38 42 44 46 48 53
81

FORMATION OF WORDS SYNTAX Nouns
Adjectives

88 88 99 100 100
101

Adverbs Pronouns Verbs
Prepositions

106
107

Conjunctions

PROSODY

108
121
122

READER
I.

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD
TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS THE DAY OF JUDGMENT

II.

129
134
137
.

III.

vXtV. BEDE'S DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN

V. ^ETHELWALD CALMS THE SEA

.

141

XIV

CONTENTS.
THE INVASION OF BRITAIN BY THE PICTS AND SCOTS THE PASSING OF CHAD THE DANGERS OF GREATNESS DUTIES OF THE RICH TOWARD THE POOR
.

PAGE 144

150 156 159
162

VIII.

IX.

X. ALFRED'S PREFACE TO BOETHIUS

XI.
XII.

A

PRAYER OF KING ALFRED APOLLONIUS OF TYRE
The Shipwreck
Apollonius and the Fisherman The Incidents in the Gymnasium Apollonius at the Feast ^JEntry of the Princess

163

164

.......

165 166 168

170 172 174
177 178 180 184 185 186 187
. . .
, . .

A Lesson in Music
^Apollonius as Teacher

The Three Suitors The Princess chooses
Apollonius relates his Adventures

The Recognition The Fisherman's Reward The End
XIII.

THE Six DAYS' WORK OF CREATION XIV. THE SONG OF THE GLEEMAN XV. THE ROUT OF THE ASSYRIANS XVI. SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS Conversation between Andrew and
The Voyage.
Storm
at

189

200 202
the Sea-Captain
. .

Sea

Andrew Andrew
The

relates Christ's Stilling of the

desires Instruction in

Tempest Seamanship
.

.

.

Andrew

Pilot recognizes God's Presence with is carried to the City
relate their

Andrew
.
.

.

Andrew's Disciples

Adventure

.

210 211 218 222 225 227 228 230 233 235
245
247

APPENDIXES
APPENDIX I. Some Useful Books for the Study of Old English APPENDIX II. Correspondences of Old English and Modern German Vowels APPENDIX III. Andrew's Negotiations with the Steersman APPENDIX IV. Specimens of the Dialects APPENDIX V. I-umlaut illustrated from Gothic
.

250
268
271

VOCABULARY

.

GRAMMAR.

INTRODUCTION.
Dialects and Periods.

Old English (sometimes called Ariglo-Saxon) is the name of the Germanic language spoken in England between the middle of the fifth and the middle
1.

of the twelfth century.

Its

literature

extends from
are

the eighth to the twelfth century, and there

no

Old English words found in documents earlier than The principal prose texts date the seventh century.
from the period of King Alfred (871-901 A.D.), or from that of Abbot JElfric (pronounced Alfric), who The poetical flourished about the year 1000 A.D.
mostly of uncertain dates, ranging from the eighth to the tenth or eleventh century. There are four dialects of Old English, the Norpieces

are

thumbrian,
these the
tics

Mercian,

Kentish,

and West Saxon
its

;

of

Mercian

is

intermediate in

characteris-

between the Northumbrian and West Saxon.
dialect

Northumbrian

formed

the

basis

of

The modern

Scotch and Northern English, the Mercian of standard literary English. The literature of Old English
is

chiefly extant

in

West Saxon, though

the poetry,

4

INTRODUCTION.
of the prose, contains forms from other dia-

and some
lects,

chiefly

from the Northumbrian.

Since the remains of the other dialects are comparatively small,

West Saxon
of

is

the

principal

existing

representative

Old

English,

and hence the two

terms are often used interchangeably. West Saxon is divided into Early West Saxon (EWS.) and Late

West Saxon (LWS.).
of

The former
his successors.

is

the language as

written in King Alfred's time, the latter as in that

Abbot

^Elfric

and

A

hundred years

made some changes

in the

language, but rather with

respect to syntax, euphony,
to the forms of words,

and

style in general than
also

though these

underwent

some modification.
In this work, the forms are those of Early West Saxon, which is assumed as the standard, even when
the selections are from Late

West Saxon.

PHONOLOGY.
Letters and Sounds.
2.

Alphabet.

-

-

The Old English alphabet has
of 3
1

the

let-

ters of
v,

Modern English, with
2,

the exception of /,

&, q,

and

and with the addition
th.

and

]?,

both of

j and v are never used, being represented by g (or i) and f, respectively; &, q, and z but rarely, k being commonly
these,

which represent the modern

Of

represented by
z

c,

&s(cs)

by

x,

q(u) by c(w), and
<?

by

ts.

The two
eth

unfamiliar characters
brethren)

and

J?

are

pronounced
tively;
scripts
3.
;

(eth in

and

thorn,

respec-

they are used interchangeably in the manuin this book 3 will, in general, stand for both.
1

Vowels and diphthongs. - The vowel-letters are those of Modern English, with the addition of se. Modern editors employ ^ and 9 to denote respectively an e

and o which sprang from an original a (but $ occasionThe vowels may be either short 17, 25). ally from o
;

or long.

The diphthongs

are represented

both short and long. each diphthong is scarcely heard in pronunciation, the first element being the one which receives the stress.
5

by ea, eo, and ie, The second vowel sound in

PHONOLOGY.
The vowel of every
syllable is to be

pronounced, but in
(23).

an unstressed
4.

syllable the

sound

is less distinct

Quantity.

--Long vowels and diphthongs must
from short ones.
is

be

carefully distinguished

In normal-

ized texts, length
or the

indicated by the acute accent (')

macron ("), placed over a vowel or the first element of a diphthong. For instance, OE. god is

Mod. Eng. god, but OE.
good ; so
bier;
ac,
for, for,
but,

grid

or

god

is

Mod. Eng.
but
geat,

but for, went ; baer, bare, but bser,
ac,

but
but

oak;

geat,

gate,

poured ;
tol, toll,

is, is,

is, ice ;

man, man, but man, crime ;
note whether the radi-

but

tol, tool ;

wejnde, went, but wende, weened.
fail to
is

Beginners should never cal vowel of each word

long or short, and should no more confound a with a than a with y.v/

The length
that
of
is

of a syllable

must be distinguished from
syllable
is

a vowel.
itself

Every

containing a long

vowel

long, but so

also

one which con-

tains a short

vowel followed by any two consonants
In the latter case, the syllable
;

or a double consonant.
is

said to be long
5.

by position

in the former,

by nature.
-

Pronunciation of vowels and diphthongs. -

The

pro-

nunciation of the vowels and diphthongs can only be

mastered by ignoring their pronunciation in Modern Any modern language, or Latin or Greek as English.

pronounced by the Continental method, would be a
safer guide.

LETTERS AND SOUNDS.

The exact pronunciation

of the

Old English vowels
if
:

and diphthongs can be but imperfectly represented.

The

learner will not be far astray

he follows the

pronunciation indicated in this table

a

8
7.

PHONOLOGY.
Pronunciation of consonants. - -

w

was pronounced

as in

Mod. Eng., also distinctly in the combinations wr, wl m, p, and b as in Mod. Eng. f as / and as
; ;

v (2).

V\w [a* r
1
;

/>

iaefifty
in
<T

r and
see 21)
in the
ng;

were pronounced nearly as
n,
t, d,.

as in
as
z.

Mod. Eng.
like

;

Mod. Eng. (but as ih in thin and

s as s

and

was pronounced
like

Mod. Eng. ng
ng in
singe,

in finger ;

when

palatal (10) it resembled

c was prolike English

nounced

ch in child,

Mod. Eng. k, or, when palatal, and was distinctly heard as k
as

in the com-

bination en; eg like dg in

g was pronounced
was pronounced
hi,
h<y,

Mod. Eng. bridge (see 11). g (but see 9) and as y (10). h
and
in the combinations ht,

as in English, even in the combinations

hn,

lir,

liw
it

;

when

final,

and hh,
c

had the sound

of

German
g
as g,

ch, as in

ach

or in ich.

hs was pronounced like Mod. Eng. x

(cf. 2).

When
man
turals
;

was pronounced

as k,

and h

as Ger-

ch in ach, these letters are to be regarded as gut-

when

as ch in child, y,

and ch in

ich respectively,

as palatals (10).
8.

Surds and sonants.
f,
s,
flF

The consonants
like

p,

t,

c,

to-

gether with
/,
s,

when pronounced

Mod. Eng.

th in thin, are called surds.

All the other con-

sonants,

and

all

the vowels and diphthongs, are called

sonants.

and 5 are surds when beginning a syllable, or they are following a surd at the end of a syllable
1

f,

s,

;

LETTERS AND SOUNDS.
sonants, that
the,
is,

are pronounced

like

v,

2,

and

th in

when they occur between two

sonants, or follow

a sonant at the end of a syllable.
rule there

To
;

the foregoing

may

be some exceptions

in case of doubt,

the analogy of
9.

Modern English may be
and
stops.
- -

followed.

Spirants

Spirants

are

consonantal

sounds producible by a continuous emission of breath.
Stops are momentary or explosive.
f,
s,
<5T,
;

The

spirants are
<3F

and h (properly also -g) to f and correspond b and d. the surd stops p and t, and the sonant stops
10.

Gutturals and palatals. -

-

The consonants

c, g,

h,

are gutturals

when occurring
palatals

before consonants or the

vowels
se).

a, a, e, o, 9, 5, u, u, y,

They

are

and y (and sometimes when occurring befote, and
vowels
;

sometimes

after, the palatal

se, e, $,

i,

I,

ea, ea,
(that
is,

eo, eo, ie, le (sometimes se)
in the middle of a word),

c and

g medially
are or

when they
g

may

be

fol-

lowed by e or i nounced almost
eg;

;

c likewise in the combination sc (prolike sh)
;

in the medial combination

g(ng) often medially and finally after a palatal vowel, but at least ng not always e.g., $ngel, For the pronunciation of Eiiglisc have not ng = nj

and

c(cc, nc),

:

.

these consonants as palatals see
11.

7.

Double consonants.

-

-

Double consonants

must

not be pronounced as in Mod. Eng., except at the end of a syllable. When medial, each consonant is pro-

10

PHONOLOGY.
:

nounced separately
in

sunnum
is

as sun-num, the

n's

as

Mod. Eng. penknife.
Double
f,

when
is

sonant,

always represented by bb,

and double g

usually written eg.
is

The only

con-

sonant never doubled

w.

Effects
12.

and Relations of Sounds.
Of the vowels

-Original and derivative vowels.
of

Old English, some are original, in the sense of being more directly an inheritance from the Parent Germanic tongue, while others are derivaand diphthongs
tive, or result

from modifications of those that we

call

original.

The
lowing
:

original

vowels and diphthongs are the

fol-

a, a, se, se
I,

(sometimes),

e,

e (rarely),

i

(sometimes),

o, o,

u

(regularly), u, ea, eo (sometimes).

The
se

derivative vowels
se

and diphthongs are
,

:

(sometimes),
Q,

(sometimes),

(sometimes),
times),
ie,

u

(occasionally), y, y,
ea, eo, ie

e (usually), i ea, eo, eo (someshort are all

ie.

Though

when

derivatives, ie

may

be called a derivative of the sec-

ond

order, since

it arises

from one of the two others.
derivative vowels. -

13.

Relation of original to

The

relations

between original and derivative vowels may
17, 18, 20, 21,

thus be shown (see

25):

EFFECTS AND RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.
DERIVATIVE.
ae,

11

$,

Q,

ea, ie

95
i,

eo, ie,

o

eo,

u
eo

Q o

,

$,

e,

eo

u
u ea
eo^
-^.

y
y
ie

_

^ie

14.

Relation of derivative to original vowels. - - Revers-

ing the order of the last table,
DERIVATIVE.
ae
ae

we

obtain

:

^

ORIGINAL.

a a
a, Q,

$ e
1

o

o
e

Q

a

y y
ea ea
eo
(rarely)

u
fi

a
ae
e,

(ae)

i,

o
e (eo),

eo
ie

o

a

(ea),

$,

i

(eo)

ie

ea, eo

Occasionally (28, 29, 30) se is derived from se, e from e, I from i, 6 from o or a, u from u, y from y,

ea from ea, and eo from eo.
derived from e and
i

Rarely are o and

u

(26).

12
It
the
i,

PHONOLOGY.
must
be observed that not every vowel standing in
there.

column of derivatives belongs exclusively
is

Thus

for example,
15.

sometimes original (12).

Umlaut.

Umlaut

is

a change

effected

in

the

vowel of a stressed syllable by the vowel of a following, usually the next following, syllable.

There are two chief kinds of umlaut, the i-umlaut (pron. ih'-oom'-lowf), and the u- or o-umlaut (00- or oh-).
16.

The i-umlaut.

i-umlaut

is

a change effected in

a vowel or diphthong by palatalization, such palatalization consisting in an approximation of the

umlauted

vowel or diphthong to the sound of i (ih). The cause of i-umlaut was in all cases an i or a j (pronounced like

Mod. Eng.

/)

of a following syllable, but the

i

or

j

usually disappeared before the period of historic Old When the word umlaut English, or was turned into e.
is

used without qualification, i-umlaut See Appendix V. stood.
17.

is

to be under-

Illustrations of i-umlaut.

The

effect of i-umlaut
:

will be

shown by the following
OBIGINAL VOWEL.

table

UMLAUT VOWEL.
e

a a
e

()

*
i

Q o o

S e

u

y

EFFECTS AND RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.
ORIGINAL VOWEL.

13

UMLAUT VOWEL.

u ea (from a) ea
eo (from e) eo

y
ie

ie

ie Ie

Examples are

:

maim
;

(man), in^nn

(men)

;

lar
;

helpan (help), hilpfr (helps) oxa (ox), xen (oxen) niQim (man), me,im (men) wulle (wool), wyllen cloiii (doom), deman {judge)
(lore), Iseran (teach)
;
;

;

(^woollen)

;

brucan
;

(use), bryc3" (uses)

;

eald {old),
;

ieldu (age)
(throw),
(rues).

heah

(high),

hiehra (higher)
;

weorpan
briewac

wierpST

(throws)

breowan

(rue),

Sometimes two words are so related that y seems
to be i-umlaut of o/like
-"**

but in such cases

g ld (.ff^)-> gylden {golden) the o came from an earlier u.
e
.

;

=>^.

The umlaut
ae is

of

a

is

generally

e,

but in some words

found.
i

Strictly speaking,

is

not the umlaut of

<
e,

but the
dif-

phenomenon, though resulting from a somewhat
ferent cause,
is

virtually the same.
Initial g,

18.
se

Palatal influence.

c,
e,,

and

sc,
;

change

(from a) to ea, se to ea,
eo.

and

e to ie

and sc

sometimes changes a to ea, a to ea, o to eo, and o
to

plur.), {give),

Examples gsef {gave), geaf gsefon {gave, geafon scejppan {create), scieppan gefan scacan {shake), sceacan scadan giefan
:

;

;

;

;

;

14
(separate),

PHONOLOGY.
scop {poet), sceop scoh (shoe), Even eo from u sceor, from scur, shower.
; ;
:

sceadan

sceoh.

In the following words, the ge represents original
(pron. y)
(orig.
:

j

geoc, yoke
;

(orig.

joe)
(orig.

;

geond, through

jond)

geong, young
;

Jung)

;

geogucT,

youth (orig. juguflF)
gea, yea (origo ja)
(orig. je).
;

geomor, grief

(orig.

jomor)
;

;

gear, year (orig. jar)

ge, ye

The

i

found in the present stem of some weak verbs
j

(116) stands for original
sents this
j

(pron. y), and, as

g

repre-

words just instanced, so it often appears in the endings of these weak verbs, sometimes alone, sometimes followed by e, sometimes in one of
in the

these

two forms preceded by

i.

Thus n^rian,

save,
;

occurs also as nergaii, n^rigan, ii^rigeaii, etc.
ind. pres. 1st sing, nerie as n^rge, n^rige, etc.

the

Wherever

in or just preceding the inflectional end-

ing of a word, c or g is followed by e before another vowel, the e must be understood to indicate an
original
j

(pron. y), and an alternative form without

e also exists.

Thus secean and secan,
Similarly, the

seek; mejnigeo
i

and m^nigo, multitude.
inflectional endings of

and g

in the
(44. 2)

nouns

like h$re,

army

represent original

j

(pron. y).

19.

y and y

for ie

and

sent the' i-umlaut of

u

y and y properly repreand u, but are also frequently
le.

found for

ie

and

ie.

Sometimes, again, the latter

EFFECTS AND RELATIONS OF SOUNDS
are represented

15

by

i

and

i.

words containing these
fine the
old, is

letters,

Hence, in looking for it is never safe to con-

search to any one of the three.
of

From

eald,

formed by means
;

i-umlaut the noun ieldu,

but the latter might occur in a text or Contrariwise, on finding yldu in a glossary as yldu. text or glossary, it would not be safe to conclude that
age (17)

the y represented the i-umlaut of u, since, as
just seen,
it

we have

really goes

back to ea and
it

were the word to be found as ildu,
inferred that the
i

Again, should not be

a.

is

either original or derived

from

e (17), for the reason just adduced.

Remember
ie,

that

y or

i,

short or long,

may

stand for

short or long.
20,

The u- or o-umlaut,

This umlaut
i

is

a change
of the

effected in the vowels a, e, or

by a u or o

following syllable* By e or i to eo (sometimes
care,

it
i

a

is

converted to ea, and

to io).

becomes cearu

;

weruld, world,

Examples cam, becomes weoruld
:

;

miluc, milk, becomes nieoloc or mioloc.
of vowel
is,

The change
as excep-

however, not invariable in these circum-

stances, and,
tional.

on the whole, may be regarded
of
this

The explanation
as
it

phenomenon
is

is

that the

vowel sound of the following syllable
were.

anticipated,

The

vocal organs, while pronouncing the

a (properly

se) of

cam

(caeru), are already shaping

16

PHONOLOGY.
hence the result
is

themselves to pronounce the u;
caeuru, very nearly, which
is

further modified
is

into

cearn.
easier.

For weoruld the explanation

similar,

but

21.

Breakings.

Before r
or
i

+
h

consonant,
final,

1

+

conso-

nant, and

h + consonant

a

is

regularly con-

verted into ea, and e or

frequently into eo.

This
is,

change

is

called breaking, because

the one vowel
:

as it were, broken into two.

Examples

a) a to ea

:

arm

(arm),

earm

;

aid (old), eald

;

ahta

(eight), eahta.

b) e or

eorSfe

;

eo (io sometimes from i): ercfe (earth), elh (elk), eolh fehtan (fight), feohtan Piht
i

to

;

;

(Pict), Pioht, Peoht.
It

must be remembered that the sound
from that of the same

of e in
letter in

ea
eo
v

differs materially

(5;

cf.

20). of

The explanation

breaking

lies

in the fact that

the vowels which experienced breaking were formed

with a position of the vocal organs quite different from that concerned in the production of r, 1, and li, These consonants, at as pronounced in Old English.
the time

when they caused
that

breaking, were gutturals;

the vowels

underwent

breaking were palatals
that a was broken,
se).

(strictly speaking,

when we say
it

we should

rather say that

was

In the produc-

tion of these consonants, the back part of the

mouth

EFFECTS AND RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

17

was chiefly concerned; in that of the vowels it was the forward part. Hence, in passing from the vowel position to that of the consonant, an intermediate vowel
sound or glide was produced, akin in position and sound to the consonant which it preceded. Although
these consonants have at present a pronunciation which

cannot be called guttural, yet it nounce a sentence like What
'

is

possible to
'

pro-

ails

you ?
'

in

so

drawling a manner, especially as regards ails,' that this word shall have nearly the sound of d-uls. The obscure r^-sound thus developed may be compared
to the

second element of the diphthong in ea and eo. Here may be adduced Shakespearian lines such asStrikes his breast hard (hah-urd),

and anon he

casts.
3. 2. 117.

-HEN.
Look how he makes
to Caesar,

VIII.

mark (mah-urk) him.
JUL. C.ES.
3. 2. 18.

My
In

lord (law-urd), will

it

please

you pass along. -RICH. III.

3. 1. 136.

all these,

meter seems to demand that the

itali-

cized words shall be pronounced as disyllabic (Abbott's

Shakespearian Grammar,
22.

485).

Ablaut (pron. ahp'-lowt) is a prehistoric relation existing between the vowels of different tenseAblaut.

stems derived from the same verbal root.
relation of
i,

Thus the
sing, sang,

a,

and

u, in the

Mod. Eng.
is

sung,

is

an ablaut

relation,

and so

the relation of

18
z,

PHONOLOGY.
o, i

in the

Mod. Eng.

drive, drove, driven.

In Old

English the tense-stems of these verbs would be sing-,
sang, sung-, sung- (104); drif-, draf, drif-, drif- (102). In the former, i, a, u, u stand in an ablaut relation
in the latter,
It
I,

;

a,

i,

i.

must be observed that the verbal stems concerned

sometimes appear in nouns and adjectives, as well as in verbs. Thus the vowel of the Mod. Eng. noun song stands in an ablaut relation with those of the tensestems sing and sung.

Again, in Old English, the i of the noun bite, lite, stands in an ablaut relation

with the other vowels of the tense-stems of bitan,
bite.

The

latter

are

bit-,

bat, bit-, bit- (102),
is

and

hence the radical vowel of the noun
that of the third and fourth stems.

identical with

Ablaut

is

not

to

be

confounded with umlaut.

Um-

laut admits of explanation; ablaut must, so

far as Old
(r~

English
23.

is

concerned, be merely accepted as a fact.

Stress,

and the vowels of unstressed
is

syllables.

The
the

stressed syllable
first

the principal one, and usually

one of the word, except in compounded verbs, and nouns or adjectives with the prefixes be-, ge-, and

sometimes for-; these

stress the root syllable.

The

laws relating to vowels hold only of stressed syllables. In -unstressed syllables, especially in the second syllable of trisyllabic words, the

vowel

is

liable to pass into
e,

a neutral sound, often represented by

or to disappear

EFFECTS AND RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.
altogether.
bic

19

When
of

the vowel disappears, the trisylla:

word

course becomes disyllabic
;

^ngel, angel,

gen. Angles (instead of Angeles)

heafdes (instead of heafodes). appearance is termed, is most apt to occur after a long
syllable (4).

heafod, head, gen. Syncope, as such dis-

24.

Representation of Old English vowels in Modern

English.

The same Old English vowel

letter is not
letter,

always represented by the same Mod. Eng.
its

nor
is

sound by the same Mod. Eng. sound; yet there

a certain uniformity, differing in degree with different vowels, in the representation of both sound and letter.

Some
in

more regular correspondences are given the subjoined table, though it must be understood
of the

that exceptions are numerous.
or letter

that

is

first

given

is

The Mod. Eng. sound the commonest the
;

second
of the

is

often comparatively rare.
is

The

figuration

Mod. Eng. vowel sounds
For
details, see

that of Webster's

Dictionary.

Mayhew's Synopsis of Old

English Phonology.
OE. LETTERS.

MOD.F,
LETTERS.
a

MOD.E.
SOUNDS.
fi.
fi

ILLUSTRATIONS.
;

a But

ag a
ge

aw
o,

a
o;
a,

oa

nama, name haga, haw 6 before rham, home
;

land, land
ar, oar

a
ai,

a

glaed, glad

;

feeder, father
;

But

seg
j*

ay

a
e,

braegn, brain
e
dael, deal
flesh
;

dseg, day
;

ea, ee, e

said, seed

fltsc,

20
OE. LETTERS.
e,
e,

PHONOLOGY.
MOD. E.
LETTERS.
e,

MOD. E.
SOUNDS.
e,

ILLUSTRATIONS.
feffer, feather; twejf, twelve ;

ea

e

spere, spear

But

eg

ai,

ay, a

a

regn, rain thane

;

weg, way
;

;

ffegn,

e (seldom e)

cwen, queen
fisc, fish
;

her, here ;

(bletsian, bless)
I
;

I

before

miht, might
;

;

ht, nd, Id

blind, blind

cild, child

But

ig
i

i

I
T,
i

i

nigon, nine rim, rime; wisdom, wisdom
o
;

o,

Q

o,

oa

6,

6 be-

fore r

bodig, body iQng, long bolla, bowl hord, hoard
; ; ;

o

oo, o

60, u, 06

hrof, roof

;

ofter, other

;

boc,

book

But

ow
u und
u

ow
u, o

o
ii,

blowan, blow
do

lufu, love

;

wulf, wolf

But

ound
ou, ow,

u

ound ou, u

hund, hound

Mud,

bur, bower b u t;m. but
loud
;
;

;

y
y ea
But
eald

i,

u, o

I,

u

cyning, king byrflfen, burthen wyrm, worm
;

I, I

bryd, bride
a
call, all

;

fyst,
;

fist
;

a, a,

\veaxan, wax heard, hard
beald, bold

old

old

(strictly

ea
But
eo

aid) ea

e,

e

beacen, beacon

;

dead, dead

eaw

ew
ea, e,

u

deaw, dew
u
eor9"e, earth
;

u

e,

beorg, berg
heorte, heart
;

;

ceorl, churl

But

eor

ar,

ear

ar
e,

heorot, hart
e

;

eo

ee, ie, e

deop, deep

;

feond, fiend

deofol, devil

But

eow
ie

ew
e, ie

u
e,

bleo\v, blew
e

hierde, herd

;

gieldan, yield

ie

See e

CONSONANTAL LOSS AND CHANGE.
25.

21

Influence of nasals.

The

nasals
is

m and
<?.

n change
;

a preceding
texts have

a to

<?.

Usage

not uniform

some

a

in this position,

and others

When a word
under
26.
<?,

cannot be found under a, look for

it

and

conversely.

Influence of

w.

In cases where e or

i

has be-

come eo
to

or io (20, 21), a preceding

w is

apt to change eo

For example, weruld (world) becomes weoruld through the influence of u-umlaut
(20),
larly,

o or u, and io to u.

and

this

may

then

become

woruld.

Simi-

widuwe (widow) becomes wioduwe, and then wuduwe. For the o and u thus produced, y is someWhen
o,

times found.

suspected,

y immediately follows w, it may be though it must not be assumed, that the vowel
io,

u, or

was once eo or

originally e or

i.

Consonantal Loss and Change.
27.

Loss or vocalization of w.

Some words ending
ended in w,
oblique cases of these
etc.,

in a long vowel or diphthong originally

and the
words.

w

is

still

found in the

Thus, nom. cneo (knee), gen. cneowes,

and occasionally in the nominative, cneow (47. 3). At the end of a word, and following a short syllable which ends in a consonant, u often stands for original
w, the latter having undergone vocalization in that When an inflectional syllable is added position.

22

PHONOLOGY.

a vowel, the w reappears. Thus, beginnin|^vdth nom. ge^ro (ready), gen. gearwes, etc. (57. 5). There is frequent loss of initial w in the negative

forms of the verbs wesan,
will
etc.
:

be,

witau, know, willan,
not,

nses,

was

not, nat,

knows

nolde, would not,

It also disappears in

cue

for cwic, alive,

na(u)ht for nawiht, naught, and a few other words.
Before d and n (and

28.

Loss or replacement of g.

before the

9 in the word
1

tiftlan, grant),

g

is

often lost,

preceding vowel
:

compensation

lengthened by way of maegden and maiden, maiden ; ftegn
being

and

Properly speaking, the palatal g, already in such cases pronounced almost like a vowel,
9"en,

thane.

becomes indistinguishable from i or y in pronunciation, and by this time its effect is simply to lengthen the vowel which precedes. In a similar manner, ig may
be contracted into
I,

sometimes shortened to
lift,

i:

hun(from
losses

grig and hungri, hungry; ligecT and
licgaii)
;

lies

stigrap and stirap, stirrup.

The above

are regular only after palatal vowels (10).

After a guttural vowel (10), after
in

r,

or (especially

LWS.)

before -st

and

1

-9 ,

endings respectively of

g frequently becomes h, occasionally gh: genog and genoh, enough; burg and burh, city ; stigflF and stihcJ climbs.
sing. pres. ind.,
1

the 2d

and 3d

,

29.

Loss of h.

Certain words ending in

h

lose the

h

before an inflectional ending beginning with a vowel,

CONSONANTAL LOSS AND CHANGE.
at the
if

23

same time lengthening the vowel
:

of the stem,

short

feos.

p&jkrty, gen. There are besides a number of contract verbs
life,
;

feorh,

gen. feores

i'eoh,

(101)

in

which an
;

original

h

has been lost before

vowels (100)

gefeon,

rejoice, orig.

gefehan.

The

initial

h

of certain indefinite pronouns,
is

and

of

\

the various forms of habban, have,
after ne, not
:

frequently lost
/

nawcTer, nacfer (27) for ne ahwaefrer,

neither; naefde,

had

not.

30.
<T

Loss of in and n.

Before the spirants
loss of

f, s,

and

there has been in

m

an original or n, with a lengthening of the preceding vowel

some words the

:

osle, ousel, orig.

amsala
is

;

us, us, orig. uns.
its

When
gos,

the

resulting vowel

o,
(<?

or

umlaut e
nasal,

(17), the origi:

nal vowel was
orig.

a

before

25)

goose,

gans

;

est, favor, orig. ansti.

31.

Metathesis

of

r.

In some words in which a

vowel was originally preceded by r, the r has changed Thus burna, fountain, brook places with the vowel.
(cf.

Scottish

burn),
;

was

originally

brim (n) a

(cf.

Germ. Brunnen)
Ross).
32.

hors, horse, orig. hros (cf. Germ.

Metathesis of sc. -- After a vowel, sc frequently
cs, often

becomes
ascian,

represented by hs or x (2).

Thus

ask

(cf.

Germ.

(Ji)eischen)

becomes acsian,

ahsian, axian (dial. Mod. Eng. axe).

24
33.

PHONOLOGY.
Change
of

d

to

t.

When d

either precedes or folit

lows a stB^(8) in the same word,
t.

regularly becomes

Thus from bindan,
-st

bind, the ind. pres.

2d

sing, is

formed by adding
bindst
;

(though sometimes

-est),

thus,

but, in accordance with this principle, bindst

becomes bintst.

So from leean,

increase, the ind. pret.

3d

sing,

is

formed by adding

-de, thus,

iecde

;

but lecde

becomes
34.

lecte.

Changes of 3 in conjunction with other dentals.
or t comes to stand immediately before
tt,

1

Whenever d
<T,

the combination becomes
to
t

which

is

sometimes
pres.

simplified
sing, of

(35).

Thus

bindefr,
1

ind.

3d

bindan, becomes bindS by elision of the e in an unstressed syllable (23) but binder invariably bide? and bite?, respectively from appears as bint
;

;

bidan, await, and bitan,

bite,

both become bitt or bit.
s9"

By
For

a

somewhat
is

similar change,
ss,

often becomes

st.

<3Fs

usually found

which may be simplified

to s (35).
/Suspect that t near the

end of a verb may stand for

d

or

3",

or be the result of contraction.

35.

Gemination

simplified.

-

-

Double consonants are
before

of

frequent

occurrence,

especially

an

inflec-

tional syllable beginning with a vowel.

Thus

swiin-

nian,
is

swim, b$dde,

to

a bed,
or,

etc.

But gemination
the sec-

frequently simplified,

in

other words,

CONSONANTAL LOSS AND CHANGE.
ond consonant
(5)
is

25

before

dropped, (a) at the end of a word, another consonant, (<?) in certain other
:

situations.

Thus

(a) mannes, gen. sing., but

maim

or

man, man,
all,

nom.
ealne,
plur.
36.

sing.
ace.

;

(6) ealles, gen. sing, of eal(l),
sing.

but

masc.

;

(c) ocfer,

other,

with gen.

ending

oflferra,

but usually ofrera,
to

5<Tra.

Gemmation

pointing

original

j.

In

many

words which contain a double consonant, especially those whose stem vowel is $, the stem was originally
followed by
j

(pron.
:

?/),

and the consonant was not

geminated, but single s^llan, give, orig. sal Jan. This was always the case with words containing eg, which,
it

will be

remembered,

is

the representative of
;

gg

(11)

:

slogan, say, orig. sag jan
37.

hrycg, back, orig. hmgjo-.
- -

Grammatical

change.
is

As between
9*

certain

re-

lated words, there
r:
inf.

an interchange of
the

and
inf.

d, s

and

ceosan, choose, past part, coren;

cwefran,

say, past part,

cweden

(cf.

noun cwide,
as
is

discourse).

This

is

technically

known

grammatical change.
a like

Under

similar circumstances, there
g,

change

between h and

and h and w, but owing

to a partial

disappearance of the
sliehcT,

h

(cf 100) this
.

is less

noticeable
siehcf,

:

strikes

(inf.

slean), slog, struck;

sees

(inf. seoii),

sawou

(they) saw.

INFLECTION.
Declension of Nouns.
38.

Gender of nouns.

Nouns

are either masculine,

feminine, or neuter.

Names

of males are masculine,

arid those of females feminine, except

msegden, maiden

and beam, cild, child, which are neuter. The gender of most nouns must be learned >*Uocr^opCfcfrV'from the dictionary; but all nouns Bending in -a are
(28), girl, wif, wife,

masculine, and belong to the
all

weak declension (53)

;

ending in -dom, -els, -ere, -had, and -scipe, and most in -end, with names of persons in -ing and -ling, are
strong masculines ; those ending in -estre, -nes, -raedeii,
-c3F(u)

(-fro),

-ung, most in

-u,

and a few

abstracts in

-ing, are strong feminines.

Compound nouns
ponent
;

take the gender of their last comis

thus wifman, woman,
is

masculine, because

man(n)
39.

masculine.

and weak nouns. -- According to their declension, all nouns are either strong or weak. The
Strong

nominative of weak nouns always ends in a vowel, either -a or -e, but not all nouns ending in -e are weak.
26

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
40.

27

Cases of nouns and adjectives.

Old English has

six cases,

though in general only four are distinguished. These four are the nominative, genitive, dative, and
;

accusative

the

two additional

are

the vocative, the

and the instrumental, which is virtually indistinguishable from the dative, except in
case of direct address,
adjectives.

frU

U?cAnW<
is

The nominative
is

used as in English.

The

genitive
;

the case denoting possessor, source, or cause
is of.

its

sign

The
its

dative denotes the indirect object of
is

tojnfor. The accusative denotes The instrumental the direct object; it has no sign. denotes the means by which an action is performed;

an action;

sign

IK,.*

its

w/itW %rtsujk sign The instrumental of nouns is included in the declenis

by. &

^"^

sions
41.

under the dative.
Uniform case endings.
All nouns, whatever their
\s

declension,
itive plural

end

in

-um

in the dative plural.

The gen-

always ends in -a, either appended directly.^. 0V- fc-*lA to the stem, or with -en- (rarely -r-) interposed (43. 6) 4x1^
;

accordingly the genitive plural, to 'speak more strictly,

always ends in -a or -ena (very rarely -ra). Instead of -um is occasionally found -un, -on, or -an,

"

and

in later

Old English

these' endings

grow common.

42. Strong masculine endings.

All strong masculines,

except umlaut masculines (46) and those in -u (45),
take the following as regular endings (for exceptions

28
see 43. 5-9; 44. 4),

INFLECTION.

where
:

-

-

represents the form of

the nominative singular
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. -as -a

N.V.A.
G. -es

D. -e

-ma

43.

Masculines ending in a consonant.
of

The

greater
fisc,

number
fish
:

strong masculines are declined like
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
fiscas

N.V.A.
G.

fisc

fisces

fisca

D. fisce

fiscum

1.

A

very few words ending in -eg

may

insert -e-

before the endings of the plural:
2.

s^cgeas, etc. (18).
is se

If the radical

vowel of the nominative
is

before

a single consonant, this

changed

in the plural to

a

:

dseg, day, but plur. dagas, daga, daguin.

Nouns ending in h lose this consonant before a case ending, and in so doing lengthen the radical Thus fearh, swine, but feares, vowel or diphthong.
3.

etc. (29).

If the
is

iding

preceded by a vowel, the vowel lost: scoh, shoe, but nom. plur. scos,
is

h

not scoas.
4.

Disyllabic nouns generally lose the vowel of the

second syllable before all endings, when the stem is long by nature or position (4, 23), if the second syllable
is

not long by position.

Otherwise the vowel of the

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
second syllable
as follows
a.
eflFel,
:

29

is

regularly preserved.

Examples

are

Stem long by Stem long by
position
:

nature, and second syllable short:
eflTeles.

country, gen. efrles, not
position,

eag"fcl

b.

and second
dat.

syllable long

by
c.

longest,

stallion,

he.ngeste,

not

h^ngste.

Stem long by nants), and second
d.

position (vowel before

two conso-

syllable short: dryhten, lord, gen.

dryhtnes, not dryhtenes.

Stem short by

nature,

and second

syllable short

:

heofon, heaven, dat. heofone, not heofne.
Occasional exceptions are found: dryhtenes, heofne.

The
2}r~L/
,,''
1

retention or loss of the vowel

is

in part

dependent

*

^upon
5.

the date of the particular text.

In a few words there

is

an occasional gen. and

'frV

>V

dat. sing,

and nom.

plur. in -a: feld, field, ford, ford,

winter, winter, sunier, summer, and a few others of
rare occurrence.
6.

Nouns

in -end, originally present participles (143),

take the gen. plur. in -ra, instead of -a, and the plur. nom. voc. ace. in -e, or without ending, as well as in
-as,

the latter being rare.

Thus nom.
;

plur.

~\

hselende, as well as hselendas
7.

gen. hselendra.
grove,

A

single

word,

bearu,

has

the

nom.
all

sing, in -u,

and takes
:

w

instead of the -u before
sing,

inflectional endings
.

nom.

bearu, gen. bearwes,

etc. (27).

30
8.

INFLECTION.

The noun

f seder, father,

frequently omits the ter-

minations of the sing. gen. and dat.

and monad month, sometimes omit the termination of the nom. ace. plur.
1

9.

Hsele<y, hero,

,

44.

Masculines in
is

-e.

The

declension of strong masfisc.

culines in -e
sing.

almost identical with that of

The

nom.

ace. voc. takes -e;

other exceptions will be

noted below.

^Snde, end,
SINGULAR.

is

thus declined
PLURAL.

:

N.V.A.
G.

D.

Here belong important classes of nouns ending in -ere (143) and -scipe, besides some others. They
1.

are

much

less

numerous, however, than those of the

preceding declension.
2.

The noun hre, army, sometimes takes

-g- or -ig-

before the endings of the singular, and the same, or
-ige-,

before the endings of the plural: h^r(i)g es, etc.
>

Two words
-ia
:

sometimes have the gen. plur. in -ig(e)a,

wine, friend, De^ie, Danes, gen. plur. winigea,

D^niga, Dejiia (18).
3.

Nouns ending

in

-ce
:

may

retain the

-e before

the endings of the plural

Isece, physician,

nom.

plur.

Iseceas, as well as Isecas (18).
4.

A

few masculine nouns
plur.

in -e

occasionally take
:

the nom. ace.

in

-e,

instead of -as

wine,

or.

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
winas, friend.

31

The following

are

found in the plural

only: leode (also leoda), people, ielde, men, ielfe, elves,

and the proper nouns Engle, Angles, Seaxe, Saxons,
Mierce, Mercians.
45.
son,

Masculines in -u.

Here belong the words sunu,
boy,

wudu, wood, me(o)du, mead, magu,

bre(o)go,

prince, heoru, sword, lagu, lake, si(o)du, custom, spitu,
spit.

Sunu

is

thus declined
SINGULAR.

:

PLURAL.

N.V.A. sunu

suna D. suna
G.

smia suna
suiiuni

1.
is

The ending
sing,

of the

nom.

sing, -u

(sometimes -o)
dat. plur.

liable to intrude

everywhere except in the
plur.

and gen.
2.

and

Besides

sunu and wudu,
found except

the nouns above given

are scarcely
3.

in the

nom.

ace. sing.

In

later

Old

English
fisc

these

words

begin

to

assume the endings of
plur. sunas, etc.

(43)

:

gen. sunes, nom.

46.

Umlaut masculines.

Here belong

fot, foot, toft,

tooth;

man(n), man; feond, enemy, freond,
;

friend,

(142)

brocTor, brother.

These take umlaut of the

radical
ace.
is

vowel (17) in the dat. sing, and nom. voc. Fot plur., and have no ending in those cases.
:

thus declined

32

INFLECTION.
SINOULAB.

PLURAL.

N.V.A. fot
G. fotes

fet

fota

D. fet (fote)
1.

fotum

Brofror

is

irregular,

forming

its

nom. voc.

ace.

plur. as broflFor or broflFru, instead of brecTer.
2.

Occasionally there
te<T.

is

found a plur. fotas,
have
dat.

tofras,

instead of fet,
3.

Feond

and

freond

usually

sing.

feonde, freonde, sometimes plur. feond, freond, or

even feondas, freondas.
In general, the chief distinction between the declension of masculines and that of neu47.

Strong neuters.

ters is in the plur.

nom.
if its
;

ace.

Where

the masculine

has

-as,

the neuter,
-o

radical syllable be short, has

-u, or

sometimes

if long, has no ending whatever
its final

(cf. 23,

and especially
is

sentence).

When

the
is

radical syllable

short,

the paradigm accordingly

(hof, dwelling):

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

N.A. hof
G. hofes

hofu hofa

D. hofe

hofum
is

With

a long radical syllable (4), the paradigm
:

(word, word)

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

N.A.
G.

word

wordes D. worde

word worda

wordum

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
1.

33

Disyllables are sometimes without ending in the
ace.
plur.,

nom.

and sometimes take -u

:

wsep(e)n
forces,

and wsepnu, weapons; but usually msegenu,
nietenu,
cattle,

earfoflFu,

labors,

wset(e)ru,

waters,

heafdu, heads, wundor, wonders.
2.

Occasionally the

nom.

ace. plur.

takes -o or -a

instead of -u.
3.

Treo,

tree,

case

endings,
etc.

and cneo, knee, take -w before all and sometimes in the nom. sing.
:

treowes,
4.

(27).

Nom.

ace. plur.

treowu, ciieowu.
plural,

For a change in the radical vowel of the see 43. 2 fset, vessel, but fatu, fata, fatum.
:

5.

For the

loss of final h, see 43. 3

:

feoh, money,

fee, gen. feos.
6.

For the

loss (syncopation) of the

vowel of the

second syllable, see 43. 4: heafod, head, nom. plur. heafdu, not (usually) heafodu; tungol, star, nom.
plur. tungflu,

not tungolu

;

waeter, water, gen. wse-

teres, not (regularly) waetres.

Syncopation

is,

how-

ever, less constant in

the nom. ace. plur. of neuters,

in cases corresponding to 43. 4. a.

Neuters ending in -en and -et sometimes double the final consonant before a case ending sefen, even
7.
:

(-ing),

gen. sefenes

or sefennes,

etc.

These nouns

retain the -e of the second syllable.

48.

Neuters in

-e.

These are declined

like
-e,

word,

except that the sing. nom. voc. ace. has

and the

34
plur.

INFLECTION.

nom. voc.
:

ace. has -u.

Paradigm (wite, punPLURAL.
\\itu

ishment)

SINGULAR.

N.V.A. wite
G.

wltes

wita

D. wite

witum

1.

If the -e of the

nom.

sing, is

preceded by c or
i

g,
:

the endings of the plural

may be preceded by

(or e)

ricu or riciu, rica or ricia, etc. (18).
Neuters in -u. -

49.

-

These are declined
in

like

beam

(43. 7), except that they take -u
ace.,

the plur. nom. a dozen
:

instead of

-as.

There are only half

in

all,

and these are not of common
evil,

occurrence

bealu,

gen. bealwes, etc.

50.

Irregular neuters.
1

The

three words lamb, lamb,
cild, child, are de-

cealf, calf, seg , egg,

and sometimes

clined regularly in the singular, but take r in the plural

before the endings -u,

-a,

-uni

:

lamb, gen. lambes, but
occur.

nom.
In

plur.

lambru.
the regular forms, without
r,

LWS.

51.

Strong feminines.

-

Feminine

disyllables
syllable,

ending
belong
syllable,

in

-u,
;

and having a short radical
monosyllables

here

with

a

long
the

radical

and
sing.

most

disyllables,

discard

-u
a.

of

the

nom,.

Abstracts, though long, follow

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
a) Paradigm of the short stems, giefu, gift:
SINGULAR.

35

PLURAL.
giefa, -e

N.V. giefu,
G. giefe D. giefe

-o

giefa (-ena)

giefum
giefa, -e
is

A. giefe

Occasionally the ending -u or -o
oblique
plural.
in the

found in the
the nom. ace.

cases

of

the singular and in

Duru,

door, has -a in the gen. dat. sing.,

and

whole plural except the dative.
gen. beadwe, etc.

Two

or three

nouns in -u take -w before the ending in the oblique
cases
:

beadu,

battle,

b)

Paradigm
:

of the long

stems and polysyllables,

glof, glove

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

N.V. glof G. glofe
D. glofe A. glofe
1.

glofa, -e

glofa

glofum
glofa, -e

A

few nouns discard the

-e

of

the ace. sing.

:

dsed, deed, tid, time,
2.

woruld

(20, 26), world.

Only rarely does the gen.

plur. of long stems take

-(e)na.
3.

Disyllables in -ung often have -a instead of e in

the dat. sing.,

and sometimes

in the gen. ace. sing.

:

leoriiimg, learning, dat. leornunga,

hand,
the
4.

flor, floor,

and woruld, world,

The words hand, occasionally make

same change.
Disyllables

syncopate the vowel of the second

36
syllable
etc.
5.

INFLECTION.
according to 43. 4
:

sawol,

soul,

gen. sawle,

Polysyllables in -nes, -en,

-el, is

and

-et

double the

final

consonant when a syllable
:

added, and retain the

preceding -e

gen. dat. ace. sing, eaffmodnesse, humility,

byrtfeime, burden, etc.

Umlaut feminines. - - These modify the root vowel by umlaut in the dat. sing, and nom. voc. ace. plur., and often in the gen. sing., that is, change a to se,
52.

o to

$,

6 to

e,

u

to y,

and u

to y.

The gen.

sing., and,

occasionally the dat. sing.,
larly,

sometimes formed reguwithout umlaut, and with the ending -e. Parais
:

digm, (gos, goose)

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

N.V.A. gos
G.

ges

ges, gose

gosa

D. ges

gosum
:

The

principal nouns which belong here are

ac, oak,

gat, goat; boc, book, broc, trousers, gos, goose, wloh,

fringe

;

burg,

castle,

city,

f urh, furrow, sulh, plough,

turf, turf ; cu, cow, grut, grout, grits, lus, louse,

mus,

mouse,
1.

(Truli,

trough; ea, river;
(gen.) sing, of

nilit, night.

The

dat.

burg

is

usually byrig,

not byrg.
2.

Modor, mother, and dohtor, daughter,

are declined

like brofror (46. 1), except that
ace. plur. niodru, -a,

modor has

only the nom.

and both may have an umlaut gen.

sing, in

LWS.

(but usually modor, dohtor).

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
3.
it

37

Sweostor,

sister, is

without umlaut in any case

;

remains sweostor in every case except the gen. plur.
dat. plur.

sweostra and
53.

sweostrum.
-a,

Weak

nouns.
-e
;

Masculines end in

feminines

and neuters in

but the neuters

may

be conveniently

disregarded, only eage, eye, and eare, ear, belonging
to this

declension.
:

Paradigms (niona, moon, tunge,
FEMININE.

tongue)

MASCULINE.
Sing. N.V. moii a

tunge

D.

fmonan

tungnn
tiingan

A.J
Plur.

N.V. A.
G.

mo nan
monena

D.

monum
of

tungena tunguni
is

1.

The number

feminines thus declined

com-

paratively small.

The commonest

are perhaps eorfre,

earth, heorte, heart, lufe, love,

cirice,

church, tunge,

tongue, liearpe,

harp, sunne, sun, nsedre, viper, and

selmesse, alms.

The masculines
of the

are,

on the contrary,
I

very numerous.
2.

The declension

neuters cage and eare

differs
sing.,

from that of the feminines only in the ace. which is like the nom. Their gen. plur. is
heaven, should be dis-

often eagna, earna.
3.

The weak feminine heofone,

tinguished from the strong masculine heofon. Besides the weak lufe, there is also a strong lufu, love (51. a).

38
54.

INFLECTION.
Proper names.
-

Native names are declined like

nouns, except that feminines ending in -burg take the dative in -e and are without umlaut. Foreign

common

names

are sometimes naturalized,

and sometimes take
T^net, and
has the gen.

their original case endings, but not always with entire

consistency.

The words C$nt,

C$rt,

I,

Wiht

are indeclinable, except that

Wiht

Wihte.
Declension of Adjectives.

Weak and strong adjectives. Adjectives are declined weak when in the comparative, and usually when in the superlative when ordinals (except oarer, second, when used 78, 80) when preceded by a demonstrative
55.
; ;
;

as masculine or feminine
article
;

nouns preceded by the definite in direct address sometimes when preceded
; ;

by a possessive pronoun

and exceptionally

in poetry

in place of the strong adjective.

Otherwise adjectives

are always used in the strong form.
56.

-- Here Strong declension of adjectives.

it is

neces-

sary to distinguish between long monosyllables on the

one hand, and short monosyllables (comparatively few) and disyllables on the other.
57.

Disyllables

and short monosyllables. -- Paradigm,

glaed,

glad:
MASCULINE.

NEUTEB.
glaed

FEMININE.

Sing. N.V. glsed

gladu
glcedre

G.

glades

DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.
MASCULINE.

39
FEMININE.
glcedre

NEUTER.

D. A. glcedne
I.

gladum
glaed

glade

glade
gladu,
glcedrti,

Plur.

N.V.A. glade
G.

-e

glada,

-e

D.

gladum

1. Italicized

words indicate differences from the noun
.

declension

;

cf

these with the pronominal declensions

(81, 84, 85).
2.

When

the radical vowel

is se, it is

changed

as in

the paradigm.
3.

Otherwise

it

remains unchanged.

same endings as in the paradigm, but frequently syncopate the vowel of the second syllable before an ending beginning with a vowel, as in
Disyllables take the

eadig, blessed, gen. eadges (23

;

cf. 43. 4),

and some-

times conform the nom. sing. fern, to the masc. and neut., and the neut. plur. nom. voc. ace. to the sing.
:

halig, holy, not hal(i)gu.
4.

For the ending -u sometimes occurs
the

-o,

and

for

-um
5.

LWS.

-on, -an (cf. 41).

Adjectives ending in -u (-o) change the u to before vowels (27) gearu, ready, gen. gearwes, etc.
:

w

58.

Long

monosyllables.

-

-

The only
of

difference

be-

tween the declension of the long and that of the short
monosyllables
is

that the ending

-p.

the latter

is

dropped, and that the radical vowel always remains

unchanged.

'Paradigm, god, good:-

40
MASCULINE.
Sing. N.

INFLECTION,
NEUTER.
FEMININE.

Plur. N.

god gode

god god

god
gode, -a

1.

Adjectives ending in

h drop

the

h

in disyllabic

forms, and lengthen the radical vowel

or diphthong
;

but heah, <Tweorh, transverse, gen. ffweores high, often assimilates the final h to a following consonant: heaniie, hearra, etc. In LWS. the h is often
(29)
:

changed
2.

g before Words ending
to

a vowel

:

heagum,

etc.

in a double consonant usually re-

tain this only before a
59.

vowel (35).
-

Adjectives in

-e.

These are quite numerous.
j

They

are declined like the short monosyllables, except

that they always retain their -e

when no

other ending is

provided, but lose

it

before

an ending. Paradigm, grene,
NEUTER.
FEMININE.

green

:

MASCULINE.
Sing.

N.V. grene
G.

grene
grenes

grenu
grenre
-e -e

Plur. N.V. A.

grene

grenu,

grena,

From an
ample,

ace.

masc. sing., like grenne, bliSTne, for ex-

it is

therefore not safe to infer a dictionary form

gren,

bliST.

In consulting

the lexicon, care should be taken to distin-e

guish adjectives in
60.

from such

as end in a consonant.

Weak

declension of adjectives.

This

is

the same
regularly

as that of nouns, except that the gen. plur!

is

DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.
formed
in -ra (only exceptionally -a

41
regular

or the

weak* ending -eiia).
MASCULINE.
Sing. N.V. goda

Paradigm, goda, the good :
FEMININE.

NEUTER.

gode

gode

G.

D. A.
Plur.

godan

godan godan godan
godan godra god urn
frequently becomes -an.

gode

N.V. A.
G.

D.
1.

In

LWS. -um
in

2.

r's

consequence of contraction, too many or n's are brought together, one of them is rejected.

When,

Thus gearu, ready, forms a comparative gearura. This comparative, in turn, would form a gen. plur. gearurara.

By
;

contraction this would reduce to gear(u)r's

r(a)ra

but the three

are simplified to two,

and the

resulting gen. plur. stands as gearra.
61.

The present
is

-ende
(for

not to

The present participle in be confounded with the noun in -end
participle.
-

-

which see

43. 6).

It is

declined like grene* (59).
it is

When

used in the predicate as nom. or ace.

gener-

ally uninflected.
tive, is also

The present

participle, like the adjec-

declined weak.
participle.

62.

The past

-

-

The

past participle has the

double declension of the adjective, both strong and weak. When used in the predicate it is generally indeclinable, or ends like the strong masculine.

42

INFLECTION.

Comparison of Adjectives.
%

63.

Regular comparison.
-ra to the

The comparative
positive,

is

formed

by adding
lative
-<rro9.

stem of the
;

by adding

-osta (-esta)

and the superwith the latter cf Greek
.

The

final -a represents the

masculine terminaall

tion of the

weak

adjective (60),

and undergoes

the

replacements of the weak declension.
superlative
is

More

rarely the

found in

-ost (-est),

which

is

then

re-

garded as strong.

A

final -e of the positive is

dropped

in comparison (e.g. ea3e, easy; comp. letTra, not iearera)

and a

radical ae

becomes a

in the superlative (e.g. smael,
;

small, superl. smalost, not smaelost
64.

cf. 43. 2).

Comparison without mmlaut.
:

This

is

the

usual

mode

POSITIVE.

COMPARATIVE.

SCPERLATIVR.

heard, hard
leof, dear
rice, powerful

heardra
leofra

heardost, -esta
leofost, -esta

riora

ricost, -esta

smael, small

smaelra

smalost, -esta

65.

Comparison with umlaut.

This

is

followed by a few
:

adjectives.
POSITIVE.

The

superlative generally ends in -esta
COMPARATIVE.

SFPBRLATIVE.

eald. old

ieldra

ieldesta

lang. long

i^ngra

l^ngesta

geong. young
sceort, short

giengra
sciertra

giengesta
sciertesta

heah. high
great, great
eaffe, easy

hiehra (hierra)
grietra
leffra
.

hieh(e)sta
grietesta
ieffesta

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
1.

43
also

For some of

these,

umimlauted forms are
etc.

found: heahra, heahsta,
2.

Syncope of e in the superlative occurs in
;

LWS.

:

le.ngsta, etc.
3.

in hiehsta this

is

also

EWS.

For

-ost

may

occur -ust.

In the following the comparative and superlative are not formed from
66.

Different stems in comparison.

the same stem as the positive
POSITIVE.

:

COMPARATIVE.

SUPERLATIVE.

Sod, good
yfel,

fbet(e)ra
Isella, selra

b^tet(a)
selest(a)

bad

wiersa

wier(re)st(a)

micel, great lytel, small

mara
laissa

maist(a)
Itest(a)

67.
is

Comparison defective.

In four cases the positive

wanting as an adjective, but adverb or preposition
:

may

be supplied as an

POSITIVE.

COMPARATIVE.
fierra

SUPERLATIVE.

(feor, far)

fierrest(a)

(neah, near)
(aer, earlier)

nearra
rra
furffra

mehst(a)
Merest (a)

(fore, before)

fyrst(a)

68.
-est,

Superlatives in -ma.
is

Besides the superlative in

there

one in -ma

(cf. Lat.

pri-mw).

Two examthe hindmost.

ples are found: forma, the first ;
69.

hindema,

Superlatives in

-ma

+ -esta =
may

-mest(a).

- - These

double superlatives, as they

be called, are chiefly

44

INFLECTION.

formed from adverbs and prepositions. The comparative is peculiar in being generally formed in -erra,
instead of -ra
POSITIVE.
(siff, late)
:

COMPARATIVE.
siffra

SUPERLATIVE.

siffemest

(laet, late)

laetra

laetemest

(inne, within)
(iite,
i

innerra
Sterna, yterra
uferra, yferra
nifferra

innemest
utemest, ytemest
ufeinest,

without)

iifan, above)

yfemest

(nifran, below)
(fore, before)
(aefter, after)

niffemest

furffra
aefterra

fyrmest
aeftemest

(mid, mid)
(norff, northward)
1

inidmest
norfferra, nyrflferra
sufrerra, syfferra

norftmest
suftmest

(suS

,

southward)

(east, eastward)
(\vest, westward)

easterra
\vesterra

eastmest
\vestmest

Formation and Comparison of Adverbs.
70.

Adverbs formed from

adjectives.

Adverbs are
-e, -lice,

formed from adjectives by the addition of

and

-unga or -inga. Examples are
swift , strong,
call,
all,
1

:

wid, wide, wide, widely ;
1

swifte,

very

;

soft ,

true,

socHice, truly

;

eallunga, eallinga, entirely.
is

Occasionally

-unga, -inga

employed to form adverbs from other

parts of speech.
71. Adjectives in the genitive as adverbs.

The ending
to

-es of the gen. sing. neut. is

employed

form a few
;

adverbs from adjectives
(58. 1), perversely, etc.

:

ealles, altogether

STweores

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.
72.

45

Adjectives in the dative plural as adverbs.
:

Exam-

ples are

miclum, very; lytlum,

little.

73.

Adjectives in the accusative as adverbs.
:

Exam-

ples are

full,

fully

;

genog, enough.

74.

Adverbs from nouns.
;

by day

niedes, needs

;

--From the genitive: dseges, From the instrumental etc.
:

sare, sore, etc.

From

the dative plural

:

dropmselum,

drop by drop,
75.

etc.

Adverbs of place. - - These are of three classes, ac-

cording as they answer the question, Where? Whither?
or

Whence?
WHERE ?
ffier

Examples

are:

WHITHER ?
Older

WHENCE
<Vnnan

?

hwair her

hwider
hider

huotian

heonan

76.

Comparison of adverbs.

Adverbs from adjectival

stems are regularly compared by adding -or for the

Example comparative and -ost for the superlative. stranger, more strongly, strangest, most strongly (cf.
65).
77.

:

Irregular comparison of adverbs.

A

few adverbs

have no termination in the comparative. They are always monosyllabic, and have usually undergone umlaut.

Such
;

are

bt,

better ;

ma, mse, more ;

near,

nearer

etc.

46

INFLECTION.

Numerals.
78.

Numerals.

The numerals

are as follows

:

CARDINAL.
1

ORDINAL.

2
3

4 5

... an ... twegen, twa ... ffrle, ffreo ... feower
.
.

forma, airesta
(tu)
offer, sefterra

ffridda
feorffa
fifta

.

fif

6
7

8 9
10
11

12

13
14

15
16
17

18 19

20
21

30

40
60

60
70
,80

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
.
. . . . .

siex

siexta
seofoffa

seofon

eahta nigon
tlen

eahtoffa
nigoffa
teoffa

endlefan

endlefta

twejf
ffreotiene

tw^lfta
ffreoteoffa

feowertlene
fiftlene

feow^erteoffa
fifteoffa

siextiene

siexteoffa

seofontiene

seofonteoffa

eahtatiene

eahtateoffa

nigontiene

nigonteoffa
tw^entigoffa

twentig

an and twentig
ffritig

an and twentigoffa
ffritigoffa

feower tig
fiftig

feow^ertigoffa
fiftigoffa

siextig

siextigoffa

hundseofontig
(hund)eahtatig

hundseofontigoffa

hundeahtigoffa

90
100 110

... hundnigontig
. . .

hundnigontigoffa
hundendleftigoffa

.

.

.

hund, hundred, hundteontig hundendlefantig

120

.

.

.

200
1000

.

.

.

hund twelftig twa hund, tu hund
ffusend

hundtw^lftigoffa

.

.

NUMERALS.
1.
2.

47

Other ordinals for 1 are fyresta, fyrmesta.

Another form of ordinal

for 21 is

an eac twenfor anlif

tigum.
3.

Endlefan and twejf probably stand

and

twalif (representing twalif). The -lif may mean left. After counting on the fingers up to 10, one left (anlif)

would be 11
of

;

two

left

(twalif), 12.

The

final

-an (-on)

endlefan

may haVe

been added after the analogy of

seofon, nigon, etc.
4.

Fractions are usually formed by the help of dgel,

part: flfridda dsel, one-third ; seofocTa dsel, one-seventh. For one and a half occurs ofter healf (cf. Germ, anderthalb) so frridde healf, two and a half ; in other words,
;

the

OE.

ordinal indicates the cardinal from which J

must be subtracted.
5.

Interesting forms, which actually occur, are

:

19,

an

Ises

twentig

;

39,

an

Ises

feowertig
;

;

59,

anes

wana
and
fru-

siextig (cf.

Greek

evos Se'o^re? eiKoaC)
liiind
; ;

450, fiftig

feower hund,

fifte healf

482, feower luiiid

and twa and hundeahtatig
senda; 1,500,000, fiftlene
fiftieiia

100,000,

an hund

hund
i.e.

<Tiisend.

Note also

sum, one of

fifteen,

with fourteen com-

panions.

79.

Declension
(58),

of

cardinals.

An

is

declined

like

god
is

but with ace. sometimes senne,
it signifies

inst. sene.

When

declined weak, ana,
:

alone.

Twegen

declined thus

48
MASCULINE

INFLECTION.
NEUTER.
FEMININE.

N.A. twegen
G.

twa, tu

twa

D.

tweg(r)a twaim, twam

So

also
:

is

declined begen, loth.

>rie,

<yreo is

de-

clined

MASCULINE.

PRONOUNS.
FIRST PERSON.

49

SECOND PERSON.
git

DualN. wit G. uncer D. unc A. unc
Plur. N.

incer

inc inc

we
ure

ge

G.

cower

D. us

A. us

eow eow
THIRD PERSON.

MASCULINE.
Sing. N.

NEUTER.

FEMININE.

be
his

hit

heo
hi(e)re

G.

D. A. hi(e)ne
Plur.

him
hit
hi(e)

hi(e)re
hi(e)

N.A.
G.

hi(e)ra, heora

D.

him

1.

Less

common forms
eowic
;

are

:

in the accusative,

mec,

free, usic,
is

hi(e) for heo, and conversely. Hio frequent, parallel with heo, and user is found for ure.
82.

Reflexive

pronouns.
as

- - In place

of

the reflexive,
is

which does not exist

an independent form,

used

the personal pronoun (81).

83.

Possessive

pronouns.

-

-

Two

sorts

of possessives

must be distinguished, the declinable and the indeclinable. All of these are identical in form with the
genitive of the
is

personal pronoun, except sin, which
lost reflexive.

formed from a

The

declinable pos-

50
sessives are
sin, his,

INFLECTION.

my, 3In, thy, ure, our, eower, your, and the seldom used uncer, of us two, and

mm,

incer, of you two.

These follow the strong declen-

sion of adjectives (57, 58).
his,

The

indeclinable^ are his,

hi(e)re, her, and hi(e)ra, their, the genitives of the third personal pronoun.

84.
acaet,

The demonstrative 'that/
is

at

once the
article.

The pronoun se, equivalent of Mod. Eng.
that,
it
is

seo,

that

and of the
relative as

well as

employed in a a demonstrative sense, and fre-

Like

quently does duty for the third personal pronoun. The demonstrative pronouns have an instrumental case, as does the neuter of the interrogative hwset.
MASCULINE.
Sing. N.

NEUTER.
9" set

FEMININE.

se (emphatic se)
ffaes

seo
frsere
H

G.

D. A. ffone
I.

$sem (ffam)
ffaet
ffy,

ffaere
ffa

"Son
ffa

Plur.

N.A.
G.

ffara (ffaera)

D.

ffsem (ffam)

1.

The

conjunction

(tTset,

and the adverb 3a

(=

there,

then, etc.),
2.

must not be confounded with the pronoun. Parallel with se, seo, is a rare <Te, 9"eo, which
ftam becomes
fron
in

eventually supplants the former.
3.

Dseni,

fran,

such words

as sifrcTan, since

(=

si9"

9am).

PRONOUNS.
4.

51

The forms

of this

pronoun should be carefully

distinguished from those of the next.
85.

The demonstrative

'

this.'

-- Mod.
fres,

Eng.

this is rep-

resented by the demonstrative
MASCULINE.
Sing. N.
ffes

frees, fris.
FEMININE.
ffeos
ffisse

NEUTER.
ffis

G.

818(8)68

D.
A.
I.

9'is(s)um
ffisne

ffisse

81s

8"as

Plur.

N.A.
G.

ffas

Slssa

D.
1.

81s(s)um
or
;

Alternative

occasional
dat.

forms are

nsf.

gsf. dsf. fris(se)re

friosum (20).
-

86.

Minor demonstratives. -

Less important demonis

stratives are ilca, same,
self,
self,

which

declined weak, and

which takes both declensions.
-

87.
is

Relative pronouns. :

The

office

of

the relative

assumed

a) by the demonstrative

se, seo, fraet,

the reference

being rendered explicit by the case form. 5) by the demonstrative se, seo, frset, with the particle fre
<?)

appended.
fre,

by the indeclinable

the reference being renin

dered explicit Ky an appended personal pronoun
the proper case form.

52
d) by the particle
bers,

INFLECTION.
fre alone, representing all

num-

genders,

arid

cases,

the

reference

being

much

less explicit.

Illustrations of each of these
a)

modes would be:

Se stan, Uone (The stone, which Se stan, Uone
Se stan,
8"e
fte

ffa
the fte 9"a

wyrhtan awurpon.
builders
rejected.)

6)

c)

hine

ffa ffa

d)

Se stan,

wyrhtan awurpon. wyrhtan awurpon. wyrhtan awurpon.

88.

Interrogative pronouns.
of both
sort of
MASC.

The most important
its

is

hwa, who? what? what

genders, with

neuter hwset,

a?
NEUTER.

FEM.

N.
G.

hwa
hwaes hwiuin
hw^one

hwaet

D.

(hwam)
hwast
hw^y,

A.
I.

hwon

Hwilc, which ? hwseSFer, which of two f and hulic, of what sort? are declined like strong adjectives (57, 58).
89.

Indefinite pronouns.
a,

- - The indefinites are

:

a) an, sum,
no, none, selc,

a certain, senig, any, nan, nsenig-,
either,

gehwilc, each, seglfer, ahwsecTer,
such,

nahwsefrer, neither, offer, other, swilc,
clined like strong adjectives.
5) .awiht, oht, anything,

are

de-

and nawiht, noht,

nothing,

with the compounds
thing, etc.) are

of

-hwega (hwaethwega, any-

indeclinable.

VEKBS.
c~)

53
is

hwa, any one (and

its

compounds)

declined

like the interrogative.

d) Indefinite relatives are formed from the interrogatives by
e)

swa-swa

:

swa-hwa-swa, whoever,

etc.

man

(originally
is

maim),

one

(cf.

French

on,

Ger. man),

used only in the nom. sing.

Verbs.
90.
Classification of verbs.

(92) or

weak (96)

;

-- Verbs are either strong besides which there are two small

classes of important verbs, called respectively preteri-

and anomalous (137 ff.). Weak verbs are in general derivative and the stem can usually be detected as existing in some other indetive presents (124 ff.)
;

pendent word, often a noun or adjective, or the
sing, tense-stem of a strong verb.

pret.

91.
is

The present stem.

The

present stem of a verb

what remains

after cutting off the infinitive

ending

-an or -ian (in contract verbs, -n).
is

The

radical vowel

the vowel of this stem

;

and the consonant or conthe

sonants which

terminate

stem

are,

when such
above

exist, called stem-finals.
is

The stem
weak

as obtained

one of the four tense-stems of strong verbs, or of
verbs.

the three tense-stems of

92.

Tense-stems of strong verbs.

Strong verbs change

the radical vowel to form the different tense-stems, like

54

INFLECTION.

the verbs called irregular in

Modern English.

As

in

Modern English
and past

the verb drive has the preterit drove

participle driven, so in

Old English the same

verb has the pret. sing, draf and past participle drifen. However, instead of the three tense-stems of Modern
English, there

English for strong verbs, the preterit being subdivided into preterit singular and preterit plural.

are

four in Old

The four stems
PRESENT.
drif-

of drifan, drive, are
PRET. PLUR.
drif-

:

PRET. SING.

PAST PART.
drif-

draf

93.

Forms derived from each

stem.

From

the present

stem are formed the whole of the present indicative and optative, the imperative singular and plural, the infinitive, the

gerund, and the present participle

in

all

seventeen forms.

From

the pret. sing, stem are formed only the 1st

two forms. and 3d persons singular From the pret. plur. stem are formed the whole
plur. of indicative

pret.

and optative, the whole pret. sing, of the optative, and the 2d person singular indicative
ten forms.

From

the past participial stem

is

formed only the

past participle
94.

one form.
of the verb.

Commonest forms

-is

From

the present

stem the form in commonest use
sing. ;

the ind. pres. 3d

from the

pret. sing, stem, the ind. pret.

3d

sing.

;

VERBS.

55
ind.
pret.

from the

pret.

plur.

stem,

the

3d

plur.

Umlaut (17) and contraction (34)
the origin of the
first

are apt to obscure

of these, but not of the other

two.

Thus from standan, stand - - whose
standen 3d
3d
sing, is stod, the ind. pret.

principal

parts are standan, stod, stodon,
pret.

the ind.

plur. stodon,

but the ind. pres. 3d sing, st^nt (instead of standee).
95.

Conjugation of a strong verb.

Types

are:

bindan,

bind; (for contracts) fon, seize:
INDICATIVE.

OPTATIVE.

Pres. Sing.

1.

binde fo
;

2. 3.

bind(e)st, bintst
, ;

;

fehst

blnde fo binde fo
; ;

bind (e) ff bint fehff
binde f off
;

binde fo
;

Plur. bindaff,
Pret. Sing.
1.

binden fon
;

band

;

f eng

bunde fenge
;

2.
3.

bunde; fenge band; feng

Plur.

bundon

;

f engon
Infin.

bunde; fenge bunde; fenge bunden f engen
;

Imper. Sing, bind; fob
Plur.

bind aft, binde foff
;

bindan; fon Gerund to bindanne to f onne
;

Pres. Part,

bindeude; fonde
sing. pres. ind.

Past Part, (ge)bunden; (ge)fangen
is

The 2d The
3"

sometimes formed in

-so".

derived from the fru of the personal pronoun, the old ending having been s. This s, followed by the
is

personal pronoun, became sS

1

,

which should regularly
rt

become
NOTE.

st (34),

but does not always.
binde
is
:

used and imper. (sometimes opt.) plur. when the verb is immediately followed by a pronoun as subject binde we, not bindaff we, we bind, let us bind; biiide ge, not bindaff g6,

The

ind.

bind

ye.

56
96.

INFLECTION.
Conjugation of the

weak

verb.

Weak

verbs form

the preterit by the addition to the present stem of -de
for the singular (ind. pret.

2d

sing, -dest),

and -don
-e

(-den) for the plural.
the -de, and

A
-o.

few verbs take

before

many
is

take

The vowel

of the present

stem

is

never changed before -ede and -ode, but in

some verbs
is

changed before -de; a

list

of the latter

given in

114.

The past

participle of

weak verbs

is

formed by the

addition of -ed (-od, -d).

The
to
-t

-d of the endings -de, etc.,

and
and
114.

-ed, is
is

changed

after certain stem-finals (33),
;

lost in other

situations
finals

for details see 113

and

Certain stem;

also

undergo change before the same endings

for details see 114.

97.

Classes of strong verbs.

--Under

strong verbs are

included two principal divisions, according as their tense-stems were originally formed in one manner or
another.

Strong verbs are accordingly divided into Ablaut Verbs and Reduplicating Verbs. This distinction
is

mainly

historical,

and for practical pur-

poses need not be insisted on at the outset.
98.

Ablaut verbs.

Of

these there are six principal

classes, for

which see 102-107.
-

99.

Vowels of the present stem. -

To

facilitate

the

assignment of verbs to their proper

classes, the follow-

VERBS.
ing table

57

may

be useful, in conjunction with 101-110.

The Ablaut

Classes are distinguished by the

Roman

||

numerals, and the Reduplicating Verbs by Red.
SHORT RADICAL VOWEL.
CLASS.

a
a>

VI, Red.

5

+ e + e +
e
1

r or 1

(also brecan) any single cons, but r or two cons.

VI VI IV
1

V
Ill
III, III,

i

followed by nasal followed by non-nasal

IV

V

Q, see

a

u u
ea
eo
ie

in

cuman

IV
III

in other verbs

VI, Red.
III
III,

V, VI

CLASS.

Red.
se

Red.

e
i

Red.
fc.

6 u
ea
eo eo
in contract verbs
in other verbs

Red.
II

VI, Red.
I, II,

V

II.

Contract verbs are strong verbs whose stem-final was originally h. This h was lost
100.

Contract verbs.

before vowels (29),

and the preceding vowel was then

58

INFLECTION.

amalgamated with the following.

The

resultant diph-

thong (or vowel) is eo in the case of ten verbs, ea in that of four, and o in that of two. The 6-verbs belong
to the Reduplicating Class, the ea-verbs to the Sixth

Ablaut Class, and the eo-verbs to the and Fifth Ablaut Classes.
101.

First,

Second,

Contract verbs according to classes.

-- Distributed
:

according to classes, the contract verbs are as follows
I.

Icon

(orig.

thrive;
II.

Hhan), lend; seon, wreon, cover.

sift;

teon, censure;

fifeon,

fleon

(orig.

fleohan), flee; teon, draw.

V. gefeon
VI.
flean

(orig. (orig.

gefehan), rejoice; pleon, venture; seon,
Italian),

see.

flay

;

lean,

blame

;

slean,

strike

;

frwean, wash.

Red. fon

(orig.

fanhan

> fohan),

seize;

hon, hang.

Of

these the most important are teon, censure, fteon,

thrive,
rejoice,
seize,

wreon, cover;
seon, see
;

fleon, flee, teon,

slean, strike,

draw; gefeon, STweaii, wash ; fon,

and hon, hang. Teon, draw (II), should be carefully distinguished from teon, censure (I) and likewise seon, see (V),
;

from seon,
draw, are
:

sift

(I).

The

principal

parts

of

teon,

teon

teah

tugon
:

(ge)togen

of teon, censure, are

teon

tab

tigon

(ge)tigen

VERBS.

59

But

there

is

a tendency on the part of contract verbs

like the latter of these (I) to

assume throughout the

forms of the former (II).

Deon,

thrive (102), has past part, frigen

and ffungen.

The imp.

sing,

always ends in h, and has a long
First,

vowel in verbs of the

Second, and

Redupli-

cating Classes, a short vowel in the Fifth

and Sixth.
(II)

Examples

:

(I)
;

teon,

censure,
see,

imp. tin

;

teon,

draw, imp. teoh
strike,

(V) seon,
;

imp. seoh
seize,

;

(VI) slean,

imp. sleah

(Red.) fon,

imp. fob.

102.

Strong verbs of the First Ablaut Class.
Stem vowels (normally)
Typical verb
<

1,

a,

1, i

In tan. drive

Four

steins

drifan

draf
all

drifon

drifen

Like drifan are conjugated
the present stem.
in the first preterit stem,
i

strong verbs with

i

in

Here belongs any strong verb with a
i

in the

second preterit stem, or
the more

in the past participial stem.

Among

common

are: bidaii, remain; bitan, bite; ridan, ride; (a)risan,
arise; sciiian, shine;
si it

an. tear ; stigan, ascend; swi-

can, abandon; (ge)witan, go; writan, write.

Umlaut does not

affect

the vowel of the present

stem (94). The 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. are thus
(33, 34)
:

formed

bidan
bitan
bitst, bit(t)

d-stems
t-stems

bitst, bit(t)

60
s-stems
3" -stems

INFLECTION.
risan
rist, rist (risS )
1

smffun

snist, sniff (ff)

Contracts (101)

wreon
drifan

Others are normal

wrlhst, wrlhff drifst, drif ff

The second
verbs sniSTan,

preterit
cut,

and past participial stems of the llffaii, go, and scrlfran, proceed, take
:

d
in

instead of
3"

9"

(37)
3T.

snidon,

siiideii, etc.

Other verbs

retain the

103.

Strong verbs of the Second Ablaut Class.
eo or
5, ea, u,

Stem vowels
Typical verbs Four stems

o

beodan,

offer; briican, enjoy

beodan brucan

bead
breac
all

budon
brucon

boden
brocen

Like beodan are conjugated

strong verbs having

eo in the present stem, except some contracts, and
like

brucan
more

all

having u.
first
:

Here belongs any strong
preterit stem.

verb having ea in the
the

Among
dreogan,

common

are

ceosan,

choose

;

endure; lireosan, fall; (for)leosan, lose; teon, draw;

bugan, bow.
Stems
in
s,
9",

and contract vowel (37)
ceas
seaff

:

ceosan
seoffan

curon sudon

coren soden togen
s

teon (101)

teah

tugon

Like ceosan are formed stems in
abreofran, frustrate
;

;

like

seoftan,

like teon, fleon, flee. of the present to le (or I),

Umlaut changes the eo

VERBS.

61

and u of the present
pres. ind.
:

to y, in the

2d and 3d sing,
are

forliest, brycflf.

The 2d and 3d
(33,

sing.

pres.

ind.

thus formed

34):beodan
geotan
forleosan
bietst, biet(t)

d-stems
t-stems s-stems

gietst, giet(t)
forliest, forliest (-sff)
1 1

g-stems (28) Contracts (101)
Others are normal

dreogan
teon

driegst (-hst), driegS tiehst, tiehS
1

(-b-3 )

creopan

criepst, crlepff

104.

Strong verbs of the Third Ablaut Class.
various, but all short

Stem vowels

Typical verbs bindan, bind; helpan, help; gieldan, yield; weorpan,

throw; berstan, burst

Four stems

bindan

62
quire,

INFLECTION.

which resembles

it

in all except the

vowel of

the present.

The stems

of weoriflFan, become, are (37) :

weorflfan

\vear8f

wurdon
g,

worden

and lengthen the preceding vowel (28): brsed, frman. Findaii, find, likewise forms its 3d sing. pret. ind.
as funde,

Bregdan and frignan may drop

which
the

is

indeed the usual form.

Among
drink;
strive;

more
find;

common

verbs

are

:

drincan,

findan,

(oii)giimaii,
be

begin;

winnan,

limpan, happen; belgan,
fight.

angry; hweorfan,

turn; feohtan,

Umlaut changes the eo 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind.

of the present to ie in the

:

wierpfr.

A

similar change,
(17),
i

though not due to precisely the same cause found in presents in e, which is converted to
hilpst, bierst.

is

or ie:

The 2d and 3d
(33,

sing.

pres.

ind.

are

thus

formed

34):d-stems
t-stems
st-stems
fr-stems

bindan
feohtan
berstan

bintst, bint
fiehtst, fieht

bierst, bierst

nn-stems
Others are normal

weor^an winnan
singan

wier(ff)st, wierfr

winst,

winS

1

(35, &)

singst, singff

The stems
feolan

of feolan, reach, are
fealh

:

fulgon

fa-Ion

folen

VERBS.
Exceptional forms are
the

63

3d

sing.

pres.

ind.

of

bregdan and stregdan:
105.

britt, stret(t).

Strong verbs of the Fourth Ablaut Class.
Stein vowels

e
i

ae

a>

o

(u)

o

o

u

Typical verb Four stems

beran, bear
beran, baer, bieron, boren

Like beran are conjugated teran, tear; scieraii (18),
shear
;

cwelan, die

;

helan,

conceal ;

stelan,

steal ;

hwelan, roar; brecan, break. The two irregular verbs of
the

this

class
:

are

among
take,

most important in the language
Their stems are
nonion
:

niman,

and cunian, come.
niman

nom
c(w)om

numen
oiuneii

c(w)omon
of

(cymen)
in

Umlaut changes the u
and 3d
sing.
pres.

cuman

to

y

the

2d

ind.

:

qymst,

cymflF.

A

similar

change, though not due to precisely the same cause (17), is found in the presents in e, which is changed
to
i

or ie: bi(e)rst,

stile?.

106.

Strong verbs of the Fifth Ablaut Class.
e, ae, ae,
;

Stem vowels (normally)

e
;

Typical verbs sprecan, speak
request
;

cwefran, say
rejoice

giefan, give; biddan,

gef eon,

Four stems

sprecan cwefrau
giefan (18)

spraec cwae8F

spraecon

sprecen
(37)

cwaJdon
geafon

cweden
giefen

geaf

64
Four stems

INFLECTION.
biddan
gefeon (101)
baed

b&don
gefajgon

beden

gefeah

sprecan are conjugated etan, eat; tredan, tread; metan, measure; wrecan, pursue; and a few
others.

Like

Like cweflTan

is

conjugated no other verb.

Like giefan

is

conjugated gietan, get (18).

Like biddan are conjugated licgan, lie; sittan, sit. Like gefeon is conjugated seon, see, except that its pret. plur. is sawon, and past participle sewen, segen.

Umlaut, or a change analogous to it (17), converts the e of the present to i in the 2d and 3d sing. pres.
ind.: cwi2F; in contracts

we have

ie,

not

le,

since the

vowel of the present was originally short: sieh<T. The 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. are thus formed
(33,

34):d-stems
t-stems
i9f-stems

tredan
gietan

tritst, trit(t)

gietst, giet(t)

cweftan
licgan

cwist, cwiff
1

g-stems (28) Contracts (101)
Others are normal

ligst (list), ligS
siehst, siehS
1

(lift)

seon
sprecan

spriest, spricflf

The vowel
verbs in et:

of the pret. sing, is
set,

meet.

sometimes long in Imp. sing, bide (cf. 107).

107.

Strong verbs of the Sixth Ablaut Class.
a, o, o,

Stem vowels (normally)
raise

a

Typical verbs faran, go; slean, strike; standan, stand; he>ban,

VERBS.
Four stems
faran
slean (101)

65
faren
slaegen (slej*en)

for
slog

f oron

standan
hejbban (11)

stod

slogon (37) stodon

standen
haieii

hof

hofon

Like faran are conjugated sacan, dispute, wacan, wake, tosc(e)acan, depart, and one or two others. Like slean are conjugated lean, blame, fTwean, wash. Like standan is conjugated no other verb.
In the main like hejbban are conjugated the
fol-

lowing

:

hliehhan
scieppan

(36), laugh (18), create

hloh
scop (sceop)
stop

sta'ppan. step

hlogon (37) scopon (sceopon) stopon

sceapen
stapen

swejian, swear

swor

sworon

sworen

Umlaut changes the a
2d and 3d

of the present to $ (ae)>

and

the ea of the present (see 101) to ie (not le), in the
sing. pres. ind.: sing.

st^nt, fserst, sliehcT.
ind.

The 2d and 3d

pres.

are

thus

formed

(34):d-stems

standan

st^ntst, st^nt

b-stems
Contracts (101)

h^bban
slean

h^fst,

h^f 8

1

sliehst, sliehfr
faerst,

Others are normal

faran

The

verbs

like

hejbban

are

peculiar

in

having

umlaut in the present stem, which causes them, in so far, to resemble the Weak Verbs of the First
Class (111).

Like s^llan,

etc.,

they have the imp. sing.

in -e: h^fe, sw^re, etc. (cf. 117).
to the fact that the

The umlaut

is

due

stem of

this group, unlike that of

66

INFLECTION.
verbs,

most strong
the

was followed by a
the

j

(16).

Thus
it

inf. staeppaii

stands for original stapjau; were
-j-,

not for the

umlaut-causing

infinitive

would

have been stapan; and so in the other four verbs.
108.

Reduplicating verbs.

Stem vowels

various.

A

peculiarity of this class

shared, however,

by a
is

very few verbs of the Sixth Ablaut Class (107) that the vowels of the first and fourth stems
identical (with

are

two or three exceptions noted below), and that those of the second and third stems are
identical.
is

likewise
preterit
109.

The vowel (diphthong)
less frequently e.

of

the

sometimes eo,

Reduplicating

preterits

in

eo.

The

present

stem has ea (rarely a),
Typical verbs feallan, fall;

a, ea, 6, or e.

barman, summon; cnawan, know;

heawan, hew ; flowan, flow ; wepan, weep
Four stems
feallan

VERBS.
Like

67
in

cnawan

are conjugated verbs

aw, besides

blawaii, blow ; sawan, sow, etc. swapan, sweep : Like heawaii are conjugated verbs in ea beatan,
:

beat; hleapan, leap.

Like flowaii are conjugated verbs in o blowan, bloom (not to be confounded with blawan, bloiv)
:

;

growan, grow; spowan,
Like
in

thrive;

rowan, row.

wepan is conjugated no other common verb; wepan the stem vowel of the present is derived
6,

by umlaut from
participle.

the latter reappearing in the past
as in 94.

Umlaut

110.

Reduplicating preterits in
se,

e.

- - The present stem

has a,

or 6.

Umlaut
let ;

as in 94.
call

Typical verbs Itetan, laitan Four stems

hatan,
let

;

fon, seize leton

laeten

hatan fon (101)

het

heton

naten
fangen

feng

fengon

Like Isetan are conjugated drsedan, dread; rsedan, consult, read (usually weak); slaepan, sleep. Like
hataii
is

conjugated lacan,

jump; scadan,
sing. feh<y,

sceadan (18), separate. Like fon is conjugated hon, hang (3d
hehcT).

111.

Weak

verbs of the First Class.

The stem vowel

of the present

times persists,

always has umlaut (except that eo someThe infinitive i.e., does not become le).

ends in -an or -ian, the latter being infrequent.

68
112.

INFLECTION.

Weak

infinitives in -an.

-

-

These take the

pret-

erit either (113, 114) in -de (-te) or (115) in -ede, the

past participle in -ed or in -d (-t).

113.

Weak

preterits in -de (-te),

with retention of the

Here belong verbs whose stem vowel is long by nature (4), and a number in which the stem
stem vowel.

by position as a result of gemination The past participle is formed in -ed, contraction (36). taking place in t- and d- stems. The infinitive always
syllable is long

ends in -an.
Three stems

Simplified gemination by 35.
hieran, hear
fyllan,
fill

hlerde
fylde (35)
cyste (33, 35)
s^tte (33)

(ge)hiered

(ge)fyUed
(ge)cyssed
(ge)se.tt

cyssan, kiss
s^ttan, set
sejidan, send
la'daii, lead

s^nde
laedde
iecte (33)
elite

(ge)s^nd(ed)
(ge)laed(ed)

lecan, increase

(ge)ieced

ehtan, persecute

(ge)eht

me tan, find
gierwan, prepare

inette

(ge)met(t)

gierede

(ge)gier(w)ed

Like hieran are conjugated
to

all

verbs not belonging

any of the following

divisions.

Like fyllan are conjugated stems ending in a double
consonant, excepting those like cyssan and se.ttan, and

under 114 and

115.
ff,

Like cyssan are conjugated stems ending in

pp,

and

ss.

Like settan are conjugated stems ending in tt (imp.
sing. se.te).

VERBS.

69

Like se.ndan are conjugated stems ending in a consonant

+

d.

Like

laedan
4- d.

are

conjugated

stems

ending

in

a

vowel

Like lecan are conjugated stems ending in

c,

p,

and

x.

Like ehtan are conjugated stems ending in a consonant
-f t.

Like

metan

are

conjugated

stems

ending

in

a

vowel

+

t.

Like gierwan are conjugated stems ending in rw The forms of the present sometimes retain and Iw.
the w, sometimes not.

114.

Irregular preterits and past participles.
like

Certain

verbs, in other respects

those of the last para11,

graph, and whose stems end in

cc, c

(nc, re), or
participles
11-,

g

(eg, ng),

form

their preterits

and past

from a stem without umlaut.
cc-,

In the case of the

and simple c-verbs, to determine, from the present stem, what form the past stem will Assume,
find the original

vowel corresponding to the umlaut

vowel of the present, and consider what changes, if The 1-verbs any, will be caused by breaking (21).
take -de and
c-

-d,

the

c-

and g-verbs

-te

and
the

-t.

The

and g-verbs often

insert -e-

before

infinitive

A

,

+/ ending (18). Stems ending in c and g change these consonants to h before the t of the ending.

70

INFLECTION.

The
ll-verbs

list is as

follows
kill

:

cw^llan,

cwealde

(ge)cweald

dwe^llan, deceive
scjlau, give

st^llan, place

t^llan, count

cc-verbs

cw$cc(e)an, shake
dr^cc(e)an, vex

cweahte

(ge)cTveaht

lcc(e)an, moisten

rcc(e)an, expound
str^cc(e)an, stretch
9'^cc(e)an, cover w(r)$cc(e)an, ivake laecc(e)an, seize
c-verbs

laehte

(ge)laeht

raec(e)an, reach taec(e)an, teach

raehte
tsehte

(ge)rseht
(ge)tseht

rec(e)an, recc(e)an, reck sec (e) an, seek
nc- verbs
9"^nc(e)an, think

rohte
sohte
ffohte

(ge)roht
(ge)soht
(ge)l9foht

9"ync(e)an, seem
re-verb
eg- verb

ffuhte

wyrc(e)an, work
bycg(e)an, buy
bringan, bring preterit

\vOrhte

(ge)nht (ge) worht
(ge)boht
(ge)broht

bohte
brohte
participle

ng-verb

The

and past

of rsec(e)an

and

This tsec(e)an should properly have a: rahte, etc. does, indeed, sometimes occur, but is much less com-

mon

than the

se.

115.

Infinitives in -an,

with preterit in -ede.

Here

belong two groups of verbs whose infinitives end in -an (exceptionally -ian).
(a)

The

first

group comprises the following verbs
consonant
(cf.

with stems ending in a double

11)

;

VERBS.

71

fr^mman, perform ;
hlynnan,
resound;
strong)

gr^mman, provoke ;
cnyssan,
;

tryminan,

confirm; <T$nnan, extend; w^niian, accustom; clynnan,

beat;

sc$(3F(Tan,

injure

(sometimes

sw^bban,

quiet ;

w$cg(e)an,

(sometimes strong). Occasionally these verbs take an infinitive in -ian (116). (li) The second group comprises stems ending in
agitate; 9"icg(e)an, receive

a consonant

+

either

1,

n, or r.

This group

is

somelike

what

irregular,

occasionally
of

having

preterits

liyngerde,

instead

the

more

regular

hyiigrede,

nmde

for

n^mn(e)de, named, and

fnde for ^fnede,

performed.
Typical verbs
(a)
(&)

fr^mman, perform
hyiirau. hunger
lay,
fis

frejnede

(ge) framed

hyngrede

(ge)hyngred
and past
part.:

NOTE.
lejjjde

L$cg(e)an,

irregular in the preterit

(lede), (ge)l^gd (-led) ,\nstead of l^gede, (ge)l^ged.

116.

Infinitives in -ian

witk preterit in -ede. -

-

Here

belong a few weak verbs of the First Class. They have a short stem ending in r, OSL occasionally in 1, m, n, or one of the spirants. The vowel of the stem
is

usually

(ie) or y.
;

Examples
pertain
;

are

:

ii^riaii,

save

; ;

h^rian,

praise

byrian,

h^lian,

conceal

trymian, confirm (see
Three stems

115. a).
ne^rede

n^rian

(ge)n^red

117.

Paradigms
of

of the First

Class. - -

For the conjuClass

gation

weak

verbs

of

the

First

we may

72
choose:
bieran,
,

INFLECTION.
hear
(113);
s^llan, give
(114,

36);

perform (115); n$rian, save (116).
PRESENT.
INDICATIVE.

Sing.

1.

Mere
hierst (23)
hierff

fr^mme
s^l(e)st

n^rie

2.
3.

fr^mest

n^rest

Plur.

hieraiS

1

OPTATIVE.
Sing, Plur.

hiere

s^lle

n^rie

hieren

sullen

fr^mmen

n^rien

IMPERATIVE.
Sing, hier (23) Plur.
ne,re

hieraff
INFINITIVE.

Incran

sellan

fr^mman

nrrian

PARTICIPLE.

hierende

s^llende

fr^mmende

n^riende

PRETERIT.
INDICATIVE.

Sing.

1.

hierde
hierdest

sealde
sealdest

fr^mede
frejnedest

n^rede
n^redest
ii^rede

2. 3.

hierde

sealde

fr^mede

Plur.

hierdon

sealdon
OPTATIVE.

fr^medon

n^redon

Sing,

hierde

sealde

Plur.

hierden

sealden
t

fr^mede fr^meden

n^rede

n^reden

PARTICIPLE.
Sing, hiered

seald
sealde

Plur.

hier(e)de

framed fr^mede

n^red n^rede

VERBS.
118.

73
Class. -

Weak

verbs

of

the

Second

These

are

very numerous.
adjectives
-ian,
i

Many
90).

are

formed from nouns and
infinitive

(cf.
its

The

always

ends in
the

or

equivalent -ig(e)an (18).
it

Though

of an

ending usually causes umlaut,
its

does not in

these verbs, because of

the

older

termination

comparatively late origin, having been -ojon (that is,
of causing umlaut, since
is,

-o-yon),
it

which was incapable
rather than
-j-

was

-o-,

(that

-y-),

which imme-

diately followed the stem.

Hence

it is

easy to distinguish verbs of this Class
:

from verbs in -ian of the First Class (116) 1. Of those verbs there are but few; of these, many. 2. Of those the vowels are always umlauted (usually

and only when the verb was formed from a noun or adjective whose vowel was
$ or y)
;

of these, rarely,

already umlauted.
3.

Of those the stem usually ends

in r;

of these,

in

any consonant or consonant combination.
119.

Paradigm

of

the

Second Class.

As

a typical

verb

we may

select lufian, love.
PRESENT.

INDICATIVE.

OPTATIVE.

IMPERATIVE.
Sing,

Sing.

1. 2. 3.

lufie

%

lufa
lufiaff

lufast

I

lufie

Plur.

lufaff J
lufiaff

Plur.
Infin.

lufien
Part,

lufian

lufiende

74

INFLECTION.
PRETERIT.
INDICATIVE.

OPTATIVE.

Sing.

1.

lufode
lufodest

^
I

2. 3.

lufode

lufode

*

Plur.

lufedon, -odon

lufoden, -eden

Part,

(ge)lufod
is

In the endings, ig(e) or g
i

frequently found for

(18).

Sometimes,

instead

of

-ode,
is

the

ending

is

-ade,

-ude, or even -ede; but -ode

normal.

120.

Weak

verbs

of

the

Third Class. -

-

These com-

prise

say ;

habban, have; libban (lifian), live; scg(e)an, hycg(e)an, think. These are conjugated partly

according to the First Class (117), and partly according to the Second (119).

121.

Conjugation of habban, have.

Habban, have ;

nabban, have not (29).
INDICATIVE.

OPTATIVE.

Pres. Sing.

1.

haebbe
haefst (hafast)

2. 3.

haebbe haebbe haebbe

hsefQ (hafaff)

1

Plur.
Pret. Sing,

habbaff (haebbaff)
haefde, etc.

haebben
haefde

Plur.

haefdon

haefden
Infin.

Imper. Sing,
Plur.
Pres. Part,

hafa habbaff
haebben de

habban

Past Part, (ge)haefd

VERBS.
INDICATIVE.

75

Pres. Sing.

1.

naebbe
naefst (nafast)
nsefff (nafaff)

2.
3.

Plur.
Pret. Sing,

nabbaff
naefde,
etc.

Plur.

naefdon

Imper. Sing,
Plur.

nafa
Infin.

nab ban

nabbaft

Pres. Part,

naebbende

Past Part, (ge)naefd

122.

Conjugation of libban,
INDICATIVE.

live.

OPTATIVE.

Pres. Sing.

1.

libbe

libbe,
(20)

lifie, etc.

2. 3.

leofat
leofaff

Plur.
Pret. Sing,

libbaS

1

,

lifiaff

lifde, etc.

Plur.

lifdon
Infin.

Imper. Sing, leofa (20)
Plur.

libban, lifian

libbaff, lifiaff

Pres. Part,

libbende, lifiende

Past Part. (ge)Ufd

123.

Conjugation of s$cg(e)an, say.
INDICATIVE.

OPTATIVE.

Pres. Sing.

1.

s^cge
saegst,
saegff,
sejjjst,
sejjtfC,

s^cge,

etc.

2.
3.

sagast
sagaft

Plur.
Pret. Sing,

s$cg(e)aff
saegde, saede (28),
etc.

s^cgen
saegdo, saede

Plur.

saegdon, saedon
saga, s$ge
s^cg(e)aff

saegden,

saMen

Imper. Sing,
Plur.

*^

Infin.

s^cg(e)an
(ge)saegd, (ge)saJd

Pres. Part,

s^cgende

Pagt Part,

76
124.

INFLECTION.
Conjugation of hycg(e)an, think. INDICATIVE.

OPTATIVE.

Pres. Sing.

1.

hycge
hygst, hogast
hygff, hogaff

hycge,

etc.

2. 3.

Plur. Pret. Sing.
Plur.

hycg(e)a3'

hycgen
etc.

hog(o)de,

hog (o) don

hog(o)de hog (o) den
Innii.

Imper. Sing,
Plur.

hoga
hycg(e)aff

hycg(e)an
(ge)hog(o)d

Pres. Part,

hycgende

Past Part.

PRETERITIVE PRESENTS.
125.

Preteritive presents.

A

small group of verbs

have strong preterits with present meaning (the old presents being lost), and form new weak preterits

from

these.

They

are

:

witan, know ;

agan, own

;

dugan, avail; uimaii, grant; cunnan, know ; (Turfan,
need; durran(?), dare; sculan, shall; unman, intend;

mugan (?),
126.
1.
3.

can; nugan(?),

suffice;

motan(?), may.
Ind. pres. sing.
;

Conjugation of witan, know.

wat,
etc.

2.

wast

;

plur.

wi(e)ton
Infin.

pret.
;

wiste

(wisse),

Opt. pres. wi(e)te,

etc.

pret.

wiste
Pres.

(wisse), etc.
part,

Imper. wite.

wi(e)tan.

witende; past part, (ge)witen. For wi(e)tan, etc., is found wiotaii,

etc.
to
i

Like
nat, etc.

witan

conjugated nytan, not Wherever, in the forms of witan,
is

know

:

(ie, io)

occurs, y

is

here to be substituted.

VEKBS.
127.
1.
3.

77
Ind. pres. sing.

Conjugation of agan, possess.
2.

ah,

alist

:

plur.

agon;

pret. ahte, etc.
Infin.

Opt.

pres. age, etc.; pret. ahte.

Imper. age.
part, agen,

agan.

Pres. part,

agende; past

own

(adj.*).

So nagan, not
128.
1.
3.

to possess.

Conjugation of dugan, avail.

Ind. pres. sing.

deah

;

plur.

dugon
etc.

;

pret.

dohte,

etc.

Opt.
part.

pres.

dyge, duge,

Infin.

dugan.

Pres.

dugende.
129.
1. 3.

Conjugation of uniian, grant.

Ind. pres. sing.
uflFe.

an(ii);
etc.
;

plur.
pret.

imnoii

;

pret.

Opt. pres.
Infin.

mine.
uiiiiaii.

u<?e,

etc.

Imper. unne.

Pres. part,

unnende; past

part, (ge)uniien.

130.
1. 3.

Conjugation of cunnan, know.
plur.
;

Ind. pres. sing.
;

can(n), canst;
etc.

cunnon

pret.

cuflTe,

etc.

Opt. pres. cunne,

pret. cufre, cy<Te, etc.

Infin.

cunnan.
131.
1. 3.

Past part, (ge)cuniien, and cuff (adj.).
Ind. pres. sing.
;

Conjugation of frurfan, need.
ffearf,
2.

ffearft

;

plur.
flfurfe,

ff

urfon
;

pret.

fforfte,

etc.

Opt. pres. fryrfe,

etc.

pret. cforfte, etc.

Infin. SFurfan.

Pres. part. KTearfende.

132.
1.
3.

Conjugation of durran, dare.

Ind. pres. sing.
;

dearr,

2.

dears t

;

plur.

durrou
etc.

pret.

dorste,

etc.

Opt. pres. dyrre, durre,

78
133.
1. 3.

INFLECTION.
Conjugation of sculan, shall.
2.
-

Ind. pres. sing.
pret. sc(e)olde,

sceal,

scealt

;

plur. sculon
etc.

;

etc.

Opt. pres. scyle, scule,
Conjugation of

Infin. sculan.

134.
1.
3.

munan,
;

intend.

Ind. pres. sing.
;

man, 2. nianst plur. munoii (munaflT) munde. Opt. pres. myne, mime, etc. Imper. muii Infin. munan. Pres. plur. munaflF.
;

pret.

sing.
part.

munende
135.
1.
3.

;

past part,

(ge)munen.

Conjugation of

mugan,
;

can.

Ind. pres. sing.
;

mseg,

2.

meant

plur.

magon

pret.

meahte,

etc.

Opt. pres. msege, etc.
Conjugation of nugan,
;

136.
3.

suffice.

Ind. pres. sing.
etc.

neah

plur.

nugon

;

pret.

nohte,

Opt. pres.

nuge,
137.
1.

etc.

Conjugation of

motan, may.
plur.

Ind. pres. sing.
pret.

3.

mot,

2.

most

;

motoii

;

moste,

etc.

Opt. pres. mote,

etc.

ANOMALOUS VERBS.
138.

Conjugation of wesan, beon,
INDICATIVE.

be.

OPTATIVE.
sle; bjpo, etc.

Pres. Sing.

1.

com; beo
eart; bist
is; biff; neg. nis
;

2. 3.

Plur. sind, -t

sindon

;

beoff

sien

;

beon

VERBS.
INDICATIVE.

79
OPTATIVE.

Fret. Sing.

1.

waes; neg. naes waire neg. nsere
;

waes

;

neg. naes

wsere; neg. nsere wsere neg. naere wsere neg. nsere
;

;

wseron;
Imper. Sing,
Plur.

neg. nieron
Infin.

wairen;
;

neg. nieren

wes

;

beo
;

wesaff

beoff

Pres. Part,
X"

wesan beon wesende beonde
;

139.

Conjugation of willan,
INDICATIVE.

will.
OPTATIVE.
.,.,
(

Pres. Sing.

wiUe,

etc.

;

1.

neg. nelle,

wil(l)e; neg. ne(l)le, ny(l)le<
I

nylle, etc.

2. 3.

wilt; neg. nelt, nylt
wil(l)e; neg. nel(l)e, nyl(l)e
c

willen

Plur. willaff

;

;

neg. nellaV, nyllaff
etc.
;

<
(.

neg.

nellen,

nyllen

Pret. Sing,

wolde,

;

neg. nolde, etc.

Plur.

woldon

neg.

noldon
1

wolde wolden
;

neg.
;

nolde

neg.

nolden

Imper. Plur. neg. nellaff, nyllaS
Pres. Part,

Infin.

willan

willende

140.

Conjugation of don, do.
INDICATIVE.

OPTATIVE.

Pres. Sing.

1.

do
dest
deff

do,

etc.

2.
3.

Plur. doff
Pret. Sing, Plur.

don
dyde dyden
Infin.

dyde, dydest, dyde

dydon
do

Imper. Sing,

Plur. doff
Pres. Part,

don

donde

Past Part, (ge)don

INFLECTION.
141.

Conjugation of gan,
INDICATIVE.

g

,

OPTATIVE.

Pres. Sing.

1.

ga
gaest

g a,

etc

.

2.

Plur. gaff
Pret. Sing, code, etc.

ggn
code eoden
Infin
'

Plur.

eodon

Imper. Sing,

ga

Plur. gaff

Sn

Pres. Part,

gande

Past Part, (ge)gan

FOEMATION OF WOEDS.
142.
Prefixes.

Many Old
Others, with

English prefixes are
their

self-

explanatory.
follows
a:

meanings,

are

as

(1)

=

'up,' 'out'

(Ger. er-): afyllan,

fill

up, asceot-

an, shoot out.

(2) representing on (3)

:

aweg-

=
:

on weg, away.

=

4

'

any

:

ahwaer, anywhere.

(4) practically meaningless
aef-,

abidan, await.

see of-.

aigaet-

=

4

'

any,'

each
'

'
:

seghwa, any
:

one.

(1)

=

4

at,'

to

'

(Lat. ad-)

setwitan, twit, aetgsed-

ere, together.

(2)

=

'

from,'
is

4

'

away

:

setwindan, escape from.
;

and-, <?nd-

found as the prefix of a few nouns

for

its

meaning
:

see on-,

be- (Ger. be-) (1)

=

'

about

' :

besorgian, be anxious about.
:

(2) makes an intransitive verb transitive
think about, consider.

behycgan,

(3) privative: beiiiman, take from,
ian, behead.
81

82

FORMATION OF WORDS
(4) practically

meaningless
'

:

bebeodan,

com-

mand.
ed-

(1)

=

'

counter-,'

re-'

(Lat. re-)

:

edleaii, recom-

pense.

(2) occasionally for
for- (Ger. ver-,
fiir-,

set-

:

edwitan,
4

twit.

vor-)
'

:

(1)

=

4

4

away,'

up,'

utterly,'

very,'

denoting

destruction effected by the action of the

simple verb: fordon, destroy.
(2) negative
'
:

forbeodan, forbid.
' : '

(3) (4)

(5) (6)
fore-

= falsely forsw^rian, forswear. = down upon forseon, despise. = in behalf of forstandan, stand = fore-' forsceawian, foresee.
' : ' ' :

up for.

4

:

=

4

fore-' (Lat. prse-)
:

:

foreseen, foresee, provide.

ge- (Ger. ge-, Lat. con-)

(1)

(2)

= =

'

'

together
'

:

gef era, companion.
the action of the simple verb
fight,
:

attain

'

by

thus,

winnan,

but gewinnan, gain

by fighting, conquer.

(3) usual sign of past participle,
lacks any other prefix
:

when

the verb

gegan, gone.
gebed, prayer.

(4) practically meaningless

:

mis-

=

4

mis-'

:

misweiidan, pervert.
'

n- (for

ne-) =

not

'
:

na (= ne-f a,
'

not ever), not at all;

nis, is not.
of-

(1)

=

'

'

off,'

from

(Lat. de-, ab-, pro-, ex-)

:

of-

spring, offspring.

FORMATION OF WORDS.
(2)

83

=

4

'

upon

:

of sittan,

sit

upon, oppress.
:

(3) denoting offence, injury, death (Lat. ob-)
offryncan,
death.
displease,

ofstingan,

stab

to

(4)

=

'

attain

by the action

'

of the simple verb

:

offaran, catch up with, ofascian, learn by
asking.

(5) intensive
ofer-

:

ofhyngrocl, very hungry.
oferbrsedaii, overspread.

(1)

= = = =

'

over

' :

(2) negative

:

ofergietan, forget.
'
:

on-

'

'

(1)

on,'

of

ondrincan, drink

of.

(2)
(3)

'from,' 'out
'

of: onspringan,

burst forth.

un-'

:

onlucan, unlock.
:

(4) intensive
or-

onstyrian, agitate.

= =

4

without

' :

orsorg-, without anxiety,

orwene, with-

out hope, desperate.

59 to-

1

c

'

away
(1)

(Lat. ex-, ab-, de-)
'

:

oarfleon, flee

away.

(2)

= =

to

' :

tocyine, advent.
'

4

asunder

(Ger.

zer-,

Lat. dis-)
discern.

:

toteran,

tear apart,

tocnawan,

un-

(1)

=
= = =

4

un-'

:

uiiforht, fearless,

unrim (unnum-

ber), multitude.
c

(2)
wifrer- (1)

bad

' :

uiidsed,
' :

ill

deed.

i

again
'

wiffertrod, return.
' :

(2)

against
'

wifrersaca, adversary.

ymb-

=

4

around

(Lat.

circum-)

:

yinbg-ang,

circuit,

yiubsittan, besiege.

84
143.

FORMATION OF WORDS.
Suffixes of masculine nouns.

The more important
-scipe.

are -end, -ere, -ing, -ling, besides the originally inde-

pendent words -dom, -had, and
denote persons
;

The

first

four

the last three, qualities or abstractions.
is

Besides these, there
things.

a masculine suffix

-els,

denoting

-end (orig. -ende, forming present participles) = '-er,' -or': scieppend, creator. Contract nouns with
4

this

ending are feond, enemy, f reond, friend.
'

= '-er -ing (1) =
-ere

:

'

hearpere, harper, bocere, scribe. son of ^EflFelwulfing, son of Athelwulf,
'
:

Adaming,

son of
:

Adam.

(2) more generally

Canting, inhabitant of Kent,

cyiiing, king, pining, penny.

The

i

sometimes

causes umlaut, sometimes not.
-ling
:

geongling, youngling, hyrling, hireling.
'-dom,'
4

-dom (Ger. -thum)=
-had (Ger.
-heit,

'-ity,' '-ism,' '-ship,'

-acy':

Cristendom, Christianity, cynedom, kingship.
-keit)= '-hood,' '-head,'
4

-ity':

cild-

had, childhood, msegdenhad, virginity.
-scipe (Ger. -schaft)

=

'-ship,'

'-hood,'

'-ness,'

'-ity':

f reondscipe, friendship, f eoiidscipe, enmity.
-els
:

byrgels, tomb, rsedels, riddle.
Suffixes of feminine nouns.
(-2Fo),

144.

The

chief are -estre,
inde-

-nes,

-9", -(Tii

-ung

(-ing),

and the originally

pendent -raeden.
-estre

=

'

'

-tress

:

lajrestre, instructress,

FORMATION OF WORDS.
-nes (Ger. -nis)

85

=

4

4

-ness,'

-ity,'

forms abstracts from

the present and past participial stems of verbs,

but especially from adjectives

:

ehtnes, persecution,
holiness.

forseweimes, contempt, halignes,
-KT, -(Til,

-fro

=

4

-th

'

:

hselfr,

health, str^ngfru, strength.
-ifra,

This ending was originally caused umlaut.

the

-i

of

which

-ung (occasionally -ing) = '-ing,' '-ation,' forms nouns from the present stem of (usually weak) verbs
:

bletsung, blessing, costung, temptation.
-rseden

=

'

4

4

'

-red,'

-ship,'

-ity

:

hierdraeden, guardian-

ship,

guard.

145.

Suffixes of neuter nouns.

--The two

principal, -lac
:

and
-lac

-rice,

were originally independent words
-lock, -ledge)
:

(Mod. Eng.

brydlac, wedding.
' :

-rice

=

4

'

rule,'

realm,'

'

region

biscoprice, bishopric,

heof onrice, kingdom of heaven.
146.
-isc,

Adjective
-ol,

suffixes.

The

principal are -en,

-ig, -iht,

and

besides the originally independent -fosere,

-cund,

-faest, -feald, -full, -leas, -lie,

-mod, -sum, -weard,

-w^nde, -weor<T, -wierfre, and -wis.
times cause umlaut, sometimes not.
-en (Lat. -inus)=
-igT
4

The

first

four some-

-en': linen, linen, gylden, golden.
'

(Ger. -ig)= '-y

:

eadig
' :

1

,

blessed, grsedig, greedy.

-iht (Ger. -icht)
ibt, stony.

=

'-y

hreodiht, reedy, stseniht, stan-

86
-isc

FORMATION OF WOKDS.
(Ger. -isch)

forms adjectives from common, but especially from proper nouns hse<yenisc,
'

=

'

-ish

:

:

heathenish, Englisc, English.
-ol (Lat. -ulus)

=

'

disposed to

'
:

swicol, deceitful.

-bsere (Ger. -bar, Lat. -ferus,

-fer,

-ger)

:

cwealmbsere,

deadly, lustbsere, agreeable.

-cund
-fsest

=

'

'-ly

:

heofondcund, heavenly.

(Ger. -fest)

=' possessing,'

'firm in':

st^defaest,

possessing, or firm in, one's place, steadfast, arfsest,

merciful, pious.

-feald (Ger.

-falt)

=' -fold'
'

:

feowerf eald, fourfold.

-full (Ger. -voll)

=

-f ul

' :

geleaff ull, faithful, synf ull,

sinful.

-leas (Ger. -los)
-lie

(Ger.

= '-less arleas (Ger. ehrlos), infamous. = '-ly,' '-al': cynelic, royal, eorfrlic, ter-lich)
'

:

restrial.

-mod

(cf.

Ger. -muthig)= '-minded': aiimod (cf. Ger.

einmiithig), unanimous, ea^Tmod, humble.

-sum (Ger. -sam) =
able,

'-full,'

'-some,' '-able':

lufsum,

lov-

wynsum,

winsome.

-weard

(cf.

Ger. -warts)
'

=

'-ward':

hamweard, home/
venerable.
riyt-

ward, on the way home, aiidweard, present.

-w^nde

=

'

-ary

:

halwejide, salutary.
'

-weorOF, -wur2T= -worthy': arweorfr, arwurST,
-wier9*e, -wyrSfe
(cf.

Ger. -wiirdig)= '-worthy':

wierl^e, useful.

-wis

= '-wise':

gesceadwis,

intelligent, rihtwis, righteous.

FORMATION OF WORDS.
147.

87
in

Composition.

Compounds
it

are

numerous

Old

English.

In this respect

resembles

German and

Greek, while Modern English has allowed this power
of

forming compounds

to

fall

into

disuse,

largely

through the influence of Latin and French. For this reason it would often be easier to make an idiomatic
translation into

Latin

;

in its

Old English from Greek than from plastic and pictorial quality a page of

Old English poetry suggests Homer or Pindar rather than Virgil or Horace, and among Roman poets the
earlier,

such as Lucretius.
relation of the first element of

The

compounds
first limits

to

the second should always be noted.
defines the second,

The

or
;

and for

this reason takes the stress
is

but the precise relation of the two elements
one
sort,

now

of

now

of another.

Sometimes

it

may

be ex-

pressed by a preposition, sometimes by the sign of a
case,

sometimes by an adjective

:

gsers-hoppa, gaers;

stapa, grasshopper,

hopper in or through the grass

han-cred, cdctf s-crowing ; heah-^ngel, high-angel, archangel
;

gim-stan, gem-stone, jewel.

Although compounds should be studied with reference to the meaning and relation of their components,
they should frequently be translated by a simple Modern English word. Thus gsershoppa may sometimes be translated

by

locust;
;

gimstan should never be
heahfseder should always

translated gemstone

and

be rendered by patriarch or father.

SYNTAX.
148.

Object of this sketch. --The object of the present
is

sketch

not to present a complete view of Old English

syntax, even in outline, but rather to call attention to

such peculiarities as are most likely to cause

difficulty.

Many

constructions

common

to all the cultivated Euro-

pean languages, especially to the inflected ones, will either be passed over without notice or but briefly
touched upon.

Nouns.
149.
Subject.

The

subject of a finite verb
of

is

in the

nominative case.
150.

For that

an

infinitive, see 169.

Predicate

nominative.

- -

A

predicate

noun (or
as
its

adjective), denoting the
subject, agrees with
it

same person or thing
in case.

Examples

:

ic

eom

Apollonius;
151.

tfs&t ic

ge wurde

w se

cl 1

a.

Apposition.

A

noun annexed

to another noun,

and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with it in case. Examples and wende fleet heo Diana
:

wsere,

seo gyden; Arcestrates (gen .) dohtor

flses

cyninges.
Note hie sunie

=

some of them.
88

NOUNS.
152.

89

Vocative.

The

vocative,
is

which

is

identical in

form with the nominative,
It

used in direct address.

may

be

preceded by an interjection, the
;

second
pos-

personal pronoun, or a possessive pronoun
sessive pronoun,

this

when followed by an

adjective, usually

takes before the latter the demonstrative pronoun se.

Examples:
153.

9"u sae

Neptune;
-

mm se leofesta f seder.
The
genitive
is

Genitive with nouns.

distincis

tively

an adnominal case

;

that

is, its

principal function

to limit the

meaning

of a noun.

Its sign is of.

It denotes

various relations, not all of which can be strictly denned.

a) Relationship:
5)

ure ealra modor. Source: suiinan and inoiian leoman;
;

3gere

hearpan sweg
c) Subject.

fr^mdra

flFeoda ungeflTwaernes.

The noun

in the genitive stands for the

author of the action denoted by the noun upon which
the
genitive
is

dependent.
be

Example:

frinra hal-

gena earnungum.
d) Object.
of turning the

This

may

known by

the possibility

noun upon which it is dependent into a cognate verb, when the noun in the genitive will become the object of that verb; for example, in Freaii
^gesaii,

Frean

is

an

obj. gen., because, if

we

substi-

tute for the

noun

e.gesa, fear, the

verb fear, the noun

Lord becomes the object of the verb. Examples: flfaes dseges llehtinge lifes tilungum unsc^flFiflFigra beswicend laeswe sceapa and iieata; hylit hsele.
;
;

;

90
e)

SYNTAX.
Cause (denoted by for):
Characteristic

lean ffissa swses-

enda.

f)

:

meregreotaii

selces
setl

hiwes;
maegr-

treowuin missenlicra

cynna;

his

encyrymnesse. Here, perhaps, belongs: werhades and wif hades he gesceop hie.
<;)

Specification of time:

anes monies

fierst.

Ti)

Specification of place:

garsecges Inland (Latin

influence).
i)
STset

Unclassified:

flFsere

iieowolnesse bradnes

;

nigegen lufe; arsere sprsece ^nde.
Partitive genitive. -

154.

The

genitive

denotes

the

whole, with words denoting a part.

With nouns: unrim ceastra; fela gear a; lythwon cwicera cynna. 5) With pronouns: manna senig-ne; hi era nan;
a)

eower; gumena gehwseiie Note the swilces; se manna.
hwilc
gehwilc, each one.
c)
:

;

hwaethwugu

peculiar

anra

f eower hund eahta f o t a With numerals wintra. Simid) With superlatives: beacna heorhtost.
;

larly,

with

a

cognate

noun,

to

denote

eminence

:

dryhtna Dryhten.
155.

Genitive with adjectives.

The

genitive

is

used

to

an adjective with respect to the part or Such relation in which the quality is conceived.
define

NOUNS.
adjectives
are

91
to

frequently akin

verbs

which take

the genitive (156), and sometimes correspond to Latin
adjectives of inclination in -ax.
classified as follows
:

They may be roughly

a)

Want:

dselleas

mines renes;

idel

and

in

my

t

goda

(154. b)

gehwilces.
berende (Lat. ferax) missenlicra

b) Fulness:
f ugla.
<?)

Desire: setes georn.
:

d) Retentiveness

fsesthafol

(Lat.

tenax)

miiira

goda.
e)

Knowledge:

wordes

wis.

156.

Genitive with verbs.

--The

genitive

is

used with

many
also
others.
tive

verbs, mostly such as denote

mental action, but

with those of cessation and refusal, and some

Frequently the underlying notion is a partione that is, the object is conceived as affected
;

in part.

a) Desire: fri
5) Request:
c)
c?)

fifes

wiliiedon.

biddende miiira goda. Rejoicing: J>ses se hlanca gefeah.
Experiment: wee da cuiinedan. Use: eardes brucafr.
flTses

e)

/) Care: giemden

daeges.

#) Supposition or belief: 3aes geliefan.

nohtes $lles wendon;

92

SYNTAX.
h) Fear: ne ondrtJed 9"u
i)
<Te

seuiges tinges.

Granting: ara unnaii. /) Refusal 1 1 e f orwierndest.
:

<3F

&) Cessation
I)

:

geswac his weorces.
ftses
:

Awaiting:

wordes

bad.

m) Approacliing ceoles neosan. ri) Producing: gasta streonan.
157.

Adverbial genitive.

Certain adverbial relations
(cf. 71).

may
1.

be expressed by the genitive
arses

Example

:

hine gew^nde

weges.
fleet is

The demonstrative

frequently used in the

genitive in various adverbial senses.
frees

Thus

of

time,

(fre)

of

manner,
;

= =

from
as

the

time

that,

after,

afterwards;

far

as,

as;

of

cause,

=

for

this,

because

etc.

158.

Genitive with prepositions.

The

genitive

is

occa-

sionally used with certain prepositions, such as

wi<3F, to,

and wana.
toftaes;
159.

Examples: wi<T

3"ses

f sestengeates;

anes wana

siextig (78. 5).

Genitive with other cases.

Verbs which take a
also take a dative or

genitive denoting the thing,

may

accusative of the person.

a)
(164.

With
a)

dative
u<Te

(including
(156.
i)

reflexives,

184)

:

him
ge

ne

God l^ngraii
tidlan
(156.
j*)

lifes;
i)
;

nolde

ge

me

(dat.)

w se d a

(156.
;

me

(dat.) aetes

forwierndon

Apollonius

NOUNS.
hiere (164. c)
fru
flFe

93

flFses

francode;

ne ondrsed

(156.

Ji)

(161. 1)

seniges fringes.
(including
impersonals,
190):
;

5)
fre
<Te

With

accusative

(ace.)

ohtes axian; hine fultumes bsedon

in

i

I

tweonie SFgere sprsece; m^relicTenduin (161) t s a biddan wuldres Aldor (ace.) fregnas
;

Dearie gelyste (190)

gargewinnes.
The
dative
to

160.

Dative

in

general.

denotes the

indirect object, usually the person
reference
to

or for or with

whom

something

is

done.

When

used

with verbs (164), the general notion of the verb
often be regarded as implying
its

may

some

sort of giving (or
its

opposite),

if

this

term be employed in

widest

sense.
1.

The

dative

is

sometimes

used for the

instru-

mental (174): cleopode

mieelre stefne.
The
sign of this
ic

161.

Dative of benefit or interest.
is

dative

wyrce.
1.

Examples: scipu eow eallum Perhaps also: 9"inre eorflTan ne rm<y.
for.

Akin

to this

is

the reflexive

dative (184)

:

flFset

hie
2.

him

(/or themselves) wsepiiu worhten.
the
dative

Similar, too, is

of possession, which,

without

much change

in the sense,

might be replaced

by the genitive: him feollon tearas of ffsem eagum (so Ger. ihm fielen Thrdnen von den Augeri)\ him

mem

feaht on last;

wulfum

to willan.

94
162.

SYNTAX.
Dative of deprivation.

Some
of

verbs of depriva-

tion (cf. 177) take the dative of the object removed,

sometimes

whom.

person from Examples: he hiiie unscrydde <ygem healf2F i 11

with an

accusative

the

a ii sciccelse;
odode.
163.

gu

m

ongierede and genac-

Dative

of

resemblance

or

approach.

This

is

self-explanatory.

a)

With With

verbs:

geflit

cymSF

(Tiem

belie aid-

endum.
6)

adjectives (cf. 165):

fugole
-

gelicost.

164.

Dative

with

various

verbs. -

Such

are

verbs

of

(160)a) Giving or imparting:
5) Speaking:
c)
cT)

(Tearfum

dgelaii.

hiere areahte; him

gecyfran.

Thanking:

Gode

SFanciende.

Promising: behet iiiinum lareowe.

e) Serving
f resume
f ultum
;

and

benefiting

:

he

him
f eng

STenode

;

gehwilc
11 i

oSTrum;

him

God on

m a gum

genyhtsumian.

/) Obeying and following: gehiersumian willan; STe hiere folgode.
g) Pitying
li)
:

minum

gemiltsa

m e. m

i)

Requiting: forgieldan segh \vilcuin. racian. 3* e o d u Similarly, y 9" u Ruling
:

m

stilde.

j) Receiving: onfeng frsere

wununge.

NOUNS.
&) Pleasing and suiting
1

95
licode; o"e

:

him ealluni

gedafenaft
I)

.

Seeming:

me

1

fryncS

.

m) Opposing: worulde
ri)

wifrsacan.
are.

Betraying or deserting: swicao"

0)
165.

Using (rare): notao" crsefte
Dative with adjectives. -

ml num.
dative
dear,
is

The

chiefly

employed with adjectives
useful,

signifying

generous,
:

obedient,

etc.,

and the opposite.

Examples

lidwerigum
father
f

este;

Gode

o"one leofan feeder (the
ic

dear

to

God)',

belief e

com

cyniiig-e;

oleum
1.

fracoo".

The

dative
:

of

want

or deprivation (cf.

162)

is

also

found here
Dative

Gode

orf eorme.

166.

with

prepositions.

The

dative

is

by

far the

commonest

case with prepositions.

Examples

would be superfluous.
After the preposition on (in), certain adjectives, like mid and ufanweard, agree with the following
1.

noun, instead of being treated like nouns governing
it

in the genitive, as are their counterparts in

Mod.

Eng. Examples: on midre flTsere sse (so Lat. in medio mari, but Mod. Eng. in the midst of the
sea);
167.

on afsem faestene
Dative absolute.

ufanweardum.
noun and a
of
participle, not

A

involved in the main

construction

the

sentence,

96

SYNTAX*
stand by themselves in the dative, and consti-

may
tute

an adverbial clause, most frequently of time. This construction is imitated from the Latin ablative

absolute.
is
ii

Examples: onfangeiire his bletsunge;
call
ii

in

m

Oils

gedonum.
verbs.

168.

Accusative *after transitive
is

The

direct

object of a transitive verb

put in the accusative.

Examples: he swang (Tone top; ealne norfrdsel

genomon.
1.

A

special case of the

foregoing
is

is

the cognate

accusative, in

which the object

etymologically akin

to the verb: libbaflF hiera lif.

169.

Subject accusative.

The

subject of an infini:

tive

is

put in the accusative.

sumne

fiscere gan

;

Examples geseah he he gehierde (Tone blisse-

saiig upastigan.
170.

Accusative of extent. -

-

The

accusative
:

may

de-

note extent of

time

or space.
swiflFe

storm ealiie (Tone dseg
171.

waes se Example micel and strang.

Accusative after impersonals.
or

Impersonals (190)
of

of

appetite

passion govern an accusative

the

person suffering.
172.

Example
after

:

me

hyngrede.
- -

Accusative

prepositions.

Some

preposi-

tions

always govern the accusative, others only under

NOUNS.
certain are

97
of

circumstances.
1

Those

the
;

former

class

geond, 63
large

,

cTurh,

a

number

of the latter, and ymb(e) that more frequently take the

dative (166).
1.

Of

the second class,

on (in)

is

perhaps the com-

monest representative, taking the dative when denoting
rest in, the accusative

when denoting
is

motion towards;

this

distinction,

however,

Examples
frset

of accusative:

not invariably observed. ineode on fraet bseflT; in

my lister

code.
ft

Exceptions to the rule are: on

one seofofran

daeg; mid 3"one bisceop.
173.

Two
to

accusatives. -

-

Verbs signifying
like,

to

make,

to

name,

regard,

and the

may

take a predicate

accusative besides the object accusative.

Examples

:

God hine

(obj. ace.)

geworhte
fra

wundorlicne and
(obj. ace.)

fsegerne; God geciegde

drygnesse

eorfran; hwonne gesawon we grigiie?
174.

9"e (obj. ace.)

liun-

Instrumental
in

in

general.

The

instrumental,

sometimes (especially in the plural) indistinguishable from the dative (see 160. 1), denotes

which

form

is

manner, means, instrument, or material.
or with.

Its sign is

by

Examples: geseah blicTiini aiidwlitan; i h t u m gefsestiiade gestaflFolade s t r a n g u in

m

;

fo

1

in
1

u in

;

gef raetwade

f oldan

sceatas

1

eo

mum

and

e a f u in.

98

SYNTAX.
This
case
is

more
place

common
is

in

poetry

than

in

prose,

where
;

its

often

taken

by mid with

even in poetry, the simple instrumental sometimes alternates with the dative accompanied by
the dative

mid,

e.g.

(Andreas, 320) sarewide occurs in the same

construction as

mid oferhygdum.
employed
where

Occasionally the

instrumental

is

Modern

English

would use an accusative:
waved (with)
their hands.

mundum
of

brugdon, they

The instrumental being one
cases to master, a few of
its

the

more

difficult

regular combinations are

separately appended

:

-

a)
its

With

verbs of journeying and transporting, where

sign
<3f

may

f se

mum
With

almost be regarded as in: ceolum liffan f rian s 1 9" e gesohte. So with libban
;

;

:

dream urn
b)

lifdon.

verbs of speaking, to indicate voice or lanalso 160. 1):

guage (see

wordum

cwseflf;

ondsweor-

odon
c)

gencwidum.
With
past
participles,

generally preceding

the

latter

(common

in poetry):

sweordum

geheawen;

hilde gesseged; dome gedyrsod. d) With adjectives (generally in
in

poetry), to denote

what

respect, or
;

sometimes instrumentality: feKTer;

hremig ^cgum gecoste mundum synnum wunde. These last two afford
rical

um

f reorig

;

the

metthe

combinations exhibited
in

in

217.

1

among

commonest

Old English.

ADJECTIVES.
175.

99

Instrumental with prepositions.
is

Mid, which

fre-

quently takes the dative,
instrumental,
especially

sometimes found with the
the Anglian
dialect
;

in

so

occasionally for.

Examples: mid ealle; mid micle

sige; mid fry
176.

readestan godw^bbe;
-

for

hwy.

Adverbial instrumental. -

denote adverbial relations,
ples
:

The instrumental may Examespecially time when. seofofran daege; aelce
:

sume
It

daege;
also

fry

geare; word stunde ahof.
1.

may

denote the number of times

siex-

tiene sifrum.

The instrumental may denote wege.
2.

the

way:

fry

ilcan

177.

Instrumental

of

deprivation.

- -

Some
which

verbs
in

of

deprivation

may
(cf.

take
162).

an

object

of

the
be-

instrumental
dseled
178.
;

aehtum

Examples: benaemde.

mafrmum

Instrumental of difference.

The instrumental
Examples: micle
;

denotes the measure of difference.
fr y bealdran l^ngran J? o n c au 111 frsem sergedonum.
; ;

cymlicor

str^iigre

1

1

Adjectives.

Agreement of adjectives. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. This applies
179.

also

to

demonstrative, possessive, and indefinite pro-

100

SYNTAX.

nouns, and to participles,

when used

as

adjectives.

When

used predicatively, however,

participles

may

be uninflected.
180.

Strong and

weak

adjectives.

-- For the

distinc-

tion in the use of strong
181.

and weak

adjectives, see 55.

Adjectives as nouns.

An

adjective

as a

noun
giefflT

(see 55).

hwa

Examples: <Ta HTsem uncuflFan lifes fultum.

may be used ynibsittendan;

Adverbs.
182.
tives,

Use of adverbs.

Adverbs qualify

verbs, adjec-

and other adverbs.

183.

Two

negatives.

Two

or

more

negatives

strengthen the negation, instead of making an affirmative. Example: (Tin nis nan wiht.

Pronouns.
184.

Reflexive

pronouns.
(161.

-

The
;

reflexive

pronoun
in

(82), in
is

the

dative

1

cf.

159) or accusative,
counterparts

used

with

certain

verbs

whose

Mod. Eng. would not necessarily require it. worhton him liocas bser him eaxe a) Dative
:

;

on handa;
cierde

him
us.

land curon; gewat

him;

far

we

VERBS.
b) Accusative
:

101

brset

bit;
fysan.

bine; STaet treow bew^nde bine; bine gem^ngde
he
ger^ste
;

eow
185.

Relative pronouns.

For these see

87.

Verbs.
186.

Forms

of

the

either
voices,

transitive

Old English verbs are or intransitive. They have two
;

verb. - -

active

tive, optative,

and passive and imperative
;

three

moods,

indica-

gerund, and participles
preterit,

besides the infinitive, and five tenses, - - present,

perfect,

pluperfect,

and

future.
to

The uses
those
of

of

these

forms

correspond, in

general,

the same forms in other languages.
187.

Voices.

The forms
those
of

of

the

active

voice

are

given

in

95

;

the

passive

are

formed by

adding the past participle to the appropriate tense of

wesan (been),
188.

be,

or weorflTan, become.

Tenses.

Only two independent

tenses are dis-

tinguished by their stems,
erit.

the present and the pret-

The present may

also be used for the

future

;

the preterit, for any of the three past tenses.

Other-

wise the distinctions of tense are indicated, by means
of auxiliaries, as in

Modern English

:

the future being

formed by the

infinitive

with sculaii, shall (133), and

102
willan, will (139)

SYNTAX.
;

the perfect and pluperfect, by the
the

past participles with

appropriate

tenses

of

hab-

ban, have (121), in the case of transitive verbs, and
of

wesan,
189.

be (138), in the case of intransitives.

Agreement.

A

finite

verb agrees with
:

its

sub-

ject in

Exceptions are 1. When the subject consists of two nouns denoting essentially the same thing, united by a conjunction,

number and

person.

the verb in agreement

may

be in the singular:

sie

and gefrwsernes between us. 2. A collective noun may take a verb seo cneoris wagon and Iseddon.
sibb
3.

in the plural

:

A

plural

verb, with

a

predicate

in
3"

the
set

plural,

may

be introduced by a neuter singular:

wseron

a gastas
NOTE.
ffaet

;

hit fronne wseron mine wseteru.
is

The subject

sometimes to be supplied

(cf.

190):

het

leoht Daeg.

190.

Impersonate.
is

Impersonal verbs are those whose

subject
tive,

an implied hit, it. They are often transitaking an object in the dative or accusative (164.

&, 1; 171).

Examples:
111
;

me

<yync!0F;
set

me hyngrede;
J?egnas

swa gesselde

hu hyre
5).

beaduwe gespeow.
:

Sometimes they take two cases
gargewiiines (159.
191.

ge1yste

Indicative. -

-

The

indicative

has the functions

common

to it in

most languages.

VERBS.
192.

103
optative, sometimes

Optative in general.
is

-

The

called the subjunctive,

or state

simply as

used to express an action conceived by the mind. It is
or in subthese subordinate clauses

employed either
ordinate clauses.
are

in independent sentences

Of

there

two principal kinds,
clauses.

substantive or

noun
noun

clauses,

and adverbial

Of
STaet,

these, the

clauses,

generally introduced by

are the

more important.

Whenever

the conjunction
it

frset

can be translated in
;

order that or so that,
otherwise, a

introduces an adverbial clause

noun

clause.

Other adverbial clauses are
Less frequent are
relative

those of place, time, and manner.
adjective clauses, introduced

by or implying a

pronoun.
193.

Optative
falls

in

independent

clauses. -

-

Under

this

head

the use of the

optative
;

(a) to express a

command

or an emphatic wish

(6) in doubtful ques-

tions implying a negative
thetical sentences.

answer; and (c) in hypoadl

a)

Command: beo
secean.

iiu leoht;

fre

fornime;
gedeorf

gan we

5) Question:

hwset (Tonne

me framed e
sie.

mm?
c)

Hypothesis: sie
Optative
in

cTaet fru

194.

noun

clauses. -

-

The noun

clause

takes

the place

either

of

the

subject
of

(or predicate
clause.

nominative) or of the

object

a

principal

104

SYNTAX.
object clause
is

The

commonest

after verbs of knowldesire,

edge, affirmation,

command, and
licaft
is
flteet

such as know,

say, order, wish, etc.

1 1

a) Subject clause oo nan fare; wen
b) Object clause
:

:

fre

ffaet

Apollonius frus
sumiie.

Su gemete

s I

e

;

ne
;

ineahte
ic
2F

gewite hwset se geonga maun fiiidau hwilc hiera forliden
STset
flFset

wsere

<Te

bebeode
ic

3u
ic

KTset

nixmigum

m^nn
NOTE.
fraet
i5fi

cy

e

;

wysce

$ft

forlidennesse

gef are.
Certainty
is

rendered by the indicative

:

ic

oricnawe

eart

\vel gelsered.

195.

Optative by attraction.

-- This

is

a

name given
seo
eorSTe
is (Taet

to

the

optative

found in clauses following another
:

optative.

Examples
sged s I e
(194.

sprytte

(193.
self

a)
;

treow,
<5u

frees

on him
sunine
forwite

um

wen

gemete
ffu

a)

STset

9"e

gemiltsie;
hwseni
ftu

o^ses-Sre

geare
;

(196.

/)
ic

gemiltsie
(196.

STget

sum

gestreon

me

begiete

/), Sfanan

ic

me

af ede.

196.

Optative in adverbial clauses.

These are clauses

of place (where), of time (before, until, when, while*), of

manner

(as

if),

conditional

(if),

concessive
(so

(though), final
that).

(in

order that),

and consecutive

Hypothetical or indefinite character in some

measure attaches to the optative in each.

VERBS.
a) Place
:

105

ftaet

oTi

wer

geceose

SFser

ftu

self

wille.
i)
0)
6?)

Time:

ser se daeg

Manner: swilce
Conditional:

cume; he cuma
fru
;

bid

oSF-SFset

he cume.

TV sere.

gif

(Tonne

hider ougean

ne finde ngenne, wnd swa hit STe ne mis lie ie.
gif <Tu

But sometimes
Final

indicative:

me

geliefst.

e) Concessive:

9"eah

<5Fu

stille sie.

/)
9"8et

and ges^tte hie on SFsere heofonan, So with o^ses-Sfe hie s c i n e n of er eorfran.
:
:

arses-are

<Tu

geare

for

w

i t e.

Negative

:

(Ty-laes-fre 9"e

tweonie.
#) Consecutive
:

adl

3"e

fornime,

STaet

3"u

ne

beo

hal.
clauses. -

19V.

Optative

in

adjective

-

Whenever
the

a

sentence introduced by an

actual
it

or virtual

relative

implies an element of doubt,
tive.

may
;

take

opta-

Examples: geceose senne, hwilcne oTi wille swa-hwaet-swa oTi (hwilcne is a virtual relative)

wille.
198.

Imperative.

-

-

The imperative

is

used in com-

mands, sometimes with the second personal pronoun, sometimes without. Examples: beo bli<?e mid us;

wite
199.

STu

;

ge ^fthw^rfaSF to ciricean.
-

Infinitive. -

The

infinitive

is

construed
finite

as a

neuter noun, the subject or object of a

verb.

106

SYNTAX.
the object,
it

When

may

itself

have a subject noun

or pronoun in the accusative (169).

a) Subject (or pred. nom., 150): micel hieno"

and

sceamu
>)

hit is
:

n ell an.
nellan

Object

wesan
is

;

het

hyre

(Tinenne

lieafod
1.

onwrifran.
object infinitive
specification.

An
of

poses

sometimes used for purWith verbs of motion this

may
to).

often

be

translated

by the

present

participle,

occasionally by the infinitive of purpose

(=

in order

Examples: comon liffan; gewat him gangan;

feran gasta
200.

streonan
-

(purpose).

The gerund may usually be translated by the Mod. Eng. infinitive, in a variety of senses. Examples: comon mmre dohtor to bidGerund.

da n n e land swIflFe feorr to geseceanne; fra estas him beforan l^gde 9"e he him to beodanne
;

hsefde.

Prepositions.
201.

Cases

governed.

For the cases governed by
its

prepositions, see 158, 166, 172, 175.
1.

The

preposition sometimes follows

object, or

immediately precedes the verb, and at times is difficult to distinguish from an adverb, or a prefix of the
verb.

Examples: are (87. swa wel wi<T gedest.

c) <fu

aefter axodest;

are

CONJUNCTIONS.

107

Conjunctions.
202.
Correlatives.

Some
:

of the

more common

cor-

relatives are the following

a)
5)
<?)

ge
fte

ge,
fre,

both

and.
. . .

whether
neither.
1

or.

iie

ne,
ffa

.

.

.

nor.

fi0ra-3a

d)

9"a
-j

9"a

L when
j

*

(then).

L

SToiine
STeali

....
.
.

(Tonne
2Feah,

e)

though
so
t he

....

(yet).
as.

f)
g)

swa-swa

.

swa,
swa,

swa

the.

PROSODY.
203.

Old English verse

stichic,

Old English verse
lines,

is

rarely strophic, but almost without exception stichic;

that

is,

consists

of

ungrouped

following each

other as in

Modern English blank
line

verse.

204.

The

and the hemistich.

The

line of poetry

consists of

two hemistichs, separated by the
bord and brad swyrd,
brane helmas.

caesura.

Example

:

The hemistich may be

either normal or expanded.
feet.

A

normal hemistich contains two metrical
:

Ex-

ample

-

cene under cumblum.

An

expanded hemistich contains three metrical
:

feet.

Example

swlfrmod sinces ante.

205.

The

foot.

--A

metrical foot
stress.

is

a portion of a

line containing

one primary

The

syllable re-

ceiving the primary stress

may

or

may

not be

fol-

lowed or preceded by one or more lighter or slurred
syllables.
108

PROSODY.

109
*

Of the

lighter syllables following or preceding a pri-

mary

stress,

one may, under certain circumstances,

re-

ceive a secondary stress (23).

A

syllable
is

which receives

neither primary nor secondary stress

called unstressed.

206.

Stressed and unstressed syllables. -

-

The primary
;

stress nearly

always

falls

upon a long

syllable

this

long syllable may, however, be represented by two syllables, of which the first is short, and the second so
light as to admit of syncopation.

The

substitution of
is

two such short
resolution.

syllables for a single long one

called

one which contains a long vowel or diphthong, or a short vowel followed by two consoA short syllable is one which contains a short nants.
long syllable
is

A

vowel followed by a single consonant (4).
short syllables,
cal

Long and

when

stressed, are represented in metri,

schemes by the macron,

and the breve, ^, respecprimary or

tively.

Stressed syllables are indicated by the acute
is

or grave accent, according as the stress

secondary.

Unstressed syllables, whether short or long, are represented by the oblique cross, x
.

The

syllable

which receives the primary

stress

is

usually the root syllable of a word, while the lighter
or slurred syllables comprise the terminations, enclitics,

and

proclitics

;

occasionally, however, the second eleis

ment

of a

compound word
it

reckoned as a slurred

syllable,

though usually

takes a secondary stress.

110
207.
etc.,

PROSODY.
Classification of feet.

- - The terms iambic,

trochaic,

are used analogically, with reference to stress,

and

not, as in

ence to

Greek and Latin prosody, with primary referThis being understood, Old English quantity.

metrical feet
1.

may

be classified as follows :
:

Monosyllabic

The monosyllabic

foot

regularly
stress,
..

consists of a long syllable

under the primary

never found except in conjunction with one of the dactylic type having a secondary stress (1. h to
This foot
is

1. k,
2.

216).

Disyllabic
_/.

:

The

disyllabic foot

may

be either tro-

chaic,

x

,

or iambic,

x

_/..

In the trochaic foot, the

unstressed syllable

may

be replaced by a long syllable

under the secondary
to distinguish it

stress.

The dactyl formed by the
be called the light dactyl,
in

resolution of the trochee

may

from the heavy or normal dactyl,
long.

which the
3.

first syllable is
:

Trisyllabic
,

The

trisyllabic foot is either dactylic,
If dactylic, either the

Z_ x x

or anapaestic, x x ./_.

second

or third syllable has in
4.

some

cases secondary stress.

Polysyllabic: If tetrasyllable, this foot resembles either a first pseon, _ x x x or a fourth paeon, x x x _/..
,

If it contains a greater

number

of syllables,

it

is

still

essentially dactylic or anapaestic in effect, ^xxx..., or
...x

x

x./..

In any of the foregoing feet, resolution may take place, thus apparently increasing the number of typical
syllables.

PROSODY.
208.

Ill

Anacrusis.

Before hemistichs beginning with

a primary stress, one or more unstressed syllables may These unstressed syllables constitute what is occur.

known
first.

as the anacrusis.

It is rare at the

beginning

of the second hemistich, but

more frequent before the

- - These are formed Expanded hemistichs. by preand fixing a foot of the form ./.x... (less frequently .,
209.

x z.) to a regular hemistich rarely in the first hemistich
of

two

stresses.

Expanded

lines are

employed

in pas-

sages of peculiar elevation and solemnity, or expressive
of

unwonted

agitation.

The expanded hemistich has
having a and second stresses
in
alliteration,

three stresses, instead of the normal two, since the prefixed portion differs

from the anacrusis
first

primary

stress.

As

a rule, the

of the first hemistich,

when expanded, take

while in the second hemistich the place of the alliterative syllable is

unchanged, coinciding normally with the
stress.

(new) second

Example
hi

:

beaga and beorhtra inaffmu,

J>aet

Jaere beorhtan idese.

210.

Alliteration.
is

Alliteration

is

a poetical

ornament

which

Old English verse. It consists in the employment of the same or similar sounds at the beginning of two or more syllables which
a distinctive feature of
receive the primary stress.

The second hemistich

con-

tains one such alliterative syllable, as a rule that

which

112
has the
first

PROSODY.
primary stress
;

the

first

hemistich has reg-

ularly two, though frequently only one.
tive
if

The
if

allitera-

sound must be the same throughout,
it is
:

consonantal;

vocalic,

usually different in the three syllables.
gruff frecan,
*

Examples are
a)
6)
c)

grrame

graras sQndon.

on

ffaet

rfaegred sylf,

^ynedan

scildas.

earn

cetes georn,

In

expanded

lines,

the

additional
it

foot

frequently
of
its

takes alliteration,

thus removing

from one

normal positions.
211.

Alliteration in relation to stress. -

-

The accentual
in their

principles observed by

Old English poets

man-

agement
one
:

of alliteration virtually reduce themselves to

that the most important syllables of the most im-

It must portant words should receive primary stress. be borne in mind, however, that the stress is sometimes

depends not so much upon the intrinsic weight of the word as upon that which belongs to it in virtue of its relation to other words in the same
rhetorical, that
is,

For example, a preposition might be expected to have less intrinsic weight than a following noun, yet instances occur where the preposition allitsentence.
erates.

One
rates.

general rule

is

that

if

a noun and a verb are
the noun that
allite-

found in the same hemistich,

it is

PROSODY.
212.

113

Difference between the two hemistichs.

The

first

hemistich frequently differs from the second, not only
in the

number

of

its

alliterative syllables,

but also in

that of the unstressed syllables admitted between

two

primary
213.

stresses, or in the

form of anacrusis.
of assonance

Rime.

Rime and various forms

are occasionally

times for

employed by Old English poets, somethe purpose of uniting more closely the two
first

halves of the same line, less frequently to associate the

second half of a line with the
following
line, rarely in

or second half of the

formulas or compounds within

the same hemistich.

214.

Masculine and feminine rime.
is

Masculine or mon-

the riming vowels are identical, and are followed by the same consonants or
osyllabic rime
perfect,

when

consonant combinations.
code yrremod
:

Example (from Beowulf)'.
him of eagum
stod.
is

Feminine or polysyllabic (usually disyllabic) rime
perfect

when

the

first

riming syllables are perfect mas-

culine rimes and the following syllables are identical. -

Example

:

scildburh scairon,

sceotend wieron.

There are
215.

also various sorts of imperfect rime.
--

Kennings.

A

characteristic

ornament of Old

English, as well as of early Teutonic poetry in general,

114
are the kennings.

PROSODY.
This term, which
is

of Norse origin,

designates those
are

synonyms

or periphrastic phrases

which

employed

to diversify the expression of a thought,

or to avoid the repetition of the

same word, usually a

noun.

Many
all;

of these are striking metaphors, but by

no means

some, though metaphorical in their origin, were undoubtedly so familiar to the poet and audience
that their peculiar significance

were regarded as

was overlooked, and they stereotyped and convenient synonyms.
:

Examples of kennings for God are arfaest cyning, mihtig dry h ten, metod, frea aelmihtig.
216.

Ordinary sequences of long and short

1

syllables.

Before proceeding to examine the metrical constitution of the hemistich, it is desirable to consider the ordinary

sequences of long and short syllables

in

Old English,

and particularly
1.

in

Old English poetry.
by short or slurred
sylla-

Long

syllables followed

bles.

A

long stressed syllable

may
:

be followed

:

-

a) by a derivative or inflectional syllable: scuras j^x
6)
e)

by a monosyllabic

proclitic
:

ft

to

_/.

x

by a monosyllabic prefix

mod

a (re" ted)

d) by a derivative or inflectional syllable
syllabic prefix or proclitic
e)
:

+

a mono-

cenra to
:

by a

disyllabic proclitic or prefix

f ynd

ofer(wun_/.x

nen)
This paragraph
is

x

designed only for reference.

PROSODY.

115
4-

/) by
fix
:

a monosyllabic proclitic

a monosyllabic pre-

on ge(ribte) g) by two monosyllabic words: him flTa se A) by two syllables, derivative or inflectional
forar

Z.x x
:

mod/-i x

igre
i)

by the second element of a compound word, with or without a derivative syllable interposed
:

(a) scirmseled
(/3) hildeleoff

./_/

x

_/x^
its

/) by a disyllabic word, with the stress upon
syllable
:

second
Z. x

near setstop (Beow.)

w

&) by a derivative or inflectional syllable
syllabic
2.

+

a mono-

word

:

eaflTe

maeg
by short or slurred
syl-

Long

syllables preceded

lables.

A long stressed

syllable
:

may
:

be preceded

:

a) by a monosyllabic prefix
5)
(?)

gefeoll
flTurh

by a monosyllabic

proclitic

min(e)
:

by a derivative or inflectional syllable

(frym)ara
a monox x _/

God
d) by a derivative or inflectional ending
syllabic prefix or proclitic
e)
:

-\-

(hlanc)a gef eah
:

by a

disyllabic

ending

(lar)ena god (Beow.)
x x^_ x x^_

/) by

a disyllabic proclitic: sy<y<Tan frymo"(e)
:

#) by two monosyllabic words o"a o"e hwil(e) x xZ. 3. Long syllables followed by long or stressed syllables. In addition to the cases instanced under 1. A and
?',

which belong under the head of secondary

stress,

116

PROSODY.

stressed syllables proper are here to be considered.

A

long syllable may be followed a) by a monosyllabic word: brad swyrd
:

^_^_(^_^)

b~)

when a
when

monosyllable, by the
:

first

syllable of a
Z. _(.!.)
tri-

disyllabic
c)

word

dom ag(on)

a monosyllable, by the first syllable of a
:

syllabic

word

sang- hild(eleo<y)

^LZ_(^L)

d) when the second syllable of a disyllabic word, by the first syllable of a disyllabic word: (ge)gan haefd(on)

e)

when

the

first

syllable of a polysyllabic
syllable of

a

compound), by the second

word (often the same word:
^-/_(_^.}

ni31ieard,
4.

burhleod(um)
stressed
syllables

Short

followed

by short

or

slurred syllables.

A

short, stressed syllable

may
it

be

followed

:

a) by a single unstressed syllable, forming with
metrical syllables
5)
rical
:

two

cyiiing
syllable,

6x

forming with it the metequivalent of a single long syllable, and capable of

by an unstressed

being substituted for the latter in every position: settle)
^2< (=^.)
are metrically regarded, for the

Compounds
as

most

part,

composed of two independent words, but

their length,

taken in connection with the invariability of their typical forms, restricts the

employment

of certain

compounds

to particular metrical schemes.

Thus, compounds like

hildeuaidran are adapted to hemistichs of the trochaic

PROSODY.
type,
jt|

117
to

./.x

|

_dx

;

those like

burhleodum

the

type

jlx x.
Constitution
of

217.

the

hemistich. -

-

There are

five

normal types of the hemistich, which
respectively (cf. 207)

may

be called
2)

the

1) trochaic (dactylic),

the iambic (anapaestic), 3) the iambic-trochaic, 4) the

monosyllabic-bacchic (or -cretic), and the 5) bacchic-

Types 4 and 5 occasionally become chaic-bacchic and bacchic-trochaic respectively.
monosyllabic.

tro-

Every hemistich ends either
in a stressed syllable followed

in a stressed syllable, or

by a single short syllable
of unstressed syllables

(exceptionally by

two short

syllables, as in 216. 4. b).

Occasionally a greater

number

than three occur together, but without destroying the character of the verse as belonging to one of the fore-

going types.
218.

Constitution of the various types.
is

1.

The
Thus

first

or

trochaic (dactylic) type
feet like those

formed by the union of two

found

in 1. a to 1.

g above.
_/.

:

biddaii wylle

x

|

/_ /_

x

cwicera cynna
ealde ge geonge

<,
_/.

Xx

\

X

x x _. x
|

With

anacrusis (208)
offffe

:

-

sundoryrfes

x x

|

_/.

X

|

./.

X

Occasionally, by the introduction of

two consecutive

long syllables, as in forms
:

3. e,

there occur hemistichs of these

118

PROSODY.
scildburh scaeron
s_
./.

helmas and hupseax

^_ _/. x x x /_ ^L
\ |

A

short stressed syllable
arfae^t
2.

is

rare

:

cyning

Z. X

|

wX
is

The second
Thus

or iambic (anapaestic) type
like those

formed
g

by the union of two feet
above.
:

found

in 2. a to 2.

se hyhsta dsel beraS linde for*?
1

X _/. X _/_
\

x X

_/.

I

x

_/.

nu

ic

gumena gehwaene

x X

w^

I

x x

w .x

With
4}:

extra unstressed syllables in the
J>aet

first foot (207.
_/.

he in

J>aet

burgeteld

x x x x

I

x

_/.

3.

The

third or iambic-trochaic type

is

union of two feet like those found in
a to
2.

1.

formed by the a to 1. g and 2.

#

respectively.

Thus

:

and CQmpwige and ge dom agon on ffaiu sigewQuge Rarely a short stressed syllable
of hornbogan
aet
:

X

_/. _/.

|

_/. _/.

X X x

X X

|

XX w ^

I

x
X X

_/.

|

6
<j

ffam sescplegan

_/_

\

X X
:

With

extra unstressed syllables in the first foot
J>e

hie ofercuman mihton

xxxXw^l-^-X

observed that where two long syllables meet in the middle of the hemistich there is such a
It will be

sequence as in

3.

a to

3. e.

PKOSODY.
4.

119
is

The

fourth or monosyllabic-bacchic type

formed
as are

by the union of a monosyllabic foot with such found in 1. h and 1. i (a). Thus
:

msegfr modigre
haeleff

s_

\

/_ *^_

x
X
i

higerofe

w

*
I

w 2< ^

Similarly, the monosyllabic-cretic takes groups like 1.
(/3), 1..;,

and

1.

k for the second foot:
s_
\

saDg hildeleoff

/_

x

^i.

An
first

example of the trochaic-bacchic type (found only
hernistichs)
stopoii
is
:

in

styrnmode
syllables belonging to different feet

Where two long
come together
under
5. 3,

in the pure type,

we have various
c.

cases

the one above being under
fifth

The

or bacchic-monosyllabic type
feet as are

is

formed
1. i

by the union of such

found in
:

1.

h and

(a) with a monosyllabic foot.
scir mailed

Thus
_/.

swyrd

Jl x

|

/_

sigerofe haeleff

^^

x

|

6*
The
relative

219.

Frequency of the various types.

frequency of the various types is indicated by their order in the last paragraph, though Types 2 and 3 are not far from equal. Thus, in the poem of Judith,
the percentages are, in round numbers, as follows, not

counting

expanded

lines,

which

mostly

belong

to

Type

1 (209):

120

PROSODY.
FIRST HEMISTICH.

SECOND
HEMISTICH.

TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 TYPE 4 TYPE 5
220.

47
. .

47

14

26
19

19 15

5

5

3

A

specimen of scansion.

-

The following passage
its

(Judith, 164-175), accompanied by the scheme of

scansion, will serve to illustrate the metrical principles

contained in the foregoing paragraphs
ffreatum and
1

:

ffrymmum }>rungon and urnon Jmsendmailum, ongean 9a ]>eodnes maegd ealde ge geonge aeghwylcum wearff mod areted, on SCaere medobyrig an hie ongeatoii ]>;rt waes ludith rumen and fra ofostlice $ft to effle, in forleton. hie mid eafrmedum seo gleawe net, golde gefraetewod, J>a Jmncolmode hyre ffinenne heafod onwriffan, J?aes h^rew^seffan and hyt to behi5e blodig aetywan hu hyre aet beaduwe gespeo\v. burhleodum,
;

1.

READER.

THE CKEATION OF THE WORLD.
(^Elfric's Translation of Genesis, I.-II. 3.)

[In the earlier pages, references will be made to the forms of words as they occur in the Vocabulary, whenever there might be difficulty in discovering the latter. Other references are self-explanatory. The student should by all means be familiar, before beginning
this first selection,

with the declension of the third personal pronoun

(81), the demonstrative se (84), the first seven ordinals (78), the conjugation of wesan (138) and weortfan (95, 104), the prepositions

bufan, fram, ofer, on, to, and under, the particle <5e (87. d), and the distinction between the two Sa's (84. 1) and the two Saet's.]
aefter,

On anginne
eorfte soSlice
5

gesceop
waes
6

l

God 2 heofonan 3 and
and semtigu
10
;

eorSan.

Seo

4

idlu

and olestru 7 waeron 6

ofer 8 Saere 4 neowolnesse 9 bradnesse
11

gef^red

ofer wseteru. 12

and Godes gast wses 6 God cwaetS 13 tSa, "GeweorSe 14 leoht ";
;

and leoht weart5 15 geworht. 16
1

God geseah ir
10

(5a tSaet

hit 18

god

2

See gescieppan, and 18. The order is probably deter:

See 166.

n waes gef^red
tur.
12 13

=

Lat. fereba-

mined by the Latin
3 4 5 6 7
8

creavit Deus.

53. 3.

See gef^rian. See water, and 47.

1, 6.

See se.
Lat. autem.

See cweffan. See geweorffan, and 193. See weorffan.
1

14 15
16

.

See wesan.
Plural, like Lat. tenebrce.

WearlS geworht =factaest.

Governs bradnesse.
Genitive, dependent on brfidi).

9

See gewyrcean. 17 See geseon

nesse (153.

"
123

See he.

124
waes
1
;

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD.
and he gedaelde 2
6

Saet 3 leoht

fram Saem 3 Siestrum. 4
4

And

het 6 Saet 3 leoht Daeg, and Sa 3
aef en

files tru

Niht.

Da

wses 1

geworden

God
5

cwaeS 8

and morgen an daeg. 7 Sa $ft, 9 "GeweorSe 10 nu
11

faestnes
11

tomiddes

Saem

3

waetemm,
13

and totwseme

12

Sa

3

waeteru

fram Seem

waeterum."

And God
'Saere

Sa waeteru Se
wseron bufan

geworhte Sa faestnesse, and totwaemde waeron under Saere faestnesse fram Ssern Se u
faestnesse
;

hit waes
15

t5a

swa gedon. 14

And

God het
10

'Sa

faestnesse Heofonan.
16

And

waes Sa geworden

sefen

and morgen 66er

daeg.

God Sa
hit waes Sa

so^lice 17 cwaeS,

"Beon 18 gegaderode 19 Sa
22

Se 13 sind 1 under Saere heofonan, and aeteowie m drygnes
23
;

waeteru 21 "
;

EorSan
15

swa gedon. And God geciegde Sa drygnesse and Saera 3 waetera gegaderunga 24 he het Saes 25
;

God geseah Sa

Saet hit
29

god

26

waes.
saed
19

And

cwaeS,

27

"Sprytte

28

seo eorSe growende
1

30

gaers,

and

wyrcende,

31

and

aeppel-

See wesan. See se.

2 4

8

See gedaelan. See p. 123, note

7.

20

See gegaderian, and 62. See aeteowian.
Lat. arida, Gr. frpd.

5
6

See hatan, and 189, note.

21

Wses geworden = factum
See geweoriSPan.
Lat. dies unus.

est.
7 8

*2 See geciegan. ^ See 173.
24 25
26

See cweffan.
Lat. quoque.

Ace. plur. Ace. plur.
See
Cf.
4.

;

see sac.

9
10

11

See geweorffan, and 193. See waeter, and 47. 1, 6.
See totwtemaii. See 87.
d.

a.

27
28

Mod. Eng. quoth. See spryttan, and
See growan, and 61. See 31.

193.

a.

12
i8 14

Lat. germinet.

M
80
81

Past part, of gedon.

16
16 17
18

See 173.
Lat. secundus.

See wyrcean, and 61.

Gro-

Lat. vero.

\vende gaers and ssed wyrcende = herbam virentem et facientem
semen.

See 193.

a.

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD.
baere
sie
4
1

125

3 2 treow, waestm wyrcende aefter his cynne, 8aes saed

on him 5 selfum 6 ofer eorSan"; hit waes Sa swa gedon. And seo eorSe forSateah 7 growende wyrt and seed berende 8
10 be hiere 9 cynne, and treow waestm wyrcende, and gehwilc 11 saed haebbende sefter his hiwe 12 God geseah $a fiaet hit
;

5

god

waes.

And waes geworden

aefen

and me^rgen

13

se Sridda

14

daeg.

God cwaeS $a soolice, 15 "Beon nu leoht on 16 Caere heofonan 17
and todaelen 18 daeg and niht, and beon to 16 tac20 21 22 19 And num, and to tldum, and to dagum, and to gearum. hie scinen 23 on fteere heofonan fsestnesse, and aliehten t5a
faestnesse,
10

eort5an

"
;

hit waes Sa
25

twa

24

miclu

swa geworden. And God geworhte 26 leoht to Saes daeges llehtleoht; tSaet mare
niht 28 liehtinge;
hie

27

inge,

and

8aet laesse leoht to Saere

and
15

steorran he geworhte.
1

And
icdp-

29

ges^tte
i

on

Seere heofonan,

Lat.

pomiferum,

Gr.

See 166.

See 146.
2 8
* 6 6
7 8

17
18

Ace. sing., after wyrcende. See cynn.

Gen. sing. See toda'lun.

19 20 21

See 195.
Dat. sing.

See tacen, and 24. See tld, and 24.
See daeg, and 24. See gear, and 24. See 193. a. Write the opt. See twegen. See micel.
See 66.

See

self.

22 28

Lat. protulit.

Agrees beran.
9
10 11

with

wyrt.

See

pret. plur. of this verb.
24

Why
Nom.

hiere, instead of his ?
sing.

26
26
27

Ace. sing.
Lat. speciem.

What

is

the relation of the
?

12
13

See hiw.

stem-vowel to that of leoht
28

Note the different form,
See 78.
Lat. autem.

For niht, instead of nieht,
See 153.
d.

me,rgen instead of morgen.
14 15

see 19.
29

See gese,ttan, and 189, note.

126
ftaet

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD.
hie scinen 1 ofer eorSan,

Seere niht,
fteet

and giemden and todselden leoht and filestru
waes.

^aes dseges 2
;

and

God geseah $a
m^rgen
se

hit
3

god
dseg.

And

wees geworden eefen and

feorSa
5

God cwaeS eac swilce, 4 "Teon nu $a weeteru for$ 5 swimmendu cynn cucu 6 on life/ and fleogendu 8 cynn ofer eorftan
under
Seere

heofonan fsestnesse."
eall

And God
15

9 gesceop $a $a

miclan hwalas, 10 and
11

libbendu fisccynn and styriendfort)

licu,
10

Se

12

Sa

13

waeteru tugon 14

on hiera hiwnm, and
;

eall

fleogendu cynn sefter hiera cynne
16

God geseah Sa
17

Sset
8

hit

god wses. And bletsode hie, $us cwe^ende, "WeaxatS/ and beoft gemanigfielde, 19 and gefyllaS m Ssere sse waeteru, and
21 fuglas beon gemanigfielde ofer eorSan."

tSa

And

3a wses

geworden
15

sefen

God
tenu
24

cwseft

and me^rgen se fifta daeg. eac swilce, "Lsede 22 seo eorSe for^ 23 cucu
25

nie-

on hiera cynne, and creopendu cynn and deor sefter hiera hiwum" hit wges Sa swa geworden. And God geworhte
;

Ssere eor5an deor aefter hiera

hiwum, and 6a nietenu and
;

eall

creopendu cynn on hiera cynne
1

God geseah Sa
13
14
15 16

flaet

hit god

Opt. pret.

=

Lat. lucerent.
?

Nom.

plur.

What would
2 3 4 5 6
7 8

be the opt. pres.
/.

See teon.

See 156.
See
78.

Tugon

forft = produxerunt. See bletsian, and 33.

Eac swilce =
Producant
See cucu. See Hf.

etiam.
. . .

17

See cweffan.
See

= teon

forKT.

18

weaxan, and

24.

19

20

Past part, in nom. plur. See gefyllan.
See 193.
a.

See fleogan, and 61.

21 22
23 24

9
10

Adverb

;

see 84.

1.

See la-dan.
Iisede
. .

See hwsel.
Lat. motabilem.

.

forff

=

producat.

11

See meten.

12

Ace.

25

See creopan.

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD.
wges.

127
and

And
2

cwaeS,

"Uton 1 wyrcean mann
and he
deor,
sie
3

to andllcnesse

to urre

gellcnesse,

ofer 8a fiscas, 4 and ofer Sa
ealle gesceafta, 5

fuglas,
eall

and ofer Sa

and ofer
6

and ofer

Sa creopendan Se styriaS of er eorSan."
to his andllcnesse, to
7

God

gesceop 8a
lie

mann
hine
;

Godes andllcnesse

gesceop

5

werhades and wlfhades he gesceop hie. And God hie bletsode, and cwaeS, "WeaxaS, and beoS

and gefyllaS 8a eorSan and gewieldaft 8 hie, and habbaft 9 on eowrum 10 gewealde Ssere see fiscas, and 'Ssere
gemariigfielde,
lyfte fuglas,
cwaet5 Sa,

and

eall nietenu
ic

t5e

styriat5 ofer eorftan."

God

10

"Efne

u 12 13 forgeaf eow eall gsers and wyrta said

berenda ofer

eorftan,

and

eall treowu,

tSa-tSe

1311

habbatS saed

on him selfum hiera agnes cynnes, ftaet hie beon eow 14 to m^te and eallum nletenum and eallum fugolcynne and
;

eallum

t5sem
lif,
17

tSe

styriaS

on eorSan, on

t5eem-t5e

15

is

lib;

15.

bende
waes

16

ftaet

hie haebben

him

to

18

gereordianne
eall

"
f>e

hit

'Sa

swa gedon.

And God

geseah

$a Sing 19
20

he

geworhte, and hie wgeron swlSe god.
aefen
1

Waes

Sa geworden

and m^rgen
Let us.

se siexta dseg.
10

=

See 83. See forgiefan. See ffu, and 164.

2

See 83. Urre properly belongs

n
12

to both
et

nouns

;

Lat.

ad imaginem

a.

similitudinem nostram.
3
4 5

13

See 24.
161. 2.

13a

See 87.
'
:

b.

See wesan.

M See
you
15
16 17

Auth. Vers.

to

See

fisc.

it

shall

be for meat.'

6
7 8

See gesccaft. See styrian.
See 153.
/.

= whom.
See libban.

IJibbende llf = anima

viva.

What
?

is

the relation of the
to

18
19

stem diphthong

that

of

ge-

See gereordian, and 200. Ace. plur. Why like the See 189.
1.

weald

singular ?

9 xSee

habban.

2

128

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD.

Eornostlice 1 $a waeron fullfr^mede 2 heofonas and eorSe

and

eall hiera frsetwung.
5

3

And God
fte

fta

4

gefylde

on

ftone

5

he geworhte, and he gere^ste 7 hine 8 on 8one seofotSan dseg fram eallum Stem weorce $e he And God gebletsode Sone seofoSan daeg and gef re^mede.
seofoSan deeg
his weorc
6
10 his hine gehalgode, 9 for-Son-Se he on fione dseg geswac

weorces 11 6e he gesce"op 12 to wyrceanne. 13
1

Lat. igitur.

for loss of

i

see 23.

The

root

is

2

See fullfr^niman.
Lat.

Lat. per-

hal

;

after

umlaut of the stem

fecti.
3

vowel, what would this syllable
ornatus,

Gr.

/c607tos

;

array, or splendid array,

would

become, and in what words found ?
10 11

is it

perhaps
sense.
4 6

express

the

original

See geswlcan.

His weorces
See 156.

=
k.

ab

omni

Lat. complevit.

opere suo.
12

should expect dat.; Lat. die septimo. See 172. 1. 6 Sing., as the Latin shows.

Ace. where

we

gesceop to wyrceanne
created to make.'

=

creavit utfaceret ;
Vers.,
13

Marg. of Auth.
See 200.

See ger^stan. t in the preterit ?
8

7

Why

but one

Wyrc- not umlaut of weorc-.
relation here is
:

The

an ablaut one
;

See 184.

6.

9

See gehalgian.

From halig

;

cf.

(22) Gr. epyov

were and wurc (wore)
and 6pyavov.

II.

TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS.
probably prepared, like his Grammar, for the one in the There are two MSS. The Oxford MS. has the rubric: Hanc sententiam Latini sermonis olim Alfricus abbas composuit, qui meus fait mayister, sed tamen ego, ^Elfric Bata, multas postea huic addidi appendices. This is virtually JSlfric Data's sole title to fame. The Old

(From

JSlfric's Colloquy,

instruction of English youths in Latin. British Museum, the other at Oxford.

English, like the Latin,

is

probably of the late tenth century.)

The Merchant and
Teacher.

his Merchandise.
2

Hwset

*

saegst

$u,

mangere
3

?

Merchant.

Ic s^cge 8aet belief e

ic egni

ge

4

6 cyninge and

6 ealdormannum, and weligum, and eallum
1

folce.

See 123.
Lat.

2

mercator.

Other

Old

English terms for merchant are ciepa and ciepmann. From a
collateral

form of the

latter,
is

ceap-

mann,

without umlaut,

derived

Konig (King), anciently Konning, means Ken-ning (Cunning), or which is the same thing, CanEver must the Sovereign ning. of Mankind be fitly entitled King." On the other hand Gummere (Germanic Origins, p. 270): "At the head of the family we found, of
course, the father
of the state
;

"

Mod. Eng. chapman.
related to

cheap?

See the

How is chapNew

English Dictionary (New Eng. Diet.} under these words.
8

and at the head
'
'

Lat. utilis.
behoof.
.
.

Cf. the

Mod. Eng.
.
. .

the king.

we naturally look for The word king means
its
;

noun
4

the child or son of the tribe,
Lat. et
et.

ge

.

and =

representative or even creation

5

3,

Carlyle (Sartor Resartus, Bk. Chap. 7) has the following:
6

man

of race,

man

of rank.

Grad-

ually the king ceases to be re-

Lat. ducibiis.

129

130
Teacher.

TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS.

And hu ?
Ic astlge

Merchant.

mm

scip

mid hlsestum 1 mmum, and

5

and bycge Sing deorwierSu, Sa on Sisum lande ne beo$ ace^nnede, and 7 ic hit togelaede eow hider mid miclum plihte 8 ofer see, and
Sing,
6 6

ro we 2 ofer saelice 3 dselas, 4 and ciepe 5

mm

hwllum forlidennesse
9 9

ic Solie
9

mid

lyre ealra Singa minra,

uneaSe cwic aetberstende.
Teacher.

10

Hwilc Sing gelgetst Su us ? Merchant. Paellas 10 and sidan, 11 deorwierSe gimmas and 12 reaf w and wyrtgemang, 14 win and $le, elpes 15 gold, seldcuS
ban 15 and maesling, 16
lices
18

ser

17

and

tin,

swefel and

glaes,

and

Syl-

fela.
11

garded as a creation of his race his ancestry is pushed back to
;

Lat.

sericum.

From

this

the gods, and his right

is

quite

above

all

sanctions

of_ popular

word (indicating what country?) comes OE. seol(o)c. What Mod. Eng. word from the
Latin
latter

choice or approval."

Which

of

(or

the

equivalent

Old

these views

is

confirmed by ety-

Norse (ON.) silki)?

Cf. Skeat's

mology ?
1

Principles of English Etymology
(I.), p.

Lat. mercibus. Lat. navigo.

440 (Skeat, Priw.).
in

Other
Lat. r
Lat.

2 8
4

words

which Eng.

I

=

Lat. marinas. Lat. partes.
Lat. vendo.

(through OE.) are

plum =
Lat.

prunus ; purple
turtle
12

=

purpura ;

6
6
7

=

Lat. turtur.

Lat. res pretiosas.

Lat. varias, but this looks

Lat. adduco.
Lat. periculo.

like

a mistake.

Varius usually

8

Mod. Eng.
Note

=

mis (sen) lie or manigfeald.
13
14

form of pliht?
9

Lat. vestes.
Lat. pigmenta.

Lat. vix vivus evadens.

Translate,

the love for alliteration, even in the Latin.
10

spice.
15
16 17 is

Lat. ebur. Lat. aurichalcum.
Lat. aes.

Lat.
2.

(F. Q.

purpurnm. Cf Spenser " In a 9. 37): long pur.

ple pall."

See 164.

a.

TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS.
Teacher.

131

Wilt

1

$u

se^llan

2 2 Sing Sin her eall swa Su hie

gebohtest Sser ?

Merchant.

Ic nelle.

Hwaet Sonne me fr^mede 3 gedeorf 4
7

mm ?
and

Ac
6

ic

wille hie clepan her luflicor 5 Sonne ic gebycge

Sser, Sset

sum

gestreon

me 8

ic begiete,

9

6anan

ic

me

10

afede,

mm wif,

and minne sunu.

The Choice of Occupations.
Teacher.

Hwaet

saegst Su,

wisa?
?

Hwilc
15

craeft

11

Se

is

12

geSuht

13

betweox Sas f urSra 14 wesan
Ic se.cge Se,

Counsellor.

me

is

15

geSuht

Godes Seowdom 16
is
12

betweoh Sas

craeftas ealdorscipe

1:

healdan, swa-swa hit

I0

gersed on godspelle, "Fyrmest seceaS rice Godes, and wisnesse 18 his, and 8as Sing eall beoS togeiecte 19 eow."

riht-

Teacher.

And

hwilc Se
?
ir

is

12

20 geSuht betweox woruldcrseftas

healdan ealdordom
Counsellor.
1

21

EorStilS,

for-Sam se ierSling 22 us ealle
11

fet.

23

15

See 139.

Lat. ars.

2

= just

as.
b.

12 18
14

Conjectural

;

not in the

MSS.

8
4

See 193.

See ffyncean.
Lat. prior.

Lat. labor. Lat. carius.

Nom.

sing.

5

Possibly mis-

16
16

Lat. videtur.

written for leoflicor.
translation,

A

literal

See 143 and 149.
Lat.

not

regarding

the

17 18
19

primatum.
See toge-

deorra or dierra, from deore or diere, dear, would be more normal.
sense
;

See 144.
Lat. adjicientur.

iecan, and 62.
20

6
7 8

See 84.

1.

Lat.

artes seculares.

MS.

Lat. lucrum.

Ace. sing.

crseftas woruld.
21

See 161.

1.

Lat. agricultura.
Lat. arator.

See 147.

9
10

Lat. adquiram.

See 196.

22

/.
28

See 195.

See fedan.

132
Se

TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS.
smift scegff
:
1 2 ier&Linge sulhscear oSSe culter, $e

Hwanan Seem
hsef$

na gade 3

butan of

craefte

mmum ? Hwanan fiscere
seamere niedl ?

4

angel, o$Se

sceowyrhtan
5

sel,

oSfce

Nis hit of

mmum

geweorce

?

Se geffeahtend 5 andswarafi : 6 ac eallum us Soft, witodlice, ssegst 3u
;

leofre is wician 7

mid

ftsem iert5linge t^onne
8

mid

Se,

for-Sam se ierSling
seJLest

us hlaf
10

and dr^nc.
9

Du, hwset

Su 6 us on

Sinre butan Iserne
12

9 10 11 fyrspearcan, and sweginga beatendra

sl^cgea

and blawendra b$lga?
crsefte
16

Se treowwyrhta 13 scegft : Hwilc eower 14 ne notaS 15
and mislicu
15

mmum
ic

Sonne
19

17

htis,

fatu,

and scipu eow 18 eallum

wyrce

?

Se

smifi

andwyrt :

Eala treowwyrhta, for 21
MS. sylanscear.
Lat. culter.

hwy

21

swa

spriest Su,

Sonne 22

1

11

Lat. tundentium.

2

12 18
14 15 16

Lat. malleorum.
Lat. lignarius.

8
*

See 24. See 161.
Lat. consiliarius.

See 147.

See 154.

6.

5

Lat. utitur.

e
7 8

Not
Lat.

in

MS.
a.

See 164.

o.

Lat. Tiospitari ; see 199.

17
18

Lat. domos.

panem.
in

Bread, which

See 161.
Lat. fabrico.
Lat. ferrarius.

is

found

Old English, scarcely

19
20

has any other sense than that of 1) fragment, 2) broken bread. Later
it

MS.

gol-

srniff (sic).
21

acquires

its

modern
Diet.,

Lat. cur ; see 175.

meaning.
s.v. bread.
9
10

See

New

Eng.

22

Lat.

cum.

ral conjunctions

tempoused to denote
9"a.

Other

Lat. ferreas scintillas.

cause are

nu and

Has Mod.
?

Lat. sonitus.

Eng. any similar idiom

TEADES AND OCCUPATIONS.
ne furSum 1 an Syrel butan craefte

133

mmum

Su ne 2 meaht 3

don 4 ?
Se geffeahtend
Eala,
scegff
5 :

gef eran

hwaetlicor 6

and gode wyrhtan Uton toweorpan $as geflitu, 7 and sie 8 sibb and geftwaernes 9 be!

5

tweoh
his,

us,

and fre^mme
13

10

anra

11

11

gehwilc

oSrum

12

on

craefte
14

and

get* wserien
15

simle

mid Ssem

ierolinge,

fleer

we
flis

bigleofan

us,

and fodor horsura uruni
eallum wyrhtum,
17

habbafl.

And

geSeaht

ic senile

t5set

anra 16 gehwilc
18

crgeft
19

^
10

his geornlice begange,

f or-Sam se,

^e craeft

his f orlset, he
t5u sie

biS forlseten fram Seem craefte.
22

Swa-hwaeSer
24

20

swa
bega

21

maessepreost,
t5e

swa munuc, 23 swa ceorl,
and beo
t58et

swa c^mpa 25
is

26

selfne on fiisum,
hit is
29

Su

27 eart; for-Sam micel hien^

and sceamu

m^nn

nellan 28 wesan 8aet he

and

Saet

he
ic

wesan
1

sceal.

Lat. saltern.

17 18

See 194.

6.

2 8
4

See 183.
Lat. vales.

Ace. sing.
Lat. ipse.
Lat. sive.

19
'*>

Lat. facere.

8
6

Lat. socii; see 152.
Lat. citius ; used almost in
;
.
.

21

Swa
sen.

.

.

.

swa =

Lat. sive

.

the sense of the positive
7 8

see 76.

22

Lat. sacerdos.
Lat. monachus, from which

Lat. contentiones.

23

See 189.

1.

the OE. the

9
10
11

Lat. concordia.
Lat. prosit. Lat. unusquisque.

u

cf.

word is derived. For OE. iniint = Lat.

montem.

MS.urum

24 25 26

Lat. laicus. Lat. miles.

gehwylcum.
12

See 160.
Lat. conveniamus. Lat. ubi.

MS. bega
Lat.

oJ>J>e

behwyrf.

13 14 15
16

Lat. exerce.
27

damnum.
nelle.

Lat. victiim.

28 29

MS.

See 199.

a.

See 154.

b.

Lat. debet.

III.

THE DAY OF JUDGMENT.
(From ^Ifric's Homilies,
Matt. 25:31^6.)
vol. 2, pp. 106-108;

being a paraphrase of

Witodlice 1 Mannes

and

ealle e^nglas
sitt
6

3

on his maegenftrymme, samod mid him to Saern miclan 4 dome.5
setle

Beam cymS

2

Donne

he on Ssem

his

beo$ gegaderode aetforan him ealle
5

maegenSrymnesse/ and 8 9 Seoda, and he toscset

hie

on twa, swa-swa sceaphierde 10 toscaet sceap u fram 12 Donne gelogaft he Sa sceap on his swrSran 13 gatmn.
fca
14

hand, and

gaet

on his winstran.

Donne cwiS

15

se

Cyning Crist to Ssem $e on his swiSran hand standaS, "Cuma'5 ge bletsode 16 mines Faeder, 17 and geagniaS
1

Lat. autem.

to be shortened in

Mod. Eng.,
apt to occur

2 3

See

cuman.

the

more general

principle being

See <jngel.

What

is
it

the his-

that shortening

is

tory of this

word before

entered

before an accumulation of consonants.

Old English ? 4 See 55.
5

Besides sceaphierde,
e.g.

shepherd, note

wisdom,

wis-

In what modern compound

dom.
11

does this meaning of dom persist? 6 See sit tan.
7 8

Plural

;

account for the form.

12 13 14 15

See 24.

See 153.

/.

See swiff.

Nom.

plur.

See 52.
See cweffan.

9

See tosceadan. Account for
ie.

What

is

the

the vowel
10

ind. pret.

3d

sing. ?

In

compound

words,

the

16 17

vowel of the

first syllable is

apt 134

Past part, in nom. plur. See 43. 8.

THE DAY OF JUDGMENT.
rice
1

135

Se eow 2 gegearcod waes fram frymSe iniddangeardes.
4 hyngrede, and ge

and ge me 5 scejicton; ic waes-cuma, 6 and ge me underfengon 7 on eowrum giesthusum; ic woes nacod, and ge me scryddon 8
gereordedon
;
;

Me

3

me

me" 3 Syrste,

ic

wses geuntrumod, and ge

cwearterne, and ge

me geneosedon ic waes on comon to me and me gefrefredon. 9
;

5

'

Donne andswariaft

fta

rihtwisan

10

Criste

u and

cweftaft,

^ "Dryhten, hwonne gesawe we Se hungrigne, and we 8e
gereordedon
?

o^Se Surstigne, and

we

Se sc^ncton ?

ofrSe
T0

hwonne wsere Su cuma, 13 and we t5e underfengon ? oS$e hwonne gesawe 13a we 5e untrumne o5Se on cwearterne, and

we

Se geneosedon ? "

Donne andwyrt
14

rihtwisum Sisum wordum,

" S6S
1

15

ic

Cyning gsem eow s$cge, swa 16
se

17 18 on lange swa ge dydon anum, 5isum laestan,

mmuni
?

1

Still

found as the

last sylla-

stem-vowel to that of frofor
See
10 11

ble of bishopric.
2 8
4

90.

See

81.

See 190.

Norn. plur. Dat.

See 181.

What

is

the relation of the
?

12
13
14

stem- vowel to that of hungrig

See geseon. See 150.
See 174.
b.

13a

See 95, note.

See 90.
6 6
7 8

Dat.
Lat. hospes.

16
16

Lat. amen, Eng. verily.

See underfon.

17

= =

so.

as.

Notice this early use

What

peculiar senses has the

of so long as
in the sense of
18

(=

verb shroud in Spenser, ShakeWhat form speare, or Milton ?

Lat. quamdiu) inasmuch as.

The WS.
has

translation of the

would scrydan most naturally assume in Mod. Eng. (24) ?
can the Mod. Eng. form of the verb shroud be accounted
for?
9

Gospel

anum

of

ffisum

minimi
which
is

hi'stum

gebroffrum,

How

^Elfric's

much more literal. In version we must under-

What

is

the relation of the

stand la'stan to be in apposition with anum. See 66.

136

THE DAY OF JUDGMENT.

naman, ge\hit dydon
to
tSaem

me

selfum. 1 "

Donne cwi5 he

synfullum,

fte

on his winstran healfe standaS,

" GewitaS fram

$e
5

is

me, ge awiergdan, into Saem ecean fyre, 2 gegearcod Ssem deofle and his awiergdum gastum.

Me

hyngrede, and ge

me

setes
;

3

forwierndon

;

me

Syrste,

and ge me drincan ne sealdon ic wses cuma, and ge me underf on noldon ic waes nacod, iiolde 4 ge me waeda 5
;

tiftian

6
;

ic

wses

untruni and on

cwearterne,

nolde

4

ge

me
10

geneosian."
8

Donne andswariaS 7 Sa

iinrihtwisan

man-

fullan,

"La

leof,

hwoune gesawe 4 we Se hungrigne, 9 oSSe

tSurstigne,
ot5Se

o$8e cuman, o^Se nacodne, o6Se geuntrumodne,

on cwearterne, and we Se noldon Senian 6 "? Donne " SoS ic eow andwyrt se Cyning him, and cwiS, s$cge,

15

swa lange swa ge forwierndon anum of Sisum lytlum, and noldon 10 him on minum naman tiSian, swa lange n
ge

me
12

selfum his 3 forwierndon."

Donne

faraS Sa uncyst-

gan and Sa unrihtwisan into ecre cwicsusle, mid deofle and his awiergdum $nglum and Sa rihtwisan gecierraS fram 'Saem dome into Sseni ecean life.
;

Not = myself; self agrees with me. The Latin has no orig1

7

How

is

the
to

andthe

of anti-

this

word
8

related

of

inal here for self; ^Elfric

adds

it

Eng. antiphon?
See
4.
9
10

to strengthen the expression.
2 8 4 6

See 161.
See 159. See 95, note. See 159.

See 173. See 139.
Correlative

n
is

with
the

the

swa

What

the Mod.
?

lange
clause.
12

swa
;

of

preceding

Eng. form of this word 6 See 28 164. e.
;

See 55

57. 3

;

181.

IV.

BEDE'S DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN.
(Eccl. Hist.,

Bk.

I.,

Chap.

I.)

[jElfric testifies to

a translation of Bede's History having been made
;

Malmesbury besides, the MS. by Cambridge University Library twice has this couplet,
Alfred, and so does William of

of the

Historicus

quondam

fecit

me Beda
ille

latinum,

^Elfred rex Saxo transtulit

pius.

On the other hand, it has such undoubted Anglian peculiarities that it " the version has been suggested (by Miller, its latest editor) that may have been executed by Mercian scholars under orders from the king," and
that
it was possibly made at Lichfield. The distinction between English idiom and imitation

of the Latin should

be remarked, wherever possible.
compared.]

Moberly's edition of the Ecclesiastical

History, which contains scholarly and interesting notes,

may

profitably be

Breoton 1
haten.
. . .

is

garsecges* igland, Saet waes
is

m

geara Albion

Hit

welig

Sis igland

on wsestmum and on

treowum missenlicra cynna, 3 and hit is gescrepe on laeswe 5 4 and on sumum stowum wmgeardas sceapa and neata
;

Britannia oceani insula, cui quondam Albion nomen fuit. Opirna frugibus atque arboribus insula, et alendis vineas etiam quibusdam in apta pecoribus ac jumentis sed et avium ferax terra marique genelocis germinans
. .
. ;
:

1

Moberly says:

" This descrip-

8 4

See 153.

/.
d.

tion of Britain is pieced

from the

See 153.

accounts of Plinius, Solinus, Orosius,
2

5

Dio Cassius, and Gildas."
See 153.
h.

sentsthis?
137

What Mod. Eng. word repreWhat OE. noun-stem
?

contains the umlaut of this one

138
growaS.
1

BEDE'S DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN.
Swilce
eac
.

3eos
. .

eorSe

is

berende

missenlicra

fugla
seolas,

and
2

ssewihta.

And

her beo5 oft fangene 1 *
;

and hranas, and
missenlicra
3

me/eswm
5

and
4

her

beo$

oft

numene
5

cynna weolocscielle

and muscule,
6

and on
eelces

'Seem

beoS oft gemette

$a b^tstaii

meregreotan

7

hiwes.

And

her beoft swlSe genyhtsume weolocas,

geworht se weolocreada t$lg, ftone ne maeg sunne blsecan 8 ne ne regn 9 wierdan ac swa he bi$
of Ssem biS
;

?

10

ieldra,
10

swa he
;

f segerra bi$.

Hit haefS u eac

Sis

land

sealtseaSas
selcre
ris

and

hit hsefS hat wseter,

and hat ba$u, 12

ielde

13

and hade, Surh todseleda stowa, 14 gescrepe.
.
.

diversi. Capinntur autem ssepissime et vituli marini, et delphines, iiecnon et ballenae exceptis variorum generibus conchyliorum in quibus sunt et musculse,
. :

;

quibus inclusam ssepe margaritam, omnis quidem coloris Sunt et cochleae satis superque abundantes, quibus tinctura coccinei coloris conlicitur, cujus rubor pulcherrimus iiullo unquam solis ardore, nulla sed quo vetustior est, valet pluviarum injuria pallescere eo solet esse venustior. Habet fontes salinarum, habet et fontes calidos, et ex eis fluvios balnearum calidarum, omni setati et sexui, per distincta loca, juxta suuui cui-

optimam inveniunt.

.

.

.

;

1

This genitive after a present
;

8

From

what

adjective
?

is

participle is exceptional

cf . the

blsecan derived (17)
9

Latin for an explanation (155). 2 See niman. la See fon.
3 5

To what might regn conSee 65.
121.

tract (28) ?
10

See

p. 130, n. 12.

4

Norn. plur.
the stem
14.

From what noun
See 66.

is

n See
12
18

of

me tan derived ?
6
7

See

See baeff.

Governed by gescrepe.

See

This word

is

adapted from

165.
14

the Latin, but simulates a com-

What

does -stow

mean

in

pound

of

mere,

sea,

and greet,

a

proper

name

like

Chep-

earth, gravel.

stow?

BEDE'S DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN.
Swilce hit
is

139
ares

eac berende

1

on w^cga orum

and
;

isernes, leades

and

seolfres.
;

Her

biS eac gemett gagates

se stan biS blaec
fleoft

gimm
4

gif
5

man

2

hine on fyr deS, 3 Sonne
Sis
7

Saer

nseddraii

onweg.

Waes

6

igland

eac

geSrit5

weorSod mid Ssem settelestum ceastruni

anes wjana

igum

8

Sa-Se

9

wseron mid weallum,

10

and torrum,

10

and

and Saim trumestum locum getimbrede, butan oSrum leessan 11 unrlme ceastra.
geatum,

And

for-Sam-Se Sis igland under Ssem selfum norSdsele
12 lift,

middangeardes nlehst

and leohte niht on sumera
. .

10

que

modum

accommodos.

.

Quae etiam venis metal:

lorum,

aeris, ferri, et

lapidem gagatem gemmeus et ardens igni admotus, incensus serpentes fugat. Erat et civitatibus quondam viginti et octo nobilissimis insignita, praater castella innumera, quaB et ipsa muris,
.
.

pluinbi et argenti faecunda, gignit et plurimum optimumque est autem nigro-

.

turribus, portis, ac seris erant instructa firmissimis. Et quia prope sub ipso septentrional! vertice mundi jacet, ita ut medio ssepe tempore lucidas aestate noctes habet
;

1

Cf. the construction of this
p. 138,
8
1.

7

From

Lat. castra.
of

Cf. the

word with that above,
2
4

1.

-caster,

-Chester,
etc.

Lancaster,
of

See 89.

e.

See 140.

Winchester,

Some

the

How

did
.

naeddre

become

adder ?
p. 216.
5

Cf OE. nafogar, Mod. See Skeat, Prin., Eng. auger.

more important of these cities were York, Colchester, Winchester,

Canterbury, and Chester (see
p. 7).
;

Moberly,
is

There

a
in

parallel

form,

8

Cf. 78. 5

158.

The number
have the

aweg, already
is

OE.

The

a-

does not correspond to the Latin.
9

a contraction of on.

Mention

Does

this relative

other Mod. Eng. words in which

the a- represents on.
6

How

does

the
its s ?

Mod. Eng.
See Skeat,

same antecedent as in the Latin ? 10 Weall is from Lat. vallum ; torr, from Lat. turris.
11

island acquire

Priw.,p.380,andnote3, next page.

12

Agrees with unrime. See licgan, and 28.

140
haef<5

BEDE'S DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN.

swa

ftset

oft

on midre

niht

geflit

cymS

l

Ssem

behealdendum, hwseSer hit sle Se* sefenglomung, $e on on 6aem sweotol, b"set 5is igland 3 is morgen dagung 6 6 4 hsefft micle l^ngran dagas on sumera, and swa eac niht
5

on wintra, 5 Sonne 6a suSdselas middangeardes. 7
noctis in qusestionem veniat intuentibus, utrum crepusculum adhuc permaneat vespertinum, an jam advenerit unde etiam plurimae longitudinis habet matutinum dies aestate, sicut et noctes contra in bruma.
.
. . :

1

See on in a ii.
Lat.

5

See 43.

5.

2
.

utrum

.

.

.

an

=

ffe

6

Niht belongs under

52.

It

.

.

8Ce (202. 6).

3

Ig- represents

ie-,

the umlaut

has already experienced umlaut in the nominative, and hence does
not change in the ace. plur. 7 This last clause is supplied by
the translator.

of ea, water.

Ea

goes back to

the same Indo-European root as
Lat. aqua.
4

See 178.

V.

^THELWALD CALMS THE
(Bede, Eccl. Hist., Bk. V., Chap.
I.)

SEA. 1

com mid twsem 2 oftrum broftrum to Fame, 3 Ssem Wolde ic sprecan mid Sone 4 arwiertUan feeder Tglande. ^ESelwald. Mid-$y ic 6a waes mid his gesprece wel
Ic

M

smyltnes tosliten, and swa micel winter 12 us onhreas, 13 and swa reSe storm
;

and me bletsunge bsed, and we ham 6 hwurfon, 7 we t5a waeron on midre 8 5sere sse, t$a 9 wass samninga 10 <5aire-$e we ser lidon n ut heofones
5

gerett,

5

com,

5aet
14

we ne mid

segle

ne

mid

rownesse

awiht

framgan
1

15 meahton, ne we us nohtes

^lles

wendon nefne

This story was related by Abbot Guthfrith to Bede. JEthel-

7

Lat. rediremus.

8

See 166.

1.

wald succeeded Cuthbert as the
hermit of Fame, dwelling there from 687 to 699, when he died.
2
3

9

To

fit

=

interrupta est sere-

nitas
10

qua vehebamur. Translate in (or with) which.
that the prepois

See 79.

The Latin shows
f

Two

miles

rom Bamborough.

sition
11

to be understood.
37.

One was

of the islands of the group

See Hffan, and

the scene of Grace Darling's
in 1858.

12

Lat. hiems, but no doubt in

heroism

That inhabited

the sense of tempest.
13

by ^Ethelwald was the largest. 4 The ace. with mid is excep8 See 113. tional (172. 1).
6

See onhreosan.
?

What

is

the ind. pret. plur.
14 15

Lat. proficere.

Ace.

sing,

as

adv.

;

Lat.
141

See 156.

g.

domum.

142
deaSes
1

^ETHELWALD CALMS THE
selfes.

SEA.

Mid-Sy we Sa swISe lange wi6 Stem winde and wi6 -Ssem sae holunga 2 campedon and wunnon, 3 Sa aet mehstan locedon we on baecling, hwaefter wen 4 weere 4 fcaet

we
5

5

aenge

Singa

5

furftum 5aet igland gesecean
7

6

meahton,
Sider

Saet

we

aer

ut of gangende
9

wairon.

7

Cierde

8

we us
10

we
to
13

cierdon, gemetton

we us aeghwanan
waes aefter

gelice
haale

storme 10
12

fores^tte
lafe
13

and foretynde, and naenigne hyht u
standan.
feorr
13

in

us

fire
10

gesihS

14

langum faece t>aet we upahofon, Sa gesawon we in Fame,
17

Da

Saem iglande, Gode 15 6one leofan faeder ^ESelwald of his
diegelnessum
16

utgangende,

5aet

18

he 18 wolde 18 urne
19

sl^faet

sceawian, and geseon hwaet us gelumpe,

foi:-t>on

he gesees.
20

hierde Saet gebrec Sasra storma and Saes weallendes

15

Mid-Sy he "8a us eac sceawode, and geseah in gewinne and in ormodnesse 21 ges^tte beon, 22 Sa blegde he his
1

See 156.

g.

11

Ace.

sing.,

the

subj.

of

2
8

Lat. frustra.

standan.
12 18

See winnan.
Lat. forte. Lat. aliquo conamine.

See 153.

d.

*
6

Lat. restare.

For

14

Translate,

aenige see
154.
6
7

174

;

for ffiuga see

15

Governed

from a distance. = by leofan
;

6.

amantissimum Deo.
16

See 165.

Lat. repetere.

Lat. latibulis.

Lat.

egressi

eramus.

The

17

Translates

the

Latin

past

pres. part, with the verb is sometimes used in OE. to denote the

part., egressum.
18

Translate, that he might, in
to, to.

simple past, as here, and not the
progressive.
8

order

The Latin has
19

the
b.

infinitive.
20

See 194.

See 95, note.

Lat. fragore procellarum ac

9

To foretynde

=

Lat. inve-

ferventis oceani.
21

nimus nos undiqueversum part
tempestate prceclusos.
10

Lat. desperatione.

22

Supply us as subject

ace.

See 174.

(169).

^THELWALD CALMS THE
cneowu
waes
1

SEA.

143

to

Faeder ures
1

gebiddende

Diyhtnes Hselendes Cnstes, and for urre hsele and for urum life. And

2 mid-Sy he Sa Saet gebed gefylde, he t>a samod aetgaedere 3 ge Sone aftundnan sae gesmylte ge Sone storm gestilde,

to 4 'Son 4 Ssette
1

4

Surh 5

call

5

seo reSnes Sees stormes wees
tJurli

1

5

blinnende,
sse

and gesyndge 6 windas
lande gebrohton.
tire

Sone smyltestan
t>a

us

aet

Mid-<5y

we

up comon

to

lande,

fram Ssem y5um up 8 abaeron, t5a sona se ilca storm $ft hwearf and com, se-Se for 9 urum 9 intingan 9 medmicel faec 10 gestilde, and ealne

and

scip

eac

7

swilce

7

10

Sone 11 d33g 10 swi^e micel and strang wses, Saette 12 sweotollice ongietan m'eahton Ssette se medmicla
Ssere

m^nn
fierst

stilnesse, Se

Sser

becom, to

13

benum

13

Saes

Godes 14

weres 15 for intingan urre haele 16 heofonlice 17 forgiefen 18 waes.
1

See above,

p. 142, n. 7.

9
10 11

Lat. nostri gratia.

2 8
4

Lat. compleret.
Lat. tumida.
Lat. adeo ut, nearly

See 170.
Lat.
illo.

Translate, that.

= so that.
letter

12
18

From
Lat.

ffget-ffe (34).

5
6

Lat. per omnia,
Lat.
secundi.

=

entirely.

ad preces.
'

Cf the Mod.
.

What

Eng. phrase,
14

bootless bene.'

(sound) has been lost from the

OE, form
7

?

15
16

Dependent on weres. Dependent on benum.
Lat. evasionis. Lat. ccelitus

Lat. quoque.

8

Supply

$ft.

Latin has only

17 18

= from

heaven.

one verb,

rediit.

Not forgiven, but

given.

VI.

THE INVASION OF BRITAIN BY THE PICTS AND SCOTS.
'

(Bede, Eccl. Hist., Bk.

I.,

Chaps. XL, XII.)

Of

Siere

tide 1

Eomane blunnon 2
rice
4

rlcsian

on Breotone.
t5ses

Haefdon hie Breotona
fiftan,

feower hund wintra, 3 and,
5

hundseofontig,
6

Saes-fte

Gaius, 66re

naman

Julius,

se
5

casere,
7

Sset

ilce
8

Igland

gesohte.

And

ceastra,

and

torras,

and
fca

strgeta,

wieron,

we

to-dseg

and brycga on hiera rice geworhte sceawian magon. Eardodon Bryttas
suSdeele,

binnan Ssem
10

dice

9

to

3e

we gemyngodon
ftaet
11

Sset

Severus,
1

se casere, het ftwieres ofer

Tgland

gedician.

Lat. ex quo tempore
this time forth.

=

Eng.

from
2

near Alexandria in Egypt. The lighthouse built on this island

See blinnan.

8
4

See 154.

c.
:

So the Latin

post

annos

gave its name to other houses (cf. Fr. phare). watch-towers are meant.
8

light-

Here

ferme quadringentos septuaginta.

Lat.

stratce.

Are the two
See
Skeat,

But the best
this

calculations

make

words connected?
Prin., pp. 68, 432.
9

to

have been about sixty

years
6

earlier.

Lat. intra vallum.
is

Mod. Eng.
;

Lat. ex quo

=

Eng. from the

ditch

Southern English
Northern.
Cf.

dike

time that.
6
7

Lat. Gaius Julius Ccesar.

probably church with Scotch kirk.
10

Eng.

Lat. farus, for pharos, from Pharos, the name of an island
11

This wall was between the

Friths of Forth and Clyde (see

Lat. trans insulam.

144

THE INVASION OF BRITAIN.
Da
1

145

ongunnon twa

fteoda,

Pihtas 2 norSan, and Scottas
he.r-

westan, hie onwinnan,
gian; and hie
fisere

and hiera sehta niman and
iermdon and hiendon.
hie
3

fela geara

Da, on
to

unstilnesse,

onse^ndon

eerendwrecan
;

Kome
5

mid gewritmn 4 and wependre bene him fultumes 5 bsedon, and him geheton eaSmode hlernesse and singale under6

Seodnesse,

gif

hie

him gefultumoden
but Bede,
Irish;

Sset

hie

meahten
by

Moberly's Bede, p.
following Orosius,

16),
is

and the
of

fourth, held

no doubt

two of the most eminent
scholars

Celtic

thinking of that between the Tyne and the Solway Frith, which was
built

the

day,
Dr.

Professor

Windisch
Stokes,
is

and

Whitley

by Hadrian

(A. D. 120).

Sev-

that they were Celts,

erus' wall
1

was

built A.D. 207-210.

"[This account] is pieced together as an abridgment of Gildas, xi.-xvi.
of his style faulty
;

but more nearly allied to the Cymry than to the Gael.
. .

.

but the turgidity
chastened, and his
in several places

is

The conclusion to which we come is that the Picts, whatever traces they show of a nonAryan
racial element, spoke a Celtic language belonging to a branch of Celtic allied to the
.

grammar

.

.

corrected" (Moberly, pp. 26, 27).
2

On

the Picts the last edition

of

marks:

Chambers' Encyclopaedia re"Four hypotheses have

Cymric,
lect

.

.

.

and that
of

this dia-

of the

Gallo-Cymric stock
Celtic

been formed in regard to the language and origin of the Picts. The first, started by Pinkerton

was a wave

speech

from the continent previous to the Gaulish which held England

and put by Sir Walter Scott into the mouth of the 'Antiquary,' is
that they were Teutons, speak-

when
8
4 6 6

Caesar entered Britain."

Lat. legates.

Lat. epistolis.

ing a Gothic dialect

;

the second,

See 156.

b.

maintained by Dr. Skene, is that they were Gaelic-speaking Celts
; .
. .

This pair of phrases renders What subjectionem continuam.
parallel to the use of

the third, due to Professor
is

Rhys, Aryans, whose language was overlaid

that the Picts were non-

mous terms may

such synonybe found in the
?

by loans from Welsh and

English Prayer-Book to be accounted for ?

How is

it

146

THE INVASION OF BRITAIN.
Da 2
onse^ndon
hie on
3

hiera fiend 1 oferwinnan.
he^re to fultume, and,

hie

him micelne

sona

fcaes-Se

ftis

Igland comon,

$a campedon hie

4

wiS hiera feondum, and him micel wsel
7

6 6 ongeslogon, and of hiera gemserum adrifon and afllemdon ;
5

and Iserdon

Saet hie faesten
;

worhten him 8
9

to gebeorge wifc
f oron.
10

hiera feondum

and swa, mid micle

sige,

ham

Da 11

$3et

Sa ongeaton 3a serran gewinnan, 12

Saet se

Koma-

nisca he^re waes

onweg gewiten,

t^a

comon
13

hie

sona mid

sciph^re on hiera landgemaeru, and slogon
10

ealle

and cweald-

on 13 Saet hie gemetton, and swa-swa ripe ier<5e 14 fortraedon and 15 fornomon, and hie mid ealle foriermdon. And hie Sa e_ft
s^ndon serendwrecan to Kome, and wependre stefne him fultumes bsedon, 16 Saet 17 se 17 earme e8el mid ealle 15 ne
fordilgod ne waere, ne se

nama

Saire

15

se-tte

mid him swa lange scean 19

Komaniscan Seode, 18 19 beorhte, fram fr^mdra

1

See 46. This

2

may be anywhere
388 and 420.
p. 27.

be-

here omitted in the translation, describing the construction of
the (earthen) wall, between the Friths of Forth .and of Clyde.
11

tween

A.D.

See

Moberly, 3 This clause translates Quibus mox legio destinatur armata. Note
the use of the active for the passive,

These three

SCa's respectively

=

when, then,
12 13

and

the.

Lat. inimici.
Lat. ccedunt.

which

also appears in other

See above,

p.

sentences of the context.
4 5

145, n. 6.
14 15

The

legionaries, apparently.
;

Lat. segetem.

Of the Britons
finibus.

Lat. socio-

Mid ealle =

completely.

See

rum
6

175.

Lat. expulit.

See above,

p.

16 IT

Lat. implorantes.

145, n. 6.
7
8

MS.

ffset.

Lat.

murum.
a.

18
19

Lat. provincice.
Lat. claruerat.
Is the

See 184.

Old

9 10

Lat. triumpho.

See 175.
is

English to be translated as perfect
or as pluperfect? See

A

passage of the Latin

scman

(18),

THE INVASION OF BRITAIN.
Seoda 1
sceolde.

147
beon

ungeSwsernesse

2

fornumen
3

and
4

fordilgod
se wses

Da

wses

ft he^re

hider snd,

cumende

And hie sona wi$ on ungewenedre 5 tide, on hserfeste. hiera feondum gefuhton, and sige hsefdon, and ealle fta,
$e Sone 6 deaS 6 beswlcian 6 meahton, ofer Sone
afliemdon, Sa-8e
ser,

see

norft

5

selce

7

geare,

ofer

Sone

sse

hlofiedon

Da geseegdon Romane on an 8 Bryttum* and he^rgedon. 9 swa 8aet hie no ma ne meahten for hiera gescieldnesse
gewinnfullicum
10

fierdum n
laerdon
13

sw^ncte
hie

12

beon. 12

Ac

hie
10

raanedon

13

and

13

Sset

him waepnu worhten, 14

and modes str^ngbe nomen, 15 Saet hie campoden and wiSAnd hie him Sa eac to rsede stoden hiera feondum. 16

and

to

frofre

fundon

t5set

hie

gemeenelice

fsesten

ge17

worhten him to gescieldnesse 17 fram eastsse 66 westsse, stige
lu

stsenenne weall
Seer

rihtre

Severus,

18

se

casere,
19

15

het dician and eorS weall

gewyrcean;
fota
20

t5one

man

nu

to-daeg

sceawian

mseg,

eahta

bradne,
sses

and tw^lf
sut5-

fota 20 heahne. 21

Swilce eac on Sses
12

wearo^e to

1

See 153.

c.

Lat. fatigari.
Lat. monent.

2
8 4
5

Lat. improbitate.

18

See above,
16

p.

Lat. legio.

146, n. 6.

Past part.
Lat.

;

see 113.

14 16

See 194.

6.

See niman.
is

Lat. inopinata. evadere,

The

translation here

very

6

not

mortem

free, as is
17

much

of this selection.
;

evadere.
7 8

Lat. recto tramite

see 160.

See 176.

1

;

176. 2.
18

On an =
New Eng.

at once

;

it

is

the
in

This

is

Mod. Eng. anon, which see
the
9
10
11

wall that
n. 10,

is

wrong; it is Hadrian's meant. See p. 144,
article in the

Diet.

and an

Quarc.

Lat. defensionem.
Lat. laboriosis.

terly
19
21

Review for January, 1860.
See 89.
e.
20

See 154.

Lat. expeditionibus.

A

comparison of this sen-

148
daele, <5anan

THE INVASION OP BRITAIN.
$e hie 1 sciph^re 2 on becom, torras timbredon
sses.

to gebeorge 3 Sses

geworht Sa sealdon hie him bysena maniga hu hie him wsepnu waes, 5 and 6 wyrcean sceolden, and hiera feondum wiSstandan
4
;

Da, sona

ftses-Se Sis faesten

5

and him cySdon Saet hie nsefre ma hie secean woldon; and hie sigefaeste ofer sie ferdon. Da 7 Sse t Sa Pihtas' and Scottas geaxedon, Saet hie ham gewitene
hie $a gretton,

wseron,

and eac

Sset hie hider

no 8

e^ft

ma

hie secean ne 8

9 woldon, $a waeron hie Sy bealdran gewordene, and sona

10

ealne

norftdsel

Sises

Iglandes

6S

ftone

weall

genomon

10

and 10 ges^tton. 10

Wi$ Sisum
12

stod on Ssem fsestene ufan'Seer

weardum

11

se earga

feSa

13

Brytta, and

forhtiendre

14

heortan 14 wunode dseges 15 and nihtes. 15

Da

sohton hiera

15

gewinnan him searwu, and worhton him hocas, and mid tSsem tugon hie earmlice 16 adun of Ssem wealle; and hie
wseron sona deade swa hie eor^an gesohton. 17
forleton Sone weall

Hie 8a
19

and hiera
show

18

byrig,

and flugon
Scotti

onweg;
reditus

tence with the original will

cognita
8

Pictique
10

the translator's power and free-

denegatione.

dom.
1

See 183.

Lat. capessunt.

Ace. plur. ; the Britons.
sing.
;

9
12 13
14

See 178.
Lat. segnis.
Lat. acies.

n

See 166.

1.

Nom. The Latin
2 3 4 5
6

of the

enemy.

is different.

Lat. prospectum. Lat. monita.

Lat.
1.

trementi

corde.

See

160.
15

Free translation.

See

74.

Nihtes

is

formed
though

From

this point to the

end of

on the model
16
17

of daeges,

the sentence
sociis
suri.

=

Lat.

et

valedicunt

from a feminine niht.
Lat. miserrime.

tanquam

ultra

non

rever-

Quibus ad sua remeantibus.
here to

The whole sentence
18

is

very

Probably A.D. 418.
7

free.

Ace. plur. (52).

From

woldon =

Lat.

19

See fleon.

THE INVASION OF BRITAIN.
arid hiera
fieldon.

149

1 gewinnan hie ehton and slogon, and on wsel Wees Sis gefeoht wselgrimre and strangle eallurn 2

Siem sergedonum. 3

For-fton
beoft

and 5 wildeorum 5

swa-swa sceap 4 fram wulfum 5 fornumene, swa Sa earman ceast5

erwaran toslitene 6 and 6 fornumene 6 wieron 6 fram hiera
7 feondum, and hiera sehtum bensemde, and

to

hungre

ges^tte.
1

See slean.
Lat. prioribus.

2

See 178.

6 6

Lat. feris. Lat. discerpuntur.

3
4

See 47.

What

is

the

modern

plural ?

7

See 177.

VII.

THE PASSING OF CHAD.
(Bede, Eccl. Hist., Bk. IV., Chap.
III.)

1

he 3 mid ^E6elSry8e 4 of Easte^nglum and he waes Mere Segna, 5 and buses, 5 and Mere geferscipes, 5 ofer call
2
;

Com

ealdormann.
1

Da Godes
of

geleafa $a wepx, and hat wses, 5a
uity.

Chad,

Bishop
2,

Lichfield,

died

March
In 660.
Owini.

672.

See

the

long served as a horseblock, but is now in the south
It

Diet. Nat. Biog.
2 3

aisle

of

Ely Cathedral.
of

Dean

An interesting memodiscovered, at the
last century, in the vilIt

Ely has suggested that the words are meant for a
Merivale

rial of

him was

pentameter

line (the

m

in

lucem

end of the
lage of
is

being elided even before a consonant)
see
.

Haddenham, near Ely.
cross,

For further

particulars,

a stone which appears to have

formed the base of a

and

Mayor and Lumby's ed. of Bede, p. 429, and Bright' s Early
p. 239.
4

on one

of its sides is the following
:

English Church History,
St.

inscription

Etheldred, or Audrey (died
of the island

679), whose choice

#
DA

LVCEM
.

.

TVAM
.

.

OVINO
REQVIE

of

Ely as the site of a monastery

DEVS

ET

led to the erection of the present
.

cathedral.
of

She was the daughter
of the

AMEN.

Anna, king (not queen)

This

is,

according to

Palgrave,

East Anglians. What is the etymology of our modern word tawdry ?

perhaps one of the most venerable

monuments

of

Saxon antiq150

Dependent on ealdormann.

THE PASSING OF CHAD.
Sohte

151

he

Sset

he sceolde worulde
;

!

wiSsacan,

and

Saet

unaswundenlice
ftingum to
forlet Sa-Se

and hine middangeardes swa gedyde Son ongierede 2 and 2 genacodode 2 Sset he eall

he haefde, nefne his anfealdne gegierelan, and com to LiJestinga le, to Saem mynstre 3 t5ses arwierSan
4

5

bisceopes.

Baer
Saet

him

5

aexe

and adesan on handa

;

tac-

node

in

6

Son

he nalses io idelnesse, swa sume 6$ re,
;

ac to gewinne, in Saet 7 mynster eode
swilce

and

Saet

selfe eac

mid deedum gecySde.
in
8

And,

for-$on-Se

he

lyt
10

genyhtsumode
gewrita, he Sy

smeaunge and in leornungej haligra ma mid his handum wann, and 9 worhte
Daes
10

Sa 5ing Se niedSearflicu wseron.

is

to tacne, Saet

he mid 5one bisceop in Siem foresprecenum wicum 11 for his arwierftnesse and for his geornf ulnesse u betweoh Sa brotfor wses hsefd. Donne 13 hie inne w hiera leornunge
1

15

See 26.

The word

is

origi-

4

From what
?

Latin

(Greek)

nally

a

man,
age

compound, from wer, and a hypothetical aid,
the
adj.

word
5 6
7

See 184.

a.

(cf.

eald,

old).

Translate, by.

From age of man

to generation

Wfc/uie accusative

?

=

the people living at one time,
this to in-

mankind; and from
not violent.
in the

habited earth, the transitions are

The

similar changes

What is the form of this word Mod. Eng. ? Wherein does it differ from the other Mod. Eng. word of the same form ?
8

in

meaning turn and Gr. Ko'0>u>?, especially in Biblical usage, will be found suggestive.
2

of the Lat. scecu-

9

This clause

added by the

translator.
10

Dependent on tacne.
Lat. mansione.

n
exuit
;

Lat.

two words
Latin

for

12

The double phrase

translates

one.
8

See 162.

pro

suce reverentia devotionis.

From
it

what
'

word ?
in

13
14

=

When.

Has
'

the

same meaning
?

Adverb; contrasted with ate,
line.

York Minster

next

152

THE PASSING OF CHAD.
1

and hiera becrsedinge

beeodon, Sonne waes he ute wyrc3

2 2 ende, swa-hwaet-swa Searf gesegen waes.

Da he
and
5

M

sume 3

his geferan to

lice

dydon, and se

4 hwaethwugu swilces ute dyde, byrig to ciricean eodon, swa hie gelom5 bisceop, ana in Caere ciricean, oSSe in

dsege

becrsedinge o3o"e in

gebedum
6a

geornfull waes, 8a gehlerde
aefter

he se^mninga, swa-swa he $ft
estan
stefne
7

Son saegde, Sa swetsingendra

6

and

faegerestan,

and

blis-

siendra,
10

of

heofonum 68 eorSan
8aet
is

astigan.

Da

stefne 8 and

gone sang 8 he cwaeS
su8dsele heofones, Saet

he

serest

gehlerde

fram

east-

fram heanesse 8ere winterlican

sunnan upganges; and Sanan to him styccemselum 9 nea9a becom to Saecean 10 8sere ciricean fte 11 se laecton, o8-8aet he
bisceop in waes
15
;

and, ingangende, call

12

gefylde, and

in
13

ymbhwyrfte ymbsealde.

And he

8a geornlice his

mod

13 in 3a 8ing 8e he gehlerde. aS^nede 15 14 of healfre tide fsece, ^ft swa-swa

Da
hrofe
16

gehierde
8sere

he

ilcan

ciricean upastlgan

<5one

ilcan
6t5

blissesang,

and,

8y ilcan
18

wege
20

17

8e he

asr

com,

up

heofonas mid unas^cgendre

swetnesse ^fthweorfan. 19
1

MS. becrsedon.
Lat. videbantur.

8

Ace. after gehierde.

2

g

See

72.

9a

Se sang.
1.

3
5

See 176.
Lat. oratorio loci.

4

See 154.

b.

10

Lat. tectum, for

which

17

The monks
.

has hrof.

had gone to the church. Cf below,
p. 153,
6
1.

u Governed by
12

in.

7.

Ace. sing.
Lat.

See 169.

For

this

word see

13 14
16

animum
Icetitice

intenderet.
15

Chaucer, Knight's Tale 1704.
7

Lat. quasi.

See 176. See
2.

Lat. vocem suavissimam can-

Lat.

canticum.
-

tantium atque Icetantium. What adjective is concealed in bliss(see 34) ?

169.
18

17

See 176.

Lat. ineffabili. Lat. reverti.

19

THE PASSING. OF CHAD.
Da wunode he
wafiende
;

153
wundriende and

Sser

sum

1

faec

1

1

tide,

and mid behygdigum mode
Saire

ftohte

and smeade

hwset Sa Sing beoii sceolden.
2

Da ontynde
his

se bisceop Sset tacen,
5

eagSyrel

ciricean,

and mid

handa slog

swa-swa his gewuna waes
he in to him eode.
he, se

gif hwilc

mann
to

ute wsere, Sset

Da
to 3
:

eode he sona in to him.

Cwae8
4

bisceop,

him
6

"Gang
t5a

hrafte

ciricean,
;

and
eac

hat

5

tire

seofon broftor hider to
"

me cuman

and

M
7

swilce

mid wes.
8

Da

he hie

serest t5set hie

him comon, (5a manode betweonan him 6set maegen lufe 8
hie
to

10

and

sibbe,
;

heolden

and betweon 9 eallum Godes mannum geornlice and eac swilce $a gesetennesse tSses regollican
10

Seodscipes,

tSe

hie fram
fiaera

him geleornodon, and on him

gesawon, o86e in

godcundum

for^geleoredra faedra dsedum oSSe " gemete, Saet hie Sa ungewergedre geornful^Efter tSon he underfiiedde, 13

15

nesse 11 fylgden and laesten. 12

and "him saagde ftaet 14 and Sus cwaeS fore,
15

se
:

daeg

swI5e neah stode his forSleofa 15

"Se

cuma and
se

se

lufiend-

lica,
1

se-Se

gewunode ure broSor neosian,
7

com

swilce

Lat. aliquantulum horce (170).

Lat. virtutem.

2

In what Mod. Eng. word

is

a

8

See 153.
Lat. ad

i.

disguised form of -ffyrel to be

9

= toward, rather than

found
of
8
4

?

What
?
1.

is

the etymology

among.
10

window

Lat. instituta disciplines regu-

See 201.

laris.

What

is

the

etymology of

11

See 174; 160.

1.

church f
is it
5 6

From what language

12

How

is

this

related to the

originally derived ?

Mod. Eng. verb

last,

and

to the

See hat a 11.

German

leisten f

Imper. sing.

When

followed

13
14

Lat. subjunxit.

by the adj. hael, what Mod. Eng. word does it give rise to ?

Dependent on daeg.
Lat. amabilis.

15

154
to-daeg

THE PASSING OF CHAD.
to

me, and

me

of

worulde
1

clegde

and laSode. and
biddao"
1

For-Son ge Sonne mi ^fthweorfaS

to ciricean,

ure broSor Saet hie mine forgfore mid hiera gebedum and benum Dryhtne bebeoden 2 and swilce eac hiera selfra
;

5

3 forSfore, Saere tld is uncuS, Saet hie

gemynen
5

4

mid
6

waec-

cenum and gebedum and mid godum
Mid-$y he Sa
ftas

forecuman.

word, and Sises gemetes inanigu, to

him sprecende
10

waes,

and

hie,

onfangenre
<5a

7

his

7

bletsunge,

swtSe unrote fram him eodon,
to

him

se-6e

(5one

hwearf se 8 ana 8 ^ft 9 in heofonlican sang gehlerde, and nine
astreahte
fore
ic

eaSmodlice on eor8an 3us
cwaeS
"
:

Sone
<5e

Mm
and

fseder,
(Sees
11

mot

10

bisceop, and ohtes " axian " ?

CwaeS he:
Se
15

"Axa

5u wille."
for

Da cwaeS he:
lufe
13

" Ic

la

halsie
12

bidde

Godes

Saet
ic

5u

me

ges^cge
of

hwset se sang wsere blissiendra $e
14

gehlerde,
aefter

heofonum cumendra
16

ofer

$as

15

ciricean,

and,

tide,

^fthweorfendra
:

to
.

heofonum."
stefne

Andswarode
gehlerde, eac

he,

se

bisceop

" Gif

Su

sanges
ofer

and
ic

Su
6e

heofonlic
20

weorod

ongeate

us

cuman,
nsenigum
soZws,

bebeode on Dryhtnes naman
independent where the Latin has reververbs,
tentes
2 3
.

Saet
8

6u
Lat.

(Sset

m^nn

1

Here are

two

ipse

meaning

Owini.

.

.

dicite.

Lat. commendent.

with hwearf Belongs h\vearf ft = Lat. rediit.
9
. .
.

;

What change

of

meaning meaning

in

10

See 137.
156.
b.

the modern word uncouth f
related to the ancient
*

How
?

n See
12
13

See 194.

See 134.

Refers to

sang.
See above,

According to the Latin, weorcum should be supplied.
6
7

5

H Belongs
15

to blissiendra.

Lat. oratorium.

Dependent on gemynen.
See 167.

p. 152, n. 5.
16

Lat. tempus.

THE PASSING OF CHAD.
1

155
fte

cyfte

ne

1

1

s^cge

ser
2

mmre

forSfore.

Ic

soSlice s^cge

Saette Saet

waeron

$ngla gastas Se Saer comon, Sa

me

to

8aem heofonlicum

medum

clegdon and lat>edon 5a
sefter
3

ic

simle
^ft5

lufode and wilnode.

And,

seofon dagum, hie

hweorfende

3

and cumende

me

geheton,

and me Sonne
to 4

mid him
cweden

Isedan woldon."

Daet wses

swa
5

soSlice

mid dsede gefylled swa him
he
sona
gehrinen

wses.

Da

wees

lichamlicre 5

and seo 6 dseghwsemlice weox and h^figode; and Sa, Sy seofoftan dsege, swa him gehaten wses, aefter5on-6e his forSfore getrymede 8 mid onfangennesse Sses
untrymnesse,
7

10

Dryhtenlican

llchaman
"

and

blodes,

9

[6aette ]

seo

halge
10

sawl wses onllesed fram Sees lichaman h^fignessum,

and
to
15

mid $ngla latteowdome
gellefanne,

5a

ecean

and geferscipe, swa riht gefean and 6a heofonlican
Is
t5aet

12

is

eadig-

nesse
5e

13

gestah and gesohte.

hwilc

14

wundor 5eah-

he 5one daeg his deaSes, oS5e
bli(5e

daeg,

Dryhtnes 6one he simle sorgiende bad 6$-t$aet gesawe,

ma,

15

8one

he come
1

?
6

Lat. dicas.

Dem.

pron.

Translate

by

2 8

See 189.

3.

that.

These
part,

translate
redituros.

the

Lat.

7

See 176.

future

would be
with the

in translation, or
finite verb.

Supply would
future

8 9

Supply he as the subject. The MS. has ffaette, but the
it.

The

sense does not require
10

participle of the following clause,

Lat. ergastulo.

adducturos,
finite verb.
4

is

translated

by a
re-

u See
12 13 14
15

33 (lad.-).

Lat. fas.

Governs him, or may be

Ace. plur.
Translate, any.
Lat. potius.

garded as belonging to the following verb (201. 1).
6

See 174

;

160. 1.

VIII.

THE DANGEES OF GREATNESS.
(From Wulfstan's Homilies, No.
49.)

was Bishop of also known by his Latinized name, Lupus [Wulfstan Worcester and Archbishop of York from 1002 to 1023. This homily is one of those attributed to him, but, according to Napier, with insufficient reason, as a portion of it is found in the Blickling Homilies, the manuscript of which bears the date of 971.]

^Eghwilc heah
;

ar,

her on worulde,

bi(5

mid frecnessum 1

2 efne swa 3 t>a woruldgeSyngfta beoo" maran, swa ymbseald Swa we magon, be Saim, 3a Sa frecnessa beoS swrSran. 4 Daet treow, Sonne, $e bysena oncnawan and ongietan. 6 5 wiexo" on SaJrn wudubearwe, Sset hit hlifaS up ofer call

5

Sa 63ru treowu and brset 6*
gest^nt,

7

hit,

fionne
10

8 s^mninga storm

and se stranga wind, 9 gewjeged and gesw^nged Sonne
eac
1

<5onne

biS

hit

swlolicor

se oSer

wudu. 11
12

Swa
Sonne

bi$
hie

gelice
See 144.

be Ssem
2

heaclifum

and torrum,
10

See 114.
.
.

8

Swa

.

.

.

maran, swa

.

Frequently the second correlative, in such pairs as ffonne
.
.
.

swiffran

= the greater, the fiercer.

ffonne,

5a
;

.

.

.

ffa,
is

need not

Note the tendency to antithesis. * Observe the redundancy.
5

be translated

it

frequently
order,

followed by an inverted

See

weaxan.

6

= so

that.

as here, the verb preceding its
subject.

6a
7 8

See brsedan (34). See 184. b.

See 202.
offer

n Se
12

wudu =

the rest of

Note the

alliteration.

the forest, not the other wood.

9

Second subject of gest^nt.
156

Probably here

=

crag.

THE DANGERS OF GREATNESS.
hlifiao"

157

feorr

up

ofer $a oSre 1 eorSan, hie <5onne s^mninga
2

feallan

onginnaft,
4

and

full

Searlice
5

hreosan 3 to eorSan.
fta-

Swilce
t>e

eac

be fisem

heagum

muntum and dunum, 6
hie

heah standaS ofer ealne middangeard, Sa-hwaeftre wite
<5ses
7

habbao*

ealdordomes,
gefireade

<5aet

beoS

geneahhe

raid
ge-

5

heofonfyre
1

and

geSrseste,

and mid liegum
(Rich.
7/7.,
1.

See

p. 156, n. 12.

Shakespeare
259-260):

3.

2

This resembles the use of gin

in Chaucer, almost as

an auxiliary

They

that stand high have
blasts to shake

many

tense-sign, like do in

Mod. Eng.,

them

;

the latter not being thus used in

And

if

they

fall,

they dash them-

OE.

In Chaucer

it

usually occurs

selves to pieces.

as the preterit gan, e.g. in the
Clerk's Tale, 392
:

"

til

the sonne

3 Hen. VI., 5. 2. 11-15. No doubt many Elizabethan parCf. also
allels

gan descende."

See Lounsbury's
to

could be found

;

I

have

History of the English Language.

An

interesting parallel
in

is

be

noted in Chapman, Byron's Conspiracy, Act 3, Scene 1 (p. 232
of Shepherd's ed.),

found
as, for

New Testament Greek, " The example, Acts 1.1:
I

and Byrorfs
1

Tragedy, Act
p.

5,

Scene
the

(/&.,

former treatise

made,

The-

ophilus, concerning all that Jesus

ElizaPerhaps bethans may have derived them

272).

began (^paro) both to do and to
teach."

According to Thayer, however (Greek-English Lexicon
of the
in its

from Seneca; cf. the Chorus in Act 4 of the Hippolytus, vv.
1123-1143
201
; ;

Hercules
8-11.

Furens
Seneca

New

Testament), there

is

(Edipus

of beginning, in its proper ing.

employment always a sense mean-

may have

caught a suggestion

from Sophocles, though the parsee allel is somewhat remote
;

Dependent, like feallan, on Give the hid. pret. onginnaff.
plur.

3

the
717,
s
6

latter's

Antiynne,

vv.

712-

and Horace,
See 58.
1.

C. II. 10.

would be interesting to know from what literary source
It

4

Redundant.

these illustrations are ultimately
derived.

Mod. Eng. (24) ? adverb down derived
7

What is dun in Whence is the
?

They remind one of

Note the poetical term.

158
slaegene.

THE BANGERS OF GREATNESS.
Swa
2

fta

hean mihta 1 her on worulde
to lore
weortSaS,

hreosaft,

and

feallaft,

and
4

and

ftisse

3

worulde 3

welan

weorSaS

to

sorge,

and

8as

eorSlican

wundor
and

weorSaS to nahte.
5

Deah we
wuldre
5

Sisse
6

worulde wle^nca 5
swrSe;
5

tilien 6

swlSe,
6

in

semen
5

tSeah

we us

gescierpen
6

mid $y
beorht5

readestan
estan

godwe^bbe,

and gefraetwien
7

mid

7

fiy

golde,

and mid
;

ftem

deorwierSestum

gimmum

utan ymbhon 6
10

hwseftre 8
'Sa

we

sculon on nearonesse e_nde 9
fta

gebidan.

Deah-t5e

mihtigestan and

rlcestan hateu

6

him 10

11 gewyrcean of marmanstane, and mid goldfrsetwum and mid gimcynnum call astiened, and mid

re_ste

seolfrenum

ruwum and godw^bbe

eall

oferwrigen,
12

and

15

mid deorwier^um wyrtgem^ngnessum eall gestreded, and mid goldleafum gestreowod ymbutan, hwse^re 8 se bitera
deaS Sset todseleS
se
eall.

Donne

biS seo gl^ng agoten, 13

and

and Sa gimmas toglidene, and t58et 14 and to dust 15 gold tosceacen, and 'Sa lichaman tohrorene
t>rym
tobrocen,

gewordene.
1

This suggests Seneca (CEdi1, v.

8

This word might be omitted
;

pus, Act

11):

in translation
9

see p. 156, n. 10.

Imperia
2
3

sic

excelsa Fortunae obja-

Object of

gebidan.
is

cent.

10
11

See 184.

a.

Pleonastic. Genitive,

Which

part of this word
?

dependent

on

native,
12

and which foreign
cf.

welan.
4 6 6

An

instance of a strong verb
28) which has already
in

Cf Mod. Eng. come to naught. Note the alliteration.
.

(104;
13

become weak

OE.

In what

mood and

tense are

these verbs, and
7

why ?
both the dative

Note the parallelism and the enumeration.
14

Mid governs

From what
See 24.

verb (37)?

and the instrumental (175).

13

IX.

DUTIES OF THE RICH TOWARD THE POOR.
(From the same Homily as the
last.)

Se Hselend cwaeS to Seem wlancan 1

:

Su swa feesthafol minra gada, Se ic hwon 2 receleasodest Su Seere giefe, Se ic Se geaf ? nu afierre 3 fram mmre serene, Se ic Se forgeaf
bist 3

"For hwy wsere To Se sealde ?
Ic Se
;

Sonne

Su wsedla

011

woruldlife.

For hwon

2

noldest 4 Su

geS^ncean
gode
daed,

5 Sset ic wille forgieldan aighwilcuin

Se

for
ic

m^nn ane Mid minum naman mann gedeS ?
him
3

hundteontigum

hit

forgielde,

swa

hit

is

on

mmum
9

6 7 godspelle gecweden and gesaed, 'Swa-hweet-swa

ge s^llaS
s^llaS,

anum
ic

of

mmum

Sgem laestum, 8 ge hit simle
3

me

\
10

and

eow wiS 10 Seem

ges^lle

ecne dream 11 on

heofomim.'
1

From what OE. word

is

the

6
7

Pleonastic.

Mod. Eng.
meaning
2

rich derived (see Skeat,

What

portion of this
is
it

is lost,

Pn'w., p. 61)?
is

From what OE.
modern
significa-

and how
8

replaced,

in the

the

Mod. Eng. whatsoever ?
See 66.
9

tion derived ?

Note "Wulf stan's use of to
in the sense

Cf the form of
.

this sentence
1.

hwon, for hwon,
of why.
3 5

with that on
1

p. 135,

14.

See 88.
4

=

in return for.

How is this

See 188.

See 139.

to be reconciled with other senses
of wiff ?
11

should not the preterit be used here ?
159

Why

Not dream, but

joy, bliss.

160

DUTIES OF THE RICH
to

TOWARD THE
me swa

POOR.

Du mann,
giefena ?

hwon
!

eart

Su

1 ungeSancfull minra

Hwaet

ic

Se gesceop and
3

geliffoeste,

and
eall

seg-

hwset

2

Saes

Se Su haefst

ic

Se sealde.
4

Mm
Ic
hit
6

is

Saet

Su
5

haefst,

and Sin

nis

nan wiht.

eall

afierre

De ic hit fram Se; Su leofa 5 butan me, gif Su inaege. 7 7 7 12 Searfum dselan. Ic sealde, to Son Saet Su hit sceoldest
swe/ie Surh

me 8

selfne Sset ic

eom

se ilca

God
12

<5e

Sone

weligan and Sone heanan geworhte mid

mmum

handum.
Sonne hie

Dset 9 ic wolde, Sset Su mine Searfan feddest,
10

wseron Se
tlSe
11

biddende

forwierndest.

minra 10 goda, 10 and Su him simle For hwon noldest Su hit 9 geS^ncean,
12

gif

Su

him mildheortnesse on
12

gecySdest,
14

Saet

Su ne

sceoldest

Sees 13

nan Sing

forleosan, Se

Su him dydest,
agnes
17 15

15

me on Sre s^lene abelgan hwon agnodest Su Se anum Saet
ne

mines
ic

15

?

To

inc 16 baem
ic

sealde?
16

To hwon

feddest Su Se senne of Seem Se

inc

bsem 17

18 18 18 f eorhn^re ? gesceop to welan, and to wiste, and to

To hwon heolde 19 Su
Saet

hit Se

anum and Smum bearnum,
?

meahte manigum genyhtsumian 20
See 155.
10
c.

UnieSe Se wses
b.

1

See 156.

2
4

See 89.

3

See 121.

11

Not

to be

confounded with
j.

In what two Mod. Eng. words

tide.
12 13
14

See 156.

does

wiht appear ?
?

From what

Optative more regular.

OE. forms are aught and naught
derived
5
6
7

See 154.
Refers

a.

to

its

antecedent

See 122 and 198.

=

canst, not

mayst (135).

15 16 17 is
19

in order that.

Dependent on s^lene. Note this rare dual (81).
See 79.

8

What
in

has this accusative be-

come
9

Mod. Eng.?

=y

r, as.

Anticipative of the following

From what
The sense

infinitive ?

noun-clause.

20

is

pluperfect.

DUTIES OF THE RICH
Saet

TOWARD THE

POOR.

161

Su

hit eall ne

meahtest gefaestnian, ne mid inseglum
Sset hit
3
1

beclysan.

Wenst Su

Sin sle Saet seo eorSe Se
9

forSbringS ?

Heo

2

Se grewS,

and andlifan bringS. hafa 6 Su aet 6 Smum gewinne Saet Su maege, and set 6 Se Ic Se 7 setbrede 8 mine renas, 8 ^33t hie Sinum ges wince.
;

and blewS, 3 and seed Iget, 4 Ic nu afierre minne fultum fram

5

5!nre eorSan 9 ne rlnen. 10

Ic afierre fram $e mine mildiermt5u,

heortnesse,
aetiewed.

and Sonne biS sona gecySed Sin
n
\5ijjfe

and

Gif

M

Sast

hit

Sin
13

bocland 12

sle

Saet

Su on
10

10

and on agne seht geseald, hit Sonne waeron mine waeteru, Sa-Se on heofonuni wseron, Sonne ic mine
eardast,

giefe

eorSwarum

daelde.

Gif Su mint haebbe, 11
sle,

deel

renas

ofer Sine eorSan.

Gif Su strang

s^le wsestmas

Smre
15

eor6an.

Ic ahierde
15

forbasrnS
leas 16

mine sunnan, and heo gebierht; Sonne heo ealle Sine aaceras, and Sonne bist 15 Su dselIdel

mines renes, 17 and Se Sonne biS w Sin eorSe
18 19

and

Mine Searfan libbaS be me; gii unnyt goda gehwilces. Su maege, 11 wuna butan me. Mine Searfan me ealne 20 weg 20
habbaS, and
1

ic

hie naefre ne forlsete."
ffset.

20
is

Anticipative of

erty.

The term
See 172.
See 189.
1.

explained by

2

Refers to what See 109.

?

the following clause.
18
14 15
16 17
1

4 5 6
7

See Isedan.

3.

See 121 and 198.

Are these presents or futures?
See 146.

=

from;

of.

at one's hands.
8 10

See 164. See 161.
See 196.
d.

gee 28.

See 155.

a.

9
11
12

MS. rinaQ

18
.

Dependent on
b.

gehwilces.
Idel

See 154.
or char19

Land held by boc
;

Dependent
See 155.
See 170.

on
a.

and

ter, freehold estate

distinguished

unnyt.
20

from folcland, communal prop-

Mod. Eng. alway.

x.

ALFRED'S PREFACE TO BOETHIUS.
(Prefixed to his translation.)

^Elfred cyning wses wealhstod 1 Sisse bee, and hie of

Boclaedene 2

on Englisc we^nde, swa heo nu is gedon. Hwilum he s^tte word be worde, hwllum andgiet of andgiete, swa-swa he hit Sa sweotolost and andgiet5

fullicost gere^ccean

meahte for

ftgem

mislicum and manig-

fealdum woruldbisgum Se hine oft eegSer^ge on mode Da bisga 3 us sind swrSe on lichaman bisgedon. gje
earfot5rime $e on his

dagum on Sa

ricu

becomon

t5e

he

10

underfangen jisefjifi, and tSeah, ^5a he tSas boc haefde to Engliscum spelle gew^nd, geleorjiod, and of Laedene
Sa geworjiie he hie ^ft to leoSe, swa-swa heo nu gedon
is.

And nu bjj^,and
Se
tSas

t5sera

Godes naman halsa^ aelcne boc r^dan l^stg, 5 Sset he for hine gebidda,
for
gif

and him ne wii
15

he 6 hit rihtlicor ongiete t5onne he 7
selc

meahte

;

for-$am-Se

mann

sceal

be
Saet

his

andgietes

maJSe, and be his semettan, sprecan don ftset-Saet he
1

he spricS, and

Wealh-

signifies foreign (see

2

Perhaps originally in contrast

walnut}, and sometimes servant,
orig. Celtic, Celt (cf
.

to the Latin
3
4 6
7

spoken in Britain.
6

Wales, Welsh,

See

51. a.

Cornwall), from

FoZcce, the

name
Gallic-

Supply he.

See 190.

of a Celtic tribe (Caesar,

The

reader,

War, Bk. VII.).
162

Alfred,

XL

A PRAYER OF KING ALFRED.
(From the end
of his translation of Boethius.)

1 1 Dryhten, selmihtiga God, Wyrhta and Wealdend ealra gesceafta, ic bidde Se for Smre miclan mildheortnesse,

and

for Saire halgan rode tacne,

2

and for Sanctae Marian

msegShade, and for Sancti Michaeles gehiersunmesse, and
for ealra fcmra halgena 3 lufan

Su

me

4

gewissie

bt

Sonne

ic

and hiera earnungiim, Sast aworhte to $e; and gewissa

5

me

to ftinum willan,

and

to

mlnre sawle Searfe, 5 b$t Sonne

ic self

cunne 6

;

and

gestat5ela
;

mm

mod

to

Sinum willan and
Sses deofles
3

to mlnre sawle tSearfe

and gestranga me wi^

me Sa fulan galnesse and selce unrihtwisnesse and gescield me wiS nimum wi^erwinnum, gesewenlicum and ungesewenlicum and tsec me ftinne wilcostnungum
;

and
;

afierr f ram

10

;

lan 7 to wyrceanne

;

fiaet ic

maege

8

i5e

inweardlice lufian to-

foran eallum Singum,

lichaman.
Allesend,

mid cleenum geSance and mid claenum For-Son-6e Su eart mm Scieppend, 9 and mm
Fultum,
Sie

J5

mm

mm

mm Tohopa.
1

Se lof

Frofor, Treownes, and and wuldor nu and a a a, to

mm

worulde butan ieghwilcum ^nde.
See 152.
*

Amen.
7 8

See 194. See 166.

b.

2

Governed by
See 153.
c.

for.

5
6

Object of wyrceanne. See 196. d.

8

Optative (130).

9

See 150.

163

XII.

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
[The Old English version of the Romance of Apollonius, from which our is taken, belongs, according to Wiilker, to the second third of the eleventh century according to Ebert, to its beginning and according to Riese, most probably to the tenth. The original story was almost certainly written in Greek, probably in the third century of our era, and by an imitator of Xenophon of Ephesus. This is lost, and is only represented by a Latin version, which may have been made in the same century, and in any case not later than the sixth, by a writer of no great education, who introduced Christian terms and conceptions, added some things, and retrenched others. Over a hundred manuscripts of this Latin versiQnare
extract
; ;

known, of which twelve are in England. Scarcely any two manuscripts agree, and the discrepancies are often great still, for convenience, they have been grouped into three main classes. To the third of these, which is not the equal of the other two, the immediate original of our version must have belonged, resembling most nearly a manuscript of the Bodleian
;

Library (Laud H. 39), and, at the next further remove, one of the British

Museum

The popularity

(Sloan. 1619). of the

romance

is

attested not only

by the number and

variety of the Latin manuscripts, but no less by the mediaeval and subsequent translations into almost every modern language. Thus, for example,
there
is

in Old

laid in the time of

French a romance of Jourdain de Blaie, the scene being Charlemagne, and the temple of Diana being converted
its

into a nunnery.

An

abridgment of the Latin version found
of that collection.

way

into the Gesta

Roma-

norum, as No. 153

incorporated into the Pantheon into English verse by Gower, in his Confessio Amantis (Pauli's edition 3. 284 ff. Morley's abridgment, in The Carisbrooke Library, pp. 410-431). From Gower it was borrowed by Shakespeare, or whoever was the author
;

In the twelfth century the story was of Godfrey of Viterbo, whence it was turned

drama which passes under his name, as the groundwork of Pericles, Prince of Tyre ; the name Pericles being perhaps adapted from the Pyrocles of Sidney's Arcadia. The scenes of Pericles which may be compared with our extract are the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 5th of Act II., and the 3d of Act V. The Old English Apollonius was edited by Thorpe, in 1834, from MS. S.
of the
18. 201 of

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 164

;

and

to this edition the student

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
is

165

referred for the spelling and punctuation of the original. It is only a fragment, breaking off in the midst, and recommencing near the end of the tale, as we have indicated below. Further information will be found in Rohde, Der griechische Roman,

489; Singer, ApolloLeipzig, 1876; Teuffel, History of Latin Literature, nius von Tyrus, Halle, 1895 Zupitza's article on the OE. version in Herrig's Archiv 97. 17-35 Warton, History of English Poetry 2. 302-303
; ;

;

and Riese's edition of the Latin, which
costs but a trifle.

is

the standard (Leipzig, 1871), and

Besides the Tudor versions, there is an English translation in Thorpe's in Swan's of course not adhering closely to our text edition, and another

rendering of the Gesta
.*-?

Romanorum (Bohn

Library)].

.

^^. co
1

The Shipwreck.
hie bsed ealle gretan, 2

and on scip astah. 3 4 and hie forftweard Mid-<5y-fte hie ongunnon Sa rowan, wseron on hiera weg, $a wearS Ssere sse smyltnes aw^nd
Apollonius
faeringa

betweox twam tidum, 5 and wearS iniclu hreohnes 6 aweaht, swa ftset seo sse cnysede Sa heofonlican tunglu, and Saet gewealc Ssera yfta hwafterode mid windum. Dairto-eacan

comon

eastnort5erne

windas,

and

se
Saet

angrlslica
scip
call

suSwesterna wind him ongean stod/ and
1

Apollonius, King of Tyre, has

fled

from the cruelty and treach-

Cyrene, on the African coast. It is at this point that our selection
begins.
2

ery of Antiochus, King of Antioch, on a richly freighted vessel,

Observe the
all

ellipsis,

bade

and taken refuge with the
zens of Tarsus.

citi-

greet them
ject

where the subis

Finding the citizens in extremity, on account of a
prevalent famine, he relieves their
necessities

of

the

infinitive

to

be

supplied,
8 5
6

See 28.

4

See 199.

b.

by

liberal gifts,

where-

Lat. intra duas horas diet.

upon they

erect a statue of

him
not-

This seems to be a reminisI.

in the market-place.

But
it

cence of Virgil, AZneid
7

103.

withstanding the gratitude of his
beneficiaries,

Lat. (verse):

Hinc Notus, hinc

he finds

expedient

Boreas, hinc horridus Africus instat.

to leave them,

and embarks for

166
tobeerst

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.

on Sisse ^geslican hreohnesse. Apollonius 1 geferan ealle forwurdon 2 to deaSe, and Apollonius ana 3 becom mid

sunde to Pentapolim 'Seem Cyreniscan lande, and Seer upeode on Seem strande. Da stod he nacod on Seem strande, and
5

beheold Sa
"

sse,

and cweeS

:

3* Neptune manna bereafiend and unsce^3 Sigra beswlcend *! Su eart waelhreowra Sonne Antiochus se For mmum Singum Su geheolde Sas weelhreowcyning.

Eala

!

Su

see

!

nesse, Sset ic fturh Se
10

gewurde
?
9

4

weedla 5 and Searfa, and
left
7

Sset

se

wselhreowa cyning
ic
8

me Sy
llfes

6

fordon
ic

meahte.

Hwider mseg

nu faran

Hwaes

maeg

biddan

?

hwa

giefS

Seem uncuSan

fultum?"

Apollonius and the Fisherman.
Mid-Sy-t5e he Sas Sing waes

sprecende to him selfum,
fiscere
:

15

Sa feeringa geseah he sumne 11 beseah, and Sus sarlice cwseS

10

gan,

to
12

Seem

he

mann, enum.
1

sie

13

Sa3t
14

Su

sle.

"Gemiltsa me, Su ealda Gemiltsa me nacodum forlid-

Nses

na of earmlicum 15 byrdum 16 geboren; and,
of proper
9 10 11

The Latin endings
.

See 55 and 181. See 169.

nouns are not always a guide to the case (54) Here we have the
genitive.
2 8 4

In the original, he

falls

at

the fisherman's feet, and bursts
into tears.
3a

See forweorffan.
See 79.

What

reason
?

may

See 43.

6.

MS. MS.

gewurflfe.

have led to the change 12 See 164. g.
18

6
6
f 8

See 150.
eaffe.
6.

See 193.

c.

See 178.

14 16

See 189, note.
Lat. Uumilibus.
Plural,

See 156.

Zupitza's emendation for

MS.

16

where we should ex-

pect the singular.

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
Saes-Se
1

167
ic

Su geare forwite hwsem Su gemiltsie, 2

com

4 3 Apollonius, se Tyrisca ealdormann. 5 Da, sona swa se fiscere geseah Sset se geonga

mann

he mid mildheortnesse hine upahof, and laedde hine mid him to his huse, and Sa estas 6 him
set

his

fotum

laeg,

5

beforan l$gde Se he him to beodanne heefde.
wolde,
toslat

Da

glet

he
;

be his mihte, maran arf aestnesse

7

him gecySan

Sa his wsefels on twa, and sealde Apollonie Sone " Nim Saet ic fte to healfan dsel, Sus cweSende s^llanne
:

hsebbe,

and ga into
9

Saere

ceastre.
10

.Wen 8
Gif

is

8

Saet

Su
11

10

gemete

sumne

Saet

9*

Se gemiltsie.

M
14

ne

finde

nsenne Se Se gemiltsian wille,
12
13

w^nd Sonne

hider ongean,

and genyhtsumien unc bairn mine lytlan aehta; far Se 15 onnscnoS 16 midme. Deah-hwseSre ic myngie Se, gif Su, ful-

tumiendum 17 Gode, becymst
Sset

to

Smum

serran

weorSmynte,

15

Su ne forgiete
20

18

mmne
:

Searfendlican gegierelan."

Da
Smne
1

cwaeS Apollonius
ic

" Gif ic Se 19 ne geS^nce Sonne
^ft forlidennesse

me
and

b^t biS,
22

wysce
22

21

Saet ic

gefare,

gellcan

^ft

ne gemete."
See
12

Here
1.

=

in order that.

See 193.

a.

157.
2

18
14 16
17

See 195.
adjectives in -isc, fol-

Note the rare dual (81). " See 184. See 55.
See 172.
1.

a.

Proper lowing the Latin, are often used

8

where we employ the
Translate, of Tyre.
*
6
7 8

genitive.

Gode is supplied the Latin has deo favente.
See 167.
18

;

See 194.

b.

19

Ace.
?

Lat. princeps.
Lat. epulas.

5

See 143.

20

Present or future
is

Could

Mod. Eng.
Lat. pietati.
9
1

be used to trans-

MS.

faBstnesse.

late
21 22

it ?

Lat. forsitan.

See 194. See 195.

a.

See

30,

and

194. 6.

9a
11

Neut. for masc.

10

Mod. Eng.

still

has thy

like.

See 196.

d.

See 181.

168

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
The, Incidents in the

Gymnasium.

^Efter tSisum
1

wordum he

eode on Sone

weg Se him
and

getaeht

wses, ofi-Saet

he becom to

Ssere ceastre geate,

Seer ineode.
llfes
5

Mid-$y-$e he Sohte hwone he biddan meahte
2

fultumes,

$a geseah he senne nacodne cnapan geond
Se"

$a

strsete iernan.

wses

mid 3
4

eJLe

gesmierwed, and mid
7

scietan begyrd,
to

and

baer

4 4 geongra manna plegan on handa,

Ssem baeSste^de 5 belimpende. 6
8

And

cleopode
10
!

micelre
Gehiere,
!

stef ne,

and cwseS
1

"
:

Gehiere,

9

ge ceasterwaran

ge ^l^eodige/ frige and
10

fceowe, aet5ele

and unaeSele

Se

bseftste^de is

open."
^set gehlerde,

he hine unscrydde Ssem 12 healfan sciccelse Se he on haefde, and eode into Seem Sweale. 13 And mid-Sy-Se he beheold hiera anra 14 gehwilcne on hiera
15 weorce, he sohte his gelican, ac he ne meahte hine

Da-Sa Apollonius

t5ser

15

findan on ^eem flocce.
Saire 'Seode
16
17

Da

fseringa

com

Arcestrates, ealre

cyning,

mid micelre

18 me^nige his manna, and

ineode on Saet bseS.

Da agan se cyning plegian wi<5 19 his 20 And Apollonius hine 21 gem^ngde, geferum mid ^o^ore.
1 2

21

See 187.

and what
See 159.
6.

is its

form in that

lan-

MS. fultum.
See 174.

guage ?

8

u
12 14 16
16

Lat. peregrini.

See 152.

4 6
6
7 8

Lat. lusus juvenales.
Lat. gymnasium.

See 162.

18
b.

Lat. lavacntm.

See 154.

Modifies plegan.

Lat. parem, Eng. peer.

See 20. See 160.
1.

Lat. regionis.

This word

is

the

17

See 151.
Lat.

Chaucerian Steven.
See 95, note. 10 This is a compound word, formed of a Latin and an English
9

18

famularum. See
not

154. a.

19
20

Why

mid ?
is

This curious word

very

rare in Old English,
21

element.

Which

is

Latin,

Lat. miscuit

se.

See 184.

b.

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
swa-swa God wolde, on
ende, 8one
2

169

Saes
1

cyninges plegan, and, iernand,

SoSor gelsehte,

mid

swiftre

hraednesse

geslaegene,

ongean ges^nde to Seem plegiendaii cyninge. he hraedlice sloh, swa he hine 3 Eft he agean as^nde
;

neefre feallan ne let.
4

Se cyning $a oncneow Saes geongan
5

5

snelnesse,

Saet
6

he wiste

Sset

he naefde his gelican on
"
:

Saern plegan.

Da

cwaeS he to his geferum

GaS eow

gellca." heonan; Ses cniht, tSaes-tSe me 6ync6/ is Da-6a Apollonius gehierde Sset se cyning hine h^rede,

mm

he arn

hraedlice,
8

mid

gelaeredre

and genealeecte to 6sem cyninge, and handa 9 he swang 10 gone top mid swa
fcaet

10

micelre swiftnesse

'Seem

cyninge waes
12

geMht

swilce

he of

ielde to

geoguSe gew^nd wsere.
11

And,

eefter 6aem,
;

t^enode 13 on his cynesetle he him and, gecwemlice 14 hine 15 leedde be 'Ssere fta-fta he uteode of Ssem bseSe, he

15

handa, and him
t5e
1

16

$a si^i5an Sanan gew^nde,

fises

weges

17

he

ser

com.
and
a
164.
1.

See 114.
Lat. subtili velocitate percusparticiple
is

What Mod.

Eng. word
?

2

comes from
8

me

Syncff

The OE. little awkward. 8 The ball.
sam.
* 6

Lat. docta.

9
10

See

51. 3.

Here the
:

English

departs

Lat. velocitatem.

from the Latin
is

ceroma fricavit

See 126.

What
word ?
is

the latest

eum

tanta subtilitate, ut de sene

English quotation that
find for this
6

you can

Top would juvenem redderet. seem to signify the same as ft offer.
n
12

This clause
:

not very clear.

See 164.

e.

The Latin has
(i.e.

quia sciebat se Archistrates) in pilce lusu
et

Lat. gratissime.

13

See 28.
Apollonius.
Archistrates.

neminem parem
ait,

habere, ad suos famuli, recedite ; hie enim

u
15
16

juvenis, etc.
7

See 184. See 157.

a.

Lat. ut suspicor.

See 157.

1

17

170

APOLLONItTS OF TYRE.
cwaeft se
1 cyning to his mannuin,

Da
agan
2

sifrSan

Apollonius
fcaet

wses:

"Ic

swe^rie

Surh 8a gemsenan
ic

haele 3
to-daeg,

ic ic

me

naif re b$t
5

ne baftode flonne

dyde
6

4

nat

fiurh
5

hwilces geonges maunes Senunge.

Da beseah he
Ga, and gewite

hine to

anum

his

manna, and cwaeS
sie,

"
:

hwset

7

se

geonga mann

Se

me

to-dseg

swa wel

gehier-

sumode."
Se mann
Saet
10
t5a

eode sefter Apollonio.

Mid-Sy-6e he geseah
bewsefed, Sa
:

he

8

waes

mid horgum

9

sciccelse

w^nde

he ongean to Seem cyninge, and cwseS " Se geonga mann 11 10 mann. 11 " Da cwseS se fie t5u sefter ascodest is forliden

15

"Durh 12 hwset 12 wast 13 Su t5aet?" Se mann him 14 andswarode, and cwae6: "Deah he hit self forswige, his Da cwseft se cyning " Ga gegierela hine gesweotolaS." 15 se cyning bitt fte Sset Su hrsedlice, and s^ge him Sset
cyning:
:

(

cume 16

to his gereorde."

Apollonius at the Feast.

Apollonius Sset gehlerde, he Saem gehlersumode, and eode for6 mid Ssem ni^nn, o^-Sset he becom to Sees cyninges
1
'

Da

Lat. amicos.

8

Apollonius.

9

Lat. sordido.
sefter.

2

How is the sense of Mod. Eng.
word
?

10

ago related to that of this
3

87.

Governed by c and 201. 1.
Lat. unde.

See

This phrase shows Christian

11

Lat. naufragus.

influence.
4

12

Note

this use of

don

to re-

13 15

See 126.

See 196.

e.

place a verb of specific meaning.
8

Confusion of two construc-

Governs ffenunge.
See
28.

tions, the direct
16

and the

indirect.

e
7

Lat. ut venias.

Translate by

How

does

this, as here used,

the infinitive, as often in such
cases.

differ in

meaning from

hwa ?

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
healle.
1

171

Da
:

eode se

mann

in beforan to

and cwseS
s^ndest
3
;

" Se f orlidena 2

mann

is

Ssem cyninge, cumen, Se Su sefter

ac he ne mseg for sceanie ingan butan scrude."

Da

het se cyning nine sona gescrydan

mid weorSfullum 4
5

scrude,

and het hine ingan
in,

to Ssem gereorde.

Da
wses,

eode Apolloriius

and

gesset,
6

Seer

him

5

geteeht

ongean gone cyning.
and, sefter t5sem,
t5ing

Da

wearS Sa seo Senung 7
8 8

ingeboren,

cynelic

gebeorscipe.

And
seton
Sset
fia
10

Apollonius nan

ne

set,

fieah-8e ealle ot5re
Sset

m^nn
and

and

blrSe

wseron.

Ac he beheold
9

gold,

seolfor,

and Sa deorwurSan
10

reaf,

and Sa beodas, and
Sis
eall

cynelican Senunga.
beheold,
tSa

Da-^5a

he

mid sarnesse 11
ealdormann

sset

sum
and

eald and

sum 12

aefestig

be Saem cyninge.

Mid-Sy-Se he geseah Sset Apollonius
eall

swa

sarlice sset,

Sing beheold, and nan Sing ne
:

15

" Du 13 aet, Sa cwseS he to Saem cyninge goda cyning, 14 Su sjva wel wiS gedest, he is swiSe efne, Ses mann Se
sefestfull for

Sinum gode."

niisSyncS; soSlice Ses

Da cwseS geonga mann ne
8

se

cyning:

"De
17

15

sefestaS
16

on nanum
heefS
fela 20

Singum Se he her
1

gesiehS, ac he cyS

Sset

Lat. ad regem.

Lat. cena regalis.

2 8

See 55.
Is

9

See 146.
Lat. ministeria. Lat. dolore.

this

present

or preterit

10

(113)? 4 Lat. dignis. 6 See 187.

u
12

Note the curious repetition of sum. The Latin has senex
invidus.
13
14

has been suggested that the account of this feast may
It

6

Lat. bone rex.

See 152.

have been imitated from that in
Odys.
7

Governed by wiff.
See 164.
1.

4.

71

ff.

16

Lat. gustatio, a sort of

first

16
17

Lat. testatur.

course.

See 189, note.

172
forloren.
1

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
"
2

Da beseah
to Apollonio,

Arcestrates

se

cyning

andwlitan

and cwaeS

"
:

Du

geonga maim,
t>aet

beo 3 bl!$e 3 mid us, and gehyht 4 on God,
self to

Su mote

Ssem selran becuman."

Entry of
5

the Princess.
fseringa tSeer

Mid-Sy-Se se cyning Sas word gecwaeft, Sa

code in
feeder
lonio,

ftses

cyninges

geong
6

5

debtor,

and

cyste

hiere

and

t5a

ymbsittendan.

Da 7 heo becom
fseder,
9

to Apolcwseft
:

Sa gewe^nde heo ongean to hiere

and

"Du
10 is

goda cyning, and
^e

mm

se

8

leofesta

fseder,

hwaet

10

ongean 3e on swa weorSlicum 11 12 ic hwaet he setle sitt, mid sarlicum andwlitan; nat 13 " " Leof e u Da cwaeS se cyning dohtor, Ses besorgaS. geonga mann is forliden and he gecwemde me manna
Ses geonga mann,
:

;

15

b^tst
15

on Sgem plegan.

For-Sam

ic

hine
is,

gelat5ode

to

ftisum

urum
;

gebeorscipe.

Nat

ic

hwset he

ne hwanan
asca hine,

he

is

ac

gif
16

Su wille witan hwast he
17

sle,

for-t5am Se

gedafenat5
tSaet

^33t

M

wite.

18

"

Da
iendre
1

eode
19

mseden
:

to

Apollonio, and

mid forwandsie

spruce cwseS

"

Deah Su stille m
9

and unrot,
10 12

2 8 4 5

See forleosan, and 37. Lat. hilari vultu. See 174.
Lat. epulare. Lat. spera.

Lat. optime.

Lat. quis.

u
13
14

Lat. flebili. Lat. dolet.

See 126.

See 197.
period of civ-

See

55.

Lat. dulcis.
d.

What state and
girl at

15

See 66 and 154.
17

Norn.,

ilization is indicated

by
7

the pres?

belonging to he.
16

ence of the
6
8

the banquet

See 164.
See 194.

k.
a.

Lat. decet.

See 181.

See 202.

d.

18 19 20

Redundant,

according to our

Lat. verecundo.

conceptions.

See 152.

See

59.

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
fleah
1

173

ic
4

'Sine

seSelborennesse 2 on $e geseo.

Nu

3

Sonne,

3

gif

tie

5 to hejig ne Synce, s$ge

me $mne naman, and
:

'Sin

gelimp

6

are^ce

me."

mede
wite

7

ascast aefter

Da cwseS Apollonius "Gif ftu for mimim naman, ic s^cge $e, Ic hine
wilt mine settelborennesse witan, " forlet on Tharsum. 8 Dset mseden
t>u
9
5

forleas

on
"

sse.

Gif
hie

M
:

Sset

ic

cwseS

S^ge

me

gewislicor,

Saet

ic

hit

msege under10

standan."
his

Apollonius

Sa so^lice
sprsece

hiere
12

areahte

eall

n

gelimp,

and

set

Ssere

^nde

him 13

feollon
10

tearas of Ssern eagum.
Mid-'Sy-Se se cyning Saet

to

'Ssere

14

dehter,

geseah, he bew^nde hine tSa " Leofe and cwaetS dohtor, t5u gesyn:

15

godest, rnid-fty-Se

'5u

woldest witan his

naman and
16
1

his

gelimp.

Du
Se

haefst

bidde

Saet

Su

nu geednlwod his eald sar, ac ic giefe him swa-hw33t-swa 5u wille.

15

maiden gehlerde t533t hiere wses allefed fram hiere fseder 17 'SaBt 18 heo ser hiere 19 self 19 gedon wolde, Sa
Da-Sa
Saet

heo to Apollonio: "Apolloni,
1

sot5lice t5u eart tire

20
;

Second

correlative
yet,

=

Lat.

10

See 114.
Plural.

tamen.
(201. e).
2
3

Translate

or omit

11

12 is

See 153. See 161.

i.

Lat. nobilitatem.
?

2.
2.

Are these notes of time The Latin has nothing similar.
*
6

14 16

See 52.

Lat. dum.
Lat. veteres ei renovasti dolo-

See 164.

I.

5

See 196.

d.

16

Lat. casus tuos.

Observe the

res,

a reminiscence of the VirgilII.

general resemblance to the story
of Dido, in the ^Eneid.
7

ian (^En.

3) jubes renovare
18

dolorem.
necessi-

MS. neode.
See
p. 165, n. 1.

Lat.

n
19

See 43.

8.

=

what.

tatis.
8

Lat. ipsa.

20

Note

this predicate use of are,

9

Lat. apertius.

= Lat. noster es (cf. JEn. II. 149).

174
forlget Sine

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
murcnunge
se cyriing
l
;

2 and, nu

ic

mines

f seder 3 leafe

4 hsebbe, ic gedo Se weligne." 5

Apollonius hiere Sses San-

code,
6

and

blissode

on his dohtor welwillend-

5

and hiere to cwaeS: "Leofe dohtor, hat f^ccean Sine hearpan, 7 and gecieg Se to Smuni friend, 8 and afiersa
nesse,

fram Ssem geongan his sarnesse."

A
Da
eode heo
9

Lesson in Music.

ut,

and het f^ccean hiere hearpan.

And
sange

sona swa heo hearpian ongann, heo inid

wynsumum
;

gem^ngde
I0

m^nn
ana
10

Da ongunnon ealle Sa hearpan sweg. and Apollonius hie h^rian on hiere swegcrsefte
Saere

swlgode.
11

Da

cwaeS se cyning

:

"Apolloni,

nu Su
13

dest

yfele,

for-Sam-Se ealle m^iin
12

he^riaS

mine dohtor
12a

on hiere swegcrsefte,
Apollonius
14

and Su ana
Eala,
ic

hie,

swlgende,

taelst.

"

cwaeS

"
:

Su goda cyning,

gif

M

me

I5

geliefst,
15

ic

s^cge Saet

ongiete Saet soSlice Sin dohtor

on swegcrseft, ac heo nsefS hine na wel geleornod; 17 ac hat me 16 nu s^llan Sa hearpan, Sonne wast Su nu Sset
gefeoll

Su
1

giet nast.

17

"

Arcestrates se cyning cwseS: "Apolloni,
of course
it

Lat. mcerorem.

does not translate

2 3 4

Now,

or since?
8.

these words.
9

See 43.

Not

in the Latin.

Future sense, will make.
See 159. a.
Lat. benignitate.

See

10

See 79.
Lat. arte musica.

u

See 140.

173.
5 6
7 8

12

12a
18

For swigiende.
See 196.
d.

Lat. vituperas.

Lat. lyram.

u
is
15

This clause
It

clear.

not altogether seems to stand for the

Lat. incidit.

Translate, has
17

chanced.
16

Lat. exhilara convivium, though

See 164.

a.

See

126.

APOLLONIUS OF TYKE.
ic

175

oncnawe

soSlice

Sset

Su eart 1 on eallum Singum wel

gelaered."

Da
lonius

het se cyning sejllan Apollonie Sa hearpan.

Apolsenne
5

Sa

uteode,

and

hine

scrydde,

and

se^tte

cynehelm upon his heafod, and nom Sa hearpan on his hand, and ineode, and swa stod Sset se cyning and ealle Sa ymbsittendan wendon Sset he nsere Apollonius, ac Saet
he wsere Apollines, 2 Saera haeSenra god. and swige 3 geworden innan Ssere healle.
his

Da weartS stilries And Apollonius
10

hearpensegl

craefte

sumum

genom, and he Sa hearpestr^ngas mid astyrian^ ongan, and Ssere hearpan sweg raid wyn4 And se cyning self, and ealle sange gem^ngde.
^Efter 'Sisum forlet 5 Apollonius Sa hearpan,

Se Sser andwearde wseron, niicelre stefne cleopedon and

hine h^redon.

and 6 plegode, and fela fsegerra Singa 7 Seer forSteah, 8 Se Ssem folce ungecna^en waes and ungewunelic. And him 9
eallum Seaiie licode
selc Ssera

15

Singa

7

Se he forSteah.

SoSlice, mid-Sy-Se Saes cyninges dohtor geseah Sset Apol-

lonius on eallum

Sa gefeoll hiere

godum crseftum swa wel mod on his lufe. Da, aefter
Saet

waes getogen, 10
S33S beorscipes
:

20

ge^ndunge, cwaaS
1

mseden to Saem cyninge
Apollo.
6

See 194, note.

2

The rest of this sentence para:

8

We are reminded
To

of jEn. II.

phrases
et

induit statum

comicum

1,

Conticuere omnes.
4

this sentence there corre:

inauditas actiones expressit, de* inde tragicum.
7

sponds in the Latin
arripuit plectrum,

See 154.

a, &.

8

animumque
;

ac9
10

Lat. expressit.

commodat

arti

See 164.

k.

cum
5

chordis miscetur vox cantu

See geteon.
See
55.

What

relation

modulata.
Lat. deponens.

has getogen to Mod. Eng. wanton?
11

176
fseder,

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
$u liefdest
1 1

ine,

lytle
ic

ier,

Saet

2

ic

2

moste 2 giefan

Apollonio swa-hwset-swa
Arcestrates
se

wolde of ftinum goldhorde."
:

cyning cwseS to hiere
3

" Gief
bllSe

him swa4

hw33t-swa
5

M

wille.
5

"

Heo

t5a

swlfte

uteode,

and

cwaeS
leafe,

:

"Lareow

Apolloni, ic giefe

t>e,

be mines feeder

twa hund "punda 6 goldes, 7 and feower hund punda 6 8 7 and Sone maistan dail deorwurftes 9 seolfres, gewihte
reafes,

and twentig
to
'Ssem
ic

'fieowa

10

manna. 10 "
:

And heo
t>as

Sa ^us

cwast5
10

Seowum mannum

" BeraS

t5ing

mid

eow,

fte

behet Apollonio
11

innan bure

beforan

mmum lareowe, and l^cgea'S mmum freondum." Dis wearS fca
;

12 Sus gedon, asfter ^ere cwene h^ese

and

ealle

^a

m$nn
14

hiere giefa h^redon

'Se

13

hie gesawon.
t5a

Da
ealle

so^lice ge^nd-

ode
15

se

gebeorscipe,

and

m^nn

arison,

and

cyning and Sa cwene, and beedon hie Eac swilce Apoland ham gew^ndon. gesunde beon, 16 lonius cw33t5 a Du goda cyning, and earmra gemiltsiend,
gretton

^one

15

:

and

t5u

cwen, lare

16

lufiend,

beon

ge
"

gesunde.
tSast

17

"

He
mid

beseah eac to Ssern 'Seowum mannum, 6e
20

mseden him
5as Sing

forgiefen haefde,
1

38

and him
See 178.

cwaeft to

:

NimaS

Lat. paulo ante.

n
12

Lat. triclinia.

2

Translate by the
to.

infinitive

See the derivation of Mod.
behest.

sign,

The OE.

follows the

Eng.
13 14

Latin.
3
4

Refers to

11101111.
:

See 197.

So in Beowulf (653-655)
call

Not

in Latin.

u Werod

aras
. .

;

grette

J>a

.

.

.

6
6
7

Lat. magister.

guma
16

65erne,

.

and him

heel

See 154. See 153.

c.

abead."
Lat. vale dicentes.

/.
16 17

8

See 174.

See 153.

d.

9
10

MS. deorwurffan.
Lat. servos.

Lat. valete.

18

See 188.

APOLLONITJS OF TYRE.
eow, Se

177
1

me

seo

cwen

forgeaf,

and gan
.

we

secean

tire

giesthus, Sset

we msegen

us

2

gere^stan."

Apollonius as Teacher.

Da

adred Sset mseden Sect heo nasfre $ft Apollonium
;

ne gesawe swa 3 hrafte swa heo wolde
hiere fseder, and cwseft
t5set

and eode Sa
licatS
4

to
5

"
:

Du goda
us
yfele

cyning,

Se wel
t5us

Apollonius,
5

$e

t5urh

to-dseg

heonan
hine
?

fare,

and

cumen
:

is, gegodod ni^im and bereafien

"

Se cyning cwseS
l\e

"Wel Su

cw^ede.

Hat hine 6

findan hwaer

hine msege weorftlicost 7 ger^stan."
8

Da
10

dyde
Seer

.tSaet

mseden swa hiere beboden
fce
fte

lonius

onfeng Ssere wununge

and Apolhim betaeht wses, and
waes
;

ineode,

Gode

9

Sanciende,

him ne forwiernde 10

cynelices weorSscipes
unstille
11

and
fcaere

frofre.

Ac

<5aet

maiden haefde

niht,

mid

lufe

onseled Saera

worda 12 and
l^ng
13

sanga
ne

t5e

heo gehierde

aet

Apollonie.

And na

heo
hit

15

gebad ^onne hit daeg wses, ac eode sona swa leoht wees, and gesaet beforan hiere feeder 14 be^dde.
15

Da
geic
20

cwaeS se cyning: "Leofe dohtor, for hwy eart 16 $u Sus " " Me aweahton Sa Daet mseden cwseft aerwacol ?
:

cneordnessa
1

17

tie

ic

18

giestran-dseg
10

gehierde.
See 159.
a.

Nu

bidde

See 193. See 184.

a. &.
.

2 3
*

n
not in Latin.
12
ls

Lat. inqmetam.

Swa

.

.

wolde
a.

Dependent on
See
77.
14 16

lufe.
8.

Lat. ditatus.

See 43.

5
6
7
8

See 194.

15
17

See 175.

See 138.
Translate, ac-

MS. him.
See 76.

Lat. studia.

See 187.
See 164. m.

complishments. 18 Lat. hesterna.
related to the Latin

Is

giestran
?

9

word

178
1

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
for-Sam,
4

Se,

Sset
4

Sii

befseste

2

me urum cuman, 3
:

Apol-

lonie, to

" lare.

Da wearS

se

cyning Searle geblissod,

" and het f^ccean Apollonium, and him to cwaeS dohtor giernS Sset heo mote leornian aet Se Sa gesseligan
5

Mm
6

lare

Se

Su

canst 5

;

and,

gif

Su

wilt

Sisum

Singum

7 gehiersum beon, ic sw^rie Se, Surh mines rices maegenu, Sset swa-hwset-swa Su on sse forlure, ic Se Saet on lande

8

"

gestaSelie.

Da-Sa Apollonius
lare,
10

Ssem
10

9

mseden to

he onfeng and hiere tsehte swa wel swa he
Saet gehlerde,

self geleornode.

The Three
Hit gelamp Sa
Saet

Suitors.

sefter

Sisum, binnan

feawum tidum, u
hand on
Da,
strsete.

Arcestrates
;

se

cyning

hgold

Apollonius

handa
set
i

and eodon swa ut on
12

Ssere ceastre

mehstan, comon Sser gan

13 ongean hie Srle gelgerede

5

weras and seSelborene, Sa lange ser gierndon 14 Sees cyninges Hie Sa ealle Srle togaedere anre stefne 15 gretton dohtor.

Sone cyning.
1

Da smercode 16

se cyning,
7

and him to beseah,

Lat. itaque. Lat. tradas. Lat. hospiti. Lat.

Lat. vires.
Lat. restituam.

2 3
4

8

9

See 164.

j.

studiorum

percipiend-

10

Here

follows, in the Latin,
girl

orum
5

gratia.

an account of how the
Miller's
tale."

feigned

Cf.

Chaucer,

Tale

illness,

on account

of her love for

18:

"I can a noble

This

Apollonius.

sense occurs as late as the

mid-

u
12 18

Lat. post paucos dies.

die of the 17th century; Lovelace has: " Yet can I music too." So

See 199.

1.

Lat. scholastici.
Lat. in

Jonson, Magnetic Lady
6

1. 1:

"She
See

14

matrimonium
1.

petie-

could the Bible in the holy tongue."
Lat. desiderio natce mece.

runt.
15
16

Pluperfect (188).

See 160.

165.

Lat. subridens.

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
and 3us cwaeS
" grettoii ? "
:

179

Da

anre stefne " We" andswarode hiera an, and cwaeft
is

Hwset

Sset.

Sset

ge

me

:

bsedon gefyrn Smre dohtor; and $u us oft hrsedlice
1 1

mid 1

ejcunge

gesw^nctest.

For-Sam we comon hider
'Sine

to-daeg
5

ftus togaedere.

We

sindon

ceastergewaran, of sefcelum

gebyrdum

2

geborene; nu bidde

we Se
'Se
3

senne of us grim, hwilcne 3u wille

Su geceose t$e to a^5ume habban."
Sset
4

3

Da

cwseS se cyning:

"Nabbe ge na godne 5 timan

aredod. 6

Mm

dohtor
8

is

nu

swifie bisig

ymb
9
10
;

hiere leornunga. 7

Ac,
10

fiy-lses-Se

ic

eow a l^ng

slaece,

awrita'S

eowre namaii on

gewrite,

gewritu

and hiere morgengiefe minre d^hter, t5set heo

Sonne as^nde ic Sa self geceose hwilcne
cnihtas

eower 11 heo wille."
cyning

Da dydon

'Sa

swa

;

and

se

$a gewritu, and geinseglode hie mid his "Nim nu, hringe, and sealde Apollonio, ftus cwe^ende 13 lareow Apolloni, swa hit $e ne misllcie, and bring Slnum
:

nom

12

15

14

leeringmsedene.

"

Da nom

Apollonius Sa gewritu, and

eode to
1

t5sere

15 cynelican healle.

Lat. differendo crucias. Lat. natalibus.

after marriage, according to Teu-

2 8
4

tonic

usage.

Cf.

Mod.

Ger.

See 161.

Morgengabe.
*

Cf Mod. Eng. take to
.

wife.'

n MS. eowerne.
12

5
6
7
8

Lat. apto.

See 105.
Lat. sine contumelia tua
;

MS. aredodne.
Lat. studiorum.
Lat. ne.

18

an

apology for sending Apollonius on

an errand.
.
.

See 196.

c.

9
10

Lat. videar

.

differre.

14

Lat. discipulce.

Lat. dotis quantitatem.

The

16

Lat. domum.

The Latin adds

present given

on the morning

introivit cubiculum.

180

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
The Princess Chooses.

maiden geseah Apollonium, fta cwa3$ 1 heo: "Lareow, hwy gsest 3u ana ?" Apollonius cwsefi
Mid-Sam-fte 8aet
:

"Hlaifdige

2

nses

glet
4

yfel

wlf 3

nim Sas gewritu, 8e
Da3t maiden nom, and
;

3in feeder Se sejide,
5

and

rsed."

raedde Saira Sreora cnihta nanian

5 ac heo ne funde na

Sone naman

ftairon

Se heo wolde.

Da
ic ftus

heo 8a gewritu

oferreed haefde, $a beseah heo

to Apollonio,

and
7

cwa3t5:

"Lareow, ne ofSyncft
Apollonius
10

6

hit
;

6e gif
ac
set

wer geceose?"
swlftor
t5a3t

cwseS

"
:

Na

ic

blissie

M
on
is

meaht, 8urh Sa lare

t5e

611

me

underfenge,
wille. 8
9

t5e

self

gewrite gecyftan hwilcne hiera
Sset

M

Mm

willa

Dast maiden wer geceose fiser Eala lareow, gif t5u me lufodest, 3u hit besorgcwaeft " odest. 10 ^Efter ftisum wordum heo mid modes 11 anrsedt5e

M
:

Su self wille. "

"

15

nesse 11
sealde
12

awrat

oSer

gewrit,

and

t58et

geinseglode,
tit

and
Sa

Apollonio.

Apollonius

hit

Sa

basr

on

strsete,

and sealde Seem cyninge. " Du goda cyning, and gewriten
:

Dset gewrit waes tSus

mm

se leofesta feeder,

1

The OE.
:

is

not clear.
est

The
sin-

8

She has evidently learned
to write, according

Latin has

Quid

quod
is

from him how

gularis cubiculum 2 Lat. domina.

introisti ?

to the English.

The Latin has

:

How

hlsefto

Immo

dige related hlaford ?
3

in

meaning

gratulor quod habundantia studiorum percepta me volente
nubis.
9
10

Not

clear either in the Latin

See 196.
Lat.

c.

or the English.

Some MSS.

have,
has,

doleres.

Indicative,

nondum mulier et mala ; one
4

where the optative might be expected.

non unquam mulier fuit mala.
Translate, has
sent.
6

See 188.

n
12
I.

Lat. amoris audacia. Lat. forum, as above, p. 178,

5
7

See 104.
Translate, rather.

Lat. dolet.

See 76.

13.

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
nu

181

$m

inildheortnes

me
ic

leafe

sealde Saet ic self moste

ceosan hwilcne wer
f orlidenan

wolde, ic se^cge Se to soSum, Sone
;

maim
1

ic wille
1

and

gif

M

wundrie
2

ftaet

swa
word
5

sceamfsest

fgemne

swa
5

unforwandiendlice

Sas

3 awrat, Sonne wite

tSti

Saet ic hsebbe
Saet ic self

nane sceame ne can, ne meahte."
t5e

Surh weax aboden, 4 Se for sceame s^cgean

Da-Sa se cyning hsefde Saet gewrit oferrsed, 6 ^5a nyste he hwilcne forlidenne heo ne^mde. Beseah ^a to Ssem

8rlm cnihtum, and cwseS

"
:

Hwilc eower
Ardalius
:

is

forliden ? "

10

Da
Adi

cwse5
"

hiera

an,

se

hatte

" Ic "
:

eom
Swlga

for-

liden. 7

Se 66er him andwyrde, and cwseS
fornime,
boccrseft
8
10

8u.

t5e

Sset

M

ne beo

9

hal ne gesund.
'Su

Mid
'Ssere

m6

"5u

leornodest,

and

nsefre

butan
11

ceastre geate fram

me ne

come.
se
12

lidennesse ?

'

Mid-^y-Se

Hweer gefore cyning ne meahte
and
ic

M

for-

15

findan

hwilc hiera forliden wsere,
cwaeS eaSe
Sser

he beseah to Apollonio, and
Sis

"
:

Nim

Su,

Apolloni,
t58et

gewrit,
Saet

raid
t5u

hit

;

maeg geweorSan

t5u

wite

nat,
Saet

"5e

andweard
reedde.

waere.

13

"

Da nom

Apollonius

gewrit,

20

and
1

And

sona swa he ongeat Sset he gelufod
careful the English have been to

Lat. pudica virgo. Lat. impudenter ; one

2

MS. im-

preserve than to acquire.

Why
the

prudenter.
3
4

have we

lost,

or

all

but

lost,

See 198.
Lat. mandavi.

ver or for as a prefix,

fordone,

forwearied, etc.
to,
8

;

6
6 7

See above,

p. 178, n. 5.

zerreissen,

and the zer or " to etc.?
rend,
9

Lat. perlectis.

See 193.

a.

See 196.

g.

On

for- see Coleridge,
ed., p. 414):

ana (Bohn

Omni"It is
less

10

Lat. litteras.

See 107.
la

12

See 194.

b.

grievous to think

how much

Is this optative ?

182

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.

waes fram Seem msedene, his 1 andwlita 1 eall 1 areadode. 1

cyning Sset geseah, $a nom he Apollonies hand, and hine 2 hwon fram Ssern cnihtum gew^nde, and cwseS "Wast 8 Su ftone forlidenan mann?" Apollonius cwaeS:
se
:

Da

5

"Du
eall

goda cyning, gif Sin willa
Sset

biS,

ic

hine wat."
4

Da
wses

geseah se cyning
oferbrseded.
5

Apollonius mid rosan

rude

4

Da ongeat he Sone
6

cwide,

and Sus

cwaeS to

him

"
:

Blissa, blissa, Apolloni, for-Sam-Se

mm

dohtor gewilnaS Sees
10

maeg so^lice on Syllicum Singum 7 nan 8 Sing geweorSan butan Godes 9 willan." Arcestrates beseah to 'Ssem Srim cnihtum, and
is.

Se

mm

willa

Ne

cwaeS

:

a So^ 10

is

10

Sset ic

eow

er saide, Saet ge

ne comon
ac

on

gedafenlicre
12

n

tide

mlnre

dohtor

to

biddanne,

Sonne
15

heo mseg hie fram hiere lare gesemetgian, t5onne

s^nde

ic

eow word. 13 "
hie

Da gew^ndon
leedde

ham mid

Sisse andsware,

and Arces-

trates se cyning heold for5

ham

on Apollonius hand, and hine mid him, na swilce he cuma weere, 14 ac swilce
Da,
set

he his a5um wsere.
20

nlehstan,

forlet

se

cyning

Apollonius hand, and code ana into Ssem bure Saer his " Leofe dohtor inne wses, and t5us cwaeS dohtor, hwone
:

haefst

M

" 15 Se gecoren to gemseccean ?

Daet

mseden 16
arfaesta
17

Sa
1

feoll to hiere feeder
Lat. erubuit.

fotum, and cwseS:
9
10

"Du

A Christian trait.
Lat. certe.

2 8
4 6

See 184. See 126.

b.

Lat. invenisti.

n
l2
'

Lat. apto.

See

p. 179,

1.

8.

Lat. roseo rubore.
Lat. perfusam.

See 202.

d.

6
7

See 156.

a.

Lat. hujusmodi negotio.

Note the English idiom. The Latin has, mittam ad vos. M See 196. c. 15 Lat. conjugem.
18 16
,

8

See 183,

See 28.

n

Lat. piissime.

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
faeder,

183
lufie

gehier

Smre dohtor
4

willan.

1

Ic
2

Soiie
2
;

forac,

lidenan
Sy-lses-Se

mann, Se wses Surh ungelimp
3

beswicen
ic

Se tweonie

Seere

spruce, Apollonium

wille,

nimne lareow; and
Sine dohtor."
his dohtor tearas,

gif

Su

me him

ne

shiest,

Su forltst
5

5 Se cyning Sa soSlice ne meahte arsefnian ac areerde hie up, and hiere to cwseS
:

"Leofe dohtor, ne ondrsed Su Se seniges hsefst gecoren Sone wer Se me wel licaS.'

6

6

Singes.
?

Du
ut,

Eode Sa

and beseah
ic

to Apollonio,

and cwaeS

:

"Lareow
;

Apolloni,
J0

smeade minre dohtor modes willan
7

Sa areahte heo
Sus cweSende
:

mid wope
'

betweox oSre

sprsece, Sas Sing

Du geswore
seo see

Apollonio, gif he wolde gehiersumian

mmum

willan on lare, Saet Su woldest him geinnian 8 swa-hwset-

swa
wses

him
hsese

setbrsed.

9

Nu, for-Sam-Se he gehiersum
willan,
ic

Smre

and

mmum
lare
10

for

aefter

him

15

[mid willan and
1

mid

]."
hears of the death of King Antiochus, and, with his wife, sets sail

Lat. desiderium.
Lat. fortuna deceptum.

2

8

OE.
lest.

fty-lais-fte

gives

Mod.
?

for Antioch.

There follow the
in

Eng.
4 6 6
7

What

phonological
t

events

related

the
in

Shake-

rule determines the final

See 159. b and 196.
Lat. sustinens.

/.

main spearean Pericles, as in Acts III., IV., and V., though with not a few differthe
ences.

Lat. de aliqua

re.

The

infant daughter has

Lat. lacrimis (cf. JEn. III.
9

grown
to

up, and, after a variety

348).
8

of experiences, has been restored

Lat. dares.

Lat. abstulit.

Apollonius.

His
of

queen

is

The OE. MS. breaks off at him. I have supplied what fol10

priestess of

Diana

Ephesus,

lows

according
et

to

the

Latin,
story

and thither he proceeds, being warned by an angel in a dream
to

voluntate

doctrina.
in

The
the

make

that, instead of Tarsus,

thus

continues

Latin:

his next goal.

At

this point the

After the marriage, Apollonius

OE. fragment recommences.

184

APOLLONITJS OF TYKE.
Apollonius relates his Adventures.

Da
waire

W36S hiere 1 gecyfted,

fte

Sail'

ealdor 2 waes, 6set Sser
his
de^hter,

sum

cyning,

mid

his

aSume and mid

mid iniclum giefum. Mid-Sam-Se heo fcset gehierde, heo hie selfe mid cynelicum reafe gefrsetwode and mid pur5

pran gescrydde, and hiere heafod mid golde and mid gimmum gegl^ngde, and, mid miclum fgemnena heape

ymbtrymmed,
soSlice
4

3

com

togeanes
and,

Seem
for
(5set

cyninge.

Heo
lufe

waes
Saere

Searle

wlitig;

tSeere
'Saer

miclan
nsere

cl^ennesse,
10

hie
5

siedon ealle

nan Dianan

swa gecweme
and mid his

swa

heo.
t5set

Mid-Sam-6e Apollonius
hiere f6 turn, and

geseah, he
6

mid

his

aSume
ealle to

de^hter to hiere urnon,

and feollon

wendon

7

Sset

heo Diana wsere, seo gyden,
wlite.

for hiere miclan beorhtnesse
i

and

Dset halig 8 sern 8
" Ic

5

wearft

t5a

9 geopenod, and $a lac w^eron ingebrohte, and

Apollonius
1

ongan

10

Sa sprecan and cweftan
4
6 6

:

f ram

The wife
Chief,
i.e.

of Apollonius.

Lat. castitatis.
Lat. gratam.

2 3

chief priestess.

See 165.

Lat.

mrginum

constipata ca-

See 104. Does this verb agree
its

tervis.

An

epic trait.
(4.

Thus

in

with
7

subject ?

the ^Eneid
forth,

136), Dido goes
stipante
caterva.

Cf. Chaucer, Knight's

Tale

magna
in

243 ff.:I

Thus

the Odyssey (16. 413),

not whether sche be

womman
I gesse.

or

Penelope "went on her way to the hall, with the women her handmaids."

goddesse

;

But Venus
8

is it,

sothly as

And

thus in Beowulf

Lat. sacrario.

JErn forms

(923-925), Hrothgar

part of the

Mod. Eng. barn ; what

getrume micle cystum gecyfted, and his cwen mid
tryddode
tirfaest

does the other element of this word

stand for
9

?

him
medostig gem set mxgfta hose.

Lat. muneribus.

10

Lat.

ccepit.

APOLLONIUS OF TYKE.
cildhade waes
Mid-t>am-Se
craeft
2

185

Apollonius gene^mned,

011

Tyrum
1

geboreii.

ic

becom
3

to

fulluin

andgiete,

Sa uses
oSfte

nan
fram

fte

waire

fram
ftset

cyningum
ne
cufte.
4
.

began,
. .

aeSelum

mannum,
forliden,

ic

on

and com to Cyrenense. me Arcestrates se cyning mid swa micelre lufe
see

Da wearS ic Da underfeng
fiaet

5

ic
5

set

mehstan geearnode

tSaet

he geaf

me
fie

his

dohtor to gemaeccean.

Seo 6 for Sa mid

me
ic

ac^nnedan to onfonne
beforan
fte,

mmum

cynerice,

and ^as mine dohtor,

and hiere gast alet. Ic fta hie mid cynelicum reafe gescrydde, and mid golde and gewrite on ciste al^gde, $33t se, ^e hie funde, hie weorfilice bebyrgde 7 and Sas mine dohtor befaeste 8
Diana, geandweard haebbe, ac^nde on
sse,
;

10

Saem manfullestum.
to

9

mannuni 9

to

fedanne. 10

For me

fca

Egypta lande

feowertlene

gear
Saet

on

heofe.

Da

ic

15

ongean com, Sa ssedon hie 11 and me waes forSfaren,

me

mm

dohtor wgere

mm

sar call geedniwod."

The Recognition.
Mid-Sam-Se he'Sas Sing call areaht haefde, Arcestrate Da nyste so^lice, his wif, up aras and hine ymbclypte.

na 12 Apollonius, ne 13 ne 13
1

geliefde,
7

t5aet

heo his gemaeccea
d.

20

Lat. scientiam. Lat. ars.
I
3

See 196.

2 4

See 197.

8

Lat. commendavi.

have omitted the portion
relates to his

9

MS.manfullestanmannan.
Lat. nutriendam.
Lat. defunctam.

which
5

adventures

Lat. nequissimis hominibus.
10 ll

before his shipwreck.
Translate, own. 6 Used almost as personal pronoun. From what source is Mod.
Ensr. she derived ?

12
13

See 183.

How
y

do ne and ne

differ in

meaning;

186
1

APCTLLONIUS OF TYRE.
ac sceaf 2 hie fram him.

wsere,

cleopode, and cwseft

mid wope

:

" Ic

Heo Sa eom

micelre stefne

Arcestrate Sin
eart

gemaeccea, Arcestrates dohtor Sees cyninges, and Su

Apollonius
5

mm
Se

lareow, Se
ic

me
. . .

laerdest.

Du
is

eart se for-

lidena

mann

lufode.

Hweer

mm
:

dohtor ? "
" Dis
4

He bew^nde hine Sa is." And hie weopon
$aet

to Thasian, 3

and cwaeS

heo

Sa

ealle,

and eac blissedon.
Saet

And
wearS

word sprang geond
5

eall

land Saet Apollouius,

se msera cyning, haefde
10

funden his wlf.
6

And
bliSe

6ger
6

ormgete

bleman

and Sa organa wseron geblawene, and Saer wearS
bliss,

getogene,

and Sa

gebeorscipe

And gegearwod betweox g^em cyning and Saim folce. heo ges^tte hiere gingran, tSe hiere folgode, to sacerde,
15

on Efesum, heo for mid hiere were, and mid hiere aSuine, and mid
and,
blisse

mid

and heofe

ealre tSsere maegSe

hiere

d^hter,

to

Antiochian,
7
.

Sser

Apollonio

waes

t5set

cynerice gehealden.

.

.

The Fisherman's Reward.

Disum eallum $us gedonum, 8 eode Apollonius,
cyning, wift Sa
20
sse.

se msera

Se hine
1 3

ser

Da geseah he Sone ealdan fiscere, nacodne underfeng. Da het se cyning hine
2

See 194.

b.

Lat. repellit.
'

7

At

this

point

there

is

an

More
cf.

properly,

Tharsian

' ;

account

of

Apollonius'

travels

but
4

Shakespeare's Thaisa.

among

his

former acquaintances,

Cf. Macaulay's " With weeping and with laughter still is the

rewarding
last

their deserts,

them according to and cheering the

story told."
5

hours of Archistrates,

who
his

Lat. ingens.
Lat. disponuntur.

divides his

6

Translate,

kingdom between and Apollonius. daughter
8

were played.

See 167.

APOLLONIUS OF TYKE.
feerlice gelsecceaii,

187
1

and

to ftsere cynelican

healle 1 gelsedan.

Da-tia se fiscere Sset geseah, Sset hine

Sa c^mpaii 2 woldon
sceolde ofslean;

niman,

tSa

wende he

serest

t>set

hine

man

ac, mid-Sam-tte

he com into

Sses

cyninges healle, 8a het

se cyning hine Isedan toforan Ssere cweue, " 6is is Su

and $us cwaeS
3

:

5

Eala,

eadge

cwen,

mm

tacenbora,

Se

me

nacodne underfeng, and me getsehte ftset ic to 8e becom." Da beseah Apollonius se cyning to Seem fiscere, and cwaeS: "Eala, welwillenda 4 ealda, 5 ic eom Apollonius se
Tyrisca, t5sem
t5u

sealdest healfne

Smne

wsefels."
6 6

Him
and

J0

geaf

p^ninga, gyldenra haefde hine to geferan t5a-hwlle-t5e he lifde.
.

Sa se

cyning twa hund

.

.

The End.
jEfter

eallum Sisum Apollonius

se

cyning
7

.

.

.

wel-

willendlice lifde

mid

his

gemseccean seofon
Saet

and hund15

seofontig

geara,

and heold

cynerlce

and on Tyruni, and on Cyrenense. stilnesse and on blisse ealle Sa tld
earfoftnesse.

on Antiochia, And he lifde on
lifes

his

sefter

his
;

And twa
on

bee he self ges^tte be his fare 8

and ane
liotheca.

as^tte

'Ssem

temple

Diane,

oftre

on

bib20

Her
1

$ndat5

ge wea ge wela Apollonius ^ses Tyriscan.
ducted him, as
bride.
it

Lat. palatium.
Lat. militibus.

were, to his

2
3

Lat.

paranymphus.

The OE.

*
6 6
7

Lat. benignissime.

word properly translates Lat. sigRender here by groomsnifer. man ; the fisherman had con8

See 55 and 181.
Lat. sestertia aurt.

But Lat. quatuor.

Lat. casus.

188
Rsede
gaet
1

APOLLONIUS OF TYRE.
se

Se wille

;

and

gif

hie
taele,

hwa 2

rsede,

ic

bidde

he $as aw^ndednesse ne
sle to tale.
3

ac Sset he hele swa-

hwset-swa Saiion
1

See 193.

a. Still

Satiromastix (A.D. 1602) there oc-

2

^wy

one.
'

found in the
should
say In Dekker's
'

curs,
3

"Suppose who enters now."
1.

phrase,

as 'who
6.

Cf. Alfred's adjuration at p.

(Macb.

3.

42).

162,

12

ff.

XIII.

THE SIX DAYS' WOKK OF CREATION.
(From
[This
jElfric's

Hexameron.)

may
'

serve as a

remembered,
1

is

Norman, says

(p. vii)
'

commentary on Selection I., which, it will be a translation by JSlfric. Of the present work its editor, " The treatise which is Hickes in his
:

Thesaurus the Hexameron of

St. Basil

'

is

styled by by no means a
is

literal trans-

partly original, and partly compiled from that work, and from the commentaries of the Venerable Bede upon Genesis. The author of it, from internal evidence, may
lation of the well

known work

of that father, but

be pronounced to be ^Elfric, as frequent references are
lies,

made

to his homi-

is a brief, but spirited, account in Villemain's Tableau de rfiloquence Chre'tienne au Siecle (p. 116 ff.), from which we extract the following: "It is more

and to his epistles on the Old and New Testament." Of Basil's (d. 379) delivery of the original Hexameron, there

IV

him in the act of instructing the poor inhabitants of Caesarea, elevating them to God by the contemplation of nature, and explaining to them the miracles of creation in discourses where the science of
interesting to survey

the orator
the

who had been
simplicity.

trained at Athens

and popular

Such

name of Hexameron. which are common to all antiquity, they contain many correct views, and descriptions at once felicitous and true."]

is concealed under a persuasive the subject of the homilies which bear Together with the errors in natural philosophy
is

On
weorc

tSsem
:

forman daege
2

tire

Saet wairon ealle

Dryhten gesceop seofonfeald and 'Sees leohtes anginn e^nglas
;

1

;

he of gesceop siSSan gesceafta; $a uplican heofonan and Sa niSerlican eort>an; ealle waeter3 and 3a widgillan sse; and aet uplice 4 lyft; call scipas
Saet
;

and

antimber $e

5

on anum
1

daege.

Da
2

$nglas he geworhte on
of.
4
5

5

wundorlicre

See 146,
See 143, and

Governed by
226, note 22. 189

MS. uplican.
Translate,
of.

8

p.

190

THE

SIX DAYS*
1

WORK

OF CRKAT1OK.
2

faegernesse,

and on

micelre

str^ngfte,
;

manige Msenda,

ealle lichamlease, libbende

on gaste
he

be Ssem
Nass na

we

ssedon

hwilum

aer

sweotollicor on ge write.

God butan
and

leohte $a-fca he leoht gesceop,
5

is

him

self leoht $e

onlleht 3 eall Sing

;

ac he gesceop Sees

daeges

leoht,

hit siSSan geeacnode

mid

ftsem

scmendum tunglum, swato-

swa
8urh
10

hersefter

4

saegS.

Daeges leoht he gesceop, and

drasfde Sa Siestru, Saet Sa gesceafta gesewenlice
Saas dseges llehtinge

warden

on l^nctenlicre 5 tide; for-Sam

he on l^nctentide, swa-swa us lareowas secgeaS, gesceop Sone forman daag Sisse worulde Sset is on gerimcraefte

xv

cl.

6

Aprilis

and siS^an Sa

gesceafta,

swa-swa we

s^cgeatS her.

Da

uplican heofonas, Se $nglas onwuniaS,
;

15

he geworhte eac $a on Sseni ilcan daage 7 Sus singaS on sumum sealme Opera
:

be

Seem

we
tua-

manuum
ilca

rum

sunt

cceli

"

Dmra handa geweorc
8

sindon heofonas,
wltga:

Dryhten."
Ipse dixit,
et

Eft on o^rum

sealme sang se
et

facta sunt; ipse mandavit,

creata sunt
self

"He
20

self hit gecwasS,

and hie wurdon geworhte; he

hit bebead,

and hie wurdon gesceapene."

Daet waeter and
da3g
;

seo

eor^e waaron

gem^ngde oS Sone Sriddan

Sa

todyde hie God, swa-swa heraefter saagS on Sisse ges^tnesse. Daat lyft he gesceop to ures lifes strangunge tSurh Saat we or^iaS, and eac $a nietenu and tire fnsest
; ;

25

ateoraS gif
1

we
of.

ateon ne magon, mid
4

urum

orSe, into

us

Translate,

=

it saith, is

described.

2

From what

adjective ?
is -iffa.

The

5

From l^ncten is derived Mod.
March
18.
7

original ending
8

Eng. Lent.
6
8

How

is this

stem related to

Ps. 102. 25.

leoht ?

Cf. Jn. 1.9.

Ps. 33. 9.

THE
Saet

SIX DAYS'
$ft

WOKK OF

CREATION.

191
cuce.

lyft

and
is

utablawan, fta-hwile-Se

we

beoft
1

Diet lyft

swa heah swa-swa $a heofonlican
Ssere
fitSru

wolcnu,

and eac ealswa brad swa-swa
Ssere
2

eorSan bradnes.

On
5

fleogaft fuglas,

ac hiera

ne meahten nahwider
" On Seem oSruni 4 " fie

hie

3

aberan gif hie ne abaire seo
die fecit

lyft.

Secunda
daege
hata'S
tire

Deus Jirmamentum

Dryhten geworhte firmamentum, m^nn 5 6 rodor. Se belyct5 on his bosme ealle eor^an 7
is

bradnesse/ and bin nan him
geard
;

gelogod eall

fies

middan10

and he
nsefre

sefre gaeS

abutan swa-swa iernende hweol,
stille

and he

ne

st^nt

on anum, and
betyrnt5,
t533t

on

anre

w^ndinge.
fort5

Da-hwile-'Se

he sene

gaS

witodlice
ealles

feower and twentig tida

is

Sonne

an

da3g
is

Done rodor God gehet heofon. wundorlice healic and wld on ymbhwyrfte se 5
and an
niht.
;

He
gseS
t5a
15

under 3as eort5an ealswa
ungelgeredan
fia

m^nn
t5urh

Sses

9

deop swa bufan, geliefan ne cunnon.

8

t5eah-t5e

And God
ni^erlican

todeelde

his

dryhtenlican

miht

t5a

waeteru $e wseron under t58em rodore fram ^aem uplicum

waeterum ^e wseron bufan

'Saem rodore.
t5us
:

wseterum awrat se witga 10
rum,
et

Be Ssem uplicum Laudate eum cadi codonomen Domini

20

aquce quce super codos sunt, laudent

"H^riaS hine heofonas, t5ara heofona heofonas, and eac 8a weeteru tSe bufan heofonas sind, h^rien hie Godes
1

Translate, of heaven.

6
6 7
8

2

Nearly =
fern,

Were. Lyft fluctu-

Nearly = he. See belncan.
See 24.

ates in gender, in this extract, be-

tween
3 4

and neut.
this

What is the difference of deriSee 156.
g.

Ace. plur.

vation between also and as ?

How is
1.

word rendered

in

9
10

p. 124,

4,

Ps. 148. 4.

192
nainan."

THE six DAYS' WORK OF CREATION.
Dus
saegS
fleet

halge gewrit.

Ne

he^riaS

Sa

waeteru mid

nanum wordum God,

ac Surh Sa gesceafta,
is

Se he gesceop wundorlice, his miht

gesweotolod, and

5

he biS swa geh^red. On Saem Sriddan daege tire Dryhten gegaderode Sa 1 seelican Seo eorSe ySa fram Saire eorSan bradnesse.
waes wa3S
aet

fruman

call

ungesewenlic,
2
;

for-Sam-Se
hie

heo

call

10

asyndrode fram flaem selicum yflum on hiere agenne st^de, swa-swa heo 3 Heo ne lift 4 on nanum Singe, ac on 5 lofte 6 st^nt ofl flis. heo stejit Surh Sass Anes miht Se 6 call Sing gesceop;
oferfleaht

mid ySurn

ac

God

and he

call

nama
God,"
15

is

butan geswince, for-Saui-Se his Omnipotens Deus, Sset is on Englisc, "^Elmihtig
Sing gehielt
is

7

His willa

weorc, and he werig ne biS, and his

micle miht ne ma3g nahwser swincan, swa-swa se witga 8

awrat be him, cweSende, Quia in
fines terrce

manu

ejus sunt
eall

omnes
Saire

" Eor-Sam-Se on his

handa sindon

eorSan gemsera."
giet
20

he gelogode swa-swa heo liS 4 wiSinnan Sa eorSan on hiere ymbhwyrfte and Seahsee
;

Da

Se heo brad

sle,

heo wunaS

eall

and gebleged swa-Seah on

gehti,

Ssere

and wundorlice deop, eorSan bosme binnan

hiere gemaerum.

God

self

geseah Sa Sset hit god waes

swa, and het Sa eorSan arodlice spryttan growende gaers,

25

and Sa grenan wyrta mid hiera agnum saede to manigand Sa wyrta sona wynsumlice fealdum Igececraefte 9
;

1

Translate, of the sea.

6
7

Refers to Anes.

2
8 4 6

See 114.
Until this, until now.

See gehealdan.
Ps. 95.
Cf.
4.

Present or

preterit ?
8

See 28.

Mod. Eng.

9

aloft.

Mom. and

Jul. 2.

3.

15

ff .

THE SIX DAYS' WORK OF CREATION.
1

193
gebleode.

greowon,

mid nianigfealdum blostmum,
hie

mislice

God

het

eac

spryttan,

fturh

his

godcundan

miht,

manigfeald treowcynn, mid hiera wgestmum, mannum to ofetum and to 65rum niedum. And seo eorSe, sona swa-

swa hiere 2 God bebead, stod mid holtuin agrowen, and mid healicum cederbeamum and mid nianiguni wudum on

5

mid aeppelbserum treowum and mid ortgeardum, and mid gelcum treowcynne mid hiera agnum
hiere widgilnesse,

waestmum.

On
nu

Seem feorSan daege
tSaet

leoht "

sind,

Dryhten gecwseS, "Geweor^en ^a leohtan steorran on Ssem heotire

zo

fonlican rodore

"Saet

3

hie todselan maegen daBg fram niht,

and hie beon to tacne, and tida gewyrcen dagum and gearum, and scinen on t58em rodore, and onliehten t5a

God geworhte fta sona twa scmendu leoht, Sa sunnan on niiclu and mseru, monan and sunnan m^rgen to $ses daeges liehtinge, Sone monan on sefen mannum to liehtinge on nihtlicre tide mid getacnungum.
eorSan. 7 '

15

And

ealle

steorran

he

eac

fca

geworhte,
Saet

and he hie
^a eor^an
20

gefaastnode

on

tJsem

fsestan

rodore,

hie

onliehten
dseges

mid
4

hiera

manigfealdum

leoman,

and

Sees

glemden and eac Saere niht, and Saet leoht toNseron nane tida on dselden and t^a Siestru on twa.
Seem gearlicum getaele eer-Sam-fte se aelmihtiga Scieppend
gesceop

8a

tunglu

to

gearlicum

tidum,

on

manigum

25

swa-swa lareowas getacnungum, on l^nctenlicre emnihte 5 And ne se^cgeaft on gerlmcraefte, xii kl. Aprilis.
1

See -rowan.
Dat. sing.
6

8

Cf

.

p. 125,

1.

9
1

ff.
ft.

2

* Cf. p.

126,

1.

March

21;

cf. p. 190,

1.

12.

194
naefre

THE SIX DAYS WORK OF CREATION.
Eastron 1
aer se

daeg

cume

Saet fiaet leoht haebbe

$a

fclestru oferswlSed, Sset is, fleet se daeg

beo l^ngra

2

<5onne

seo niht.

Be
ssede

633111

swa God
5

him

oflrum tidum cwifl Sees ilce boc swa" Seedtima and self to Noe
:

haerfest,

suiner

and winter,

ciele

and

haetu,

daeg

and

niht,

ne

geswicafc naefre."

Ne

standaS na ealle steorran on Saern
3

steapan rodore, ac hie
beneoflan Saem rodore,

sume 3 habbaS synderlicne gang mislice ge^ndebyrde and Sa, tJe
;

on ^aem rodore
10
6

4

standaft,

tyrna^

aafre

abutan mid Saem
eor^an,

bradan rodore on ymbhwyrfte

Sfiere

and hiera 5
^eos
7

nan ne

fiel^

of

'Saein

faestan

rodore

Sa-hwlle-Se

woruld wunaS swa gehal.
softlice

Eall swa gae^ seo sunne,

and

mona/ abutan 6as eorSan mid bradum ymbhwyrfte, eall swa feor beneo^an swa-swa hie bufan us ga'S.
se
15

On anum
him
1

Seem fiftan daege ure Dryhten gesceop of waetere ealle fiscas on sae and on eaum, and eall t58et on
8

crlepft,

and Sa miclan hwalas on hiera cynrenum,
a
4

A

plural (see the verb) used

See 151.

as

singular.

Eastre

(North.
tells

From

the Greek

word
is

Eostre) was, as
the

Bede

us,

one of whose senses
chisel^

lathe-

name

of

festival

was
east

a goddess whose celebrated at the
it

comes
'

the

Greek,

and

vernal equinox;
tive of

is

a deriva-

hence the Latin (tornare} verb meaning to turn in a lathe,' and

(east,

cognate with

hence

'

to

fashion,'
is

'

smooth

' ;

Skr.

ushds,

dawn),

and

this

from the Latin
English verb.
5

derived the

indicates that she

was

originally

Bede a goddess of the dawn. adds that the passover-tide was " Consueto so
called,

Dependent on nan.
See feallan.

6
7

antiquse

observationis

vocabulo

gaudia

Are these genders what one would expect ? What determines

novae solemnitatis vocantes,"
2

them?
8

See 65.

See creopan.

THE SIX DAYS' WORK OF CREATION.
and eac
ftsem
eall

195

fugolcynn ealswa of waetere, and forgeaf

fuglum flyht geond $as lyft, and ftsem fiscum sund on Ssem flowendum ySum. God hie gebletsode fca, Sus 1 cwe<5ende to flaem fiscum, "Weaxaft and beoft gemanig-

and gefyllaS $a sse " and " gemanigfielde bufan Saere eorSan
fielde,
;

eac,
;

"

Da

fuglas beon

swa.
flaxfete

Da

fuglas,

soSlice,

and hit gewearo" Sa Se on flodum wuniaft, sindon
Saet

be

Godes

foresceawunge,

hie

swimman

2 maegen and secean him fodan. Sume beoS langsweorede, swa-swa swanas 3 and ielfetan, ftaet hie arsecean him

maegen m$te
libbaft,

4

be 5 'Seem gruiide.
7

And

fla,

Se be 6
2

flsesce

sindon cliferfete,

bltan

maegen on

8

and scearpe gebilode, t$aet hie sceortum sweorum, and swiftran 9 on

flyhte, ^set hie

10 tilungum. gelimplice beon to hiera lifes

Nis na
earde
fela

fugolcynn on 5 n S^ a ^eode, ne on nanum ne biS naht ea$e eall fugolcynn, for-^am-Se hie
eall

on wsestme, and hie mislice swa-swa us bee scea^5 sweotollice be n
sindon,

micle

fleogaft,

1

Cf. p. 126,

1.

11

ff.

6

Cf.

"Man
is

shall not live by

Not past participles, though with the same ending.
3

2

bread alone."
7

Clifer-

apparently related
9

Swanas and
is

ielfetan
in

are

to cleave
8 10

=

adhere.

here virtually identical;

ON.
has
to

Translate, with.

See 64.

swanr

the poetical, Sift the

An

interesting word, related
leave,

ordinary designation. been doubtfully derived from the
root of Lat. sonare, and lelfete
(cf.

Swan

Mod. Eng.

Germ.

b(e~)leib-

en, Gr. \nrapeTv = hold out, persist; originally, therefore, life = a hold-

the ON. form) from that of

Lat. albus.
4

Object of araicean.

ing out, continuance. In German, body, one of its older meanings, is the commoner one for Leib. Here

6

Here

=

from ;

cf

'
.

by the

=

livelihood.

roots,'

n So in Fielding's Amelia (8. 2);

196

THE SIX DAYS' WORK OF CREATION.
ftaem siextan dsege tire

On
seo

eorfie

Pryhten gecwaeft "Acejine nu cucu nletenu on hiera cynrene, and Sa
:

1

5

creopendan wyrmas, and eall deorcynn on hiera cynrenum." Hwaet 2 Sa God geworhte, fcurh his wunderlican miht, eall nietencynn on hiera cynrenum, and t$a wildan
!
.

deor
of

fte

on

wudum
and

eardiaS,

and
and
4

eall eall
4

Saet

fiSerfete

3

MS,

fcaere

foressedan
beoft,
t5a

eorSan,
tSa

wyrmcynn
sellican

8a-Se

creopende
beoS,
10

re^an leon,
tigres,

^5e

her on lande ne
4

and
fia

swiftan

and

'Sa

pardes,
t5a- 6e
1

and

^geslican beran, and $a ormsetan elpas,

on

Engla
ealle
gaerse,

'Seode

ac^nnede ne beoS, and fela

6t5ru
t5e

cynn Se ge
libbaS

ne cunnon.

Da
olfend

beoS
5

langsweorede
assa,

be

swa-swa

and

hors
;

and

hrySeru,
eelc

headeor and
15

rahdeor,
his
lifes

and gehwilc 6Sru
tilunge.

and

biS

gelimplic

to

Wulfas, and leon, and

6 witodlice beran, habbaS strangne sweoran, and sciertran

be 7 daele/ and maran tuscas, to hiera m^tes tilunge, Sam-^e hie
oftru
20

for-

libbatS

hiera

lif

8

be reaflace, swa-swa gehwilc

deor

9

Se d^riat5
oftre

Seem oSrum.
10

Da

elpas beotJ

swa
tireo

micle swilce

muntas,

and hie magon libban
hie

hund

geara,

and man

maeg

we^nian

to

wige

mid

"I always love to speak by people as I find"; Shak.,
"

6

Not elephant, but camel. Elp
is

M.V.I.

2.

58:

(longer form, elpend)
6
7

elephant.

How
1

say you

by the
15

French

See 65.
Translate, in part.

lord ? "
Cf. p. 126,
1.

ff.

8

See 168.
.

1.

2
8 4

Translate,

Lo !

FiS"er-isakintoLat.gwaMor.

Cf Shakespeare's (King Lear 3.4.143): "Mice and rats and such
small deer."
10

9

With pard cf. Shakespeare's "Bearded like the
Latin.

From

What is the German 9 So the ME. Bestiary (ca,
"Elpes

pard,"

J220) says (1.604):

am

THE SIX DAYS' WORK OF CREATION.
craefte,

197

swa

Sset

m^nn

wyrceaft wighus
;

him on uppan,

and of
hors
1

'Ssem feohtaS
2

afaired

Surli

on hiera fierdinge Sonne fliehft selc Sa elpas, and, gif him hwa wiSst^nt,

he

bi<5

sona oftreden. 3

Ac we

nellao"

na

swlttor

nu ymb
5

Sis sprecan.

On
afeoll

Seem ilcan dsege

ure Dryhten wolde

mannan
mid

ge-

wyrcean of
se

Ssere ilcan eorSan, for-$am-Se

on Sisum

fierste

deofol

of

t5aere

healican

heofonan,

his

Ure gegadum, for his upahsefednesse, into h^lle wite. 4 Dryhten cwaeS be him on his halgan godspelle, In veritate

10

non

sletit,

quia veritas non

est in eo

" He ne

wunode
nates-

na on

soSfsesinesse, for-t5am-Se seo soSfsestnes

nis

hwon on him." God Da sceolde fsegerne.

hine
he,

geworhte wundorlicne and gif he wolde, weortSian his
15

Scieppend mid micelre ea^modnesse, $e hine swa mserne Ac he ne dyde na swa, ac mid dyrstigre gesceop. 5 modignesse cwaeS tSaet he wolde wyrcean his cynesetl

bufan
Saim

Godes

tunglum,

ofer

Ssera

wolcna
gelic.

heanesse

on
he
20

nor^daele,

and -beon
Se
is

Gode
eall

Da

forlet

Sone

^Elmihtigan,

softfsestnes,

and
self

nolde

habban his hlafordscipe, ac wolde beon him
in

on his

Inde

riche,

on bodi

borlic

giat."

Above, where elephants
to mountains, Basil
ffdpiavoi
;

[burly] berges Hike." 1 This seems to indicate that
^Elfric

are

compared
fiovvol

has,

rives

Am-

tation of Basil's

employed Ambrose's adapHexameron, since

brose, quidam mobiles montes versantur in praeliis," etc.
2

" velut

the original does not contain this
thought.

Ambrose has (Bk. VI., Chap. V.): "Quid faciat eques,
ejus

"A
3 4

So Shak., Macb. 5. soldier, and afeard."
See 142.
Jn.
8.

1.

41

:

cum equus
tantee
bestise

perterrefactus
diffu-

44.

immanitate

6

Isa. 14. 13,

198

THE six DAYS' WORK OF CREATION.
Da
naefde
he"

selfes anwealde.

nane fsestnunge, ac

feoll

sona adune, mid eallum Saern
wseron, and hie

$nglum $e
to

set

his

raede

wurdon awe^nde
se

Be
5

fcsem cwaeft

1

awiergdum deoflum. Hselend her on t5isum life, "Ic geseah
scmende
lieget

Sone

scuccan

swa-swa

feallende

adun

dreorig of heofonum," for-Sam-Se he ahreas ungerydelice.

wyrcean, "Surh his wundorlican miht, mannan of eorSan, t5e mid eat5modnesse sceolde geearnian
gone ilcan st^de on
10

Da wolde God

fcaira

^ngla geferr^edene
;

t5e

se deofol
fia,

forworhte mid his dyrstignesse

and God

self cwseS

swa-swa us saegS $eos hoc, Fadamus hominem ad imaginem nostram et similitudinem nostrum, et reliqua, etc.,

15

on ^ngliscre sprsece, " Uton gewyrcean mannan to iirre anlicnesse and to urre gelicnesse, tSset he anweald haebbe ofer eallum fiscum, and ofer fugolcynne, and ofer
t5set

is

wildeorum,
gehieran

2

^5a

and ofer eallum gesoeafte." Her ge magon halgan tSrlnesse and softe annesse anre godtSaer

cundnesse.
Brines.
20

"Uton wyrcean mannan" Sfier "To urre anlicnesse"
anlicnes, for-t5am is se

is

seo halge

is

seo

annes,

to

anre anlicnesse, na to tSrim anliciiessum.

sawle
^Sa

is

Godes

On mann

8aes

mannes

selra 3 'Sonne

sawulleasan nietenu, ^e nan andgiet nabbafl
Scieppend.
4

ymb
his
;

hiera

agenne
lame,
25

mid

his

God $a geworhte of halgum handum, mannan
his

'Sasre

eorSan
anlic-

to

nesse,

and ableow on

ansiene llflicne blaed

and he

weart5

mann geworht on libbendre sawle. God self Sa gesceop him naman Adam, and of his anum ribbe
1

Lk.

10. 18.
is

2
3

What
See

the etymology of icilderness?
4

Cf. 35.

66.

See 24.

THE SIX DAYS* WORK OF CREATION.
worhte him gemacan.
modor.
"
1

Hiere nama wajs Kva,
fca

fire

2

ealra

And God

hie

gebletsode

mid

fcisse

bletsunge,
<S;I

Weaxafc and bCoS gemejiigfielde, and geiyllafi
fca

r<n\in,
si
5

and habbao* 6ow anweald ofer
fiscum,

eorSan,

and ofer

and ofer

fiaun

fleogendum fuglum, and ofer eallum

&m
8fi

nletenum
his

fce

styriat$ ofer eorSan."

call

weorc, and hie

God gesceawode w&ron swifie god. And se
seofo^an daege his weorc
lo

siexta daeg wearS

swa

ge$ndoc|.

And God Sa
tte

gefylde on

$im

he worhte on wundorlicum dihte, and hine 8 8a ger^ste, and Cone daeg gebletsode, for-5ain-t5e he on fcaim seofot5an
4 daege geswac his weorces.

Nies he na w6rig,

fceah-fie

hit.

swa awriten swa

sle;
5

to ednlwianne,
craeftes,
tJa

n6 he mid ealle ne geswac fifi gesceafta ac he geswac ^aes dihtes 4 flses dCoplican

tJaet

he

seldcttfle

sitJCan
^Sisse

scieppan nolde, ac
tire
a

J

5

ilcan geednlwian CS

nde

worulde, swa-swa

lI;T-lend

on his halgan
et

godspelle
ego
operor,

gecwae,
fcaet

Pater meus

usque modo operatur,

is

on

5 n &^ 8C
daeg,

;

"Mln
ic

Fseder wyrcS glet 6
^Elce geare
7

Cisne

andweardan

and
20

6ac wyrce."
8

bi5 orf ac^nned, and

nivun-

inannum ac^nnede, ^a-t5e God gewyrcft swa-swa he geworhte 8a Srran and he ne sciepfc nane
isce

in^nn

8

to

;

sawle butan
jifuio sawle.
1

&em

cildum anum, and

call

nletenu nabbafc

9

In Chaucer'H Nir Thopas

we

8
4

See 184.
SJn.

b. *
7

have:

"For
is

in

this

world no
to
(

156. k.
5. 17.

See 142.
See 176.
beings.
82,

.woniiiiiui

Worthy
in

be
l<\

my
8

make."
11.

So

Spenser

2):

"That was
a.

Q. 3. as trew in

Translate,

human

Based upon Basil
he
is

where

love as turtle to her make."
-

combating the theory of

Sfc 153.

the transmigration of souls.

XIV.

THE SONG OF THE GLEEMAK
(Beowulf 89-100.)
[Hrothgar, King of the Danes, builds a spacious hall for the assembly of There, from time to time, they are entertained by minstrelsy, sometimes that of a professional gleeman, and sometimes improvised by one of the warriors, or even by the king himself (cf Iliad 9. 185-189) .
.

his retainers.

In reading the poetry, the paragraph of the Preface relating to the retention of MS. forms should be borne in mind.]

peer wses

hearpan sweg,
[90]

swutol sang scopes.
frumsceaft fira
cwaetS
1 2

1

Ssegde se be cube

feorran r^ccan,
3

beet se

^Imihtiga

eorSan worhte,
"Virgil probably had in his mind here not only Lucreton says:
tius

For the accord of harp and voice see p. 175, 1. 11, and Odyssey
8.

266:

"Now
lyre,

as the minstrel

and the Greek didactic

poets,

touched the
2

he

lifted

up

his

voice in sweet song."

such as Xenophanes, Empedocles^ and Aratus, but the legendary
reputation of the poetic teachers
of early Greece, such as

Thorkelin, the

first

editor of

Beowulf, already noticed the resemblance between this song and
that of lopas in Virgil (^En. 1. 740-747), though this is Christianized
in
its

Orpheus and Musseus. His own notion of an ancient bard is that of a hierophant of nature.
. .

.

The con-

execution.

An

earlier sketch of the

same con-

ception belongs not to Augustan Borne, but to primitive Greece,

ception was
(2.

that in the Georgics
of

475-482),

which Coning200

where science was theological and imaginative, and verse the natu1.

Cf. p. 124,

4

ff .

THE SONG OF THE GLEEMAN.
wlitebeorhtne wang,
3

201
2
;

swa

1

wseter bebugeS
4

ges^tte

Sigehrepig

sunnan

ond monan

4

leoman to leohte

landbuendum,
foldan sceatas
lif

[95]

and gefrsetwade

leomum
cynna
6

5

Qnd leafum;

eac gesceop

gehwylcum.

)>ara fe

cwice hwyrfa}>. 7
lifdon
C IO ]

Swa

t5a

drihtguman

dreamum

eadiglice.
ral vehicle of all

thought.

It had,

knowledge and however, been

seque ut propriam, in
sunt, norunt."
1

qua nati
In archaic

partially realized

by Lucretius,

Almost
so

=
is

which.

'whose example exercised a strong influence on Virgil's imagination."

German
alien, so
2

thus used:

"Von

da kamen."

As

to the possibility of

iar

an Old English poet's being familwith Virgil, compare the testi-

This phrase is found again in the Andreas. See p. 216, 1. 18.
3 6
6

Cf.p.l25,1.12ff.

*

See 153.

6.

mony

of

Bede

(Eccl. Hist. 4. 2)

See lim, and 174.

.concerning the pupils of Theodore and Hadrian " Usque hodie
:

Dependentupon gehwylcum
Here ends the song. The
rest

(154. &).
7

supersunt

de

eorum

discipulis

qui Latinam Grsecainque linguam

refers to Hrothgar's retainers.

XV.

THE ROUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
(From the
Judith.)

[Of this extract Ten Brink has said (Early English Literature}:
lucid, well-constructed narrative are joined epic profusion, vigor,

"To

a

and

ani-

mation.

In the highest degree effective

is

the portrayal of Judith's return

to Bethulia, of the warlike advance of the Hebrews, of the surprise of the Assyrian camp, the terror of the Assyrian nobles, who dare not disturb*
their lord in his rest,

and

finally of the

disbandment and

flight of the

heathen host."

The portion here given omits the discovery of Holofernes' dead body by the Assyrians. It is based upon the Apocryphal book of Judith, the first few verses of the fifteenth chapter, especially verses 2, 5, 7, and 11. For
further particulars see my edition of the Judith. Attention is called to the device employed for indicating parallel or synonymous expressions, which have constituted one of the chief diffi-' culties of OE. poetry. The device consists in the enclosure between reference-letters of the parallel expressions, the synonyms being desig-

nated by the same

letters.

For an example, see
1

p. 204,

11.

5-7.]

pa wurdon
syftftan hi

bliSe

burhsittende,
2

gehyrdon ofer heanne 4 weall.
wi$
5 6
;

hii seo

halge

3

spraec

[160]

H$re
5

waes on lustum,

bses faestengeates

folc onette,

weras wlf somod

wornum and heapum,
]>rungon and urnon

Sreatum

7

and

Srymmum
6

ongean Sa peodnes msegtS
1

busendniEelum,

[165]

See 28.

2
4

See

19.
1.

3 5

See

55.

See 58.

Here almost = and. Throughout the following poetry, remember 25.
7

Wiff sometimes governs the
;

genitive

see 158.

/

See 220.

202

THE ROUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
ealde ge geonge
1
;

203

aeghwylcum

weartS
5

m$n on
e^ft
5

ftaere

medobyrig
)>aet

mod

2

areted,

syfifian hie

ongeaton
5

waes 4 ludith

cumen

to eole,

and Sa

ofostlice

hie 6

mid eaSmedum
7

in forleton.

E^
8

]

pa seo gleawe het
9 hyre Smenne

golde gefraetewod
9

fancolmode
hea.fod
12 10

]>aes

h^rewaeSan
11 14

onwriSan,
13

and hjt
10

to^-beh^e

blodig

setywan
aet

]?am burhleodum,
16

hu hyre

beaduwe 15

ge- [175]

speow.
x
17

Spraec

-^a seo aettele

to eallum )>am folce:
18

"Her

ge

magon

sweotole,

sigerofe haele^,

leoda rseswan, 18

on

fiaes

la^estan

hae^nes hea^orinces
15

heafod starian,
20

^Holofernus
)>e

19

unlyfigendes,

[180]

us

m^nna

maest 21

a

morSra a gefr^mede,
14

1

Belongs to
Subject.

Construe,

and aetywan hyt,

2
3

What

is

the normal form of

blodig, l;im burhleodum, to behfre hu hyre, etc.

this
*

word (113)?
Note the auxiliary: was come
See 23.
,

Unusual form for beadwe, from beadu.
is
17

16

not had come.
5

See 190.

6
7 8

Ace. sing. See 181.
Modifies gleawe.

line

Tennyson's from the song in The Princess : " Rose a nurse of ninety

For the order

cf .

9
10
11

Ace. sing.
Object of onw.riS'an.

years." 18 See 152.
19

Genitive.

For

hit.

20

y

is

sometimes found for

i,

12

=

as a sign.

as well as for ie (19).
21

18

Modifies hyt.

Mtest seems to have two

204

THE ROUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
sarra "sorga*,

and
ac

1

2

J>set

swyftor
3

gyt

yean

2

wolde

;

him ne

Me God
7

4>

l^ngran

llfes,
5
;

}>aet

he mid la?$ftum us
ottyrong
b

$glan moste
5

ic

him ealdor 6

[185]

Jnirh
Jjyssa
b

Godes fultum.
1

Nu
J>set

ic

b

gumena
1

gehwaene

8

b

burgleoda
b
,

b

biddan wylle,
c

randwiggendra
10

9 ge recene eow
c frymSa God ,

fysan
c

to gefeohte;

sySSan
d

arfsest

Cyning

c
,

eastan sejide
beraft

[ J 9]

10

leohtne leoman,
d

linde

d

forS,

bord

d

for breostum

and byrnhomas,

scire

helmas
2 e

in sceaSena gemong.
e

fyllan
e

folctogan
e
.

fagum sweordum,

fsege
15

fmmgaras
tohtan,

gedemed
f

to dea'Se

Fynd syndon eowere and ge f dom f agon, 12

2

11

[195]

tir

f

set

swa eow getacnod hafaS 13

furh mine hand." mihtig Dryhten g snelra g werod snude gegearewod, pa wearS
senses and two constructions in
this
it
*

See 159.

a.

and similar passages.

In one

5
6
7

See 137.
Neuter.

apparently = chiefest, and is construed with the preceding genitive
ber,
;

See 142.

in the other
is

=

most in numfol:

8

LWS.

ace. of

gehwa.

See

and

construed with the
.

154. b.
9
10
11

lowing genitive. Cf Andr. 1447 " >a ]>e heardra mgest hearma ge-

See 184.

b.

Opt. pres. 2 plur.

fr^medan"; Beow. 2645 "for^am he manna msest mser'Sa
:

Construe,

eowere
etc.

fynd

syndon gedemed,
12

gefr^mede"
1

;

etc.

See 127.

What two words
same root?
form
?

See above,
See 19
;

p. 203, n. 20.
1.

in this line have the

2

199.

Which
18

is

the derivative ?

See 129.

Is this the usual

THE KOUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
g

205

cenra g to campe;

1

stopon

cynerofe

senegas

and

gesi8as,

bseron [sige]]>ufas,
for5 on gerihte,
of 3 Ssere halgan

foron to gefeohte
hseleS
5 2

under helmum
daegred sylf
.

by rig
5

on

4

(5aet
a

;

*dynedan
se
7

a

scildas,

hlude

hlummon a

pses se hlanca gefeah

wulf in walde, 6
wselglfre fugel:
8

and

wanna
begen

hrefn,

wistan

]>3et

him Sa beodguman
10

9

J>6hton

tilian

10

fylle

on fsegum;
12

u on last ac him fleah
13

earn

setes

georn,
14

urigfeftera,

[210]

salowigpada

sang hildeleoS,
b

Stopon hyrnedn^bba. b b to beadowe beornas
1

hea^orincas b,

c

bordum c15 be^eahte,
all

See staeppan.
Norn. plur.

Gathering round with wings
9.

2
3
4

See 43.
of.

hoar,

= /row, = at.

not

Through the dewy mist they
* #

soar.

*

*

#

So their plumes of purple grain,
Starred with drops of golden rain,

5 6

See gef eon. Is this the

usual

form

?

Gleam,

etc.

See 21.
7

Perhaps Milton

may have
"

borin II

Irregular for

wiston

(126).

rowed the word from OE.
Pens.
sleep."
14
:

8

Not

reflexive.

146

:

dewy-feathered

9
10

See ff^ncean. - feast. See Iliad 22. 42

Note the three similar

epi-

"Then
field."
11

quickly would dogs and vultures devour him on the

thets of the earn.

Bord, border, like rand, same meaning (see above, p. 204,
1.

15

12

See fleogan. See 155. c.

7), is poetically
frvs

used for shield.

So Gr.

See Shelley's description of the rooks, in the Lines written

13

(akin to Eng. withe) a circle or rim made of a) willow ; 6) the outer edge or rim

meant

among

the

Euganean

Hills

:

of the shield (like AvrvQ; c) the

THE ROUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
c

hwealfum lindum
3

1
,

ba
a

fte

hwile 2

aer

a

elfieodigra

edwit
a
;

boledon,

[215]

hseSenra
set
b

a

hosp
b

b
4

him b
call

bset

hearde wearS
forgolden

'Sam sescplegan
,

um

5

Assyrium sySfcan Ebreas 6 6 under guSfanum gegan hsefdon
to

Sam fyrdwlcum.
c

Hie 8a fromlice
flana scuras,

[220]

leton for$ fleogan
c

hildensedran
strselas
c

of hornbogan,

10

c

st^dehearde;
garas
d

styrmdon hlude
7

grame
d

gutSfrecan,

s^ndon
[225]

in heardra gemang.

H3ele$ d wseron yrre, 8

landbuende d
d

laSum cynne,
d
,

stopon
15

styrnmode
niisofte

wr^hton
itself.

ealdgenl^lan

round shield
tration of
its

A good illusin Euripides,

My

use

is

Tro. 1196-97, where

Hecuba

is

grained ash an hundred times hath broke, And scarr'd the moon with splinters.

speaking of Hector's shield.
ter translates
:

Pot-

The mark

of his strong grasp,

Yet how sweet to trace and

See also Iliad 22. 225 (where /xeMTj, ash, is used for spear):

"Stood leaning on
pointed (xaXK07\(x

his
ti;o s>

bronzelike the

on the verge Of thy high orb (Jruos) the sweat.
1

iergescod

of

The

material for the weapon,

ashen-spear."
*

Beowulf 2778) For aescplega cf.

linden for shield.
2

sword-play.'
8
6

Ace. sing.: for a time.

8
4

Dependent on edwit.

Agrees with him (164. h). Note this pluperfect, formed

On

ash as the designation of

with an auxiliary.
7

a spear, see Shakespeare, Coriol. 3.5. 112-115:
Let
against

What

me

twine

grar- in
8

is the meaning Mod. Eng. garlic ?

of the

Mine arms about that body, where

See 19.
Ace. plur. (168).

THE KOUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
medowerige
scealcas of
1
;

207

mundum 2 brugdon
scirinseled

sceaSum
4
e

swyrd

3

[230]

$cgum
Assiria
e

gecoste,
5

slogon eornoste
e
,

oretmaecgas
e
,

ni$hycgende f hrefolces f
cwicera
*

nanne ne sparedon heanne 6 ne ricne
]>e

manna
* *

1

hie ofercuman mihton.
#
7

[235]

*

#
8

*

#

Him mon
msegeneacen
io
10

feaht on last,

68 se meesta dail
laeg

fses

h^riges

hilde geseeged

on Sam sigewonge,

sweordum 11 geheawen,
and eac waelgifrum
Flugon 8a Se lyfdon
13

[ 2 95]

wulfum

to willan,
frofre.

12

fuglum to

laSra lindwiggendra.
15

Him pn
15

laste for

sweot Ebrea
a

14

a

sigor
;

dome gedyrsod a
on
17

geweorSod% him 16 feng b Dryhten God b
b

[300]

feegre
C
c C

fultum,

17

Frea aelmihtig
18

b
.

HI Sa

fromllce
c

fagum swyrdum
h^rpaS

ha3leS higerofe
;

worhton
10 11

1

Ace. plur.

agrees with eald-

See 44.

2.
c.

genidlan. 2 See 174.
3

See 174.

12

=

(as) a delight to wolves.
2.

Ace.

plur.

;

irregular

for

See 161.
18

sweord.
4

Depends on

ffa.

Agrees

with

swyrd.

See

14

174. d.
6
6
7

15 16

Gen. plur.

Gen. plur. Inst. without ending. The Hebrews.

From

lira ii. not

heah.

17

=

to

(their) help.
e.

For the
1

The Assyrians.
See 89.
e.

construction see 164.
18

8

Irregular for h^repaiS

(for

9

See 147.

-pseS).

208

THE ROUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
Jmrh Ia5ra gemong,
scildburh scairon:
d
d

linde heowon,

sceotend d wgeron
Ebreisce d
1
;

[305]

gu$e gegr^mede, pegnas on Sa tid
5

guman

pearle gelyste

gargewinnes.
se
a a
2

pier

on greot gefeoll
3

hyhsta
a

deel

heafodgerimes
[310]

Assiria
la(5an

ealdordugufte,
a
:

cynnes
4 5

lythwon becom
Cirdon 2 cynerofe,
b
b
6

cwicera
10

to cySSe.

wiggend
b

on witSertrod,
;

W8elsc^l

oninnan,

reocende hrsew b

rum 7
c

wees to nimanne
[315]
c 2

londbuendum
hyra
c

on ^am

la^estan c,

ealdfeondum

unlyfigendum
hyrsta
8

heolfrig h^rereaf,
15

scyne,

bord and brad swyrd,
2

brune helmas,
9

dyre

madmas.
10

Haefdon domlice fynd
11
;

on 'Sam folcst^de
eSelweardas,

oferwunnen
9

[320]

ealdh^ttende

20

swyrdum asw^fede fa Se him to life
cwicera cynna.

hie on swafte r^ston,

laSost wseron

Da

seo cneoris eall,

i

See 190.

2

See 19.
or

for the natives
for -urn)
8

to

capture

from

8

Either dependent upon,

the most hated ones
.

(laffestan

parallel to,
4

heafodgerimes. Dependent on lythwon.

These nouns are

all ace. plur.

5

For Ig

is

as here, igg.
signify ?
6

sometimes found, "What does this

9 11

Ace. plur. Norn. plur. With ahaefdon. Supply
in the sense of 'slay/

10

swebban,
;

Governs wselscel and hriew
is

cf.

the similar use of the Lat.

the latter
7

an

ace. plural.

sopire

and the Gr.

evvdfriv (the

Translate, there

was a chance

latter in Sophocles).

THE KOUT OF THE ASSYRIANS.
msegSa mserost,
anes monies fyrst, 1

209
[325]

wlanc 2 wuiidenlocc 2

wagon

8

and

laeddoii 3

to Saire beorhtan byrig

Bethuliam
hare byrnan,

helmas and hupseax, 4
5

guSsceorp gumena
mserra 5

golde gefraetewod,
]>onne moii ainig
6

madma

[330]

as^cgan msege
eal
J>8et
7

searo)>oncelra

;

8a fteodguman
8

prymme geeodon,
on compwige
to
11

cene
10

under cumblum
ludithe
8

}>urh

gleawe lare
a

msegS
of

modigre.
sfSfate
10

Hi a

mede 9 hyre
brohton

[335]

Sam

sylfre

eorlas aescrofe*

Holof ernes 12

15

sweord and swatigne 13 helm, swylce eac side by] and eal j>aet se rinca balTlor gerenode readum golde,
swlftmod 14 sinces 15 ahte

o^Se sundoryrfes, 15

[340]

beaga

15

and beorhtra maSma, 15

hi fset fsere beorhtan

idese

ageafon gearo^ncolre.
1

See 170.

9

See Mayhew, OE. Phonol365.

2

8
4
5

Agreeing with cneoris. See wegan, and 189. 2.
Ace. plur.
;

ogy,
10

See 43. 2

;

here the a in-

trudes even into the sing.

Comp. and gen. plur. see 60. 2. The position would seem to require mserran madiiias. 6 Depends on senig.
7

"Forselfre
12

(166).

Genitive.
Lit.

13

sweaty, but in poetry

swat
14

usually

=

blod.

Modifies,

or

is

parallel
8

to,

ffeodguman.

Gen.

sing.

16

Agrees with baldor. Dependent on eal.

XVI.

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDBEAS.
[The Andreas is a poem of about 1722 lines (the numbering differs according to the edition). Jacob Grimm considered it and the Elene to be (Preface to his edition, p. iv) " the most ancient and instructive productions of Old English poetry, next to the Beowulf." With the help of Thilo, Grimm discovered (pp. xvi ff.) its source to be the Acts of Andrew and Matthew, written in Greek, and now published in Tischendorf's Acta

Apostolorum Apocrypha, pp. 132-166. Besides this poem, there is a prose version which may be profitably consulted, and which is to be found in
Bright's valuable Anylo-Saxen Reader, pp. 113-128. It is believed by many that both these versions were made from a Latin translation of

k original, but this cannot be said to have been demonstrated, at least for the poem. The Greek original is discussed at length by Lipsius,

A

Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden, pp. 546 ff. portion of the Greek, corresponding to lines 235-349, is printed in
III.

Appendix

According to Lipsius, the scene of the poem is the northern coast of the Black Sea though the Old English poet had Africa in mind (cf. 1. 198), perhaps because the region about Colchis had by some been called the inner or second Ethiopia. The Marmedonia (1. 30) or Mermedonia of our text has been identified with Myrmecium, Gr. M.vp/j.^Ktov, near the modern Yenikale, in the Crimea. Here are supposed to have dwelt the Cimmerians of Homer, and here, in classic times, were settled various Scythian tribes. Of the Tauri (Crimea was anciently the Tauric Chersonesus) " Herodotus says (4. 103) They sacrifice to the virgin all who suffer and any Greeks they meet with driven on their coasts, in the shipwreck,
;

:

following manner: having performed the preparatory ceremonies, they strike the head with a club some say they throw the body down from a The Tauri themselves say that this deity to whom they precipice.
;

.

.

.

daughter of Agamemnon" (cf. Euripides' Jphigenia in Tauris, and Goethe's Iphigenie). This reputation clung to the region, " Pontum ferocissimas for Tertullian says (Adv. Marcionem 1. 1) gentes inhabitare, parentum cadavera cum pecudibus caesa convivio convorantes."
sacrifice is Iphigenia,
:

evil fame of the district diminished by the fact that Huns were settled here from the fourth to the sixth century, then Goths, and

Nor was the

afterward Tartars.

210

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
The
story of the poem,

211

up to the beginning of our extract, is briefly imminent danger among the Mermedonians, a race of cannibals. In this extremity God appears to Andrew, and exhorts him to go to Matthew's assistance, which, after some reluctance, he prethis:
St.

Matthew was

in

pares to do.
Bits of translation and interesting comments (not always correct), embracing much of our extract, are given by Brooke, Hist. Early Eng.
Lit. pp. 169
ff.,

413

ff.]

Conversation between

Andrew and
a

the Sea-Captain.

Gewat 1 him ba
ofer sandhleofiu
brlste

a

on uhtan*

mid

serdsege*

[235]

to sees faruSe

on gebance, 2 gangan on greote;
5

$nd his begnas mid,
3

4

garsecg

hlynede,
5

beoton brimstreamas.
syftflan

Se beorn wses on 5
widfsetSme 6 scip
b

Ijyhte,
[240]

he on waruSe
b
,

modig gemette.
b

pa com
ofer

beacna beorhtost

morgen torht breomo sneowan,
,

b

r\

halig of heolstre;
See 184.
a.
2

heofoncandel 7
1.

i

See 199.
2.

chafe, rage;

the -ric as in Ger.

8

Sweet (Engl. Stud.

314-

wuterich; so that gasric

would

316) explains this

word

as being,

=
"

the rager.
4

not a compound of gar and s$cg

Brooke translates
o'er

this line

:

(=

spear

+

man,
if

according to

a personification like Neptune with his trident; or = spear + sedge, with Leo,

Bosworth, as

Trampled shingle. Thundered loud the ocean."
Nearly = joyful, rejoiced. Gr. rejoiced with very great joy.'
6 6

the

'

the

tips

of

the

waves

being

Poetic license
.

;

Gr.

'

a

little

likened to spears), but as arising by metathesis from the Runic

ship.'
7

Cf the Homeric
the sun.

Koi\rj vrjvs.
'

=

Of

'

candle

the

word gasric (cf the name of the Vandal king, Gaisaricus), as if gas + ric. The gas- would cor.

JVew Eng. Diet, says: "One of the Latin words introduced at
the English Conversion, and long
associated chiefly with religious

respond to

Old Norse geisa,
8

to

See bllcan.

212

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
ofer lagoflodas.
c

He
c
,

Saer
c

c

lid wear das
1

/

\

y
c

prymlice
c

]>iy

pegnas

geseah,

[245]

modigllce

m^nn

on me^rebate
swylce hie ofer
4

sittan siSfrome,
3 5

sse

comon. 2
4

Wealdend, mid his ^nglum twam. ece, selmihtig, d d e e Wseron hle on gescirplan scipferendum
pset

wses Drihten sylf,

dugefta

,

[250]

d

eorlas

d

onlice

e

ealiSenduni e,

10

5 ofer feorne weg ponne hie on flodes fae^m 6 ceoluni lacaS. 7 on cald wseter

Hie
fus
8

^5a

gegrette
8

se Se

on greote
:

stod,
[255]

on

faro^e
9

fraegn, reordade

"Hwanon comon
15

ge

ceolum

li^an,

macrseftige m^nn,

on

m$rej>issaii

ane

10

segflotan?

hwanon eagorstream
eowic 11 brohte?"
selmihti 12 God,
se
'Se

ofer ySa gewealc

Him
swa 13
ebservances.

}>a

ondswarode
ne wiste
This sacred

[260]

J>set

pses

wordes bad, 14

...

s

= expanse, originally embrac-

character of the

word bears on
Cf.

the OE. poetic compounds."

ing arms, embrace. 6 Not keel, but ship.
7

Rom. and
candles
also

Jul.

3. 5. 9.:

are

burnt

"Night's out." See

The

radical

meaning

is,

to

move in any
manner.
8

swift or impetuous

sense of Zawp, and
Xa/x,7r(s,

Shakespeare's metaphorical cf. the Gr.
Lat.

=

ready,

eager for.
10

One

lampas,

in

poet-

would expect the
9

ace. faro*?.
Inst. sing.

ical use.
1

See 200. See

1.

Not

in

MS.
is

11
i8

81. 1.

12

See 28.

2 8

=

had come.
the

=

in such a manner.

One

What

antecedent of

is

inclined to substitute ffeah, as
sense.
I.

>aet?
*

making better
Lord of
hosts,

=

W

See bidan, and 156.

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
hwset se
}>e

213

manna

waes

1

meSelhegendra,
wit5)>ingode
:

he

fair

on warofte

"We
5

of

Marmedonia
2 a

msegSe syndon
[265]

feorran gef^rede;

us mid flode baer
heahstefn 3 naca a
4
,

on hranrade
a

snellic ssemearh*

snude

5

bewunden,

5

6$-}>8et

we

pissa leoda

land gesohton
fordraf."
:

waere 6 bewrecene,

swa us wind
7

Him
10
b

J?a

Andreas
ic
]>e

eafimod oncwseft

[270]

"Wolde

biddan,
b

feh
c

ic

b

fe

beaga

b

lyt

sincweorSunga

syllan meahte,

fset ]>u
c

us gebrohte
c

brante 8 ceole c

,

hea hornscipe on )>sere meegSe
J>set

ofer hwaeles eSel
;

bit5

9

Se meorft 10 wiS God,

[275]

15

]>u

us on -lade

l!$e weort5e."

Eft him ^ndswarode
of 12 yt5lide,

seftelinga

Helm 11

^ngla Scippend:
}>8er

"Ne magon
1

gewunian
as an as
6

wldferende,

Cf. the

Homeric

ntpo\l/

=
An

encompassed with speed,
unusual word for ocean.

epithet,

and

in later use

an

swift.
6
7

equivalent, of men, mortals (so

H. 2. 285), and see p. 222, 1. 9. 2 With this sense of rad, road,

In this poem, ea (ea) not seldom becomes e (e), especially
before palatal consonants (10). 8 See 174. a.
9

may be compared
7r6pos,

the Gr. KAevflos,

as in the
3.

Homeric Ix0v6fvra
177), fishy roads;

K^\ev6a (Od.

Future sense, as frequently
1

see also -/Eschylus' w6pov oluv&v

with biS
10

.

(Prom. 281), track of birds. 8 Cf the Gr. vif/l-rrpypos. " Swift * Cf. Od. 4. 708
. :

Anglian form for

WS. med,

related to Gr. /M<r06s

ships,

that serve

men

for horses

on the
1.

(Mayhew, OE. Phon. 365). n Not helmet, but protector.
12

sea" (aX6$

tV7roi).

See

p. 226,

2.

= from,

as often.

214
ne

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
fair ejfeodige

eardes 1 brucaft,

[280]

ah in

fsere ceastre

cwealm

2

frowiaS,
;

fa $e feorran fyder

feorh 3 gelsedaf 3

5

ond fu wilnast 4 nu faet Su on fa fsegfle

ofer wldne-me^re,
fine feore spilde?"

Him

fa Andreas
5

agef ondsware

:

[285]

"Usic-lust hw$te$
6 mycel modes- -hiht
7

on fa leodmearce, to J>ere mseran byrig,
gif fu us fine
8

feoden
10

leofesta,

wilt

on mejefaro'Se miltse gecygan." Him ondswarode $ngla peoden,

[290]

N^regend

9

fira,

of nacan 10 stefne:

"We
15

fce
9

estlice

mid us

willat5

f^rigan

freollce

ofer fisces 11 bae^-11
12

efne to

fam

lande,

fair
13

fe -lust

myneS
[295]

to gesecanne,
B
a

syfrSan
a

ge eowre

gafulr8edenne

agifen habba^5,
a

s'ceattas gescrifene
14

afa
20

ofer ySbord15

swa eow scipweardas unnan willaS."
;'

Him

fa ofstlice

Andreas

wit5,
:

winef earfende,
1

wordum

mselde

[3]
;
.

See 156.

e.

en from dryht
'

2
3 4

Ace.
Periphrastic for
Elliptic,
go.'

cf cyning, with a different ending, from cyn. 8 Agrees with miltse.
9

like

Shakespeare's

See

18.

10

Gen. sing.

(Jlf.

W.

3. 2.

88)

"I

will to

my

n Kenning
12

(215) for 'ocean.'
that.

honest knight."
6

Almost

=

Cf. there in

A

following verb of motion

Mod. Eng.
13
14

thereto.

understood.
6 7

as soon as.

Here

=

bent.

MS. aras.

See 156.

i.

Formed from freed,

as dryht-

15

Governed by

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
"Naebbe
ic fseted

215
r

gold

ne feohgestreon,-

welan ne wiste, 1 ne wira gespann, 2 landes ne locenra beaga, 3 J>aet ic pe maege
ahw^ttan,
a

a

lust a

willan a in worulde,
pa beorna Breogo,
6

swa

M
5

worde bee wist. 4 "
he on bolcan
:

5

Him

|>ger

sset,

[305]

ofer -waroSa

geweorp*
7

wiS)>ingode

"Hu

gewearft pe

pges,

wine

leofesta,
8

Saet tJu ssebeorgas

secan woldes,

m^restrearaa gemet/
10

matSnium bedaeled
10

ofer cal'd cleofu?

.ceoles

neogan?

[310]

Nafast,

]>e

to frpfre

on faro6strsete

hlafes wiste

ne hlutterne 11
Is se drohta^ strang
13

12 drync to dugotte ?

J>am
15
1

]>e

lagolade

lange
t$urh

cunna])."

Da him Andreas
Not the verb.

ondsware
does not

[3 X 5]

mean

wave.

I

would

2

The

construction
to

suddenly
as
if

suggest the smiting of the shores,

changes

the

genitive,

perhaps meaning the plunging of
the breakers.
7

some word
apparently

like aht, aught,

been introduced.
trying

had The poet is
adapt
to

Anticipatory of the relative

to

sentence, )?aet ]m, etc.
8

this place the

landes and locof

On
See

the omission of final

t,

enra beaga
8

Beowulf 2296,

see 95.
9
10

there a partitive genitive.

clif,

and

20.

Now

only existing as bee, a

See 156. m.
instance of an originally

nautical term for a ring or
of metal.
s.v.
4

hoop

n An

See

New

Eng. Diet.

Bee 2

.

long vowel rendered short by the gemination of the following consonant.
12

See becweffan. Nearly

6
6

= from

where.

The Greek has
Adj.

Kemble

translates, the dash-

sustenance (p. 240).
18

ing of the waves;

but

waroS

1

216

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
wis on gewitte;

wordhord-1 onleac l :

"Ne

2

gedafenaft

]>e,

nu

fe

Dryhten geaf

3

welan ond wiste
$86 1 t$u
5

$nd woruldspede,
4

Qndsware
5
;

mid oferhygdum,
selre biS {Jeghwam
6

sece-sarcwide
J>set

[320]

he eaSmeduin
ctiolice,

e^llorfiisne

oncnawe

swa

pset Crist

bebead,

peoden frymfsest.
gecoren to c^mpuin.
10

We

his J>egnas 7 synd,
is
8 Cyning on 8

He

riht,

Wealdend ond Wyrhta
an ece God

-wuldorfrymmes,
anes 9
a

[325]

eallra gesceafta,
craefte a
?

swa he

ealle befehS
a

hefon 10 ond eor^an
sigora selost.
15
11

a halgum mihtum

He

ftaet

sylfa cwae^,

Fseder folca

12

gehwses,

ond us feran het
13

[330]

geond ginne grund
^Fara^
14

gasta

streonan:

nu geond ealle eorSan sceatas 15 emne swa wide swa waeter bebuge^ 16
1

That

is,

spoke.

2

See 190.

11

One

is

inclined to substitute

8
4
5

Translate, hath given. Ace. sing.
Inst. sing., parallel

sellend, bestoicer, which occurs three times with sigora in the

with

mid

poetry, whereas sigora selost

is

oferhygdum
6
7

(174).

otherwise unknown.
12 13
14

Perhaps adv. (72).

When

did the word thane
liter-

Dependent on gehwaes. See 156. n 199. 1.
;

cease to be employed in

An

interesting

parallel

to

ature ?
8

Either =rightfully, by rights,
legiti-

paraphrase (a free one even in the Greek original) of Matt.
this
10. 1
ff.

or perhaps an adj. onriht =

is

found

in the

poem

of

mate, rightful.
9
10

Christ, 480-489.

=

sole,

lit.

of one {alone).

15 16

MS. sceattas.
Cf. p. 201,
1.

Unusual for heofon.

1.

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
st^dewangas
bodiafi aefter
strsete
1

217

2

gelicga]?

;

burgum
ic
J>a

beorhtne geleafan

[335]
3

ofer foldan fseSm;

eow

freofto healde.

Ne
5

Surfan

4

ge on

fore

fraetwe Isedan, 5

gold ne seolfor;

ic

eow goda gehwses 6
'

on eowerne agenne dom est ahw^tte. 7 9 Nu seolfa 8 miht sr5 userne

M

[340]

ic sceal hrafte cunnan, gehyran hygej>ancol 11 11 hwset Su us to gedon wille." du^u^um
;

10

10

Him

)>a

ondswarode

ece

i2

Dryhten

:

13 ahof "Gif ge syndon fegnas pses ]>e J>rym ofer middangeard, swa ge me s^cga)>, 14 Qnd ge geheoldon feet eow se Halga bead,

[^15]

ponne
15

ofer

eow mid gefean f^rian wille swa ge benan 15 sint." brimstreamas,
ic

pa in

ceol stigon 16
;

17

collenfyrh^e,

ejlenrofe

aeghwylcum wearS

[35]

on me^refarofte

mod

geblissod.

Da
20
I

ofer y5a geswing
18

me_rell5endum
2

Andreas ongann miltsa 19 biddan 20
fits; Gr. TTJV QCKavdpuirlav, (as

8 4 5

Ace. sing. Future sense.

=
.

border.

a)

kindness.
13

12

MS.

^ce.

For

ff

Not

urfon (131) lead, but carry
est.

(Gr.

u
15 16 17

of that one, of him. Translate, have kept,

=

ob-

served.
6
7

Dependent on

=

petitioners.

supply; sense of the word.
8

=

not the normal

So in Latin: ascenderenav em.
-fyrhffe irregular f or -ferhffe.

See

self,
1.

and

21.

18

9
10

See 81.

19

= for the seafarers. See 156. b.
Biddan
it.

Agrees with

8F5.
lit.

20

here

takes

three

II

= for

(pur) benefit,

bene-

cases after

Explain.

218

SELECTIONS FKOM THE ANDREAS.
wuldres Aldor,
"Forgife pe
a

ond Jms wordum cwseS
a

:

Dryhten
a

domweorSunga
in wuldre bleed

[355]

willan in worulde,

$nd
,

Meotud manncynnes
5

swa

tSu

me

hafast 1

on J>yssum

siSfsete

sybbe gecyfted!"

The Voyage.
Gesset
aeftele
3

Storm

at Sea.

him

)>a

se halga

be .^Selum.
cymlicor
b

Holmwearde 2 neah, ^fre ic ne hyrde
4

[360]

foil

ceol gehladenne
b

heahgestreonum.
10 b

H9eleS b insseton,
b b

j)eodnas

frymfulle,
rice

]?egnas

wlitige.

Da
a

reordode

peoden,
a

ece, selmihtig,

heht 5 his
a
,

$ngel

a

gan,
6

[3 6 s]

mserne maguj>egn
8

ond m^te
ofer nodes

syllan,

frefran feasceaftne
15
J?set

7

wylm,
b

hie pe

eaS

9

mihton

ofer yt>a gearing
b

drohtaS adreogan.
b

pa

gedrefed

wearS,
[370]

onhrered
10

b

hwselm^re;

hornfisc plegode,

glad
1

geond garsecg,
normal form
?

ond

se grsega

meew
infinitive of

Is this the

Andreas for the

Beo-

Possibly (with Grein) guardian of the tiller or helm; but see Vocabulary.
3

2

=

wulf.
is

The former construction

unusual.
5

=

than

that, inst. of fifaet.

Anglian (probably identical with the original) form for het
(110).
6

4

This sentence seems to be
:

imitated from Beow. 38-39

For
line

s vll a n.

Ne hyrde ic cymlicor ceol gegyrwan
hildewJepnum and heaftowaedum.

7

Meaning Andrew, though the
has

next
8

Me.
For
ieff.

Note that the past participle is substituted in the passage from

10

Forffy(84). See glidan.

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
1

219

waelgifre

wand;

wedercandel swearc, 2
waegas grundon,
4

windas weoxon, 3
streamas styredon,

str^ngas gurron,
6 wseter^gsa stod

wsedo gewsette 5
5

;

[375]

preata J?ry$um.

pegnas wurdon
sense
like
'

1

2 8

Agrees with maew. See sweorcan.

is represented by phrases stand back,' stand off from

There

is

no hint

of

any ex-

shore,'
etc.
is

traordinary commotion, much less of a storm, in the original. Of all

'stand up,' 'stand out,' In OE. poetry, standan

long description there is nothing except, "They were troubled because of the sea." Brooke says
this
(p. 416): scribed in words that come, one

frequently used with $ge or e,gesa (similarly in ON.); thus
in Ps. 104. 33 (105. 38), cecidit

timor eorum super eos

:

him

>eer

"The storm

is

now

de-

$gesa

.

James
them
in

stod, where the King version has, the fear of
.
.

after another, short, heavy,

and

fell

upon them.
is

The

trans-

springing, like the

blows of the

formation of this idiom into stand

waves, and the gusts of wind. We know as we read that the
writer had seen the thing."
4 5

awe of

interesting.
is still

Note

that the dative

retained in

this quotation, of
( Sir

about A.D. 1380

See georran.

Fer umbras 408 ): "Of whame
stondeft

Part of Baskervill's note, in
is

men

aye"

[i.e.

awe].

his edition,

"
:

wsedo gewaette,
wet with

the wet weeds (sails};

However, men being eventually understood as nom. in such a
sentence as the last
Mysteries, 305
(cf.

waters,

Kemble

;

waves swelled,

Towneley

Grein

;

replebatur aquis,

vadum
ge-

madefiebat,

Grimm
in

;

waMo

waette

is

apposition

with

[ab. 1460]: "/ stand great aghe"), in was supplied before awe, as in this from

strengas." Waedo (with short ae) might be nom. (ace.) plur. of

Lydgate (ab. 1413): "*0f theyre lord and god to stande in awen."
See

waed,
6

sea.

But the phrase

is

New

obscure.

The
motion rather than

Eng. Diet. s.v. awe. Scandinavian influence in
English

A

peculiar use of standan,

Middle

confirmed
its

the

to indicate
rest.

idiom, and

assisted in

devel-

In Mod. Eng. this general

opment.

220

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
1 1 2 acolmode; senig ne wende, he lifgende land begete, J>set

8

J>ara

J>e

mid Andreas
Nses
4

on eagorstream

ceol gesohte.
5

him cu$
sund
5

)>a

gyt,

[380]

hwa

J>am sieflotan
a ]>a

wisode.

Him

se halga

a

ofer argeblond
*}>egn J)eodenhold,

a a

on holmwege Andreas* ]?a git,
)>anc gessegde
J>a
6

ricum Riesboran,
10

he gereordod wses
b

:

[385]

"De
b b

}>issa

swsesenda

s6^feest

Meotud

b

llfes

Leohtfruma b

lean forgilde,

weoruda Waldend, b ond fe wist 7 gife heofbnlicne hlaf, swa ^u c hyldo c wiS me
ofer firigendstream 8
*5
c

freode c gecySdest

!

[390]

synt gefreade
d

d

j>egnas
d
;

mme
e
10

d
,

geonge guSrincas
geofon
12

e

garsecg

hlymmeS,
11

xe

9

geotende

6
;

grund
f

is

onhrered,

deope
1

gedrefed;
2

f)3

duguf5
4.

is

gesw^nced,
syftftan flod ofsloh,

Translate, no one.

See

8
4

Dependent on senig. For lines 4-14 the Greek has

gifen geotende
:

" Andrew answered

and said unto

(= streaming sea; rushing sea, Garnett gurgling currents, Hall
; ;

knowing that it was The Lord give thee heavJesus, enly bread from his kingdom."
Jesus, not
5

rushing ocean, Earle).
10

Probably
See

= sea ;
1.

an unusual
1.

sense.
11 12 18

Cf. p. 223,
p. 218,
11.

= either ocean or course, prob;

16, 17.

ably the latter
6 i
8

of. p. 226,

1.

2.

Adv.
Related to Ger. tugend (cf
.

See 153.

e.

=

as food.

30),

OE. dugan

(128),
is

and Mod.
an
inter-

9

like

For firgenstream. MS. heofon but this seems an echo of Beow. 1690-91
; :

Eng. doughty.
1

There

esting OE. phrase, duguff and geoguS (cf. Beow. 160, etc.),

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
f

221
[395]

inodigra m3egen
of

f

myclum
a

1

gebysgod."

Him
a

holme

2

oncwseft

hseleSa
a

Scyppend:-

"Lset nu gef^rian
lid
a

flotan

userne

to lande

ofer lagufsesten,

5

beornas pine, ond fonne gebidan 3 hwsenne 4 jm $ft cyme." aras on earde,

[400]

Edre 5 him
b

b
j>a

eorlas
b

b

6

agefan
7

ondsware,

}>egnas frohthearde

)>afigan

ne woldon,

tSset

hie forleton

set lides
9

stefnan 8

10

leofne lareow, Qnd him land curon " Hwider hweorfaft we ^ hlafordlease,

[405]

geomormode, n synnum wunde,

Gode 10 orfeorme,
gif

we swIcaS

12

pe

?

We
15

13

bio6
C

C

la6e

c

on landa gehwam,
Jxmne flra beam,
besitta}>,

foleum

fraco6e

c
,

^llenrofe,

geht
knights
is

14

[4 10 ]

which
squires.
little
1

almost

=

and

trait of

our ancestors,
lord.

loyalty to

The word
72.

worth a

a rightful

See Guminere,

study.

Germanic Origins, pp. 261-269;
to the citations given there

See

Perhaps mistaken for helman, the helm of the ship.
8

2

might be added the account of Cynewulf

and Cyneheard, from the Saxon
Chronicle for 755.

Construe, ltt Jnne beornas

One sentence

gebidan. 4 Here =
5 6
8

from
until.

it

will illustrate:
hset

"Qnd

)>a

cuaidon hie
"

him

nienig majg

For aidre. For ageafon.

leofra nsere J>onne hiera hlaford,

See

18.

Qnd hie

naefre his

banan folgian
is

See stefna, a collateral form See 184. See 174.
10

noldon."

of stefn.
9
11

u JEht (sometimes eaht)
a. d.
is

See 165. See 164.

1.

not to be confounded with sent
(4); aeht
cil ;

12

o.

besittan

13

This reply

original with the

here almost

= sit in coun= consult, dis~

poet,

and exhibits a

characteristic

cuss, debate.

222

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
hwylc hira
hlaforde
2

selost

1

symle

gelaeste

set hilde,

on beaduwange
set

Jxmne hand ^nd rond billum forgrunden 3

mSplegan

nearu prowedon."

Andrew
5

relates Christ's Stilling
a

of the Tempest.
[4 i 5 ]
4

pa reordade
a

iice
a

peoden

a
,

wserfsest Cining

word stunde
swa

ahof

:

"Gif $u

J?egn sie

frymsittendes
tSu

Wuldorcyninges,
r^ce
10
|>a

worde becwist,

gerynu,
lyfte.

hu he reordberend 5

Iserde

under

Lang
Mycel

is

}>es

slSfaet

[420]

ofer fealawne flod:

frefra ))ine
is

maecgas on mode.
lad ofer lagustream,
to gesecanne
1

nu gena
7

land swi^e feorr
is

6
;

sand

geblonden,

Adv. (76).

Lady

('

Hlaf-diy,' Benefactress,
is,
!)

In Carlyle's Past and Present (Bk. 3, Chap. 10) occurs this piece
of etymologizing

2

'Loaf-giveress,' they say she

blessings on her beautiful heart

"
:

Ironcutter, at

was there."

So Ruskin, in Ses'bread-

the end of the campaign, did not turn off his thousand fighters, but
said to
is

ame and
dens)
:

Lilies (Of Queens' Gar-

"Lady means

them

'
:

Noble

fighters, this
;

giver' or 'loaf -giver,' and Lord

the land
in

Lord

we have gained be I what we will call it,
Laws: be
Laworthoepy Lord
I

Law-ward, maintainer and keeper
of Heaven's

means 'maintainer of laws.'" Are these etymologies correct ? 8 MS. foregrunden.
4

=

at this time,

now.
See
p. 213,

ward, or in brief
in
it,

and be ye Loyal Men

Ace. plur. (43. 6). note 1.
6
7

5

around
13)
:

me

" If

Again (Chap. no pious Law-ward would
it.'

in

"

Cf. our
Cf.

modern
1.

'

far to seek.'

^En.

107: "furit aestus

remember

it,

always some pious

harenis."

4k

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDKEAS.

223
[4 2 s]

God eatte maeg grand wiS greote. 3 4 " heaSollSendum 2 helpe gef r^mraan.
1

Ongan
a

a

]>a

gleawllce
a

gingran sine*

wuldorspedige weras
faet

wordum trymman
feorh 6 gelgeddon, 6
dea<5

:

5

"Ge
fset

gehogodon,

fa ge on holm stigon,
[430]
8

5 ge on fara folc

ond

for

7 Dryhtnes lufan

prowodon

on ^Elmyrcna 9
us gescyldeft
11

eftelrlce,

sawle 10 gesealdon. 8
10

Ic

J>8et

sylfa wat,

fset

Scyppend ^ngla,
Waeter^gesa
12

weoruda Dryhten.
geftyd

sceal,

[435]

^nd ge^reatod
liSra
14

furh pry^cining,

lagu lacende

wyrSan.
J>aet
15

Swa 13
15

gesselde

in,

we on

ssebate

ofer warutSgewinn
farot5ridende
:

wseda

cunnedan
[440]

frecne J>uhton

egle ealada;

eagorstreamas

bepton bordstseftu;
ytS oSerre.
1

brim

oft oncwset5,

16

Hwilum uppastod
Cf. p. 220,
9

Probably

=

sea.

Allmurk(y)

=

Ethiopians,'

note 10.
2

Perhaps for heahfto-,

in the

sense of the high sea; cf. Lat. 8 Ace. altum. sing.
4

but the poet is here mistaken. See the prefatory remarks, p. 210. 1 Here = life. n Cf p. 227, 1. 19.
.

12
13

It

is

not

till

this

point

is
is

For weorffan. Brooke remarks (p. 417) " It
:

reached, in the Greek original,
that the journey
5 6

is

begun

!

a happy situation which the poet conceives, for Andrew, not knowing that Christ himself
is

From fah

(43. 3).

seated

Periphrastic, something like
steps.'

beside

our 'directed your
7

him in the stern, tells Christ a story of Christ." Cf Mk. 4. 36 ff
.

.

From

the

weak

lufe.

14 16

See 190.
Dat. sing.

*5

See 156.

<L

8

Optative.

Cf. Ps. 42. 7.

224

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
of brimes

bosme
yftlid.

on bates

faetSm
fser,

$gesa ofer

jElmihtig

[445]

Meotud mancynnes,
beorht basnode.
5

on m$rej>yssan Beornas wurdon
frizes
*

forhte

on mode

;

wilnedon,

miltsa 1 to 2 Mserum. 3

pa seo mejiigo ongan Cyning sona
aras,
[450]
4

clypian on ceole;
e_ngla

Eadgifa
5

ySum

stilde,

waeteres
10

wselmum;

windas preade;
6

see

sessade,

smylte wurdon

m^restreama gemeotu.

Da

tire

mod

ahloh,

7

we gesegon 8
windas ond waegas
^
rSs.

under swegles gang ond wseterbrogan

[455]

f orhte
15

gewordne
,

for Frean 9 ^gesan.

For-fan

ic

eow
10

to sot5e

slogan wille,
lifgende

nsefre

forlsete^

God
[460]

eorl

on eorSan,

11 " gif his ^llen deah.

Swa hleo^rode halig cejnpa 12 Seawum gefancul; ]>egnas Iserde
20

eadig oreta,
6S-$3et hie

13

eorlas tryniede,
sleep ofereode

s^mninga

1

See 156.

a.

8

Anglian form of gesawon
See 153.
d.

2
3 4

Here=/rom.
Meaning
See 164.
Christ.
i.

(106).
9 10

This

gnomic

sentence

re-

6

This word does not otherwise

sembles that in Beow. 572-573.

occur, but the
ous.

meaning

is

obvi-

There

is

a noun sess, mean-

ing seat.
6
7

Perhaps it is imitated from the Latin proverb, "Fortune favors the brave."

See gemet, and
See 107.

20,

n See
l3

128.

12

See 174.

d,

Usually oretta.

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
be maeste.
a

225
[465]

Me^re sweoSerade,

yt>a
a

ongin

a

e,ft
a
.

oncyrde,

hreoh holmpracu
gryrehwlle

pa fam halgan wearft
gast geblissod.

sefter

Andrew
5

desires Instruction in

Seamanship.

Ongan

J>a

reordigan

wis on gewitte

rsedum snottor, wordlocan onspeonn 2
3

:

[47]

"Nsefre

ic sselidan

selran mette,
4

macraeftigran,

pees-'Se

me

pyhceS,

rowend
10

rofran,

raBdsnotterran,

wordes wisran.
eorl unforcu^,

Ic wille fe,

anre 5 nu gena

[475]
a6

bene biddan:
a

feah

ic

a
]>e

beaga
7

lyt,

sincweor^unga%
f8etedsinces
a
,

syllan mihte,

a

wolde

ic

8

frgondscipe,
gif ic

15

feoden frymfaest,
begitan godne.
haligne hyht
gif t5u

)>Tnne,
9

mehte/
10

pees

^u

gife hleotest

[480]

on heofonj>rymme,
larna Jnnra
ic

lidwerigum
wyrSest.
haeleft,

este u
20

Wolde

anes 12 to

'Se,

cynerof
Saet

crseftes neosan,

M

me

getaehte,
14

nu

13 fe tir

Cyning

[485]

ond miht
1

forgef,

manna Scyppend,
8

2
8
*

Agrees with hie. See onspannan.
Ace. sing.

Object of begitan.

9
10

= for that. Future sense.
165.
12

Here

= so far
b.

as, as (157. 1).
G

n See
13
i*

See 156. m.

5
7

See 156.

See 154.

a.

Ace. sing.

Variants of meahte,

Variant of forgeaf,

226

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.

hu
a

fiu

a

waegflotan
a

a

wsere bestemdon, 1

S8ehejngeste

Ic waes on 3

sund 2 wisige. 3 in ond nu gifeSe
on
5

4 syxtyne sitSum

ssebate,

[490]
7

b
5

m$re
10

b

hrerendum
b

mundum 6
is

freorig,

b

eagorstreamas
ic sefre

$ys

8

ane 9

ma

,

swa

ne geseah
11

senigne mann,
gellcne

JxrySbearn hseleS,

]>e

steoran ofer stsefnan.
10

Streamwelm
is
]?es
14

12

hwileft,

[495]

beataS 13 brunst9et5o;
fsereS famigheals

bat ful scrid,
gelicost,

fugole

glided on geofone.
\>ddt

Ic georne wat,
ofer y^lade, 15
17

ic sefre

ne geseah
sylllcran
19

on sseleodan 16
15

crseft.

[500]

Is Jxm

18

geliccost,

swa

20

he 21 on landsceape 22
It is

1

For bestemdan, the (weak)

11

unusual to have two
joined.

past part., according to Wiilker.
It

would then agree with wajg4,

synonymous nouns thus 12 See hwelan.
18

flotan (dat. sing.). 2 See p. 213, note
1.

Unusual ending of 3
Cf. Odyssey
7.

sing.

and

p. 220,

14

36:

"Their

5.
* 5

3

=

by chance.

ships are swift as the flight of a
bird."
11. 125.

See 176.

1.

See also Od. 13. 86-87

;

Governs me^re (and eagorstreamas), and agrees with

mundum.
7

6

=

in hands ?

MS. yfflafe, which would mean sand, that which is left by
15

8

Agrees with Ic. For ffis, neut. nom.

the waves.
sing.
17

16

See saelida.
contracted

For

sel-,

from

9

Weak;

agrees with 9"ys. This

seld-, the root of seldom.
is 19

makes another journey, added to the sixteen. The Greek has, " Behold,
this
is

-

to that.
1.

For gelicost; see
21

11.

the

seventeenth."

Brooke
the

(p. 414) attributes this to

= as if. 22 = simply
20

= the boat (bat).
the Greek

land;

OE.

poet.

10

Almost

=

yet.

has:

tirl

TTJS

yrjs.

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
stille
a

227

stande,

pair

hine

a

storm a ne maeg,

wind a awe^cgan,

ne wseterflodas
;

brecan brondstsefne
2 2 snel under segle.

hwaeftere

on brim sneoweS l
[505]

Du

eart seolfa geong,

5

nalas wintrum frod: wlgendra hleo, 3 hafast ]>e on fyrhSe, faroSlacende,
eorles ondsware,
4

seghwylces

canst
"

worda 5 The

for 6 worulde

wislic andgit. 7

Pilot recognizes God's Presence with

Andrew.
[510]

Him
10

Qndswarode
}>3et a

ece Dryhten:
feet

"Oft
a

gesseleS,

we on

sselade,

scipum
10

under 8 scealcum,
a

9 fonne sceor cymeS,

breca'S

ofer bseftweg

brimh^ngestum
12

a
.

Hwilum

us on yftum
11

earfotSlice

gesele6 on saiwe,
15

feh

we

slt5nesan

[515]

frecne geferan.

manna
se

senigne
14
;

Flodwylm ne maeg ofer 13 Meotudes est
ah 15 him
brune
lifes

lungre gel^ttan
t5e

ge weald

5yt5
20
1

brimu bindeS, and ]>reata$. 16

y^5a

He peodum
9

sceal

[520]

racian

mid

rihte,

se Se rodor ahof
See 18.

MS. snoweff.
So yet, under See 152.
sail.

2

10

Almost

=

break away.
;

8
4
5 6
7 8

n
12
14

Irreg. dat.

usually
18

sae.

Dependent on andgit. Dependent on Seghwylces. Almost = in.
Object of canst (130). = among ; but this half -line
little

For ffeah.
Cf Hamlet
.

= against.
85:
"I'll

1.

4.

make a
me."
15 16

ghost of

him

that lets

See 127

;

here reflexive,

is

a

obscure.

See note 13, p. 226.

228

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
gefsestnode

folmum

1

smum,

worhte and wr^ftede,
beorhtne boldwelan;
engla eSel
5

wuldras 2 fylde

swa gebledsod wearS
anes miht.
soft
3

)>urh his
a

[525]
a
,

For-fan

is

gesyne
a
,

a
,

a

orgete

cuS

a

oncnawen

pset t>u

Cyninges eart
4
;

J>egen

gejmngen
]>e

prymsittendes
b

for-)>an
b

sona

S8eholm

b

oncneow,
5

garsecges begang

b
,

fset ftu gife hsefdes

[530]

10

c

haliges gastes.
"aryfta geblond
c
;

Hsern c ^ft onwand,
^gesa gestilde,

wldfseftme wseg;

waedu swseftorodon
J>set

seoftfan hie ongeton
wffije
15
6

fte

God

haefde

bewunden/

se

t5e

wuldres bleed

gestaftolade

strangum mihtum."

Andrew
pus Andreas
h^rede
oft-ftset
10

is

carried to the City. 8
9

Qndlangne dseg
Haliges
lare,
11

hleoftorcwidum

hine SQinninga
a

sleep ofereode

[820]

on hronrade
20

12 Heofoncyninge neh.

pa

a

geledan

het 13

llfes

Brytta
7

1

See 174.

MS. bewunde.
Note the break here
(11.

Perhaps used for the
in the
8
4

2

Anglian
inst. after

genitive

8
;

537-

fylde, as 407-408.

817).

The

interval

is

occupied by

poem

of Christ,

11.

discourses.
9

Here a noun.
Agrees with Cyninges. Original form (95).

See 170.
See
p. 224,
1.

10

MS. berede.

n
12 18

21.

6
6

For neah.
Construe, het
.

= with

his covenant.

.

.

sine

e,n-

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
ofer y<5a gepraec
e^nglas sine,
a

229

faeSmuin
leofne

a

f$rigean

on Faeder 1 waere
ofer lagufaesten. 2
[ 82 5J

#####*##
mid lissum
nihtlangne fyrst,
forlet

5

be hejestriete Leton pone halgan under swegles hleo, swefan on sybbe 3 burhwealle neh, 4 bllSne bidan
his mShe^tuin,
o^-jjaet

Dryhten

dsegcandelle

[835]

sclre scinan.
10

Sceadu swefterodon

wQnn under wolcnum.
hador heofonleoma

pa com wederes
ofer hofu blican.

5

blsest,

Onwoc
fore
a

pa wiges

6

heard,
a

wang sceawode;
a

burggeatum
a7

beorgas

steape,

[840]

hleo^u

hlifodon;
8

ymbe harne
torras stodon,
9

stan

15

tigelfagan trafu,

windige weallas.

pa se wis oncneow msegSe hsefde fset he Marmedonia 10 swa him syli" bebead, sTt5e gesohte,
11

[845]

pa
.

him

foregescraf,

Faeder mancynnes.
*

gelsedan leofne ... glas ofer lagufaesten ... on Faeder
. .

Is construed

both with burh-

waere.
1

wealle and niffhe^tum. 6 See 6 Not blast.
7

155.

Genitive.

See hliS and 20.
1

,

2

Here follow four

lines

which

8

See 47.

4.
.

are

probably corrupt,

and are

9
10

For wisa (55)
See 174.
a.

therefore omitted.
3

=

kindly, amiable.

n MS. >am.

Translate, when.

230

SELECTIONS FROM THE ANDREAS.
Andrew's Disciples
relate their

Adventure.
3

Geseh 1 he fa on greote 2
beornas beadurofe,

gingran
4

sine,

biryhte

him

swefan on

sleepe.

He

sona ongann
:

5

ond worde cwaeS wlgend we^ccean, so$ 5 orgete, 6 "Ic eow slogan mseg 7 on geofones stream 8 fset us gystran-daege
ofer arwelan
seSeling f^rede.

[ 8 5]

In fam ceole wees

cyninga Wuldor,
;

9

Waldend
10

werfteode 10

ic his

word oncneow,

[855]

feh he his msegwlite

bemiSen hsefde."

Him

fa aeftelingas
a

^ndsweorodon
a
,

geonge

gencwidum
Andreas,

a

gastgerynum

a
:

"We

fe,

ea^5e gecy^atS

si$ userne,

fset t5u

sylfa miht

[860]

1

2

For geseah. on the earth Gr.
'

'

(t-rrl

herd' by Ovid (A. A. 1. 290); and decus is used by Virgil (?) almost
exactly as here,

7^v).
4

3

See 169.

decus Asterice

The only occurrence of this word aetrihte, similarly formed,
;

(Cul. 15) for decens or pulchra
Asteria,
like cyninga wuldor wuldorlic cyning. An inis

is

found three times
6
6
7 8

in poetry.

for

Noun

in ace.
soft.

teresting mediaeval parallel
line

the

Agrees with See 176.
Cf. the

by Hilary, a disciple of Abeand probably an English-

lard,

'stream of Oceanus,'

Od. 11. 21, and often in Homer.
.

9

To

this

several analogies in

kenning there are Greek and
is

man, cited by Lenient, La Satire en France au Moyen Age, p. 20, note: "Papa summus, paparum So he apostrophizes a gloria."
girl

Latin.

Thus Ulysses
II. 9.

referred

with "Ave, splendor puel-

to as 'great glory of the Achaians,'

673, and elsewhere

;

the bull

is

called the

glory of the

larum" (Wright, Biog. Brit. Lit., Anglo-Norman Period, p. 93) 10 MS.weorftode.
.

SELECTIONS FKOM THE ANDREAS.
ongitan gleawlice

231

gastgehygdum.
;

Us
j>a

saewerige

slsep ofereode
1

comon earnas
2

ofer yt>a

wylm
[865]

faran
5

on flyhte

feSenim hremige, 3
sawle abrugdon,
4

us of slsependum

mid gefean f^redon flyhte on 5 beorhte 6 $nd brehtmum bliSe,
lissum
}>8er
7

lyfte
lifte
6
;

lufodon

$nd in
9

lofe
8

wunedon,
10

wses singal sang

$nd

swegles g$ng,
}>reat.

10

wlitig

weoroda heap

$nd wuldres

[870]

Utan ymbe ^ESelne
pegnas

11

e^nglas stodon,

ymb peoden
12

pusendmselum
halgan stefne

;

h^redon on hehtSo
dryhtna Dryhten.
1 2

"

Related to Gr. fyms, a bird. Not in MS., but supplied for See 174.
4

of the sky,

cf. p.

224,

1.

12.

The

music of the spheres
mind.

is

even sug-

the verse structure.
8

gested, though hardly in the poet's
;

d.

Like Gr. yavpos

Sweg^el

may sometimes
possibly so here,

Archilochus has, exulting in his
curls.
5

mean music, and

Inst. (174. a).

but then one hardly knows
to translate gQng.
9

how

=

blithe, joyful.

Note the
lines.

rime and assonance hi these
6

So
2.

in
1.

Shakespeare
53,
11

:

Rich.
this
1.

Nom.

plur.

;

or possibly ad-

III.

"Amongst
;

verbs.

Will the last consonants
liffe

princely heap
23,

Jul. Cces.

3.

permit of associating
Gerin. gelind?
7

with

How may
Possibly

this

contain the

"There were drawn Upon a heap a hundred ghastly women." 10 A Hebraism multitude of
;

stem
8

(liff-) of the last

word (34)?
for

glory,
titude.
11

nearly

=

glorious

mul-

miswritten

geond, or perhaps the rare preposition
this

Jesus, according to the orig-

and (=

in, in presence o/);

inal.
12

is

on the supposition that

Biblical expression; see Rev.
19. 16.

swegles gQng means revolution

17.14]

APPENDIXES.

APPENDIX
A

I.

SOME USEFUL BOOKS FOR THE STUDY OF OLD ENGLISH.
I.

SELECTION FOR THE BEGINNER.

Political

and Social History.
Hist,ory.
I.

GREEN, Short History of the English People, pp. 1-66.

FREEMAN, Old English
(Chapter
II.)

New

York, 1876.
1894.

TRAILL, Social England, Vol.

London and New York,

Religious and Cultural History.

LINGARD, The Anglo-Saxon Church.

London, 1858, 2
2d
ed.

vols.

BRIGHT, Early English Church History.

New York,

1888.

TURNER, History of the Anglo-Saxons.
and
the

London, 1852, 3

vols.

GILES, Translation of Bedels Ecclesiastical History of England,

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

(Bohn Library.)

Literary History.

TEN BRINK, Early English
best.)

Literature.

New

York, 1883.

(The

BROOKE, History of Early English
poetry.)
,

Literature.

New

York, 1892.

(Contains several pieces of translation

from Old English
to the

English Literature from the Beginning

Norman Con(Contains

quest.

New

York, 1898.
Writers, Vol.
II.

MORLEY, English
translations.)

New

York, 1888.

Biography.
ASSER, Life of Alfred.
Library.)
(In Six Old English Chronicles,

Bohn
(Yale

WHITE,

New Study of his Life and Writings. jElfric: Studies in English, II.) New York, 1898.
235

A

236
Biography.
(Continued.)

APPENDIX

I.

PLUMMER, Life of

Bede.

(As below, under Religious and
(In Ecclesiastical History, Bk. IV.,

Cultural History.) BEDE, Account of Ccedmon.
Chap. XXIV.)

For reference:
Dictionary of Christian Biography. London, 1877-87, 4 vols. Dictionary of National Biography: A-Wakefield. London, 1885-99, 58 vols.

Translations.

HALL, Beowulf, translated into Modern Metres. 2d ed. Boston,
EARLE, The Deeds of Beowulf. New York, 1892. GARNETT, Beowulf, and The Fight at Finnsburg. 3d
1889.

1892.

ed. Boston, (Nearly literal; not so enjoyable as the other two,
details.)

but more trustworthy in

TENNYSON, The Battle of Brunanburh.

(In Works.)

GARNETT,
burh ;

Elene; Judith; Athelstan, or the Fight at Brunanand Byrhtnoth, or the Fight at Maldon. Boston, 1889.
literal.)

(Nearly

ROOT, Andreas: The Legend of St. Andrew.' English, VII.) New York, 1899.

(Tale Studies in

WHITMAN, Cynewulfs
Boston, 1899.

Christ,

translated

into

Modern

Prose.

(Forthcoming.)

[See also under Literary History and Poetical Texts.]

Readers.

SWEET, Anglo-Saxon Reader. 7th ed. Oxford and New York, BRIGHT, Anglo-Saxon Reader. 3d ed. New York, 1894.

1894.

ZUPITZA-MACLEAN, Old and Middle English Reader.
1893.

New York,
New

BASKERVILL AND HARRISON, Anglo-Saxon Prose Reader.
York, 1898.
Poetical Texts.

COOK, Judith, with Introduction, Translation, Complete Glossary, and various Indexes, and an Autotype Facsimile. 2d ed.
Boston, 1889.

(Pamphlet edition, 1893.)

APPENDIX
Poetical Texts.
(Continued.)

I.

237

ZUPITZA-KENT, Elene.

Boston, 1889.

WYATT, Beowulf.
COOK,
(Forthcoming.)

New

York, 1894.

The Christ of Cynewulf.

Boston and London,

1899.

Prose Texts.
BRIGHT, Gospel of St. Luke.

Oxford and

New

York, 1893.

SWEET,
,

Selected Homilies of ^Elfric.

Oxford and
Oxford and

New
New

York,
York,

1885.

Extracts from Alfred's Orosius.

1886.

BOSWORTH AND WARING,
COOK,

Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with

the Versions of Wycliffe

and Tyndale.

London, 1888.

New York and

Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose Writers, Vol. I. London, 1898. (From Alfred and JElfric.)

History of the English Language.

EMERSON, History of the English Language.
,

Brief History of the English

New York, 1894. Language. New York and
Revised ed.

London, 1896.

LOUNSBURY, History of the English Language.
York, 1894.

New

NESFIELD, Historical English.

CHAMPNEYS, History
1896.

New York, 1899. of English. New York, 1893. New
York,

COOK, English Language, in Johnson's Cyclopaedia.

Etymology.
SKEAT, Principles of English Etymology: Series Element. New York, 1887.
[See also Dictionaries.]
I.,

The Native

Grammar.
SiEVERs-CooK, Old English Grammar.

2d

ed.

Boston, 1887.

WYATT, Elementary Old English Grammar.

Cambridge, 1897.

HENRY, Short Comparative Grammar of English and German.

New

York, 1894.

238
Phonetics.

APPENDIX

I.

SWEET, Primer of
BELL,
York.
,

Phonetics.

Oxford and

New

York, 1890.

English Visible Speech for the Million.

London and New

Manual of Vocal Physiology and
of these three.]

Visible Speech.

New

York.

[Any one
Dictionaries.

HALL, Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.
London, 1897.

New

York, 1894.

SWEET, Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon.

New York and

MURRAY AND BRADLEY, New
ing,

English Dictionary:

A -Germaniz(Cited as

H-Hod.
Eng.

Oxford and

New

York, 1884-99.

New

Diet.}

II.

A

SELECTION FOR THE ADVANCED STUDENT.

Bibliography.

WULKER,
ratur.

Grundriss zur Geschichte der Angelsdchsischen LitteLeipzig, 1885.
Litteratur.

KORTING, Grundriss der Geschichte der Englischen 2d ed. Munster i. W., 1893.
Jahresbericht
Leipzig),
.

.

.

der Germanischen Philologie.
(Section

1879-.

XV.

(later

XVI.)

is

Berlin (later devoted to

English.)

SONNENSCHEIN, The Best Books, pp. 952-961. York, 1891.
,

2d

ed.

New

Header's Guide

to

Contemporary Literature.

London and

New
Political

York, 1895.
Social History.
in England.

and

KEMBLE, The Saxons

London, 1876, 2
the

vols.

LAPPENBERG, History of England under 2 vols. (Bohn Library.)
GREEN, The Conquest of England.
,

Anglo-Saxon Kings.

The Making of England.

New York, 1884. New York, 1883.

APPENDIX
Political

I.

239

and Social History.

(Continued.)
Vol. I., Chaps.

FREEMAN, History of the Norman Conquest, III. Oxford and New York, 1873.
PALGRAVE, Rise and Progress of Vol. I. London, 1831.

L-

the English

Commonwealth,
Chaps. I.-

STUBBS, Constitutional History of England, Vol. VIII. Oxford and New York, 1875.

I.,

ADAMS

(and others), Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law.
Baltimore, 1892.

New

York,

1876.

ANDREWS, The Old English Manor.
Religious

and Cultural History.
Venerabilis Bazdce Opera Historica.
vols.

PLUMMER,

Oxford and

New

York, 1896, 2

GRIMM, Teutonic Mythology. London, 1879-89, 4 vols. HADDAN AND STUBBS, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents.
London, 1869-78, 3
vols.

PADELFORD, Old English Musical Terms.
Beitrdge zur Anglistik, IV.)

Bonn, 1899.

(Banner

Literary History.

EBERT, Allgemeine Geschichte der Litteratur des
Abendlande.
Leipzig, 1874-87, 3 vols.

Mittelalters

im
I.

(Especially Vols.

and

III.)

BRANDL, Altenglische
coming. )

Literatur.

manischen Philologie.

2d ed.

(In Paul's Grundriss der GerForthStrassburg, 1899.

COOK,

Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose Writers, Vol.

I.

London and New York,

1898.

(Introduction contains a

sketch of Old English Biblical translations, prose and poetical, with bibliography.)

Biography.

WRIGHT, Biographia Britannica Literaria, Vol. I. London, 1842. MONTALEMBERT, Monks of the West. Edinburgh, 1861-79, 7 vols.
(A fascinating work.)

240
Translations.

APPENDIX

I.

GREIN, Dichtungen der Angelsachsen, stabreimend
tingen, 1857-59, 2 vols.

ubersetzt.

Got-

Readers.

SWEET, Second Anglo-Saxon Reader. Oxford and New York, 1887. (Archaic and dialectal consists largely of glosses.)
;

KLUGE,

Angelsdchsisches Lesebuch.

Halle, 1897.

KORNER, Angelsdchsische Texte, mit Uebersetzung, Anmerkungen, und Glossar. Heilbronn, 1880.
RIEGER, Alt- und Angelsdchsisches Lesebuch.
Poetical Texts.
[See also
Giessen, 1861.

Prose Texts.]
Kassel,

GREIN-WULKER,
1881-98.

Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Poesie.

GOLLANCZ, The Exeter Book, Part Text Society), 1895.

I.

London (Early English

THORPE, Codex Exoniensis.
Transliteration

London, 1842.

ZUPITZA, Beowulf, Autotypes of the unique Cotton MS., with a

and Notes.

London

(E. E. T. S.), 1882.

Prose Texts.
SWEET,
,

Oldest English Texts.

London

(E. E. T. S.), 1885.

King

A Ifred's
London

West Saxon Version of Gregory' s Pastoral
(E. E. T. S.), 1871-72.

Care.
,

King Alfred's

Orosius.

London

(E. E. T. S.), 1883.

MILLER, Old English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of
the English People.

London

(E. E. T. S.), 1890-98.

GREIN, Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Prosa, Vol. I. Cassel, 1872. (Mostly translations from the Old Testament.)

SEDGEFIELD, King Alfred's Old English Version of Boethius de
Consolatione Philosophic^.

Oxford, 1899.

THORPE, Homilies of ^Elfric.
2 vols.

London
London

(^Elfric Society), 1844-46,

MORRIS, Blickling Homilies.
3 vols. in
1.

(E. E. T. S.), 1874-80,

APPENDIX
Prose Texts.
(Continued.)

I.

241

SKEAT, ^Elfric^s Metrical Lives of Saints.
1881-99, 2 vols.

London

(E. E. T. S.),

The Gospels in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions. Cambridge, 1871-87.
,

ASSMANN, Angelsdchsische Homilien und Heiligenleben.
thek der Angelsdchsischen Prosa, Vol. III.)

(Biblio-

Kassel, 1889.

EARLE, Handbook to the Land-Charters and other Saxonic Documents. Oxford and New York, 1888.

EARLE, Two of
York, 1865.
published,

the

Saxon Chronicles
I.

Parallel.

(Vol.

of a revision

Oxford and New by Plummer has been
ed.

New

York, 1892.)

SCHMID, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen.
(This has a

2d

Leipzig, 1858.

much completer apparatus than the following.) THORPE, Ancient Laws and Institutes of England. London, 1840,
2 vols.

NAPIER, Wulfstan.

Berlin, 1883.

COCKAYNE, Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England. London, 1864-66, 3 vols.
Facsimiles of Manuscripts.

SKEAT, Twelve Facsimiles of Old English

[i.e.

Old and Middle

English] Manuscripts, with Transcriptions and Introduction. Oxford and New York, 1892. (From Alfred's translation of

the Pastoral Care, the poetical Exodus, and the Chronicle.)

WULKER, Codex

Vercellensis, die Angelsdchsische Handschrift

zu

Vercelli in Getreuer Nachbildung. Leipzig, 1894. [See also Zupitza's Beowulf, Cook's Judith, etc.]

History of the English Language.

KLUGE,

Geschichte der Englischen Sprache. (In Paul's Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, I. 780-930.) Strassburg, 1891.

Grammar.
MATZNER, Englische Grammatik. 3d ed. Berlin, 1885-89, 3 vols. (English translation by C. J. Grece, London, 1874.) KOCH, Historische Grammatik der Englischen Sprache. Cassel,
1863-78, 3 vols.

242
Grammar.
(Continued.)

APPENDIX

I.

COSIJN, Altwestsdchsische Grammatik.
,

The Hague, 1883-88.
2d
ed.

Kurzgefasste Altwestsachsische Grammatik.

Leiden,

1893.

SWEET, New English Grammar, Parts

I.

and
ed.

II.

Oxford and

New
Phonology.

York, 1892-1898.

SIEVERS, Angelsachsische Grammatik.

3d

Halle, 1898.

SWEET, History of English Sounds.

Oxford and

New York,
Oxford and

1888.

MAYHEW,

Synopsis of Old English Phonology.

New

York, 1891.

COOK, Phonological Investigation of Old English.
Syntax.
CHASE, Bibliographical Guide
1896.
to

Boston, 1888.

Old English Syntax.

Leipzig,

WULFING, Die Syntax
I.

in

den

Teil-IL

Teil,

1.

Halfte.

Werken Alfreds des Grossen. Bonn, 1894-97. (Contains a

useful bibliography.)

Prosody.
SIEVERS, Altgermanische Metrik, pp. 120-149.
,

Halle, 1893.

Angelsachsische Metrik. (In Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, II. 1. 888-893 ; a very brief, but clear, sketch.)

Dictionaries.

BOSWORTH-TOLLER, Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. New York, 1882-98.
GREIN, Sprachschatz der Angelsachsischen Dichter.
1861-64.

Gottingen,

COOK, Glossary of the Old Northumbrian Gospels.
in der Rushworth-Handschrift.

Halle, 1894.

LINDELOF, Glossar zur Altnorthumbrischen Evangelieniibersetzung
Helsingfors, 1897.

HARRIS, Glossary of the West Saxon Gospels (Yale Studies in New York, 1899. English, VI.).

KLUGE, Etymologisches Wb'rterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (with
Janssen's Index).
lated.

5th ed., Strassburg, 1894; 4th ed. trans-

New
German

York, 1891.
words.)

(For comparison of Old English

with

APPENDIX
Periodicals.
Anglia.
Halle, 1878-.

I.

Englische Studien.

Heilbronn, 1878-.
Berlin, 1846-.

Archiv fur das Studium der Neueren Sprachen.
(Especially the recent volumes.)

Beitrage zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache by Paul and Braune). Halle, 1874-.
tion of America.

uhd

Litteratur (ed.

Transactions and Proceedings of the Modern Language Associa-

Baltimore, 1880-.

Modern Language Notes. Baltimore, 1886-. Journal of Germanic Philology. Boston, London, and Leipzig,
1897-.

III.

MEMORANDA OF ADDITIONAL BOOKS.

244

APPENDIX

I.

APPENDIX

II.

CORRESPONDENCES OF OLD ENGLISH AND MODERN GERMAN VOWELS.
more regular correspondences is here given. The student must not be surprised at the occurrence of correspondences which he cannot

Only

a selection of the

reconcile with

these

;

profounder study will usually
the

show the reason

The great discrepancy. majority of instances, however, will be found to fall under the following heads. The graphic representafor
tions of the vowels, not their sounds,
is

all

that

is

here

considered,

but

this

will

be

found

of

much

assistance in tracing

and

fixing cognates.

OLD ENGLISH SHORT VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS.
OE. a OE.
ae
:

Ger. a
:

baffian
craeft
ae
: :

:

baden.

Ger. a

Kraft.
:

Sometimes OE.

Ger.

e.

.

.

haerfest

Herbst.
brechen.
:

OE. e

:

Ger.

e

brecan
(ee)

:

OE. $ Ger. e OE. i Ger. i
:
:

b$dd
fisc
:

:

Sett; h$re

Heer.

Fisch.

OE. o
OE. u

:

Ger. o

lof

:

Lob.
:

:

Ger. u

burg

Burg.
:

OE. y Ger. u Sometimes OE. y Ger. u OE. ea (20, 21) Ger. a
:
: :

fyllan
.
. .

fullen.

hyldu
hearpe
eorffe
:

:

Huld.
:

Harfe.

OE. eo

(20, 21)

:

Ger.

e

Erde.

245

246

APPENDIX

II.

OLD ENGLISH LONG VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS.
OE. a
:

Ger. ei
:

brad
Ger. e (ee)
.
.
.

:

breit.
:

Sometimes OE. a

ar

:

Ehre ; sawol
:

Seele.

OE.

se

:

Ger. ei
:

hail
Ger. a or Ger. e
.

Heil.
:

Sometimes OE. a

{ *?
(.

tan
:

lassen
erst.

>'

ajrest
:

OE. e OE.
i
:

:

Ger. u
Ger. ei

grene
Idel
:

griin.

eitel.

OE. o

:

Ger. u
Ger.
:

fot

:

Fuss.
:

OE. u

:

au

bus

Hans.
:

OE. ea

Ger. au

heafod
Ger. o

Haupt.

Before h, and dental consonants
(6),

OE. ea
ie

:

deaff

:

Tod.
Tier.

OE. eo

:

Ger.

deor

:

In tracing back the history of these vowels, many Thus, take OE. -o correspondences become clearer. Ger. u. The Old High German correlative of 6 is
:

uo, that

the one long vowel is diphthongized into two short ones. Of these it is the u which has suris,

vived.
e,

If

now we

consider that the i-umlaut of o
is
:

is

and of Ger. u

il,

we

shall

better

understand

such a pair as grene griin. It should be observed that Ger.

ei

corresponds to
;

OE.
and

a,

se,

and

i,

similarly Ger. o to
o,

and Ger. au to OE. u and ea OE. o and ea, Ger. u to OE. u

etc.
eitel,

in Ger.

Note, too, that the sound of the vowel Haus, corresponds precisely to the Mod.
Idel, hus,

Eng. sound into which the OE. vowels of have respectively developed. See Kluge, under Dictionaries, p. 241.

APPENDIX

III.

ANDREW'S NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE STEERSMAN.
[This extract from the Greek is found on pp. 136-138 of Tischendorf 's Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, and corresponds to lines 235-349 of the Old

English Andreas.]

Avaoras
a/xa

Se

'AvS/oea?

TO>

Trpwl

CTropeveTo
firi

CTTI

rrjv

6aXaar<rav
tScv

rot?

jaa^Tats avTOv,
/xtKpov
/cat CTrt

/cat

KareXQiDv
TrXoidpLov
Svva/xet
ei/

TOV

atytaA.ov

TO

rpet?

avopas

KaOeoTrXotov,
CIO-T;-

6

yap Kvptos

rvj

eavTOv

/caTeo~/cevao-v
T<O

Kat a^ro? ^v wcrTrep av^pcoTros Trpwpevs
vcy/cev

TrAota*'

/cat

8uo

dyye'Aovs
TrXota)

ovs

CTronyo-ev

w?

di/^pcoTrov?

c/>ai^vat,

/cat

^crav ev TO)
TrXotov
o-c/>o8pa,

/ca^e^oyaevot.

6
ev

ovv 'Ai/S^oeas
avrco

^eao-a/xevo?

TO

Kat

TOVS

Tpct?

ovTas
Trpo?

^X^P 7}
etTrev

XaP av
Hot)
;

Kat
/u,Ta
e?7rei/

Tropev^cts

avTOv?
/xtK/aov

d8cAc/>ot,

TOV
avTa>

TrXotov

TOV

TOVTOV

Kat

a7roKpi0ets

6 Kvpto?

Then Andrew arose early, and went to the sea with his disciples, and, when he had gone down to the sea-shore, he saw a
little

For the Lord boat, and in the boat three men sitting. had prepared a ship by his own power, and he himself was as it were a steersman in the and he brought two angels ship
;

whom
ship.

he made to seem as men, and they were seated in the Andrew, therefore, when he saw the ship and the three

it, rejoiced with very great joy, and, coming to them, Whither go ye, brethren, with this little ship ? And the said, Lord answered and said unto him, We are journeying into the

men

in

country of the man-eaters.

Now
247

Andrew, when he saw Jesus,

248
ywv.
6 8e 'AvSpeas
'!>7<rovs
o>s

APPENDIX
0eao-atievos
TT)V

III.

rov

'Ii/crovv

OVK

eTreyixo
T^V

avrov

*

^v yap 6
TO)

Kpvij/as

eavrov ^eor^ra, Kat
*

<aivo/xcvos

'AvSpea

avOpwiros

Trpwpcvs
cts

6

8

'IiytroOs

aKovVas

TOV

'AvSpeou Aeyovros 6Vt
TTOpcuo/xat,

K<iya>

T^V

^co/oai/

TWV

avOp(D7ro(f>ay<ov
e/ceivryv,

Aeyet avraJ
v/xets

Has

avOptoiros
e/cet
;

<evyet T^V TrdXiv
aTro/cpt^ets

Kat

TTWS

7ropev(7^e
e^o/xev

KCU

'AvSpeas
/cat

CITTCV

Ilpay/aa

rt

fUKpov
*

CKCI

Sunrpd^aaOai.,
Trotryorov

Set

avro
Tavrirjv

aAA.' et

Swaoxu,

jae#'

^/itov

T^V

rov aTra^at ^/xas ev

TT^

X^P a T ^ v
8e 6 'I?ycrovs

ev

ij

Kat v/aets /xeXXere 7roptv.(T@(u.

a7ro/cpt0ets

avrots 'AveA^aTe.

Kat
Trpo

etTrev

'AvSpeas
dveX^etv

eXw
ev

(rot

Tt

cfravepov
o"ov.

7rot^(rat,

veavtcr/ce,
etTrev

TOT)

T^jOtas

r<o

TrXotai
etTrev

6

Se

I^o~ov?

Aeye o

fiovXrj.

6 8e 'AvSp^as

avra>

NavXov OVK

e^o/xeV o-ot

Trapao-^eti/,

aAA' ovre aprov e^o/xev
CITTCV
/xryre

ets

8tarpo^;v.
/u,^

Kat aTTOKpt^ets

6

'IT;O-OVS

avrw

IIcos

ovi/

aTrep^ecrOe
ets

Trapt^ovre?
'

TOV vavAov
TO)

aprov e^ovre?

8tarpo^>^v
vo/xtcr^s

;

etTrev

8e

'I^o-ov ^AKOVO-OV,

dSeA^e

/AT)

ort

Kara Tvpavvtav ov

knew him. not, for Jesus was hiding his godhead, and appearing Jesus hearing Andrew say, I also to Andrew as a steersman.

am

going to the country of the man-eaters, saith unto him, Every one fleeth from that city, and why go ye thither? Andrew answered and said, We have a certain little business to perform
there,

and must needs

finish

it

;

if

thou canst, do us this kindness

to carry us to the country of the man-eaters, to

which ye also are
somewhat, young

bound.

Jesus answered and said unto them, Come.
said, I will

And Andrew
man, before we
wilt.

make known

to thee

enter into thy ship.
said unto him,

Jesus said, Say what thou

have no passage-money to give thee, neither have we bread for food. Jesus answered and said unto him, Why then do ye depart, seeing that ye neither give us
passage-money nor have bread for food ?

Then Andrew

We

Andrew

said unto Jesus,

APPENDIX
Si'So/xev
(rot

III.

249
lAaOrjTai
ccr/xev

TOV

vavAov

^/xxov,

dAA

ly/ms

TOV

Kvpiov
ty/xa?

i)/u,u)v

'Irycrov

Xptorov TOV dya0ov
/cat

0eov.

eeA.eaTO yap
Ae'yw
68a>

TOVS SwSeKa,

Trape'StoKey
ftr]

i^/xti/

evroA^v TOiavrrjv
dpyvptor
/xiyre

6Vt

Tropcvo/Aevbi

KYjpv<T(r.iv

/?a(TTaeT
VTroS^/Aara

ev

T$
/xiyre

aprov

fj,r)re

irrjpav
TTOtet?
'

fj,rJTt

pdjS&ov
i^/xcov,

8vo

et

ow

T^V
OV

<iA.av0/3co7riav

/xe^'

d8eX^>e,
7TO/3V'

(TVVTO/XCOS

1

7TOlt5,

(jXLVepOKTOV

^/AtV,

Kttt

^r^cro/xev cavrots Irepov TrXotov.

aTro/cpifleis Se 6

TW 'AvSpea Et
avrrjv,
'

avriy C(TTIV
7rdo"r)<;

17

evToXrj rjv
r<p

Xa^8ere Kat
/xov.
'iTyo-o

avf.X6a.rf.

//.era

^apas ev
TOV

TrXoca)

yap

fiov\o[MLi.

v/Aas

TOVS
77

/Aa^Tas

Xeyo/xeVov
ftot

0eiv ev TO)
'

irXotit)

/AOV

TOVS Trapc'^oi/Tas
ci/xt

xpvaiov KCU apyv-

piov

TravTco? ya/o d^to?

tva

6 d7roo"ToA.os TOV Kvpiov avf 6 'AvSpeas
rrjv
eTrrev

fv TO) TrXoia) /xov.
/xot,

aTTOKpt^ct?
7rapd(r^r}

8e

dSeA.<e,
dvT/Atfev

6

/cvptos

<TOL

86av
ets

Kat

/cat

'AvSpeas

/U.CTO.

TWV avTOv

fw.Or)T(*)v

TO TrXotov.

Hearken, brother; think not that because of arrogance we give thee not our passage-money, since we are disciples of the good God, our Lord Jesus Christ. For he chose us, the twelve, and
gave us this commandment, saying, As ye go to preach, carry neither money on the way, neither bread, nor scrip, nor shoes, nor staff, nor two coats. If, therefore, thou wilt do us this kindness, brother, tell us plainly;

thou wilt not, declare it unto Jesus us, and we will go and seek for ourselves another ship. answered and said unto Andrew, If this is the commandment
if

all joy into my the disciples of him who had rather that ye, ship; is called Jesus, should enter into my ship, than those who give

which ye have received and do keep, enter with
for verily I

me
and

of the

gold and silver; for I am certainly worthy that the apostle Lord should enter into my ship. Then Andrew answered

said, Agree with me, brother, and the Lord give thee glory and honor. And Andrew entered into the ship with his disciples.

APPENDIX

IV.

SPECIMENS OF THE DIALECTS.

The two

best sources of information

on the OE.

OE. Grammar and Prof. E. M. Brown's work on Mercian. The latter is in two
dialects are Sievers'

Die Sprache der Rushworth Grlossen (Gottingen, 1891), comprising the vowels, and (Part II.) The Language of the Rushworth G-loss (Gottingen,
parts,

(Part

I.)

1892), comprising a continuation of the vowels, the

consonants, and inflection. In some respects the

non-West

Saxon

dialects

These common features, so far as they relate agree. to the vowels, have been signalized by Sievers, and 150 of are here extracted from edition of his

my

Grammar
1.

:

In place of the West Saxon
a, stands the vowel
ie,

se

=

Germ,

e,

West

Germ,
2. is

e.

The WS.

le is wanting,
(i, i)

and hence the same
(19).

true of the unstable y, y
3.

eo (io), as well as their corresponding long diphthongs, are not so accurately discriminated as in WS. In Northumbrian especially
ea,

The sounds

there

is

great confusion between ea and eo.

Kentish

has a preference for ia and io, the as well for WS. ea as for eo.
4.

former standing

The sound

03

is

of

more extensive occurrence.
250

APPENDIX
I.

IV.

251

NORTHUMBRIAN.
Caedmon's Hymn.

1.

According to Sweet (Oldest English Texts, p. 148), The hyinn of Csedmon is written at the top of the page [i.e. in the famous Moore MS. of Bede] in a smaller hand than that of the List of Kings which
"
It is not impossible that the hymn may have been written later than the List [which, according to Sweet, was written 'most probably in 737'],

follows

it.

to

fill

the blank space.

But the hand

is

evidently

contemporary." The ae is not always joined into a digraph, and the signs of length and of i-umlaut ($) are wanting. These have been supplied, together with the punctuation

and the division
translation

into lines

;

in other respects the as

manuscript has been followed.

The

of the
is

(Hist. Eccl. IV. 24),

given by Bede as follows, though it should

Hymn,
"

Hie est sensus, non autem ordo ipse verborum quse dormiens ille canebat ":"Nunc laudare debemus auctorem regni cselestis,
be observed that Bede
adds,

potentiam
glorise,

creatoris

et

consilium
sit

illius,

facta

patris

quomodo

ille,

cum

seternus deus,

miraculorum auctor extitit; qui primo filiis cselum pro culmine tecti, dehinc terram custos humani
generis omnipotens creavit." With reference to the words,
is

omnium hominum

"heben

til

hrofe,"

it

interesting that Alcuin

(Anglia VII. 7) has, "ut

primum Creator mundum

quasi introduceret habitatorem, id post

domum praepararet, et est, dominum domus";

252
cf.

APPENDIX

IV.

"lacunar, husliefen, o&tfe heofenhrof

"

(Wiilker-

Wright, Vocabularies, 432. 8). Variations from the EWS. norm are
1.

:

Final -aes instead of -es

:

-rlcaes,

metudses, -cynnaes.

2.

Final Final

-i

for -e

:

maecti, eci.
:

3. 4.
5.

-ae for -e

astejidae, tiadae.
:

6.
7.

Final -aen, -en for -on hefaen-, heben. Final -un for -on scylun. Final -un for -an middun-.
: :

Final -ur for -er

:

fadur.
:

8. 9.

Final -ur for -or

Final -ud for -od

:

wuldur-. metud-.
dryctin.
aerist.

10.
11.

Final -in for -en
Final -u for -an

:

Final -1st for -est
:

:

12.

foldu.
:

13.
14. 15.
16. 17.

Final -eg for -ig haleg. Final -en for -end scej>en.
:

18. 19.

uard, bariium. uerc, heben, hefaen-, metud-. for u scylun. y for a, Q ejad. e,

aforea(ae):
e for eo
:

all-,

:

:

ejli

for eal
:

20. 21.
22.

ae

for ie

astejidae. aelda.
:

ae, e,

$ for

i,

ie

:

maecti, -mectig, sc^pen.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
29.

laforeo: tiadae. a for ae -fadur. e for a sue. o for eo (o): scop.
: :

gi- for ge- gihuaes. d for 9 (J>): -gidanc.
:
1

30. 31.

thforff (J>): tha. ct for ht dryctin, b for f: heben.
:

inaecti, -mectig.

til for to.

of the foregoing variations are due either to the age of the document, or are common to at least two of the non-West Saxon dialects. The only ones

Most

APPENDIX

IV.

253

that seem peculiarly Northumbrian are 17, 31, and Of the rest, 16 and 25 do not agree possibly 12.

with later Northumbrian (Lind.), and 22 looks not unlike Kentish. But 17 has that palatalization of u

which we find in scyur, -scyade, scyldor, scyniga, scuia (ui as in druige for dryge), and even shya (WS. scua), of the Lind. Gospels. Til, which in Old Norse replaces OE. to, is found here and in Lind. Matt. 26. 31, besides being read in the Runic inscription on the Ruthwell Cross. Foldu resembles the eorftu, -o of Lind. Matt. 15. 35, 27. 45, etc., which is the regular form in these

by preceding

sc

Glosses.

The

Hymn
Nu

is

as follows

:

-

scylun hejgan metudaes msecti

hefaenricaes uard,

nd

his modgidanc,

uerc uuldurfadur; sue he uundra gihuaes, eci dryctin, or ast^lidae.
5

He

serist
til

scop
hrofe,

selda

barnum

hebeu

haleg sc^pen.

Tha middungeard
6ci dryctin,

moncynnses uard,

sefter tladae,

firuin foldu,

frea allmectig.

2.

Hodo's Death Song.

" Preserved in the Of this Sweet says St. Gall MS. 254, of the ninth century, in the usual conti:

nental minuscule hand, evidently an accurate copy of

an Old Northumbrian original." As translated by Cuthbert, his pupil,

it

runs

:

254

APPENDIX

IV.

"Ante necessarium exitum prudentior quam opus fuerit nemo exist! t, ad cogitandum videlicet, ante-

quam
Its

hinc

profiscatur

anima,

quid
:

boni

vel

mali

egerit, qualiter post

exitum judicanda variations from EWS. are
I. 1,

fuerit."

1.

It

has some of the peculiarities of

such as (1) godaes, yflaes, (2) ni, (3) -faerae, -hycggannae, -iQngae, gastae, uueorthae, (8) -snottur-, (15) tharf. (28) there, uuiurthit, thqnc-, than, tharf, aeththa, deoth-, uueorthae.

2.

Final -a for -e:
Final -it for
-eft

aea.
(cf.
:

3.

35)

:

uuiurthit.

4.
5.

Final -id for -ed
ei for le
:

doemid.

neid-.

6.
7.

e for

ae

:

there.
:

8.
9.

iu for eo (ie) uuiurthit. eo for ea deoth-.
:

ae for

o
e

:

aeththa.

10.
11.

ce for

:

doemid.
-hycggannae.
:

bin- (otherwise almost always poetical;.

12. 13.

egg
i for

for

eg

:

g

(ge)

-iongae.

Of the foregoing only 8 and 13 are unmistakably With deoth- may be compared eoro, Northumbrian.
Lind. Lk.,
1,

p. 8,

etc. (15);

Jn. 18. 26); eostro, Lk. 22. eoffe, Matt. 27. 64, Lk. 14. 8 (cf. Matt.
1.

15

(cf.

10. 15);

eoung, Matt,
gang-)
is

p. 22,

1.

15.

The ioDg

(for

g<?ng

<

simply an attempt to express the

; geong occurs frequently in the Lindispalatal farne Gospels, eight times uncompounded. Rushworth has iarw-, but not long (p. 253, note 10). At least

g (ge)

Anglian (North. Merc.) is (9) ae}?J?a; as ed^fta (e}?j7a) it occurs in Rush. Matt. 5. 18, and in the Riddles
ascribed to

Cynewulf

(44. 17).

APPENDIX
The
text
is
:

IV.

255

Fore there neidfserse
thoncsnotturra
i*

neenig ni uuiurthit than him tharf sie, /

to

ymbhycggannse
deothdaege

huset his gastse
5

sefter

hiniongse seththa yflses godses doemid uueorthae.

ser his

3.

The Day of Judgment.

The text As far as
formed
(ca. 950).

is

taken from Skeat's edition of Matthew.
readings have been conthe Lindisfarne Gospels

practicable the to the norms of

often great variation in the spelling and endings of the same word, normalizing has not been attempted in all cases. Where changes
as there
is

But

have been made, the MS. reading

is

given in a note.

nearly always represented by a contraction, as is frequently that for vel, aut ; these have been rendered by the usual words,

The equivalent

for

Lat.

et

is

The second of two alternative glosses and, ofrare. has been enclosed in square brackets, and so has occasionally a superfluous word.
Variations from
are registered)
1.
:

EWS.

are (only the

more important

Of

but not regularly, see foot-notes), (15) alle, -saldes, -saldon, (21) inaeht, (23) fadores (cf. 24, suse); of I. 2
I. 1
:

(5,

:

2.
3.

(10) gebloedsad. Loss of final -n eatta, drinca, befora, fr^nde. Uncontracted ind. pres. 3 sing. (cf. I. 2. 3): sittes, sceades,
:
1

4.
5.

s^tteS etc. Plurals in -as (s), as well as -aft Change of gender: -meehtes.
,

:

byas, agnigas, gaas.

6.

Plural of long neuters in -o

:

cynno.

256
7.

APPENDIX
of

IV.
in

Plural

adjectives

and past
ilco.
-o,

participles

-o:

softfsesto,

awoergedo.
8.

Weak

plurals in -o

:

9.

Shortened plurals of verbs in

instead of -e

:

sohto.

10.
11.
12.

ea (representing eo) for e
oe for e after

:

eatta.
:

(denoted by u) e for ea before palatals ec.
:

w

cuoefras.

13. 14.

eg

for

aw

:

segon.
:

e for y: dedon. 15. i for y before palatals
16.

drihteii.
1

Irregular umlaut

:

cymmeS
:

.

17.

Irregular gemination 18. eg for cc ticgen-.
:

eatta, cyimneff,

untrymmig.

19.

eg

for

g

:

hyncg-.
:

20.

d
1

21.
22.

for t (d original) for t: seffel.

geblcedsad.

8 for d: miff.
-ig for -ing:

23.
24. 25. 26. 27.

cynig.

Inorganic

initial
:

h

:

hriordadon.

Loss

of final -e

ric.

The form The form

biffon.

hia.

printed the corresponding passage from the Vulgate, with collations of the Latin versions on which the Lindisfarne and Rush worth glosses
is

Under the Northumbrian

are respectively based.

The

text

is

:

1 MiSSy uut' cymes Sunu Monnes 2 $nglas mi$ him, Sa he sittes ofer

in maeht his,
seftel

and
4

alle
3

godcimdmsehtes
alle
6

his.

And gesomnad

bitlon.
5

befora hine

cynno,
7

tosceades hia betuih, sua
5

hiorde tosceades

scip

and from
suiS-

ticgenum.
1

And

he s^tteS Sa scip ec soS [uut'] to
of

Abbreviation

uutedlice
4

6
7

(-tet-),
2 3

WS.

\vitodlice.

MS. -as. MS. scipo
nom.
ace.

;

this neuter

is

ex-

MS. engles. MS. -maeht.

cynne.

ceptional in its
plur.

6

MS. sua.

preponderance of without ending.

APPENDIX
rum
his,

IV.

257

Donne [he] Sa ticgeno soSlice of winstrum. cueSes Se cynig Ssem Sa-Se to suiSrum his biSon [hia], 2 3 "CymmeS gie, geblcedsad fadores mines, byas [agnigas ] 4 Ic gegegearwad mh ric from frymSo middangeardes.
1

wses hyncgrig 5 ] for-Son, and gesaldes me eatta; ic wses Syrstig, and gesaldon me drinca 6 g$st 7 ic waes, and gie somnadon mec nacod, and gie clseSdon

hyncgerde

[ic

M

5

;

;

7 8 7 in untrymig, and gie sohton mec wrigon] mec 10 9 Da Qndueardas [ondto me. carcern, and gie cuoinon suerigaS] him soSfaesto, cuoeSas, Drihten, huoenne Sec we 10 Sec? segon hungrig [hyngrende], and we hriordadon

[gie

;

;

10

11 $e drinca 12 ? huoenSyrstende [Syrstig], and we saldon ne 13 uutetli' Sec we segon g^stig, and we s^mnadon Sec, oSSe nacod, and we awrigon Sec? hucenne Sec we gesegon 10 And untrymig and in carcern, and we cuomon to Se? " SoSlice ic cuoeSo ge^ndweardeS Se cynig, cuoeSes Sm, 14 mh, S^nde gie dydon anum of Sisum broSrum mmum Da cuoeSes 15 and Saem Sa-Se to lytlum, me gie dydon." winstrum biSon, "OfstlgaS 16 gie fro^n me, awoergedo, in 17 se-Se foregegearuuad is diwle and ^nglum fyr 6ce, 18 [Segnum] his. Mec gehyncgerde, and ne saldo gie me eatta; mec Syrste, and ne saldo gie me drinca; g^st ic waes, and ne ges^mnade gie mec; nacod, and ne awrigon 8 and in carcern, and ne sohto gie gie mec; untrymig mec." Da Qndueardas and Sa ilco [hia], cuceSendo,
73

15

20

25

"

Drihten,
20

huosnne

Syrstende,
1

segon hyncgrende, oSSe g^st, oSSe nacod, oSSe untrymig, oSSe in
5

Sec

we

19

oSSe

Se is about one-half more numerous than 'Se.
2 3

6
7

MS. byes. MS. agneges

;

for

8

-igas, etc., -as and -aft are frequently found in

9
10

these verbs.
*

MS. gegearwaff.

MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS.

hincgrig.
dringe.

13
14

meh. untrymmig.
carchern.
-un.

15
16
17

18 19

sealdon.
ffringe.

20

MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS.

huonne.
dyde.
coeffes.
-es.

ecce.

sealdo.

hyncgerende.
-a.

258
carcern,

APPENDIX
and ne ^mbehtadon l we

IV.

fce

?

"

Da

he"

tSeem, cweftende, "SoSlice ic cueSo mh, $a hwlle ne dyde 2 gle anum of lytlum Sissum [sua l^ng gle ne dedon anum 4 " And gaas 5 'Sas olsra 3 metdmaasta], ne me gie dydon.
5

in tintergo ece, softfaesto 6 uut' in

lif ece.

Cum

autem venerit Filius hominis

in majestate sua, et

omnes angeli cum eo, tune sedebit super sedem majestatis Et congregabuntur ante eum omnes gentes, et sepasuse.
rabit eos ab invicem, sicut pastor segregat oves ab hsedis. Et statuet oves quidem a dextris suis, haedos autern a

Tune dicet rex his, qui a dextris ejus erunt benedicti Patris mei, possidete paratum 7 vobis "Venite, regnum a constitutione mundi. Esurivi enim, et dedistis mihi manducare sitivi, et dedistis 8 mihi bibere hospes
sinistris.
:

;

;

eram, et
infirmus,

me collegistis et visitastis me
9

;

nudus,
;

me cooperuistis 12 in carcere eram, et venistis
10

et

n

;

ad me."
te

Tune respondebunt

ei justi, dicentes

:

"Domine,

vidimus esurientem, et pavimus te? sitientem, 13 quando et dedimus tibi potum ? quando autem te vidimus hos15 14 ? te, aut nudum et cooperuimus te pitem, et collegimus 16 in carcere, et veniaut quando te vidimus infirmum, aut

inus ad
vobis,

te?"

Et respondens
fecistis

rex, dicet illis

:

"Amen

dico
21

quamdiu

uni

17

ex

18

his fratribus meis mini-

mis, mihi fecistis."
1

Tune

19 20 sinistris dicet et his, qui a

MS. embigto.
Less

n
form
for
12

2

common

L. om.

L. operuistts. R. fui.
;

dydon. 5 MS. 8 MS. ffassa. gaes. 6 MS. -faeste. 4 MS. dyde. 7 R. regnum quod vobis paratum est ab origine mundi.
8

18

R- aut sitientem.
L. colleximus. L. om.
16

u
15

L.

et.

n
18 *

R. uni ex minimis
L. de. L. ad.
19

Ms

fra-

tribus meis.

L. dedisti.
L. collexistis.

R. rex.

9
10

R. nudus eram.

21

R. sinistris

ejus.

APPENDIX
erunt
:

IV.

259

" Discedite
2

qui paratus
et

a me, maledicti, in ignein aeternum, est diabolo et angelis ejus. Esurivi euim,
;

l

non dedistis mihi manducare sitivi, et non dedistis mihi potum 3 hospes eram, et non collegistis 4 me; nudus, 5 me infirmus et in carcere, et non et non cooperuistis Tune respondebunt ei 6 et ipsi, dicentes visitastis me."
; ;
:

Domine, quando te vidimus esurientem, aut sitientem, aut hospitem, aut 7 nudum, 7 aut infirmum, aut 8 in carcere, " et non ministravimus tibi ? Tune respondebit illis, " Amen dico dicens vobis, quamdiu non fecistis uni de minoribus his, nee mihi fecistis." Et ibunt hi in supautem in vitam seternam. plicium aetermim, justi
:

"

1

L. discendite. L. prceparat us
;

8 It.

R. bibere.
L. collexistis.

6
7 8

L. om.

2

quern

4

R. om.
L.
vel.

prceparavit pater

meus

diabolo.

6

L. operuistis.

II.

MERCIAN.

Mercian has been thus characterized by Brown (ut supra, Part L, p. 81, with which should be compared his Part II., p. 91) " There is naturally much general agreement with Variations Northumbrian, since both are Anglian. from North, are in some cases approximations to WS.,
:

but not in

all.

In certain respects Mercian stands
$]
is

quite by itself; in particular "1. OE. stable e [i.e. not
in
to

usually retained

Mercian, yet
ae.

is

more
of

or less

frequently changed

" 2.

The o-umlaut
all

not at

a scarcely occurs in WS., and in either Kentish or Northumbrian, but is

well developed in Mercian.

260
44

APPENDIX
3.

IV.

o-umlaut of e to eo, and of i to io, eo, occurs at least more regularly in Mercian than in WS.

The

u-,

and the other
44

dialects.

true that these peculiarities give no sharp outlines to Mercian, yet they sufficiently characterize it as
It
is

a dialect, and not merely as Northumbrian modified by West Saxon scribes, or the reverse."

1.

The Day of Judgment.

The

text

ized like

from Skeat's edition of Matthew, normalthe last. There is a difference of opinion about
is

the date of the Gloss.
that
it

Skeat says (ed. of Mark,

p. xii)

83) would date it just before the decay of Latin studies to which Alfred testifies the latter also infers that its origin was not near the Kentish
;

may be referred to century, Brown (Part I., p.

the latter half of the tenth

The phonological and inflectional points of difference from both West Saxon and Northumbrian should
border.

be noted.

The passage

is

as follows

:

And 1
his,

2

miS-jry
alle
4

cyme}) |7onne

Suim 3 Monnes
5

in
6

and

^nglas mifi hine, )>orme

gesite}>

'Srymme on sedle 7

his
1

])rymmes.

And gesomnade 8
4

4 beo$ beforan him alle

Represented in MS. only by the abbreviation and. occurs but once in the Gospel, and is accord;

MS.
1

ealle; a

is

more common

before

+

cons.,

though call and

ingly restored here ; a, too,
2

is

more

likely to occur in proclitics.

healf are somewhat exceptional. 5 J>onne is much commoner, and so o before nasals in general.
6

Both miff and mid are found
)>

;

MS.

gesitae)>.
(tt),

here the following
influenced.
8

may have

7

This word has > and t

as well as d.
8

MS. sune.

MS. gesomnede.

APPENDIX
peode,

IV.

261

and gesceadej? 1 hise in twa, 2 swa hiorde 3 asceadej) 4 And s^tej? )>a seep 5 on fa 6 swift ran seep from ticnurn. 7 7 his ticcen porine on J>a winstran halfe. ponne halfe, 8 se Cyning J>sem j>e on pa swlpran halfe his beon, cwae]? 9 "Cuma]>, gebletsade mines Fseder, gesittaft rice ^te eow 10 geiarwad wees from s^tiiisse middangeardes. For-pon-Se mec 11 yngrade, 12 and ge saldun me etan; mec }>yrste, and 13 me drincan; cuma ic wses, and ge feormadun ge salduii 11 nacud ic wses, and ge wrigun 14 mec; untrum, 15 and mec 16 17 ic waes, and ge cwomun ge neosadun mm; in carcerne
;

5

I0

to

me."
21

ponne
"

18

andswarigaj)
ffl

Dryhten, hwonne cwaefende, 24 }>e ? rende, and we fceddun o]>]>e

him 19 [fsem] w we gesegun
}>yrstigne,

20

sopfseste,
t5e

hyng)>e

and we
11

drincan saldun? hwanne 22 fonne gesegun 23

we
and

fe

cuman,
11

and

gefeormadun nacudne, o|?pe pec 11 15 14 22 wrigun ? opfte hwonne we fe segun untrymne oftte " And andin cwarterne, 25 and we cwomun 17 to f e ? swarade se Cyning, cwaej> to heom, 19 "So}> ic saecge eow,

fte

11

?

we

I5

swa l^nge swa ge dydun anum
1

26

pe

laesesta

26

26

j?ara

brofre
is

2 3
4

5 6 7
8

MS. gesceadi>. MS. tu, but less common. heorde also occurs. MS. ascade)>. MS. scaep.
Lat. omits suis.

wreogan, but
ceptional.
18
16

this verb

ex-

17 18 19

MS. healfe.
Usual form for pres., as well
;

20
21

as pret.
9 10

pres. also cwej>.

With i-umlaut, and without. MS. -carkaern. MS. coinan. MS. andswaeriga)?. Sing, him, plur. heom. -faeste rather more common. cwae>ende nearly as comas cwe)>ende.

MS. cyme>.
Less

mon
than gegear22

common

hwanne and hwonne about
MS. gesagun. MS. foeddan. MS. quartern. Here nom. ]>e
;

wad.
11

equal.
ffec rather

mec,

commoner

23

in ace.
12 13 14

24 25
26

Loss of initial h exceptional. MS. salden. MS. forms are wriogan,

occasional

for se.

262
1

APPENDIX me dydun. 2
'

IV.

mine, ge.
)>a-J>e

ponne

cwae}> se

Cyning

ec to

5

on faem winstran halfe beopan, "GewitaJ) from me, 4 3 5 6 6 awaergde, in ece fyr, ^te waes geiarwad Faeder mm 7 8 deofle and his ^nglum. For-j>on-}>e niec hyngrede, and 8 ge ne saldun me etan; mec Syrste, and ge ne saldun me" 9 8 drincan; cuma ic wtfcs, and ge ne feormadun mec nacud, and ge ne wrigun 10 mec 8 untmm 11 and in carcerne, 12 and 13 ge ne neosadun mm." ponne andswarigaft hiae swailce,
;
;

cwsepende,
10

15 16 we <5e 8 hynggesegun Dryhten, hwanne 11 rende, o]>J>e })yrstigne, offe cuman, oj)^5e untrum, oppe in carcerne, 17 and we ne J>egnadun 18 J?e?" ponne and14

"

15

20 14 heom, cwepende, "So}) ic saecge eow, swa longe swa ge ne dydun anum meodumra 21 }>issa, ne me ge ne And gee)? 22 hise in sece 4 tintergu, 23 }>a soffeste 24 dydun." 4 ponne in sece lif. 19

swara|>

1

See

p. 253,

note 26.

14

See See
See

p. 253,

note 21.

MS. dydon. 8 MS. awaergede. 4 aece rather more common. 6 MS. geiarward.
2

15
16 17
18

p. 253,

note 22.

p. 253, note 23. MS. carcraennae.

6
7

Cf the Latin of this
.

text.

19 20 21 22

MS. )>egnedun. MS. andswarej*.
See
p. 253,

MS. englas.
See
See
p. 253,

note 18.

8

note 11.

9
10
11

MS. cuman.
p. 253, p. 253,

note 14.

See

note

15.

12

13

MS. carkern. MS. swilce the only other
;

gaff influence of the sing.? 23 Only instance of u in plur. of disyllabic neuters ; cf ticcen,
.

MS. meoduma. More common than

;

above.
24

instance in the Gospel

is

swaelce.

See

p. 253,

note 20.

2.

Psalm XX. (XXI.)

taken from the Vespasian Psalter as This was printed in Sweet's Oldest English Texts. and even yet Brown formerly regarded as Kentish,
is

The Psalm

APPENDIX
(Part
is
I.,

.

IV.

263
its

p.

82)

is

inclined to think that

Mercian

Sweet (p. 184) that of the region adjoining Kent. refers the gloss to the first half of the ninth century. The forms are less varied than in the last. The Latin
the Vulgate version, collated with that on which the gloss is based.
is

The

text

is

:

Dryhten, in megne Slnum biS geblissad cyning; ofer hielu 'Sine gefiS l swISlice Lust sawle his Su saldes
!

him, ond willan weolera his Su ne bisc^redes hine. ForSu Son Su forecwome hine in bledsuiige 2 swoetnisse 3
;

s^ttes

heafde his beg of stane deorwyrSum. 4

ond $u saldes him le^ngu daega 5 Micel is wuldur his in hselu Smre

Llf bed, in weoruld weorulde.

5

wuldur o^id micelne For-Son Su shiest hine in wlite Su ons^tes ofer hine. in weoruld weorulde Su geblissas hine in bledsunge 6 For-6on cyning gehyhte6 geflan mid ^ndwleotau STnum. in Dryhtne, and in mildheortnisse ftes hestan ne bi5 Sie [bi5] gimozsted h^nd Sin allum feondum onstyred.
; ;

10

Smum
;

7 figaS. gemosteS alle Sa-Se Sec Du s^tes hie swe-swe ofen fyres in tld Qndwleotan 8 Sines Dryhten in eorre his gedro3feS hie, ond forswilgeS hie fyr. Western heara of eorSan Su forspildes, and sed
;

sle

swrSre

Sin

15

heara from bearnum monna.
Se yfel
;

For-Son hie onhseldun 9 in

Sohtun geSseht Siet hie ne msehtun gesteaSulfestian. For-Son Su s^tes hie bee, in lafum Slnum Su ondwleotan heara. gearwas H^fe up, Dryhten, in megne Sinum; we singaS and singaS megen Sin.
1

20

MS.

gefihff

.

6

In this word io
is

is

commoner

;

2 8
*

We should expect bloidsungo.
MS. swetnisse. MS. deorwyrffem. MS. de,ga.

but the rule
7

eo.

8

5

9

MS. 9e. MS. Qndwliotan MS. onhaeldon.

;

see note

5.

264

APPENDIX

IV.

Domine, in virtute tua

laetabitur rex;

et super salutare

tuum
eum.

exultabit
ei,

vehementer.
voluntate

tribuisti

et

Desiderium labiorum ejus

cordis
noil

1

ejus fraudasti

prsevenisti eum in benedictionibus dulcedinis ; posuisti in capite ejus coronam de lapide pretioso. Vitam petiit 2 a 2 te, 2 et tribuisti ei longitudinem

Quoniam

dierum in saeculum,
impones super eum.
in saeculum saeculiT;
tuo.

et

in

saeculum

saeculi.

gloria ejus in salutari tuo;

gloriam et

Magna est magnum decorem
in benedictionem

Quoniam dabis eum
laetificabis
3

Quoniam rex sperat Altissimi non commovebitur.
bus inimicis tuis
oderunt.
tui;
;

in gaudio cum vultu in Domino, et in misericordia

eum

Inveniatur manus tua omni-

dextera tua inveniat 4 omnes qui te Pones eos ut clibanum ignis in tempore vultus

Dominus in ira sua conturbabit eos, et devorabit eos Fructum eorum de terra perdes et semen eorum ignis. a filiis hominum. Quoniam declinaverunt in te mala 6 5 Quocogitaverunt consilia, quae non potuerunt stabilire. niam pones eos dorsum 7 in reliquis tuis praeparabis
;

;

;

vultum eorum.

Exaltare, Domine, in virtute tua tabimus et psallemus virtutes tuas.
1

;

can-

2

MS. MS.

animce.
petit.

3 4
6

MS. MS. MS.

sperabit.
inveniit.

6
7

MS. quod. MS. deorsum.

consilium.

III.

KENTISH.

The preference
is,

for the e-sound (both long

and short)

according to Zupitza (Hauptfs Zeitschrift, XXI. 4), Sievers remarks characteristic of the Kentish dialect.
(

154) that a distinctive characteristic of Kentish is the substitution of e, e, for y, y, and to some extent the
converse.

APPENDIX

IV.

265
e.

In our reproduction of the following pieces,

is

employed only where
to

found in the MSS., in order avoid confusion between the theoretical and the
it is

MS.

e.
1.

Lufa's Confirmation of her Bequest.

The

will of

which
It is

this

is

the

concluding portion

printed by Sweet in his Oldest English Texts, pp. 446-447, and by Earle, Land Charters, " This Earle adds piece is given in pp. 165-166.
dates from 832.
:

Thorpe's Analecta as a specimen of East Anglian but Kemble remarked that Mundlingham is in Kent." Note the e (e) for se (se), ia (la) for eo (eo)

;

;

b

for f

The
>%<

of course not peculiar to Kentish (I. 1. 30). text is as follows
is
:

eaSmod Godes Siwen, Sas forecwedenan god, and Sas elmessan, gesette and gefestnie, ob mlnem erfelande et Mundlingham, Sem hiium to Cristes cirican; and ic bidde, and an Godes libgendes naman beblade, Ssem men Se Sis land and Sis erbe hebbe et Mundlingham, Set
Ic Luba,

he Sas god forSleste 6S wiaralde ende. Se man, se Sis healdan wille, and lestan Set ic beboden hebbe an Sisem
gewrite,
se
;

him

seald

and

gehealden

sla

hiabenlice

bledsung

se his ferwerne, oSSe hit agele, se

him

seald

and gehealden helle wlte, bute he to fulre bote gecerran Uene ualete. wille, Gode and mannum.
*%*

Lufe fincggewrit.

2.

The Kentish Hymn.
(II.

The
291).

Hymn
The

is

No. 8 of Grein's Bibliothek
is

290his

text

conformed

to that of

Kluge in

Lesebuch, pp. 111-112.

266

APPENDIX
be noted are the
io,

IV.

To

ia for eo (hiofen, hiafen),

io for eo, e for se (fegere, Feder, heleflFa, -fest), se for e, i.e. oe (blsetsiaflF, hrsemig) and for ie (geflsemdest),

and especially the e for y (senna, gefelled), and e for Standard West Saxon vowels are y (ales, gerena). also found, and perhaps indicate a West Saxon scribe.
respect to consonants, the omission of the middle one of three is noted by Zupitza as characteristic

With

The loss of final d (walden) is found (senlum). elsewhere in Kentish (Zupitza, p. 11) but see also
;

(ngc, ncg) for ng (cyninc, cyningc cf. Jrincg-, p. 257, 1. 12) is another mark (Zupitza, p. 13). The Hymn is as follows
I. 1.
;
:

14.

Nc

Wuton wuldrian

weorada Dryhten, hiofenrices Weard, hlloSorcwidum halgari lufian liofwendum llf^s Agend, and him simle sio sigef^st wuldor
5

io

and on eorSan sibb uppe mid aanlum gumena gehwilcum goodes willan We Se heriaS halgum stefnuin, and ]?e blaetsiaS bilewitne F^der, and ^e ]>anciat5, Jnoda Walden, 'Sines weorSlican wuldordreames and 'Sare miclan maegena gerena, "8e ^5u God Dryhten gastes msehtum hafest on gewealdum hiofen and eorSan, an ece F^der, selmehtig God
!

[5]

[io]

!

15

Du
Stl

eart cyninga Cyningc cwicera gehwilces eart sigefest Sumi and soS H^lend

;

[15]

ofer ealle gesc^ft

angla and manna!

Du Dryhten God
20

on dreamum wunast

on t5sere upplican ae^elan ceastre, Frea folca gehwaes, swa 'Su 33t framan wsere

[20]

APPENDIX

IV.

267
!

efeneadig Beam agenum Feeder Du eart heofenlic lioht and Sset halige lamb, 1 Se manscilde middangeardes

M

for Jnnre arf^stnesse
5

ealle towurpe,
follc

fiond geflsemdest,

gene redes,

[25]

blode gebohtest beam Israela Sa Su ahofe t5urh ^set halige triow Slnre t5rowunga Srlostre senna,
feet
10

M

on h^eahsetle

heafena rices
[30]

on fca swiSran hand sitest sigehrsemig Simim God-Fseder gasta gemyndig. Mildsa nu meahtig manna cynne, and of leahtrum ales t5Ine Sa llofan gesc^ft, and us hale gedo, helet5a Sceppend,
ni^a Nergend,
for Sines

15

naman

are

!

[ 35 ]

Du

eart so^lice

simle halig,

20

sece Dryhten, and Su eart ana and Su ana bist eallra Dema cwucra ge deadra, Crist Nergend, for-San Su on 'Srymme rlcsast and on flrmesse and on annesse, ealles Waldend,

[40]

hiofena heahcyninc,
fegere gefelled

Haliges Gastes
!

in Fseder wuldre
i

MS.

ffy.

APPENDIX

V.

I-UMLAUT ILLUSTRATED FROM GOTHIC.
Germanic language represented by existing specimens is the Gothic. Much the most considerearliest

The

able part of these specimens consists of fragments of a translation of the Bible, or rather of the Bible with

the exception of the Books of Kings, made by Wulfila (less correctly, Ulphilas), a Goth of the fourth century.

While

it

would be a

serious error to regard Gothic as the
it is
it

parent of the other Germanic tongues,
true that in

undoubtedly most nearly represents many respects what we may conceive to have been the character of the In particular, the origiPrimitive Germanic language. nal vowels of stem-endings and inflectional terminations are often extant in Gothic, while by the time of Old
English they are either lost, or exist in a modified form. From what has been said, it is manifest that a compa,rison of Gothic forms with those of Old English
is

often

very instructive. The phenomenon known as i-umlaut, for example, becomes much more intelligible through such a comparison, as a few illustrations will render evident. In the revised version of 2 Cor. 10. 12, the marginal " For we are not bold to judge ourselves reading is,
certain of them that commend themselves." among The Gothic has, " Unte ni gadaursum domjan unsis
.

.

.

silbans," etc.

Here the English word judge
268

is

repre-

APPENDIX

V.

269

sented by the Gothic domjan (pronounced domyari), to which corresponds the OE. deman. Again, for OE.

sec(e)an (114), n^rian (116), the Gothic has sokjan, " Qam auk nasjan (s changing to r), as in Lk. 19. 10 sunus mans sokjan ydh nasjan }>ans fralusanans."
:

According to
is

103, the ind. pres. 3 sing, of forbeodaii

forbiet or forbiett.
8.

occurs in Lk.
faurbiudifi jah

25

:

"

The corresponding Gothic form Hwas siai sa, ei jah windam
"

watnam ?

(Who

then

is

this,

that

he commandeth even the winds and the water(s)?) The stem of the Gothic verb faurbiudifo is bind-, which
in

OE.
-i-

the

represented by beod-. Umlaut is caused by of the ending -i/>, which is sometimes retained in
is

OE.
and

as -(e)<y, but frequently disappears, according to 23 34. Similarly Gothic fraliusifi is represented in
forliest, as in

where, for the "if she lose one piece of the English, the Gothic has, " jabai fraliusifi drakmin ainamma." Again, take the OE.
8,

OE. by

Lk. 15.

"

ind. pres. 3 sing, is liset(t). Here the Gothic infinitive is haitan, and the ind. pres. 3 sing. haiti/>. Thus, in Lk. 15. 9, "gahaitifo frijondjos" (call-

liatan, of

which the

eth together her friends). In Mk. 1. 16, where our version has net, the OE. has " n$tt, and the Gothic nati: wairpandans nati in marein."

The doubling

of t

is

to be accounted for according to 36,

as the Gothic stem-ending was -ja. Gothic has kuni, as in Mk. 8. 12 "
:

For OE. cynn the

Hwa

sokeij)?" (What would be the OE. taikn and sokeifi?) In Mk. 7. 35, where the

fata kuni taikn representatives of

OE. has Gothic has "bandi tuggons." "tungan b^nd," the Many more illustrations might be given, but these will no doubt suffice to render the principle clear.

VOCABULARY,

VOCABULARY.
[The vowel ae follows ad, and ft follows t. The main or typical forms words are those of Early West Saxon, the dialectic or late forms of the poetry and of Appendix IV. being referred to that as the standard. Actual forms, when different from the type, are enclosed in parenthesis. Figures in parenthesis refer to paragraphs (and subdivisions) of the Grammar. Semicolons are employed to separate different groups of meanings; definitions separated by commas are more nearly synonymous. The sign < indicates derivation from. Modern English words cited in brackets, and
of

not preceded bye/., are direct derivatives; cognates thus cited are directly derived from the common ancestral form where the relationship is more remote, or only a part of the word corresponds, cf. precedes. Old English words preceded by cf. or see are parallel or related forms. Direct derivaThe tives included among the definitions are not repeated in brackets. asterisk before a word indicates a theoretical form; for the manner in
;

which such are framed see my Phonological Investigation of Old English (Ginn & Co.). The ending -lic(e) is assigned to adjectives and adverbs employed in the poetry -lic(e) to those in prose.]
;

A.
a,

a-bregdan

(III. 104, 28), liberate,
.

disengage. [Cf Spenser's abrade,

always ; repeated for emphasis, a a a, for ever and ever. [Cf. Mod. Eng. ay, from an allied root in ME. our word appears as o, oo, so in Chaucer, Tr. and Cress. 2. 1034: 'for ay
;

abrayd, abraid,e.g. F.Q:3. 11.8.] a-butan, about, around.

ac (ah)

(4), but.

a-c^nnan

(113), produce,
(58,

beget,

bring forth.

acol-mod
terrified.

146), frightened,

and

oo.']

a- (142).

adesa
(III.

(53), adze, hatchet.

a-belgan
cense.

104), 103),

anger,

in-

adl (51. 6), disease. a-drsedan (R. 110), fear.

a-beodan

announce, a-dreogan (II. 103), endure. a-drifan (I. 102), expel. a-beran (IV. 105), carry, convey; a-dun (e) down. [ of du ne
(II.

communicate.
sustain.

,

<

;

see

dan.]
(R. 109), blow.
sece, see ece.

a-blawan

273

274
aecer (43),
field.

VOCABULARY.
[Cf.

Mod. Eng.

acres, God's Acre, the latter as in Longfellow's poem ;

broad

^351-myrcan (53), plur. Ethiopians. aemetta leisure. (53), [Cf.
aemtig.]

Ger. Acker. Cognate with Lat. Gr. &yp6s. ] ager,

aemtig

(57.

3; 146), empty, void.

jedre (edre), straightway, immediately, at once.

[Cf. aemetta.] aene, once.

senig (89. a;
(one).

154.

aefen (47.
itself is

evening (but evening from the derivative aefn7),

[<an;

a; 146), any Ger. einig.]

aeppel-bsere (59, 146),/rwY-6ear-

ung). [Ger. Abend.'] ing. aefen- glo mu ng (51. 3), evening aer (47), copper. [See ar, copper; cf. the Ger. adj. twilight. [Cf Mod. Eng. gloamehern."]
.

ing.]

aer, adv., before,

formerly, afore-

aefestfull (146), envious, [aefest is compounded of aef-, a parallel form of of, and est, q.v.]

ago ; frequently to be regarded as a mere sign of the
time,

pluperfect tense.
aer, prep., before.

aefestian (118), envy, be envious
at.

[Mod. Eng. ere.]

aefestig (146), envious. aefre, ever, always; sefre
never.
aefter, after ; according to

aer-daeg (43. 2), dawn, break of day. ne,

aerend-wreca
envoy.
late.]

(53),

ambassador,

[afterward.
;

[Cf.

Mod. Eng. errand;

about ;

OE. wrecan has a sense
aerest, first,

=

re-

sefter-Uon-afe, after. g- (142).
aeg-flota (53), sea-floater, ship. geg-hwa (88), every one; neut.

at first, in the first

place.

(Mod. Eng. erst; Ger.

every thing.

aeg-hwanan
on
aeg-hwilc
.

(75),

from

all sides,

all-sides.

(-hwylc)
. .

(89),

aer-ge-don (62), previously done, former, [aer + don.] aern (47), edifice. every aerra (67, 60) former.
,

(one), any (one). aegfter ge ge (202), both

aer-S'am-S'e, before.
. . .

aer-wacol
sleepless.

(57,

146),

wakeful,

and.
aeht (51. &), council. aiht (51. 1), possession;
goods.
ael (51. &),

aesc-plega
plur.

[Cf.

agan.]
[Ger. Ahle.~]
eaeft,

awl.
a),

(53, 147), ash-play, spear-play. aesc-rof (58, 147), spear-valiant, valiant with the spear. set (47),/ood [Cf. etan.] aet (4), at; from; to (New Diet. s.v. at, I. 11, 12).
aet- (142).

ale

(89.

every,

all.

[Mod. Eng.
aelmesse

eacft.]

Eng.

selde, see ielde.
(el-)

(53.

1),

alms.

[See New Eng. Diet. s.v. alms.'] ael-mlhtig (-mihti) (57. 3), almighty. [Ger. allmachtig.~]

aet-berstan (III. 104), escape.

aet-bregdan

(III.

104,

162,

28),

withdraw, take away.

VOCABULARY.
aet-eowian (118), appear. aetiewan. ]
set-foran, before.
aet-gaedere, together; strengthensamod setgaeding samod, Lat. simul. ere
[Cf.

275
(II. 103),

a-geotan

pour

out, dis-

sipate, destroy.

a-giefan (V. 106), give, pay.

a-ginnan

=

aet-lewan (113), reveal, display. [Cf. aeteowian.] aet niehstan, see niehstan. aetywan, see aetiewan.
geffel-boren (62; 57. 3 ; 147), highborn, patrician. aeffel-borennes (51.5; 147), noble birth, rank, station.
aeftele (59), noble, gentle, illustri-

(III. 104), begin. Ger. -ginnen.~] agnian (118), appropriate. agan Ger. eignen. ]
;

L Cf.

[Cf.

a-growan
over.

(R. 109), grow up, grow

ah, see ac.

a-hejbban (VI.
utter}
;

107), raise (i.e.
;

exalt

endure,

suffer,

undergo.

[Ger. erheben.~\
(113),

a-hierdan
bolden
?).

harden

(em-

[Ger. erhdrten.~\

ous.

[Cf.
edel.~\

Ethel,
143),

Athel-,

Ger.
hero,
aeftffa,

aeffeling

(43,

noble

man.
see offffe.
?)),

and a-hliehhan (VI. 107), rejoice. [Cf. Mod. Eng. laugh, Ger. lachen.~] one, ah of, see ah^bban. a-hreosan (II. 103), fall. aht (5ht) (47; 89. &), something.
a-h\v^ttan
(113),
excite,

sex (51.

ax.

[Cf.

Gr. Agi^,
t

whet;

Lat. ascia (?), Ger.
late addition).]

Axt (the

a

supply, fulfil. [Cf. whet, Ger. wetzen.~\
erlassen}. aldor, see ealdor.

Mod. Eng.
[Ger.

a-faeran (113), frighten, a-feallan (R. 109), fall.

terrify.

a-laetan (R. 110), give up.

a-fedan

(113), nourish, support. a-fierran (113), remove, banish, put away. [<feorr, by 16.] a-fiersian (118), drive away, banish.

a-l^cgean (115, note), deposit.
allow. (113), permit, leaf, leave; Ger. erlauben.~\ [< a-liehtan (113), illuminate, give
light
to.

a-liefan

a-flieman (113), put
pel.

to flight, ex-

[< leoht

;

Ger.

er-

leuchten.]

a-gaelan (-gelan) (113), neglect. agan (127), own, possess, have. [Cf. Mod. Eng. ought, and see Schmidt's Shakespeare Lexicon, s.v. owe, 2.]

a-llesan (-lesan)
[Ger. erlosen.']

(113),

deliver.

a-gan

(141), depart. a-geaii, back. [< ongean. Distinguish the meaning of this

a-liesend (43. 6), redeemer. an (79), one, a, a single, alone; wk. ana, alone; on an, anon, at once ; anra gehwilc, every
one.

and
and-

[Ger. ein.~] (Qnd), and.
(142).

word from that of baecling. ] agen (57. 3), own. [Past part,

of

agan Ger. eigen.~\ agend (43. 6), owner,
;

aiid-giet (-git) (47), sense, meaning, understanding. [Cf. gie-

possessor.

tan.J

276

VOCABULARY.

and-gietfullice (76), clearly, in- ar (47), copper. [See ser, copper ; Mod. Eng. ore.] telligibly. live- a-raJcean and-lang (qndlang) (58), (114), reach. [Ger.
long. long, whole, all [Cf. Ger. entlang and the Chaucerian
. . .

erreichen. ]
a-ra'fiiiaii (118), endure, stand.

endelong (Knight's Tale 1820).] a-raeran (113), lift. [Cf. Mod. an(d)-licnes (51. 5), image. [Cf. Eng. rear.] Mod. Eng. likeness, Ger. Gleich- a-readian (118), redden, blush.
niss, for (ge^leichniss.]

and-lifan

(51. b), sustenance.
ojid-

[Cf. Ger. errothen.] a-r^ccean (114; 164.

b),

relate,

and-swarian (qndswarian,
sweorian) (118), answer.

narrate, say.

and-swaru (gndswaru)
answer.

(51. a),

a-redian (118), find, choose. a-retan (113), gladden.
ar-faest (58, 146), gracious, Zor,ing ; glorious; often translates

and-weard (58, 146) and-weardan (Qnd-)
swer.

,

present

.

(113), an-

and-wlita

(53), countenance, face; also in the sense of angry coun'

Lat. pius. [See ar, honor.] ar-faestnes (51. 5), kindness ; compassion.

ar-ge-bland (-blgnd) (47), mingling of oars, oar-disturbed or oar-blending sea. [Cf., in Richard Garnett's The Mermaid of Padstow, the line, By the skirt of the oared sea.']
'

tenance,' 'anger,' Lat. vultus. [Cf. Ger. Antlitz.]

and-wyrdan

(113), answer.

[Cf.

Ger. antworten.~] an-feald (58), plain, simple. Ger. Einfalt, einfdltig.]

[Cf.

a-risjui

(I.

102), arise.
i.e.

angel

(43. 4), hook.

[Mod. Eng.

arodlice, immediately, forthwith.

angle, Ger. Angel.]

ar-wela

(53), oar-riches,
(59,

sea.

an-ginn (ongin)
an-grislic
[Cf.

(47), beginning ; vehemence, impetuosity, violence.
(58),
fierce,

ar-wierfte

146),

venerable.

raging.

Mod. Eng.

grisly.]

[Cf. Ger. ehrwurdig.] ar-wierfrnes (51. 5), reverence. ar-yS (51. 6), oar-billow, wave.
1

an-Hc

(on-) (58), like, similar.
5), oneness, unity.

anlicnes, see andlicnes.

a-sceadan (R. 110), divide. ascian (axian) (118; 159. b
ask.

;

32),

an-nes (51. an-riednes
an-sien
stance.

[Ger.

heischen,

properly

(51. 5), boldness, confidence, assurance. (51. &),

eischen. ]

a-s^cgean (123), say,

relate.

countenance.
material,

a-s^ndan
sub-

(113), send.
ass.

an-timber

(47),

a-s^ttan (113), place, deposit.

assa (53),
(43) power, rule, juris,

an-weald
diction.

a-sta'iiaii

(113),

adorn,

set.

[Ger. Anwalt.]

ar ar

(43), messenger.
(51. &),

16.] a-st^llan (114), establish.

[<stan, by

honor ; dignity,

station.

a-stigan ^(1.102), ascend, go aboard;
descend.

[Ger. Ehre.]

[Ger. ersteigen.]

VOCABULARY.
a-str^ccean (114) prostrate. [Cf. Mod. Eng. stretch.] a-styrian (118), touch. [Cf. Mod. Eng. stir.]
,

277
(43,

baeft-weg
bath-road.

215),

bath-way,

baldor, see bealdor.

ban
bana

(47, 24), bone.

[Ger. Bein,

a-swebban
i.e. slay.

(115. a),

put

to sleep,

(Elfen^bein.]
(53),
slayer,

murderer.

[Mod. Eng. bane.] a-syndrian (118), separate, sever, divide. [Cf. Mod. Eng. sun- basnian (118), wait, bide one's
der.']

time.
(II. 103),

a-teon

draw;

inhale.

bat

(43), boat.

a-teorian (118),
a-ffc.nnaii

fail, give out.
direct.

baffian

(115. a}, apply,

[Cf. Ger. dehnen.]

a-ffindan

(III. 104, 62, 60), swell.

[Ger. baden.] be, near; concerning; according to; on. [See New Eng. Diet.
(118),
s.v. by.]
.

bathe.

affum

(43),

son-in-law.

[Ger.

be- (142) Eidam. ] acYn nd M;I M. see affindan. beacen (47, 24), portent ? standard? [Mod. Eng. beacon.] arouse. a-we,ccean (114), awaken,
[Ger. erwecken.]

beadu
move.
shift,

(51. a), battle,

war.
battle-plain,

a-w^cgean
transform.

(115. a),

beadu-rof

(58), valiant in war.

a-w$ndaii (113), change,

beadu-wang
beag

(43), field of battle.

a-w$ndednes
version.

(51. 5), translation,

(43), torque, armilla, bracelet, collar, crown. [Cf bugan, 103.]
.

a-wiergan

(113),

curse;

part., accursed.

past beald (24), bold. bealdor (baldor) [See beald.]

[Ger. bald.]
(43), ruler, king.

a-wiht (89. b), aught, a bit; almost as an adv., at all. [Mod. Eng.
aught.]

beam

(47, 38), son, child.
cf.

[Scotch
smite,

bairn;
(I. 102), clothe.
(I.

beran.]
109),
beat,

a-wreon
a-writan

beatan
[Cf.
do.
strike.

(R.

102),

write.

Ger. reissen, ritzen.]

a-wyrcean

(114),

perform,

[Ger. erwirken.] axiaii (32), see ascian.

be-beodan (II. 103), command, bid; commend. be-bugan (II. 103), encircle, encompass, surround; extend.

[Mod.

Eng.

dial, axe.]

be-byrgan
[<Lat.

(113), bury, inter.

be-clysan (113), enclose, shut up.
clilsus,

by

16.]

B.
baec, back.

bee-raiding

(51. 3), reading.
be-

be-cuman
back;

(IV. 105), come, befall,
[Ger.

baecling,
back.

on

baecling,

arrive,

attain, fall.

baeff (47. 4), bath.

[Ger. Bad.] baeff-stede (44, 147), gymnasium.

kommen.] be-cweftan (V.

106), say, declare.

[Mod. Eng. bequeathe.]

278

VOCABULARY.
[Ger. berg,
berg.]

be-daelan (113, 177), deprive.

and Mod. Eng.

(ice)-

b$dd

(47),

feed,

couch.

[Ger.

Belt.']

beorht
see

(58, 64, 21),

bright, fair,
is

beeodon,
be-fsestan
over.

began.
commit,
give

brilliant,

radiant,

(113),

[Mod. Eng. bright
metathesis (31).]

glorious. due to

be- fen (R. 110), embrace, grasp,

beorhte, brightly.

comprehend. be-foran, before.

beorhtnes

(51. 5), brightness.

be-gan
ply.

(141),

practise,

beorn man. pursue,

(43,

21),

warrior,

hero,

beor-scipe (44. 1; 143), banquet,

be-gang (43), circuit, compass. feast. be-gangan (R. 109), practise; ply. bera (53), bear. beran (IV. 105; 184. begen (79), both.
be-gietan (-gitan) (V. 106), acquire, obtain, reach.

be-gyrdan
-gurten.~\

(113), begird.
164. a),

[Ger.

a),bear, carry; beirende, productive (155. 6). be-reafiaii (118), despoil. [Mod. Eng. bereave, Ger. berauben.~]

be-scierian
;

(bi-scerian)

(116),

be-hatan (R. 110
ise.

prom-

withhold.

be-seon (V.
109), behold.
(59, 165), useful.

106, 101), look (often

be-healdan (R.
be-hefe
1

almost turn}. [Ger. besehen.~\ be-sittan (V. 106), sit in, hold.
[Ger. besitzen.~\

beh.3 (51. 6), sign, proof. be-hVgdig (57), shrewd,
cious.

saga-

be-sorgian (118, 142), grieve for, be concerned about; translates
Lat. dolere.
moisten.
[Ger. besorgen.~\
wet,

bejg (43), bellows. be-limpan (III. 104),
tain.

belong, per- be-stieman (-steman) (113),

be-lucan
enclose.

(II.

103), belock [Shak.],
102), conceal,
dis-

be-swican (I. 102), deceive. be-sw!cian (118), escape.
,

be-mlftan
guise.

(I.

adj., better.

ben

[Ger. -meiden.~\ (51. &), prayer, petition, en-

,

adv. (77), better.

be-taicean (114), assign.
be^tst (66), best.

treaty, supplication.

[See bena,
suppliant.

and

cf.

Mod. Eng.

boon.~\

bena

(53), petitioner,

be-tweoh, among. be-tweon, toward.
be-t\veonan, among ; betweonan him, towards one another.

[See ben.]

be-naeman

(113, 177), deprive, strip.

be-neofran, beneath.

be-tweox, among, between.
protect.

beod (43), table. be-tyrnan (113), revolve. beodan (II. 103), offer ; command. be-ff^ccean (114), cover,
[Ger. bieten.~\ beon, see wesan.
[Ger. bedecken.~\

be-waefan
hill,

(113),

clothe.

[See

beorg

(21,

24),

mountain.

wajfels.]

VOCABULARY.
be-wendan
be-windan
(113;
184.
6),

279

turn.

see \vesan.

[Ger. bewenden.~\ (III. 104), encompass.

blaec (57. 2), black.

[Ger. bewinden.'] be-wrecan (V. 106), (lit. beat around).

blaican (113), bleach, fade. [Mod. Eng. bleach.'] surround blaid (43), breath; abundance,
blessedness.
[Cf.

bibliotheca (Lat.), library.

blaest (43), flame.
await,

[Cf.

blawan.] blawan.]
[Cf.

bidan
wait.

(I.

102;

156.

Z)

blawan

(R. 109), blow. Ger. blahen, Lat. flare.~\
(118,

biddan

ask, request, implore,

(V. 106; 156. 6; 159. 6), beseech;

bletsiau
blod.]

33),

bless.

[<

biegan

[Ger. bitten.'] [Caus(113), 6010, bend. ative of bugan (103), from
pret.
sing.
,

bid; seek.

bletsung
1

(51. 3; 144; 33), bless-

ing, benediction. blewiS see blowan.
,

beag,

by 16

;

cf .

bllcan

(I.

102),

shine.

[Ger.

Ger. beugen.~]

-bleichen."]

biema
[Cf.

(53),

trumpet,

clarion.

bliunan

(III.

104), cease.
3. 5. 22.]

[See

Chaucer,

Nun's

Priest's

Spenser, F. Q.
bliss (51. b
;

34), joy.

[< bliffe.]
song
of

big-leofa (53, 20), food, nance. [Cf libban.] bile-wit (57), merciful. [See
. .

suste-

blisse-sang (43,
gladness.

147),
34),

New

blissian

(118,

rejoice.

Eng.
bill

Diet. s.v. bilewhit.]

(47),

broadsword, falchion.
104),
bind.

[< bliss.] bliffe (59, 24), blithe, merry, jovial, joyous,

[Ger.

bille.]

gladsome.
[Ger. [Ger.
[Cf.

bindan

(III.

[Ger.

binden.~\

bliffe (70) joyously. blod (47, 24), blood.
,

human,

within.

[Ger. binnen.']

Slut.]

bioff, see

wesan.
(43),

blSdig

(57. 3

;

146), bloody.

bi-rihte (-ryhte), beside.

blutig.~\

biseeop
iiri,

bishop.

[<

Lat.

episcopus,
cf.

Gr.

^rtV/coTros,

from

blostma (53), blossom. blowan, and Lat. flos.~\

upon, and <r/c^7TTo/ii, look; Ger. Bischof. Continental ca. A.D. 400.] "borrowing, biscerian, see bescierian.

blowan
bloom.

A

(R.

109,

24),

blossom,
cf.

[Mod. Eng. blow;

Ger. bliihen, Lat. florere.~\ boc (52, 24), book. [Ger. Buch.~]

bisgian (118),
[See bisig.]

occupy,

engross.
trouble.

boc-craeft (43, 147), literature.

Boc-laeden (47), Latin.
concern,

[< OE.

bisgu

(51.

a),

boc +
tate.

Lat. Latinus.']
(47,

[See bisig.] bisig (57), busy.

boc-land

147), freehold es-

bitan
ous.

(1.

102), bite. [Ger. beissenJ]
bitter,

bodian

(118), proclaim, preach.

biter (57),

baneful, grievcf.

[Ger. bitter ;

bitan,]

[Mod. Eng. bode.~\ bolca (53), gangway.

280
bold-wela
dise
(lit.

VOCABULARY.
(53, 215),

Eden, Para- brim-stream

(43,

147),

ocean-

house-wealth}.
1

stream, current.

bord

(47), shield.
(47. 4), shore, strand.

bringan

(114), bring, carry, take.

bord-staeS

[Cf. Ger. Gestade.]

[Ger. bringen.] brQiidstaefn, see brandstefn.
;

bosm
(cf.
1.

(43, 24), bosom, surface broffor (46. 1 24), brother. [Ger. Shakespeare, Tr. and Cress. Bruder.] 3. 112). brucan (II. 103; 156. e; 17), [Ger. Busen.]
(51.

bot

6),

repentance, amend-

hold, possess,
of.

enjoy,

make

use
Ger.

ment.

[Mod.

Eng.

brook,

brad

(58,

24),

broad,

spacious.

brauchen.]

[Ger. fcmY.]

bradnes briedan (113;
dilate,

[/ace. (51. 5), breadth, face, sur184.
&),

brun
ing

(58, 24), burnished, glisten;

dusky.

[Ger. braun

;

see

spread,

New Eng.
Brucke.]

Diet. s.v. broion.]

16

;

expand. Ger. breiten.]

[< brad, by brycg

(51. b; 24), bridge.

[Ger.

brand-stefn (brgnd-stsefn) (43), lofty-prowed (reading brantstefn; cf. heahstefn naca, Andr. 265, brante ceole, Andr.
273).

brytta (53), dispenser. Bryttas (43), plur., Britons. bufan, above. [< be -f ufaii.l bur (43, 24), dining-room; private apartment, boudoir, bower.

brant (58), high, lofty. breahtin (brehtm) (43;
beat, pulsation, stroke (of

[Mod. Eng.
21.

'bower.']

a),
.

burg

(52.

1;

24),

city.

[Mod.

Eng. borough, Ger. Burg.] wings) brecan (IV. 105), break; break burg-geat (47, 147), city-gate. cityaway, burst away, hurry, speed. burg-leode (44. 4 147)
; ,

[Ger. brechen.~]

people, citizens.

bregdan

(III. 104),

draw.

[Mod. burh-sittende

(61,

28),

city-

Eng. braid.]

dwellers, citizens.
(45, 20), leader,

breogo (brego)
king.

burh-weall

(43, 28), city-wall.

but an. prep. (24), without, outside
'
;

of, except, besides. [< be + brehtm, see breahtm. ui a ii but and cf. the Scotch see brim, breomo, breost (47, 24), breast. ben.'] Breoton (54,20), Britain; Briton. bu (a n, conj., except. brim (47, 20), billow, ocean, bycgean (114), buy.

deep.

byrd
(43),
i.e.

(51. &), birth, extraction.

brim-h^ngest
sea-horse,

name

Hengst, H^ngist, associated with
Horsa.~]
;

and

wave-steed, ship. [Cf. Ger. the OE. proper

byrig, see burg. byrne (53), hauberk, corslet, mailcoat.

byrn-hama

(-ho,ma) berk, corslet.
(51. b),

(53),

hau-

brim-staeff (47. 4 147), shore of the sea. [Cf. Ger. Gestade.]

by sen

example, illustra-

tion; suggestion.

VOCABULARY.
c.
cald, see ccald.
cirice
(53.
1),

281
church.
[Ger.
s.v.

Kirche ; see Phil. Soc. Diet.
church.'}
battle.

camp

(43), fight,

[Ger.

cirran, see cierran.
cist (51. 6), chest. [< Lat. cista, OE. orig. cest, then ciest (18),
cist.]

Karnpf.}

campiau
fight.

(118),

strive,

struggle,

[< camp.] camp-wig (co,mp-)
bat.

(47),

com- claine

carcern
career,

(47),

prison. [<Lat. of influence under

The Ger. word has come to its present meaning through the series
clean,

(57, 24), pure. Ger. klein.

[Mod. Eng.

aern.]

'pure,'
(44.
1),

'clean,'

'neat,'

'deli-

casere

emperor, Caesar.
21.

cate,' 'fine,' 'tiny,' 'small.']

[Lat. Ccesar.~\

ceald (cald)
[Ger.
kalt.~}

(58;

a),

cold.

clsennes (51. 5), chastity. cleofu (20), see clif.

ceaster (51. 4), city. [Lat. castra ; Mod. Eng. Chester, -caster, -cester.~}

cleopian (clypian) (118, 20), call. [Cf. our poetical clepe, yclept, andtfamZ. 1. 4. 19.]
clif
(47,

20),

cliff.

[Cf.

Ger.

ceaster- (ge)-waran
citizens.

(53),

plur.,

Klippe.']

ceder-beam
dar.

[<

(43), cedar-tree, Lat. cedrus beam.]

ce-

clifer-fete (59), claw-footed. clypian, see cleopian.

+

cnapa

(53), boy, lad.-

[Cf. Ger.

c$mpa

cene Mod. Eng.

(53), soldier. (59), valiant.
keen.~\

[<camp.]
[Ger. kuhn,

Knabe.~\

cneo (47. 3; 27), knee. Knie ; cf Lat. genu.~]
.

[Ger.

ceol (43), ship. ceorl (43, 24),

layman. [Mod. Eng. churl, Ger. Kerl ; cf. Chaucer, Knight's Tale 1601.] cnyssan (115. a), smite. ceosan (II. 103; 184. a; 37), collen-ferhff (-fyrh'S) (58), seek. choose, [Archaic Ger. spirited, elated. kiesen; cf. Chaucer, Knight's com, see cuman. Tale 737.] see campwig.

cneoris (like 51. 5), tribe, nation. cniht (43), young man, youth. [Ger. Knecht, Mod. Eng. knight.'}
in-

ciegan (113), call. ciele (44, 18), cold. [Mod. Eng. chill ; cf Ger. Kuhle.']
.

costnung
tion.

(51.

3;

144),
skill,

temptaclever-

craeft (43),

power;
trade,

ciepaii

(113),

sell.

[Cf.

Ger.

-kaufen.~\

cierran

(cirran) (113 18), turn; turn back. cild (50, 38, 24), child.

;

184.

a

;

occupation. [Mod. Eng. craft, Ger. Kraft.'] creopan (II. 103), creep, crawl.
art,

ness;

Crist (43) Christ.
,

[< Lat. Christform
irregular,

us.~}

cild-had

(43, 143), childhood.

cucu

(27

;

in this

cining, see cyning.

according to the declensions of

282
this

VOCABULARY.
book; see also cwic),
liv-

cynn

ing, live, alive. culter (43?), coulter.
culter.~\

(47), people.

kind;

tribe,

nation,

[<

Lat.

ou ma
guest.

(53),

stranger,
105), come.

visitant,

cumaii (IV.
kommen.~\

cyn-reu (47), generation. Cyrenisc (57), of Gyrene. Cyrenense, Gyrene. cyssan (113), kiss. [Ger. kiissen.']
cyffau (113, 30), announce, makt. known, show. [< cuff, by 16
Ger. -kunden.~] cyffffu (51. a ; 144), native land.
;

[Cf. Ger.

cuinbol (47), banner, standard. en ii nan (130), know, know how,
can.

cunniau

[Ger. kdnnen.~] 156. d), (118;

make
D.

trial of.

en's (58),

known, manifest; the deed (51. 1), deed, act; middaide, combination of cuff and onindeed, in fact. cnawen, Andr. 527, presents a daeg (43. 2 84), day. [Ger. 7 agr.] difficulty perhaps for cufre, daeg-candel (51. b 215), candle
; ;

adv.

[Cf. 130.]

cuffllce (70), certainly.

of day. daeges (74), by day.

cwaefr (pret.), see cweffan.

daeg-hwaemlice
by day.

cwealm

(70), daily,

day

(43), death.
.

[Mod. Eng.

qualm ; cf civilian.] dseg-red (47), dawn. cweart-ern (47), prison. [Per- dael(43; 78.4; 24), part; amount, haps modified from Lat. career, quantity, number. [Ger. TeilJ] under the influence of aern.] da'lan (113; 164. a), distribute, cwellan (114), kill. dispense, bestow. [Ger. teilen, cwen (51. 1 24), queen, princess. Mod. Eng. deal.'] cweffan (V. 106, 37), say, speak. dsel-leas (58; 155. a; 146), des[Cf. Mod. Eng. quoth.'} titute, devoid.
;

cwic

(57, 27), alive, living.

[See
'

dagung
dead

cucu.

Cf

.

Mod. Eng.
'

quick
1
']

(51. 3), dawn. (58, 24), dead. [Ger.

tot.']

cut to the quick. cwic-susl (51. 6), hell-torment (lit.
living torment}
.

and dead,'

deaff (43), death. [Ger. Tod.'] deaff-daBg (deoth-) (43. 2) death,

day.

cwide (44), remark. cwuc, see cwic. cymlice (70), finely, beautifully. cyne-helm (43), crown.
cynelic (57, 146), royal. cyne-rice (48, 145), kingdom.

dema (53) judge. deman (113, 90,
,

demn.
deofol

[Cf.

17), doom, conChaucer, KnighVs
devil,
;

Tale 1023.]

[<

(43, 24), Lat. diabolos

demon.

so Ger. Teu-

cyne-rof (58), royally brave.
cyne-setl (47), throne.

fel.-]

cyning
king.

(cining)

(43,

143,

24),

deop (58, 24), deep. deope (70), deeply.
K. T. 1782.

[Ger.

tief.']

[Cf. Chaucer,

[Ger. Konig.~\

VOCABULARY.
deoplic (57), profound.

283

dugan
[Ger.

deor

(128), avail. [GvT.tangen.~]

(47),

beast, animal.

Tier.]

duguff (dugo'S) (51. 6), host, band ; sustenance ; benefit. [Ger.
Tugend.~\

deor-cynn
animals.

(47),

kind (race) of

dun
,

deor-wierfre (59, 146), precious. deor-wurff (58, 146) precious.

dust (47),

(51. b), mountain, hill. dust. [Ger. Dunst.~\

dynnan

(115. a), clash.

dorian (116), harm, injure. Chaucer, K. T. 964.]
die (43), dike. dician (118, 90), ditch, dike.
diegeliies (51. 5), retreat.

[Cf.

dyre, see diere. dyrstig (57), rash, headstrong.
[Cf. durran, 132.] dyrstignes (51. 5), presumption,

temerity.

diere (dyre) (59), precious, valuable.

[Ger.

teiier.']

E.

diht (47), plan, design.
dictum.~\

[<Lat. ea
[Ger.

(52), river.

dohtor

(52.

2),

daughter.

Tochter.]

dom

(43, 17),
;

judgment; reputachoice, decision.

eac, also, likewise; eac swilce, also; swilce eac, also, moreover, as also, likewise ; swa eac, also. [Ger. auch. Mod. Eng. eke.']

tion, glory

ead-giefa

(-gifa) (53), bliss-giver,

domlice (70), gloriously. h appiness- giver. dom-weorffung (51. 3), honor. eadig (57. 3 146), happy, blessed. don (140), do ; make; put. [Ger. eadiglice (70), blissfully, in bliss. eadignes (51. 5), bliss. thun.~\ dream (43), joy, bliss. [Ger. cage (53. 2), eye. [Ger. Auge.~] Traum, Mod. Eng. dream, but eagor-stream (43), ocean-stream.
;

in different sense.]

dr^nc

(43), drink.

eag-ffyrel (47), window, <ffurh, by 16 and 29.]
;

[fryr-

eahta (78 dreorig^ (57), headlong ? melancholy ?
achtJ]

154. c

;

21), eight. [Ger.

drihten, see dryhten.

eala, 0.

drihtguma,
drincan

see

dryhtguma.
[Ger.

drine (drync) (43), drink.
(III. 104), drink.
1

ea-lad (51. ft), ocean-way. eald (65, 58, 21, 19, 17), old.

eald-feond

trinken.~]

drohtaS We. drygnes dryhten
lord.

(43),
(51. 5)

(mode,
,

way of}

(46. 3), ancient foe. eald-geniiflfla (53), ancient, inveterate enemy.

dry ness, dry land.
lordly,

(43. 4. c; 154. d), lord.

dryhtenlic

(57),

of the
re-

eald-h^ttend (43. 6), ancient enemy. ealdor (aldor) (43. 4) chief; king. ealdor (47), life.
,

ealdor-dom
(53),

dryht-guma

(driht-) tainer, vassal. drync, see drinc.

(43), primacy, supremacy, chief place. ealdor-duguSf (51. &), nobility,
leaders.

284
ealdor-mann

VOCABULARY.
(46), leader, head,

eaff-modnes

(51.

5),

humility,

prince, noble.

_

reverence.

ealdor-scipe (44. 1; 143), pri- Ebreas (54), plur., Hebrews. macy, supremacy, chief place. _ [<Lat. Hebrceus.] ea-liffende (61 or 43. 6 ?), ocean- Ebreisc (57, 146), Hebrew. ece (59), everlasting, eternal. traversing.
;

call (58, 35, 24), all, every; eall swa, just as, also ; ealne weg,

e^g

(51. &), edge.

ed- (142).

always;
pletely
;

mid

ealle (175), com-

ed-niwian
ed-wit

(118), renew.

afurh ealle, entirely.
all.

edre, see aedre.
(47),

ealles (71), in

abuse,
(57)

insolence.
twit.~\

eal-swa,

also, as.

[Ger.

also."]

[Cf.

wite, and Mod. Eng.
,

card (43), country. eardian (118), dwell.
earfoSllce
hard.
(70),
distressfully,
[Cf. Ger. Arbeit.']
difficult to

efen-eadig
erns,

co - blessed,

equally blessed.

[Among mod-

Bishop Ken seems most to have employed such compounds
as these.]

earfoflfnes (51. 5), hardship.

earfoff-rime (59),
ber.

num- efne (emne), behold ; just. $ft, again, once more ; afterward ;
back.

earg

(58), cowardly.
(58,

earm

21),

[Ger. arg.~] poor, wretched.
lowly.

[Ger. arm.']

^ft-hweorfan (III. 104), return. gesa (53), dread, fear, terror;
peril.

earmlic

(57),

humble,

[Related
(57),
ejjjesa.]

to

ON.

agi,

[Cf. Ger. drmlich.~\ earmlice (70), miserably.

from which Mod. Eng. awe.]
e^geslic

dreadful,

terrible.

earn

(43), eagle.
(51. 3), merit, desert. (75) from the east.
,

[See

earnung
eastan

eglan (113), plague, harass, [Mod. Eng. ail.']
(59), grievous, hateful.

afflict.

East-^ngle

(44.

4),

plur.,

East

[See

Angles, i.e. East Anglia. east-norfferne (59) northeast,

Egypta

(54), plur., Egyptians.

_ erly. Kastron

(53,

irregular), Easter.

eh tan (113), pursue. lcung (51. 3), delay, postponement.
le (44),
oil.

[Ger. Ostern.] east-sie (43 51. &), sea on the
;

[<Lat.

oleum.~]

east.

east-suff-dsel
quarter.

(43),

southeast

^llen (47), courage. e^llen-rof (58), strenuous in courage, of undaunted courage. elles (71), else. other. ] [$1-

eaffe (77), easily, unhesitatingly;

=

comp.

ieff, irreg.

eaS
a),

1

.

ejlor-fus
whither.

(58,
[$1-

30),

bound

else-

eaff-medu
eaff-mod

(51.

reverence;

=

other. ]
ele-

humility, kindness.

humble, lowly. eaff-modlice (70), humbly.
(58, 146),

elmesse, see aelmesse. elp (43), elephant. [<Lat.
phas. ]

VOCABULARY.
e>ffeodig
$1-

285

(57. 3), foreign.

[From

= other,
(52,

and ffeod,
but no

q.v.]

Dictionary .(1783) is the first authority given for the English

emne,

see efne.
visible

term Anglo-Saxon in
'
'

its appli-

emiiiht

um;

[< laut), equinox. cf. emne for efne.]
$nde ^ndian
e,ngel
(44), end.

efen-niht

cation to the tongue.] code, see gaii.

eorl (43), hero, man.
translated
'

[Not to be

[Ger. Ende.~] (118, 90), end.

earl

'

eornoste

(70),

in these texts.] sharply, vehe-

[<
ain

23; 10), angel. (43. Lat. angelus, Gr. 776X05.]

4;

mently. [Cf. Mod. nest, Ger. Ernst,,]

Eng. earaccord-

l^iigle (44. 4), the Angles, English. [Of the invaders of Brit-

eornostlice

(70),

then,

Bede says (Hist. Eccl. "Advenerant autem de

1.

15) tribus
:

ingly, thus. eorre, see ierre.

eorffe

(53.

1),

earth;

ground;

land. Germanise populis fortioribus, [Ger. Erde.~] id est, Saxonibus, Anglis, Jutis. eorfflic (57, 146), earthly. Porro de Anglis, hoc est, eorff-tiliff (51. b 147), agriculture. de ilia patria quse Angulus dici[Cf. Mod. Eng. tilth.'} et ab eo tempore usque eorff-waran (53), plur., dwellers tur, on earth. hodie manere desertus inter provincias Jutarum et Saxonum eorff-weall (43) rampart of earth,
.
.

.

;

,

perhibetur,

Angli, Mediterranei Angli, Merci, tota
progenies, id
quse
est,

Orientales

earthwork,

[weall

=

Lat. val-

lum ; one of the

oldest

Germanic

Nordanhymbrorum
illarum

words borrowed from Latin.]

gentium

ad

eower

(81, 83), your,

of you.

Boream Humbri fluminis inhabi- erbe(-), erfe(-), see ierfe(-). tant cseterique Anglorum populi est (51. 1 165 43 30), provision ; sunt orti." Cf. also the pun of consent, will. [Cf. unnan, sefestfull, and Ger. Gunst.'} Pope Gregory the Great (Hist. "Rursus ergo in- este (59, 165), bountiful. [Cf. Eccl. II. 1)
;
;

;

:

terrogavit,

quod esset vocabulum
est,
ille,

est.]

gentis illius.
*

Responsum quod Angli vocarentur. At
'
;

estlice (70), willingly.

[Cf. est.]

etan (V. 106),
eftel
(43.
4.

nam et angeliBene,' inquit cam habent faciem, et tales angelorum in cselis decet esse
coheredes.' "]

[Ger. essen.] a), country, native

eat.

land, home. eft el-rice (48) fatherland.
,

effel-weard (43), guardian of his
country.

[Note ^Cnglisc (57), English. that any term corresponding to 'Anglo-Saxon,' as the designation of a language, does not See the exist in Old English.
Phil.

F.
fsec

(47),

time,

period,

interval,

Soc.

Diet.

s.vv.

Anglo-

[Ger. Fach.~] feeder (43. 8 24), father.
space.
;

[Ger.

Saxon and English; Bailey's

Vater.~\

286

VOCABULARY.
farofr-lacende (61, 215), surgeswimming. [See lacan.] faroft-ridende (61, 215), surgeriding.

faege (59), fated, death-doomed. [Scotch fey, Ger. feige.~] faeger (57) fair, beautiful, agree,

able, lovely.

faegernes (51. 5), beauty. [Cf. Chaucer, Knight's Tale 240.] faegre (70 vowel long in poetry),
;

faroS-straet (51. -6; 215), surgestreet, street over the billows. Lat. strata. ] [strait

<

fairly.

faru
1

(51.

),

adventure.
109),
5),
fall.

fsegff (51. &), certain death(?)

Valla 11
j'alien..]

(R.
(57.

[Ger.

faMime
damsel.

(53),

virgin,

maiden,

fealu
(70),

faeringa
sudden.
fserlice
faest
fest,

suddenly,
suddenly.
stable.

on

a

translated
its

;

dusky (as often but perhaps rather

literal

signification), yellow
'

(70),

[Cf.
'

af aired, and Mod. Eng. /ear.]
(58),
fixed,

[Ger.
[Cf.

properly fast. ] faesten (47), fortification.

Mod. Eng.

fastness.']

faesten-geat (47), fortress-gate. faest-hafol (57; 155. d), tenacious, [hafol from the root of

Tennyson applies it, Geraint and Enid 829, And white sails but flying on the yellow sea Tennyson, in The Battle of Brunanburh, translates fealone flod by fallow flood'). [Cf. Ger. fahl, falb, and our 'fallow
(as
'
; '

deer.']

fea-sceaft (58),

destitute.

habban.
faestnung

j

feawe
fedan
port.

(58), plur., few.
(119, irreg.),/ec/i.

faestnes (51. 5), firmament.
(51. 3), hold, stay, sup-

f^ccean

(113), feed, nourish, sup-

port. faet (47. 4), utensil, implement.

[<fod-, by

16.]

fela (indecl. adj.; 154. a), much:;

fieted (57), beaten? ; faetedgold, numerous, many (things). feoh-ge-streon (47), riches. [See gold leaf? faeted-sinc (47), treasure of'plated gestreon, and Mod. Eng. fee.~\
articles 9

feohtan
embracing

(III.

104,

21),

fight.

faeftm

(43),

body ; expanse, surface. Eng. fathom.'} fag (58), gleaming, glittering. fan (58 but used as noun), foe, enemy. [Mod. Eng.^foe.] famig-heals (58), foamy-necked,
;

[Ger. fechten.'] arms; [Mod. feon (113), hate.

feond (143;
emy.

46. 3; 24), foe, en-

[Mod. Eng.

fiend,

Ger.

Feind; see feon.]
feore, see feorh.

feorh

(43, 47, 29), life, soul.
(51.

foamy -throated. [Cf. Ger. Hals.~\ faran (VI. 107 184. a), go.
;
1

feorh-nej*u

a),

sustenance.

[Cf. n^rian.]

faroS (fanrS) (43), shore; more feonniaii (118), take in, entertain. generally, as in the next three feor(r) (67; 35. a}, far, distant. words, it appears to mean surge [Mod. Eng. /?-.] (and so, possibly, p. 212, 1. 12). feorr, far, from (to} a distance.

VOCABULARY.
feorran (75), from afar, from of old. [Cf. Ger. /em.]
f eorfra (78) fourth. [Ger. vierte.] feower (78),/cmr. [Ger. vier.~]
,

287
(47,

flsesc

24),

/esft.

[Ger.

Fleisch. ]

flan (43), arrow. flax-fete (59), web-footed.

feower-tiene
fer-, see for-.

(78),

fourteen.

fleogan
fleon

(II.

103),
103),

fly.

[Ger.
[Ger.

[Ger. vierzehn.]

flieyen.~]
(II.
flee.

feran

(113),

go, journey.

[Cf.

Ger. fiihren.] ferhff (fyrlrS) (43, 47), mind.

flocc (43), company.

flod (43),^oo(Z.

[Ger.
(43), seeth-

ferian
carry.

(-ig(e)an)

(116),

ferry,

flod-wielm (-wylm)

feffa (53), troop.
felcFer

ing of the flood. flota (53), vessel (lit.fioat).
24),
icing,

(51.

b

;

ion.
'

[Ger. Feder,

pin- flowan (R. lQ9),flow. Mod. Eng. flyht (^, flight.
fnsest (43), breath.

feather.] fiellan (fyllan)

(113), /eZZ,
expedition,

[Ger. /aZZen, flerd (51. 1),

Mod. En

foda (53),/ood. fodor (47), fodder.

[Ger. Putter.']

cam- folc (47), /oZ&, people, nation.
[Ger. FoZ&.] folc-st^de (44), folkstead, battleground. folc-toga (53), leader of the people,

paign. [Ger. Fahrt; cf. faran.] fierding (51. 6), warfare. fierd-wic (fyrd-) plur., (47),

camp.
fierst (fyrst) (43), period, space,
interval.

commander,
;

[toga

< same

[Ger. 7<Ws.]
[Ger. funfte,

root as teon

fifta (78, 30), fifth.
1

Ger. Ilerzog, OE. h^retoga, and the meaning of Lat. dux. ]
cf.

folde (53), earth. figaS see feon. findan (III. 104), find, devise; folgian (118; 164. /),
,

attend,

folm (51. &), hand. [Cognate with Lat. palma.] firgen-stream (firigend-) (43), i.e. ocean- fern (R. 110), catch; reach forth. mountain-stream, stream. for (51. 6), journey.

encounter. [Ger. finden.] firas (43, 29), plur., men.

serve.

[Ger. folgen

;

cf fylgan.]
.

firmamentum
flsc

(Lat.), firmament.

for, see faran.

(43, 24), fish.

[Ger. Fisch,

for (166, 175, 4), for; before; of;

Lat. piscis. ]

on; in
143),
fisher (man}.

(Fr. selori).

fisc-cynn (47), sort offish.
fiscere
1

for- (142).

(44,

for-baernan (113), scorch, parch.
for-dilgian (118), destroy.
vertilgen.~]

[Ger. Fischer.'] fiscnoft (43), fishing.
lifter-fete (59), four-footed. fiftru (47), plur., wings.
feffer,

[Ger.

for-don (142), destroy.
[Cf.

[Shak.]

for-drlfan

and Ger.

Gefieder.

]

102), drive, impel. [Ger. vertreiben. ]
(I.

288
fore, before. fore- (142).

VOCABULARY.
for-liden (62) shipwrecked. [Past part, of for 11 San.] for-lidennes (51. 5), shipwreck.
,

fore-cuman (IV.

105), anticipate,

forestall, prevent.

forma
,

(60, 68, 78), first.

fore-cweden (62), aforesaid. fore-ge-gearwian (118) prepare.
fore-ge-scrifan (I. pre102), scribe. [Ger. vorschreiben ; Lat. scribo underlies both.] fore-seed (62), aforesaid. [Past part, of fores^cgean.] fore-sceawung (51. 3), providence. [Cf. Ger. Vorsehung.']

for-niman (IV. 105), waste, desolate, consume ; fornumen beoii,
perish, decay.

for-spildan (113), destroy. for-s\velgan (III. 104), devour. for-swigian (118), keep secret,,
conceal.

[Ger. verschweigen.~\

for-tredan (V. 106), tread down, tread under foot. [Ger. vertreten.~]

fore-s^ttan (113), close
vorsetzen.]

in.

[Ger.

for, forth.
(62),

fore-sprecen

aforesaid.
[Cf.

for-ffam, because, for this reason,
therefore. for-ftam-iffe, because.

[Past part, of foresprecan.]

fore-tynan (113), cut tun, and 16.]
for-giefan
grant.

off.

for-SPan, wherefore.
18),
;

(V.

106,

give,

forff-a-teon
forth.

(II.

103),

bring

[See

giefan

Ger.

vergebenJ]

for-gieldan (-gildan)

104; 24; 18; 164. h), requite, recom[Ger. verpense; pay, give.
(III.
gelten.~\

forff-bringan (114), bring forth. forff-faran (VI. 107), pass away, depart; forfffaren, deceased,
dead. [Ger. fortfahren.~\ forff-for (51. 6), departure.

for-gietan (V. 106, 18), forget.
[Ger. vergessen.']

forft-ge-leoran (113), pass away,
die.

for-grindan

(III.

104),
.

wear out forff-laestan

(-lestan) (113), con-

(like Lat. conterere}

tinue, supply.

forht (58), afraid, terrified. forhtlan (118), tremble. for hwon, why. for hwy, why. for-ierman (113), ruin, reduce
poverty. [< earm, by 16 Ger. verarmen.~]
;

for-9"on (-8fe),/or, because; therefore; wherefore. forfr-teon (II. 103), perform, repto
cf.

resent, exhibit; bring forth. forft'-weard, advanced.

for-wandian

(118), reverence; hesitate; for\vandlende, deferential, diffident.

for-lsetan
let

(R.

110),

let,

allow;

go; lay down; leave, leave for-weorffan (III. 104), perish. abandon, forsake; lose. for-wiernan (113 156. j), refuse, off;
;

[Ger. verlassen.~\

deny.

for-leosan

(II.

Mod. Eng.
lieren.~]

forlorn,

103), lose. [Cf. and Ger. ver-

for-witan (126), know in advance,

for-wyrcean (114)
verwirken. ]

,

forfeit.

[Ger.

VOCABULARY.
fot (46), foot.
[Ger. Fuss.'] fracoff (57, 165), odious, abomifriff

289
support,

(47), countenance,

aid,

protection.

[Cf.

freoftu,

and Mod. Eng. Frederick).J nable. [<*fra-cuff, cf. Mayfrod (58), old. hew, OE. Phon. 160.] frofor (51. &), comfort, consolafrsegn, see frignan. fraetwa (-we) (51. a), plur., ortion; sustenance. naments. frQmlice, see framlice. fruina (53), beginning, first. fraetwiaii (118), adorn, bedeck.
fraet\vung (51. 3), array. fram, from ; by ; of ;

frum-gar

(43), primipile, captain,

from

chief.

[Cf.

fruma.]
(51.
6),

among.

frum-sceaft
(141),

creation.

fram-gau
framlice
bravely.

make headway.
promptly,

[Cf.

frama.]
(51, 144), creation. [Cf.

(fro,m-) (70),

frymff (u)

frea (53), lord. frecne (59), perilous,
direful, terrible.

fruma, and 16.] fugol (43. 4), bird. [Ger. Vogel, Mod. Eng. fowl.'] fearful, fugol-cynn (47), kind of birds.

frecne

(70),

lessly, valiantly.
;

frecnes (51. 5 frefran (115. 6), comfort, cheer. full (5%), full. [Ger. voll.] frejnde (59) foreign, alien. [Ger. ful(l), adv., full. fremd. ] full-fr^mman (115. a; 117), ish. freeman (115. a; 117; 164. e),
,

daunt- ful (58), vile, foul. [Ger. faul; more remotely related are Lat. pus, puteo.~\ 144), danger, peril.
fearlessly,

fin-

benefit,

profit.

[Cf. the

fram

fultum
t'u it
11

(43), help, aid, assistance,
ii

(16) in

framgan.]
b),

support.
in in

freo

(irreg. plur. frige), free.

(118, 90), assist.
first (lit.

freod
ness.

(51.

good-will,

kind-

furffra (67),
i'u riV
ii

former).

in. even,'

whatever.

freolice (70), freely.
lich. ]

[Ger. frei-

fas

(58, 30), ready.

fylgan (113), follow. [Cf. folgfreond (46. 3), friend. ian, and Ger. folgen. ] [Ger. Goth, frijonds, pres. fyllan (113), fill. [< full, by 16; Freund,
part,

of

frijon,
(44. 1

to

love

;

cf.

feond.] freond-scipe
ship.

Ger. fullen.~\ fyllan, see fiellan.

;

143) friend,

[Cf. Ger. Freundschaft, with a different ending.]
;

fyllu (61. a), fill, feast. fyr(47),j^re. [Ger. Feuer.']

fyrdwic, see fierdwic.
fyrhaf, see ferhlS
1

freorig (57

174.

d)

,

cold,

be-

.

numbed.
freoffu (freo'So) (51. a), defense.
[Ger. Friede.] frige, see freo.

fyrmest

(78. 1

;

69),

first.

fyr-spearca (53), spark.
fyrst, see fierst.

frignan

(III. 104), ask, inquire.

fysan (113 [<fus.]

;

184.

b),

hasten.

290
G.

VOCABULARY.
in Shakespeare,

Temp.

1. 1,

and

gad (51. 6), goad. gaers (47, 31), herb, grass.
Gras<~\

elsewhere.] gearlic (57),
[Ger. [Ger. jahrlich.']

yearly,

annual.

gaful-raiden

(51. 5; 144), fare.
)
,

gagates gal nes

(

Lat.

jet.

gearu-franeol (gearoS^ncol) (57), ready-witted. [See geare, geffancol, ffancolniod.]

(51.

5),

lust,

lewdness.

gearwian
geare. ]

(118),

prepare.

[See

[Cf. Ger. Geil(heit).]

gan (141), go. [Ger. geken.~] geat (47. gang (gqng) (43), course ; circuit, ge-axian
revolution.

4; 18), gate.
(118),
learn, discover.

[See ascian.]

gangan
gar

(H. 109), go.

ge-bed
[Cf Mod.
.

(47,
;

142), prayer.

[Ger.

(43), spear, javelin.

Gebet

cf.

biddan.]

Eng. garlic.'] ge-beorg (47), defense, protecgar-ge-winn (47), battle of spears. tion; outlook (on). [See gewinn.] ge-beorscipe (44. 1), banquet, garsecg (43), ocean. [Seep. 211, feast. [See beorscipe.] note 3.] ge-beran (IV. 105), bear. [See gast (43),
spirit,

ghost.

[Ger.

beran.]

ge-bidan
gast-ge-hygd
mind.
gast-ge-ryiie (48, 215), secret of the soul, thought of the heart (?). [See geryne.] gat (52), goat. [Ger. Geiss.~\
(47), thought of the

(I.

102),

await, wait.

[See bldan.] ge-biddan (V. 106), pray.

[See

ge ge
.

(18).
. . .

biddan.] ge-biegan (113), bend, curve. [See biegan.] ge-bierhtan (113), grow bright, shine. [<beorht, by 16.]
ge-bilod (57), billed. ge-biagian (-bysgian) (118), fatigue, weary, exhaust. [See
bisig.]

and, ge
and.

.

.

.

ge

(202), both

.

.

ge-_(142).

ge-aemetgian (118),
engage.
.]

release, dis-

[Cf.

aJmetta,

aim- ge-bland (-blqnd) (47), mingling,
mixture, confusion.

ge-agniau (118),
take possession

inherit, occupy,
of.

ge-blandan (-blgndan)
mingle.

(II.

110),

[See ag-

nian.]

ge-bledsian, see gebletsian.
(58), present.

ge-and-weard

[See

ge-bleod

(58), hued, colored.

andwcard

.

]

ge-and-weardan (-Qml-) (113), answer. bless. ] [Sec andweardan.] gear (47, 18), year. [Ger. Jahr.~\ ge-blissian
geara, formerly, of yore. geare (70), well. [See yare(ly}

ge-bletsian (-bledsian) (118), bless. [See New Eng. Diet. s.v.

make joyful; gcblissod wesan, joy,
(118),
rejoice,

[See blissian.]

VOCABULARY.
geblQnd(au), see gebland(an).

291

ge-blowan bio wan.]
brecan.]

(R. 109), blow.

gedyrsian, see gediersian. [See ge-eacnian (118), increase, augment.

[< eac.]
merit.

ge-brec (47), uproar, din.

[Cf. ge-earnian (118), earnung.]

[See [See

ge-bringan
convey.

(114),

waft,

carry,

ge-ed-niwian. (118), renew.

[See bringan.] ge-bycgean (114), buy; redeem.
[See bycgean.] ge-byrd (51. 6), birth,
extraction,

edniwian. ]

ge-^nde-byrdan

(113), order, ar-

lineage. [Ger. Geburt; ge-^ndung (51. 3), end, close. byrd.] ge-faestnian (118), fasten, congebysgian, see gebisgian. select. firm, establish. ge-ceosan (II. 103), choose, call. [Seeciegan.] ge-faran (VI. 107), experience, ge-ciegan (113), suffer. [See faran, and 142, ge-cierran (113, 18), turn ; return.
;

range. ge-e_ndian (118), end, come to an see end. [< $nde see ejndian.]

[See cierran.]

ge-(2).]

ge-cneordnes

(51. 5), accomplish-

ge-fea (53), pleasure, joy, delight,
gladness.

ment. ge-cost (58; 174. d),

ge-feallan (R. 109), fall, chance. ge-cweman (113), please. [See feallan.] ge-cweme (59), pleasing, accept- ge-feoht (47), battle. able. ge-feohtan (III. 104), fight. [See feohtan. ] ge-cwemlice (70), acceptably,
tried, trusty.

ge-feon (V. 106; 156. c; 29), reagreeably. joice. ge-cweffan (V. 106), say, speak. ge-feormian (118), take in, enter[See cweffan.] tain. ge-cyffan(113 164. b), announce; [See feormian.] dis- ge-fera (53, 142), companion, felprove, evince, show, exhibit,
;

play ; designate. [See cyffan.] ge-daelan (113), divide, separate. [See daelan.]

low.

geferan (113), undertake,
ence.

experi-

[See feran.]

ge-dafenian (118
ge-dafenlic (57),

;

164.

Ar)

be.nt

-

ge-fe_rian (116), ferry, carry, bear.

fitting, suitable.
toil.

ge-deorf (47), labor,

see dician.] ge-dlersian (-dyrsian) (118, 90), exalt, magnify, celebrate. [<

[See f^rian.] ge-fer-rseden (51. 5; 144), company, fellowship, society. ge-fer-sclpe (44. 1; 143), attendance, companionship ; retinue. geflieman (-flseman) (113), put to
flight.

dlere.]

ge-don

(140), do,

perform; make.
disturb, agitate,

ge-flit (47), strife, dispute.

[Cf.

[See don.]

ge-drefan (113),
trouble.

Ger. Fleiss.~\ ge-fraetwian (118), adorn.
1'rcetwiau.j

[See

[Cf. Ger. triiben.]

292

VOCABULARY.
ge-h^rian (116),
glorify.

ge-frefran (115. o), console, cheer. [See frefran.]

[See

ge-fr^mman
fr^mman.]

(115. a), effect, per-

ge-hieran (113), hear.
an.]

[See hler-

form, work, perpetrate.

[See

ge-fultumian (118), [See fultumian.]

assist, help.

ge-hlersum (57, 146), obedient. ge-hiersumian (118; 164. /),
obey.

ge-fyllan (113, 156), fill; end, Jin- ge-hlersumnes (51. 5), obedience, ish, accomplish. [See fyllan.] ge-hladan (VI. 107), lade, load, ge-fyrn, adv., a long time ago. freight.

ge-gada
ion.

(53), associate,

compan- ge-hogian (118), consider, have
in mind.

ge-gaderian (118), gather.

ge-hrman
ge-hu,
hu.]

(I.

102), attack.

ge-gaderung
together,
tion.

(51.

3),

assembly,

gathering congregaobtain.

in every direction.
(89.
c

[See

ge-hwa
(one).

;

154.

6),

each

ge-gan (141), go; win,

[See gan.] ge-gearcian (118), prepare.

[Cf.

geare.]

ge-gearwian (118), prepare. [See gearwian, and cf. gegier\van.] ge-hyhtan ge-gierela (53), garment; rai[< hyht.]
ment, apparel. ge-gierwan (-gyrwan)
prepare.
[Cf.

[See hwa.] ge-hwilc (-hwylc) (89. a; 154.5), each (owe), every (one) ; anra gehwilc, every (one). [See hwilc.]
(113),

hope,

trust.

(113),

ge-hyran, see gehieran. ge-innian (118), give,
(on}.

bestow

gegearwian.]
adorn.

ge-gl^ngan

(113),

[<

ge-in-seglian (118),
sigillum.~]

seal.

[<Lat.
seize.

ge-godian (\\%)

,

enrich.

[<god.] ge-laeccean
[Cf. Shak.,

(114),

catch,
4. 3.

ge-gr^mman

(115. a), irritate, en-

Macb.

195.]

ge-lsedan (113), bring, carry. rage. [See grejnian.] ge-gretan (113), greet, salute. [See laJdan.] ge-gyrwan, see gegierwan. ge-lfcered (62), taught, educated, ge-hal (58), whole, intact. [See trained, skilled, skilful. [Past
hal.]
part, of laJran.]
by, assist.

ge-halgian (118), hallow. [<ha- ge-lsestan (113), stand
Hg-]

ge-hatan
pledge

promise, 110), [See hataii .] ge-healdan (R. 109), observe, keep; reserve; maintain, sus(R.
;

[See laestan.] ge-laffian (118),
laffian.]

invite.

[See

call.

ge-leafa (53), faith.
laube.~]

[Ger. G(e~)-

[See healdan.] ge-heawan (R. 109), cut down, slay. [See heawan.]

tain.

ge-leornian (118), learn. leornian.] ge-l^ttan (113), hinder.

[See
[Ger.

VOCABULARY.
-letzen ; cf. Shak., Haml. 1. 4. 85, ge-miltsiend (43. 6), pitier. and (Auth. Vers.) Rom. 1. 13.] gemQiig, see gemang. lie (58, 163), like. ge [< lie, ge-munan (134), remember,

293

be

body ; ge-lica (53),

cf.

Ger.

gleich.~\

mindful.

like,

equal.

ge-llce (70), similarly, likewise. ge-licgan (V. 106), border. [See

ge-myndig (57), mindful. ge-myngian (118), recount,
late.

re-

licgan.] ge-licnes (51. 5), likeness.
Grleichniss.~\

gena, see giena [Ger. ge-nacodian (118, [< nacod.]

162),

strip.

ge-liefan (113; 156. gy, believe. [Ger. g (e)lauben.~\
ge-lif-faestan (113), make alive, endow with life. [See lif.]

gen-cwide
cwide.]

(44, 28), reply.

[See
.

ge-neahhe
draw

(70), often, frequently

ge-nea-laican
nigh.

ge-limp
tune.

(47), adventure, misfor-

(113), approach, [See nealaican.] (115. &), name. [See

ge-limpan
befall.

(III.

104),

happen,

ge-neosian (118), visit. [See neosian.] ge-limplic (57), adapted. ge-n^rian (116), save. ge-logian (118), place, set. ge-niman (IV. 105), take, seize. ge-lomllce (70), frequently. luflove. [See niiiian. [See ge-luflan (118), ge-nyhtsum (57, 146), abundant. ian.]
]

desire. [See lystan, and Ger. geliisten.~] ge-maca (53) mate, companion. ge-maeccea (53), mate, consort,

ge-lystan (113, 190),
,

[Cf. niigaii (136), Ger. genugen,

and Mod. Eng. enough.]

ge-nyhtsumian
of use.

164. e), (118; be sufficient for, be avail, suffice,

spouse.

ge-maine (59), common, universal. geofon (47), ocean. geoguff (51. b; 18), youth. gemainelice (70) in common.
,

[Ger.

ge-maire

(48), boundary, end.

Jugend. ]

ge-mang
phalanx.

(-mo,ng)

(47),

troop,

geomor-mod
minded.

(58, 18), sorrowful[Cf. Ger. Jammer.~\

ge-manig-fieldan (113), multiply.

geond

(18),

along,
over.

through,
[Cf.

ge-m^ngan
associate.

(113

;

184. 6), mingle,

throughout,

Mod.

Eng. beyond.~\

ge-meotu, see gemet. geong (58, 65, 18), young. [Ger. ge-met (47, 20), boundary ; sort; Jung.'] ge-openian (118), open. [< open effect; law.
;

ge-metan
[See

(113), find, encounter.
33), on.

me tan.]
;

ge-miltsian (118; 164. g have pity, compassion

Ger. offnen.~\ georn (58; 155. e [See giernan.]
cf.

;

21. &), eager.

georne

(70),

surely,

certainly

[< milts.]

[Ger. gern.~\

294

VOCABULARY.

georn-full (58), busied, occupied.

ge-scierpan (113), clothe, apparel. georu-fulnes (51. 5), piety, zeal. ge-scierpla (-scirpla) (53), raigeornlice (70), assiduously, zealment, apparel. ously. ge-screpe (59), suitable, adapted.

georran (III. 104), rattle. geotan (II. 103), stream.
giessen.~\

[Ger.
is,

ge-scrifen (62), prescribed, fixed, regular, customary. [Past part.,
of gescrifan

< Lat.

scribo.~\

ge-rsedan (113), read ; gersed
reads.
[Cf.

ge-scrydan

(113, 16), clothe.

[See

scry dan.] ge-scyldan, see gescieldan. rsedan.] ge-r^ccean (114), interpret, ex- ge-secean (114), visit, gain, touch^ attain. pound. [See re^ccean.] [See secean.] ge-renian (118, 28), adorn. ge-s^cgean (123), say; give ge-reord (47), repast. (thanks}. [See s^cgean.] ge-reordian (118, 90), feed, re- ge-s^llan (114), give. [See se_ll~
;

Ger. rathen

see

fresh.

an.]
rest, re-

ge-rejstan (113; 184. 6), pose. [< rst.]
ate, cheer.

ge-s^ndan

(113),

send,

throw.

[See sejidan.]

ge-retaii (113), refresh, invigor-

ge-seon (V. 106), see; gesegen
is,

[<

rot, glad.~\

seems, Lat. videtur.
(51. 5), institute, or-

ge-riht (47), direct way.
riht.]

[See

ge-setennes
dinance.

ge-rlm-craeft
chronology.

(43)

,

arithmetic,
"

ge-ryne (48), mystery.

[<

run,

by

18.]

ge-s^tnes (51. 5), narrative. ge-s^ttan (113), set, place; occupy; appoint, settle; compose. [See s^ttan.]

ge-saegan (113), lay low. ge-sselan (113, 190), happen,
fall, chance.

ge-sewenlic (57),
be1

visible.

ge-sselig (57. 3), delightful. Ger. selig.~]

[Cf.

ge-samnian
gather.

(-SQmnian)

(118),

ge-siene (-syne) (59), visible. ge-sihS (51. 1), countenance. ge-sittan (V. 106), sit; possess, inherit. [See sittan.] ge-siS (43), companion. [Cf.
1

SI'S,

and Ger.

Gesinde.~\
strike.

110), separate. ge-sceaft (51. 6), creature, creation.

ge-sceadan (E.

ge-slean (VI. 107), smite,

[See slean.] ge-sniier\van (113), anoint.

ge-sceawian (118), sceawian. ]
fend, protect.
tection.

behold.

[See

ge-smyltan

(113,

17),
cf.

calm.

[< smolt,
ge-spann
ceed.

serene;

sniylte.]

ge-scieldan (-scyldan) (113), de- gesQitmian, see gesaninian.
[Cf. scield.]

ge-scieldnes (51. 5), defense, pro- ge-spowan

(47), clasp, network. (R. 109, 190), suc-

ge-scieppan

(VI. [See scieppan.]

107),

create.

ge-sprec (47) conversation. [Ger. Gesprach; cf. sprecan.]
,

VOCABULARY.
(VI. 107), assail. [See standan.] ge-staffelian (-staftolian) (118), establish, render steadfast; re-

295

ge-standan

ge-tael (47), reckoning.

ge-teon

(II.

103), bring

up; play.

[See teon.]

store.

ge-tiinbran (115. &), furnish, supply (lit. construct).

ge-staffolfaestian

(- steaftulf es-

tian) (118), establish, perform.

ge-trymman (115. [See trymman.]
ge-Uancol
erate.

),

fortify.

ge-stigan (I. 102), [See stigau.]
ge-stillan

ascend

to.

ge-ffanc (47), thought, mind.
(-"Sancul) (57), consid-

still, (113), pacify, [See stillan.] quiet; subside.

[See francolmod, gearo-

ffancol.]

ge-strangian

(118),

strengthen.

ge-freaht (47), counsel, advice.

[<

strang.]
(III. 104), sprinkle.

ge-ffeahteud
[Cf.

(43. 6), counsellor.

ge-stregdan
streouan.]

ge-streoii (47), profit, gain.

ge-S^ncean (114), remember. [See S^ncean.]
ge-ffraec (47), commingling, turbulence, tumult.

ge-streowian (118), strew. ge-sund (58), well. [Ger.
sund.~\

gevex,

ge-ffraJstan (113),

afflict.

ge-ffrean
ffrean.]

(113),

dismay.

[See
[See

ge-sw^ncan (113), torment, wear out. [See sw^ncan.]
ge-swejigan (113), swinge,

ge-ffreatian (118), rebuke.
ffreatian.] ge-ffring (47), throng, rush.

toss.

ge-s\veotolian (118), manifest; bewray, expose, discover. [< sweotol.]

ge-ffungen

(62),

excellent.

[<

fifeon, thrive.']

ge-sw^rian

(VI. [See sw^rian.] ge-swican (1. 102

107),
156. &)

swear.
cease

ge-<8r\vfcerian (118), agree.

concord, (51. 5), agreement. fail. ge-Sfyn (113), restrain. [See swican.] ge-swinc (47), toil, effort. [Cf. ge-ffyncean (114), seem, appear; geffuht is, seems. [See ffyncswincan.] undulage-swing (47), rolling, ean.]
; ,

ge-ffwairiies

;

tion.

[Cf.

swingan.]

ge-un-trumian
bilitate,

(118), enfeeble, de-

ge-syndig

(57. 3), fair, favoring,

propitious.

[<gesund, by
sin.

16.]

gesyne, see geslene.

prostrate; geuntruinod, sick, Lat. injirmus. [< untrum.] ge-waigan (113), plague, molest.

ge-syngian (118),
full.]

[Cf.

syn- ge-\vtetan (113), wet, moisten.

getacnian

(118), signify, indicate.
(51.

ge-wealc ge-weald
minion.

(47), welter. (47), control, rule, do[Ger. Gewalt; see

[See taciiian.]

ge-tacnung

3),

sign.

[<

tacen.] ge-tiecean (114) point out, direct ; appoint ; teach. [See taicean.]
,

wealdend.] ge-wejndan (113), turn; return,
depart,

go;

translate.

[See

w^ndan.]

296
ge-weorc
weorc.]
(47),

VOCABULARY.
work.
[See

giernan (113), desire; solicit (the hand of), woo. [<georn, by
16.]

ge-weorp
be
;

(47), smiting.
(III.

ge-weorffan

104),

become,
convert.

make ;

happen ;
(118),

[See weorftan.]

giest-hus (47), inn. [Cf. Mod. Eng. guest-chamber.'] giestran-daeg (gystran-) (43),
yesterday.

ge-weorftian

distinguish.

[See weorfrian.]

giet

(git,

gyt), yet; still; as yet,

hitherto. ge-wieldan (113), rule, have dominion over. [<geweald, by gif, if. [Not related to giefan.] 16; see Mod. Eng. wield.] gifeffe, see giefeffe. ge-wiht (47), weight. [Ger. Ge- gifu, see giefu. wicht.~] gim-cynn (47), gems of every kind. ge-wilnian (118; 156. a), desire.

[See wilnian.]

gimm
[See winnaii.] enemy. [See
laborious,
openly,

(43), gem, precious stone.

ge-winn

(47), labor, toil; hard(53),

[Borrowed from Lat. gemma before ca. 650.]

ship, distress.

ge-winna winnan.]

ginn (58), spacious, ample. gingra (65, 53), disciple.
gio, formerly, long ago, once upon

ge-winnfullic
ge-wislice
plainly.

(57),

toilsome, fatiguing.
(70,

a time.

[See Iu.]

76),

git, see giet.

glaes (47), glass.

ge-wissian (118), guide, direct. gleaw (58), prudent, wise. ge-witan (126), find out, learn. gleawlice (70), shrewdly, judi[See witan.] ciously, wisely. [lishment. ge-witan (I. 102; 184. a), depart, glejig (51. 6), adornment, embelgo. glldan (I. 102), glide. [Ger. ge-witt (47), understanding. gleiten.] writ ; god (58, 5, 4), good. ge-writ (47) writing, [Ger. gut.] letter ; document, instrument, god (47), prosperi ty ; plur., goods, will. good things, property; benefactions. ge-writan (I. 102), write.
,

ge-wuna

(53), custom, wont.

God

ge-vvunian (118), be wont, use;
dwell. [See wunian.] ge-wyrcean (114), make, [See wyrcean.]
build.

[Ger. Gott ; (43, 5, 4), God. according to Kluge, the Being
'

invoked.']

god-cund (bV), divine, [godhead. god-cundnes (51. 5), divinity,

giefan (gifan) (V. 106, 18),
[Ger. geben.~\

give.

godcundmiht
majesty.

(-inseht)

(51.

1),

giefeffe (gifefte) (48), chance. giefu (gifu) (51. a}, gift; boon.

[Divine Father. God-Faeder (43. 8), God-Father, god-spell (47), gospel.

gieman

(113; 156. /), rule over. giena (gena), yet.

god-w$bb
gold

(47), purple.

(47), gold.

VOCABULARY.
gold-freetwa
ornaments.
(51. a), plur.,

297

golden

had

(43), sex.
(57), bright, serene.

hador
leaf.

[Ger.

gold-hord
gQiig, see

(47), treasure.

heiter.~\

gold-leaf (47), gold

gang,
[Ger. grau.~\
a), enrage.

graig (58), gray.

hail (47), salvation; rescue, escape. [Ger. Heil.'] Ha'lend (43. 6), Saviour, Jesus.

gram
grene greot

(57), fierce, raging.

grejmman (115. gram, by 16.]

[<

[Ger. Heiland.] haeleS (43. 9), hero, man.
1

[Ger.

Held]
[Ger. grun.~] [Ger.

(59), green.

(47), dust; shingle.

htelu (51. a), salvation; rescue. hasrfest (43), harvest. [Ger.

Griess.~]

Herbst;
[Ger. gnissen.]

cf.

Lat.

carpere,

Gr.

gretan
leave

(113), greet, salute; take
of.
,

grewS
Eng.

1

see

growan.
[Mod.

hsern (51. 6), ocean. hfces (51. 6), order, direction,

com-

grindan

(III. 104), whirl.

mand.

[Cf.

Mod. Eng.

behest,

grind.']

Ger. Geheiss.~\
, .

haetu (51. a), heat, [hat, by 16.] grow. earth; bottom; sea haiffen (57. 3) heathen. [Cf Ger. Heide, and Mod. Eng. heath ; so (perhaps orig. shallow, shoal). Lat. paganus Mod. Eng. ground.] [Ger. Grund, pagus.] gryre-hwil (51. &), period of hal (58), whole, hale ; hal gedon,

growan (R. grund (43),

109)

,

<

terror.

save.

[Ger.

heil.~]

gurron, see georran. guma (53), man, hero. Eng. (bride) groom. ]
guff (51. b
;

halig(57. 3; 146),AoZy.

[<hal;

[Mod.

Ger. heilig.~\ halsiaii (118), conjure, implore,
entreat.

30), war. [Ger. -gund, in Hildegund, e.g.; cf. GondibertJ]

ham

[<

hal.]

(74, 24),

home.

[Ger. heim.]

guff-fana (53), gonfalon, stand- hand (51. \.^),hand. [Ger. Hand^} ard. [See Mod. Eng. gonfalon ; har (58), hoar(y}, gray. cf Ger. Fahne, Mod. Eng. vane.] hat (58) hot fervent. [Ger. heiss.~\ hatan (R. 110), call; command; guff-freca (53), warrior. hatte, is, was called. guff-riiic (43), warrior. [Ger. guff-sceorp (47), war-trappings. heissen; cf. archaic Eng. hight.~]
.

,

,

gyden
gylden

(51. b

;

17), goddess.

he

(81).

(146, 17), golden.

gystran-dseg, see giestran-daeg.
gyt, see giet.

hea, see heah. hea-clif (47), lofty

cliff.

hea-deor

(47),

high-deer.
if

[Cf.

Ger. Hochwild; without a prefix,

H.
habbaii
sess
;

OE. deor
'deer.']

rarely,

ever,

means
head. for

(121,
accept,
;

188),

have; pos- heafod
[Ger.

(47.

1,

6;
Lat.

23),

[Ger. haben

receive. keep ; cf. Lat. habere.~\

Haupt,

caput,

*cauput.~]

298
heafod-ge-rim
heads, poll.
(47),

VOCABULARY.
number by h^fig
;

(57), grievous, irksome.

(118), become worse.
(51. 5), burden. hehfto, see hiehffu.

heah

(hea) (65; 58. 1 17), high; great. [Ger. hoch.~] heah-cyning (43), high king.

helan (IV.
235
;

105),

conceal.

[Cf.

heah-ge-streon

(47), sumptuous,

Chaucer, Nun's Priest's Tale

superb treasure. [See gestreon.] heah-setl (hgeah-) (47), throne. heah-stefn (58), lofty -prowed.

hen (51. 6), helm (43),

Ger. hehlen.~] hell. [Ger. Hdlle.]

helmet;

protector.
[Cf. Ger.

healdan
haltenJ]

(R. 109), hold; observe,
[Ger.

maintain; keep, reserve.

[Ger. Helm.~\ help (51. 5; 5), help.
Hilfe.'}

healf (51. &), hand, i.e. side. healf (58), half. [Ger. halb.~] healic (57, 146), lofty. heall (51. b), hall. [Ger. Halle.'} heaii (58), lowly, servile, of low
degree; poor.

heo

(81).

heof (43), mourning, weeping. heofon (43. 4. d 30), heaven.
;

heofon-candel
dle of heaven.

(51. 6; 215), can-

heofon-cyning
height,

(43),

king

of

heanes
point.

(51.

5),

highest

heaven.

heanne,

heofone (53. 3), heaven. heofon-fyr (47), celestial fire, fire heap (43), crowd, swarm, throng, from heaven. heofon-leoma (53), radiance of assemblage. [Ger. Haufe.'}
see

heah.

heard

(58; 21. a; 24), brave, in-

heaven.

trepid.

[Ger.

hart.']

heofonlic
tial,

(57),

heavenly,

celes-

hearde(70), painfully, grievously.

of heaven.
,

hearm
hearpe

(43; 21. a), injury.
(53. 1

[Ger.

Harm.']
;

21. a), harp, lyre.

[Ger. Harfe.']

heofonlice (70) from heaven. heofon-rice (48), kingdom of heaven, heavenly kingdom. heofon- Ury (43), glory of

mm

heaven. hearpe-nsegl (43), plectrum. heolfrig (57), gory. hearpe-str^ng (43), harpstring. hearpian (118, 90), harp, play heolstor (47), darkness.
the harp.

[Ger. harfen.~\

heonan
heorte

(75), hence.
(53. 1
;

heaffu-liffend
seafarer.

(heaSo-)

(43. 6),

24

;

21. 6), heart.

[Ger. Herz.~]
(heafto-)
(43,

heaffu-rinc
warrior.

21),

her
h^re

(75, 24), here.

[Ger. her.]

her-aefter, hereafter.
(44.

heafru-waid

(51. &), warlike garmartial weed. ment, heawan (R. 109), hew, cleave.

2;

[Ger. Heer ;
bor, heriot.~}

18), army, host. cf . Mod. Eng. har-

hebban

(VI. 107), elevate, hejbban up, be exalted.

lift;

hefon, see heofon.

h^re-folc (47), army. here-paeff (he/paS) (43), highway. [Cf. Ger. Heerstrasse.'}

VOCABULARY.
h^re-reaf (47), plunder, spoil. h^re-striet (51. 6), highway, lit. Heerroad. military [Ger.
strasse.]

299

hlaest (47), plur., wares, merchandise,

cargo.

[Ger.

Last;

cf.

hladaii.]

h^re-waifta (53), warrior. h^rgian (118), harry, ravage, lay waste. [Ger. (ver}heeren.]

hlaf (43), bread; food. [Archaic Ger. Laib ; Mod. Eng. loaf.] hlaford (43), lord. [< hlaf +

weard.]
hlaford-leas (58), lordless, without a leader.

h^rian (116), praise.
he^riges, see h^re.

h^rpaU, see h^repaeff. het, see hatan.
hi (81),

hlaford-scipe
rule.

(44.

1),

lordship,

hider

(75), hither. hiehsta, see heah.

hi eh ft u
high.

(heh'So)
(113),
(51.

(51. a), height,

hlanc (58), lank, gaunt. hleo (47. 3), shelter; protector. [Mod. Eng. lee.] hleotan (II. 103), obtain, gain. [Cf. Ger. Loos, Mod. Eng. lot.]
hleoffor-cwide
story
;

hienan
hienS
1

insult,
16.]

oppress.

(44),

narrative,

[<hean, by
[<hean, by

hymn.
,

b),
16.]

injury,

harm. hleol5rian (118) speak ; proclaim.
hleoffu, see hliff. hlifiaii (118), tower.
hi

hieran (hyran) (113, 117), hear. hiera ? hiere (81, 83). hiernes (51. 5), obedience. higerof, see hygerof. hiht,*see hyht. hiium, see In \\ an.
hild
(51. 5)
,

human (hlymman)
resound.

(III. 104),

hliff (47, 20), hill.

hloAiaii (118), pillage, plunder.
lil

tide (70), loudly.
clear.

conflict, battle.

[Orig.

hlutor (hlutter) (57), pure,

Hild, goddess of war.] hilde-leofr (47), battle-lay.

hlymman,

see hi human

hilde-naedre (53. 1; 215), battleadder, arrow. [See New Eng.
Diet. s.v. adder.~\

hlynnan (115. a), roar, boom. hoc (43), hook. hof (47), building, dwelling, abode.

holm
1),
battle-

(43), ocean, sea.
(51.
),

hilde-waipen (47. weapon. him, hine, his, hit
hiii-gang
[Ger. Hingang.~\

holm-ffracu

tossing of the
the

sea, boisterous sea.
(81, 83).

holm-weard
sea.

(43),

warden of

(-io,ng) (43),

departure.
[Cf.

holm-weg
color.

hlw

(47),

kind;

Spenser, F. Q.

3. 6. 33,

35.]

(43), path of the ocean. holt (47), grove, forest. [Ger. Holz ; cf Chaucer, Prol. 6.]
.

hiwan

(53),

plur.

brethren,

holunga
horig

brotherhood, conventual household, chapter.

(70), in vain. (57), squalid.

horn-boga
1),

hl&fdige

(53.

lady.

[Cf. p.

222, note 2.]

(53), bow of horn. horn-fisc (43), sword-fish ? horn-scip (47), beaked ship.

300
hors
(47, 31), horse.

VOCABULARY.
[Ger. Boss.'] abuse.

hwaetlice

(70, 76)

,

quickly.

hosp (43?), reproach,
hraedlice (70)
diately.
,

hwaefter, whether.
hwaeflfre (-ere), yet,
theless.
still,

with speed ; imme-

never-

hraednes
Babe.']

(51. 5), celerity. hra'fii (hrefn) (43), raven.

hwanan (hwanon)
[Ger. hwafterian

(75),

whence

(118), rage.

hraiw

(47), corpse.

liraii (43),

whale.
(51.

hran-rad (hrgn-)
the whale.

bypath of

h\vealf (58), vaulted, hollow. hwelan (IV. 105), roar, thunder. hweol (47), wheel. [Cognate with Gr. /cikXos, Mod. Eng. cycle,
(bi}cycle.~]

hraffe (70), quickly. hrefn, see hraefn.

hvveorfan (hwyrfan)
return; turn; move.

(III. 104),

hremig (57; 174. d}, exulting. hreoh (58), rough, fierce, rude.
hreohnes (51. 5), tempest. hreosan (II. 103), fall. hreran (113), agitate, toss.
ruhrenJ]

hwe^ttan (113), incite. h\vider (75), whither.

hwil
[Ger.

(51.

6),
ffe,

h\vile
while.

while, time; fta the wliile that,

bring (43), ring. [Ger. hrof (43, 24), roof. hr^nrad, see hranrad.
hu, how.

Bing.~]

hwilc (hwylc) what; any.

(88; 89.

)>

which,

hwllum

(72),

sometimes ; a while.
cf .

[Mod. Eng. whilom ;
Knight's Tale 1.] hwon, somewhat, a

Chaucer,

hryflfer (47), plur., cattle.

little.

hund

(78, 79), hundred.

hwone,

see

hwa.
(hwsenne,

hund-seofontig (78), seventy. hund-teontig (78), a hundredfold).

hwonne

hwcenne),

hunger
hungrig
gered.

(43), famine, starvation.

when; until. hwylc, see hwilc. hwyrfan, see hweorfan.
hyge-rof
souled.
(hige-)
(58),

[Ger. Hunger.']
(57),

valiant-

hungry, an hun-

[Ger. hungrig.~]

hyge-ftancol

(57),

thoughtful-

minded. hup-seax (47), hip*dagger. bus (47), house. [Ger. Haus.~] hyhsta, see hiehsta. hwa (88; 89. c), who ; any one. hyht (hiht) (43) hope; joy, gladhwsel (43. 2), whale. [Cf. Ger. ness, bliss; bent. hyldu (hyldo) (51. a), kindness. Wall(fiscli).'}

hwael-me^re
whale-sea. hwsenne, see

(44),

whale-mere,

hyngran

hwonne.

[Cf. Ger. Huld.~] 190), hunger. (115. b hyran, see hieran.
;

hwaer

(75), where.
(89.

hyre, see hiere.

hwset, what.

hyrned-nejbb
b
;

(58,

17),

horny-

hwaet-hwega (-hwugu)
154. 6), something.

beaked.

hyrst

(51. 6),

ornament.

VOCABULARY.
I.

301

ic (81).

idel (57), empty, void, Lat. inanis (Auth. Vers. 'without form'). [Ger. eitel; cf. Shak., Oth. 1.3. * 140, deserts idle.']

ierre (59), wrathful. ierQ (51. &), field of corn, crop. ierftling (43, 143), plowman, hus1

bandman, farmer.
leS
1

,

see eafte.

idelnes
lence.

(51.

Ig-land (47), island. 5), idleness, indo- ilca (86), same. [Cf. Chaucer,
Prol. 64.]
in, prep., in; into; by ; through.
in, adv., in.

ides (51. 6), maid, nymph, woman. [From the Norse mythology we learn that this Germanic word
signified 'demi-goddess,' or per'
'

in-beran (IV. 105), carry in. in-gan (141), enter. female guardian-angel, haps in-gangan (R. 109), enter. it was apmaid as well as in-ge-bringan (114), bring in. to giantesses and Norns, innan, within. plied to heroic women, resembling the inne (69), within, inside. Valkyries, such as Brunhild and in-segel (47), seal. [Borrowed from Lat. sigillum, ca. A.D. Gudrun, and to goddesses, such 500 the form sigil is earlier, as Freyja. Cf. the remarks of
' ' ; ;

Tacitus, Germania 8: "They even believe that the sex has a

ca. 400.]

in-sittan (V. 106),
in- to, into.

sit

within.

certain sanctity
counsels, or

and prescience,
their
light of their

intinga (53), cause; account.
in-\veardlice (70), fervently, ardently.

and they do not despise

make

In Vespasian's days we saw Veleda, long regarded by many as a divinity."]
le,
'

answers.

see ea.

isern (47 isern (57), lu (see gio), of old, formerly.

lecan (yean) (113, 33), augment,
aggravate. [< eac.] ielde (selde) (44. 4), plur. men. ieldra, see eald. la, indeed, O. ieldu (51. a 19 17), age. [Mod. lac (47) present, gift. Eng.eW; see Chaucer, K. T. 158U.] lacan (R. 110), bound, leap, toss;
;
; ,

ielfete (53. 1), swan. ierfe (48), inheritance.

sail.

lad
land,

(51. &),

way, journey.

ierfe-land

(47), inheritance.

heritable

laece-craeft (43), remedy.

[Mod.

Eng.

leechcraft;
3. 3. 18.]

cf.

Spenser,

ierman (113), by 16.]
iermffu
see 144.]

afflict.

[< earm,
[<earm;
;

F. Q.

hcdaii (113), lead, bring, take;
carry ; produce.
[Ger.
leiten.~\

(51. a), poverty.

Laeden (47), Latin.
run
revolve.

ieriiaii (III. 104, 31),

heraii (113, 17), teach, direct.

ierre (eorre) (48), wrath.

ISring-maeden

(47) , pupil.

302
laes (51. b,

VOCABULARY.
but irregular
;

the ter-

lareow

(43),

teacher,

master

;

mination

-we

as

51. a), pasture.

learned man. [< lar -f ffeow.] beadu, [Archaic Mod. last (43), track, footprint. [Mod.
in

Eng.

leasow.~\

Eng.

last (for shoes)

,

Ger. Leist-

lies, lses(es)t, see lytel,

and

8"y-

6(n).]

latteowdom
laistan (113), carry out, perform, do. [Ger. leisten, Mod. Eng.
last.]

(43, 14), guidance. [Cf. the etymology of lareow.] laff (58), hostile; hateful.

laffian
ea, Lastingham (near

(118),

summon.

[Ger.

L&stinga
Whitby).

lead
let,

(47), lead.
(51.

l&tan (H.
lassen.]

110),

allow.

[Ger.
1

leaf

&),

leave,

[Ger. Lot.] permission.

laiffffu (51. a), affliction.

[<la8
lafe,

,

by
laf

16.]

[Ger. ( Ur}laub, (Er)laub(niss).] leaf (47), leaf. [Ger. Laub.] leahtor (43), sin, iniquity.

(51. &),
,

remnant; to

left.

lean

(43),

reward,

recompense.

lago- see lagu-.

lagu

(45), ocean, sea.

lagu-faesten (47), ocean, deep. lagu-flod (lago-) (43), sea-flood. lagu-lad (lago-) (51. &), oceanjourney.

[Ger. Lohn.] le,cgean (115, note), place, put, set. [From the second stem
(92)
legen,
of

licgan, by
lay.]

16;

Ger.

Mod. Eng.

l^nctenlic (57), vernal.
(43), ocean-stream.

lagu-stream

lam (43), dust (lit. loam). [Ger. Lehm ; more remotely cognate
(ablaut relation)dfcith Lat.
li-

lejncten-tid (51. 1), spring. [Cf. Ger. Lenz, Mod. Eng. Lent.]

lange. l^ngra, see lang.

le,ng, see

mus.]

l^ngu

lamb
land

(50), lamb.
(47, 24), land,

leo (Lat.),

(51. a), length. lion.

country; her leoda (leode) (44. 4), plur., people. [Ger. Leute.] lande, in this country. [Cf. [Ger. Land, and cf. hier zu leod-mearc (51. b), region. Mod. Eng. margrave, Marches, Lande.] land-buend (lond-) (43. 6), marquis.] leof (58, 64, 165), dear, welldweller in the land. beloved; sb. sir, master ; comp. land-ge-maire (48), border.

on

land-sceap (47), land. lang (58, 65), long. [Ger. lang.] lange (70, 77), long (of time).
;

dearer, preferable.

Mod. Eng.

lief, lieve ; cf.

[Ger. lieb, Spenser,

lang-sweored (57), long-necked. Matz- leofwejide (59), friendly ; leof[Cf. Koch, Gram. Ill: 71 we,ndum, ardently, fervently. ner, I. 470.]
lar
(51. 6), study; instruction, counsel, guidance. teaching; [Ger. Lehre, Mod. Eng. lore.]

F. Q. 3. 2. 33.] leofa, see libban.

leoht (47), leoht (58)
,

light.

[Ger. Licht.]
[Ger.

bright, radiant.

licht.]

VOCABULARY.
leoht-fruma (53) author of light ; for lifes leohtfruma cf. Jn. 8. 12, Acts 3. 15. [Cf. fruma.]
,

303

liss (51. 6), gentleness, tenderness;

(mid) lissum,
liffan
lifte
(1.

gently, tenderly. 102), set out ; sail, cruise.

leoma

(53),

light,

radiance,

brightness. leomu, see lim.

(59, 30), good, obliging, friendly; gentle, mild. [Ger. (ge)lind; cf. Spenser, VirgiVs

leornian (118), learn.
en.~\

[Ger. lern-

Gnat

221.]

liffe (70), gently.

leornung
1

(51. 3),

study.
verse.

[Mod. loc
[Ger.

Eng. learning.^ leoS (47), poetry,
Lied.~\ let, see la-Ian.

(47), lock. locen, see lucan.

locian (118), look.
lof (43), honor, praise; in lofe, praising. [Ger. Lob.~\

libban (122),
liegen.~\

live.

[Ger. leben.']
[Ger.

licgan (V. 106),

lie; rest.

loft (47), air, sky. l<?nd-, see land-,

lic-hama
shape,
nam.~\

(47), destruction; to lore weorffan, perish. (53), body, cover; cf. Ger. Leich- locan (II. 103), link? weave?

lor

[ham a

=

close ?
(58, 146), bodiless,

lie- ham-leas

incorporeal.

lufe (53. 1), love. [adore. lufian (118, 119), love; worship,

lufiend (43. 6), lover. lic-hamlic (57), bodily. 164. k), please. [Mod. lufiendlic (57), loving. lician(118 Eng. like; cf. Spenser, F. Q. luflice (70), dear. lufu (51. a; 53.3; 24), 2. 7. 27.]
;

love.

lid (47), vessel, craft, bark.
liffan.]

[Cf.

lungre, speedily.
lust (43), joy,
[Ger. Lust;
4. 4. 44.]
cf.

desire,

lid-weard (43), shipmaster. lid-werig (57), weary with voyaging.

longing. Spenser, F. Q.

lyfdon, see libban.

liefan (113), allow, permit. leaf; Ger. (er)lauben.~]

[<

lyft (47
cf
.

;

51. 6), air;
'

under
sun.'

lyfte,

our

under the

[Cf.

lieg (43), thunderbolt, levin. lieget (47. 7), lightning. llehting (51. 3), lighting, illumination.
lif (47),

Ger. Luft.']
loss. [Stem formed from that of the third stem of leosaii, lose, by 16.] lystan (113), list, like, cause enjoyment. [< lust, by 16 cf

lyre (44),

[< leoht, by
life.

16.]

[Ger. Leib.'] lifde, lifgende, see libban.
liflic (57),

;

.

Spenser, F. Q. 2. 7. 18, 19.] of life. [Ger. leiblich ; cf. Spenser, F. Q. 2. 7. 20.] lyt (58), (but) few. lim (47, 20), limb, bough, branch. lyt, adv., (but) little. lind (51. 6), linden shield, shield. lytel (57, 66), little; comp. less(er),

lind-wigend (-wiggend)
shield-warrior.

(43. 6),

smaller; superl.

least.

lyt-hwon

(58)

,

(but) few.

304
M.

VOCABULARY.
maere
(59),

renowned; splendid;

great.

ma (77), wore, further; rather. maerffu (51. a), achievement, ma-craeftig (57), very expert? famous exploit. [Cf maere.] in seamanship ? expert [In maesling (47), brass. favor of the latter may be quoted maesse-preost priest. (43),
.

Grimm's note in his edition of [inaesse < Lat. missa, mass ; Andreas und Elene, p. 103 preost < presbyter, from what Greek word ?] "257. macraftig, und nochmals A. 472 der comparativ macraft- maest (43), mast. daher es selbst unpassend msest, see micel. igra. aus dem comparativ ma, magis maeff (51. &), ability, capacity. gedeutet wiirde, der sonst nir- maefrel-hegende (meiSel-) (61), gends und in keinem andern speech-uttering, council-attend:

dialect bei

zusammensetzungen

ing.

verstarkt.

Auch

scheint

der

maew

(43), gull, sea-mew.

[Ger.

sinn etwas bestimmteres zu f ordern, ein des meeres, der schiffahrt kundig; ich vermute ein
altes

M'6we.~\

magan,

see

mugan.
(43) vassal, retainer.
,

magu-ffegn

subst.

ma, synonym und

man

wurzel von mere, macraftig
merecraftig."]

=

(89. e), one.

man-full

(58. 2), wicked, evil.

mangere

(44,

143),

merchant.

madm,

see

maffm.
girl,

[Mod. Eng. -monger.]

maecg, see mcg. inaeden (47, 38, 28),
damsel.

manian (118), admonish. maiden, manig (57), many.
manig-feald (58, 146), manifold. inann (mo,nn) (46, 35, 17), man.
[Ger.

maeg, see mugan.

maegen

(47. 1),

power, strength;

Mann;

cf.

Tacitus, Ger-

virtue ; force, band. [Eng. main. ] maegen 7 eacen (57), abundant in

mania, Ch.

II.,

and the proper

name Manu.]

might, powerful.

manna
kind.
(51. 5), glory,

(53;

cf. 53. 3),

man.

maegen-afrymm
esty.

(43), glory, maj-

mann-cynn (man-)
man-scyld
iniquity.
(-scild)

(47),

mansin,

maegen-ffrynmes
majesty.
1

(51. &),

maegQ
ince.
1

(51. 6), tribe, nation, prov-

niara, see micel.

marman-stan
(52), maid, maiden.

(43), marble.

maegS

[Ger.
virgin-

mafrm

(43), treasure, jewel.

Magd.~\

ineahte, see
(43,

mugan.
(lit.

maegfr-had
ity.

143),

meahtig, see mihtig.

m$cg
[Cf.

(meecg) (43), disciple
(51. 6),

maig-jvlite (44), appearance, aspect.

man).

andwlita.]

med

meed, reward.

[Cf.

maelan

(113), speak.

meorff.]

VOCABULARY.
med-micel (57), short. medome (meodume) (59),
least.

305
172.

little,

mid (168; mid ealle
Cleasby

1;

177),

with;
[Cf. Ice-

(175), completely.
(43), world.

middan-geard
(52),

medu-bnrg (medo)
city.

mead-

and Vigfusson's

[Cf. Ger. Met.]

medu-werig (inedo-) (bl}, meadweary, drunken*vrith mead.
mejiigu
ber.

(51.

),

company, numcf.

landic-English Dictionary, s.v. mift-garfir: "The earth (Mr5garS), the abode of men, is seated in the middle of the universe,

[Ger.

Menge ;

Spenser,

F. Q. 1. 12. 9.J iiKMinisc (57,

146),

human.
cf.

bordered by mountains and surrounded by the great sea on the other side of (lithaf)
;

[< maim,
Mensch.]

by

16

;

Ger.

this

meodume,
meorfr

see

medome.
&),

sea is the tft-garS (outyard), the abode of giants; the MrSgarS is defended by the

(51.

reward.

[Cf.

med.]

meotud
were,
tioner,'

(43),

creator.
'

the
'

Meter,'

'

[As it Appor-

Fixer of Bounds.'] meje (44), mere, sea. [Ger. Meer ; cf. Mod. Eng. mermaid.]

yard or burgh As-gar5 (the burgh of the gods), lying in the middle (the heaven being conceived as rising above the earth). Thus the earth and mankind are represented as a stronghold besieged by the powers of evil from without, defended by the gods

'

'

'

'

m^re-b^it (43), sea-boat, vessel. meje-faroQ (43), sea-waves (sea1

from above and from within."]
mid-9'am-9'e, when. mid-d'y, when, while. mid-iffy flfe, when, while. miht (51. 1), power, might. Macht.]

voyage

?).

meregreote

(53), pearl.
(43. 6)

m^re-llfrend

m^re-stream

seafarer. (43), ocean-stream.

[Ger.

m$re-swm
meje-Sissa

(47), dolphin.

(-ftyssa) (53), oceanscourer, rusher through the deep.

miht, see mugan.

m ih tig (57)

,

mighty.

[Ger. macht-

m^rgen

(43), morning.

me tan
out.

(113),
(44),

W-] meet; find; find mild-heortnes

m$te
meffe

food.

[Mod.

Eng.

mercy, (51. 5), compassion, loving-kindness. milts (51. 5), plur. as sing., mercy,
loving-kindness.

meat.]
(59), fatigued, weary. [Ger.

[< mild, mild,

by

33.]

miltsian (mildsian) (118), have mercy upon. micel (mycel) (57), much, great, (83, 81), my. loud. [Cf. Scotch mis- (142). large) long; mickle, Eng. much, and Spenser, mislic (57), various. mislice (70), variously, in differShop. Cal, Feb. 109.] ent ways; mislice gebleod, miclum (myclum) (72), greatly.
mude.]
meffel-, see maefrel-.

mm

mid

(57; 166. 1), middle.

variegated.

306

VOCABULARY.

mis-llcian (118), displease. mycel, see micel. missenlic (57), various (kinds myclum, see miclum.
'/).
1

myngian
,

(118),

admonish,

ad-

mis-ftyncean (114; 164. Z), misjure. judge ; 3"e misffyncS Lat. male mynian (118),
suspicaris.
9.

direct, inspire.

[Cf. Milton,

P. L.

mynster

(47), monastery.

289, Shak., 3 Hen. VI. 2. 5. 108, Ant. and Cleop. 5. 2. 176.]
(47, 146), heart, soul,

mod
the

mind;

N.

courage.
heart,

[Ger. Mut.]
(43), thought of counsel. [Cf. Ger.

na

mod-ge-ffanc
Gedanke.]

(no), not even, by no means, not at all ; no.
(121, 29), have not.

nabban

modig

(57),

naca (53), bark. [Ger. Nachen."\ noble-minded, mag- nacod (57), naked; clothed in a
courageous.
[Ger.
tunic only (p. 168). iitedl (51. &), needle. [Ger. Nadel.'\

nanimous,
mutig.]

modiglic

(57), high-souled.
(51.

modignes
gance.

5),

pride,

naedre, naeddre (53. 1), serpent. arro- nsefre, never.

modor

nainig (89. a), no one. [Ger. naire, uaJron, naes, see 138. naht (noht) (47 89. b ; 27), naught, Mutter, Lat. mater.'] mona (53), moon. [Cf. Ger. nothing; not. Mond, where d is a late ad- na-hwaJr, nowhere.
(52.

2),

mother.

;

dition.]

na-hwider, nowhither.
a),

monacJ

(43. 4.

month.

[Ger. iiahes (nalas), not at

all.

Monat. ]

naiua

(53, 24),

name.

[Ger.

Na-

mQn(n),

see

man(n).

men.~]

morning. [Ger. nan (89. a; 154. 6), no (one). Mod. Eng. morn.] nat, see 126. Morgen, morgen-giefu (51. a) dowry, mar- nates-h\von, not at all. ne (ni), not. riage portion. ne (202) neither morfror (47), deadly injury. ne, nor ; ne

morgen

(43),

,

.

.

.

,

nor. [Mod. Eng. murder.'] motan (137), may. [Cf. Spenser, neah (58, 67, 60), nigh, near ; set F. Q. 1. 9. 27.] niehstan, at length, finally. neah, adv., near, nigh at hand; mugan (135), can, be able. imi ml (51. 5), hand. superl. nearly. munt (43), mountain. [Lat. neah (neh), prep., near.
.
. .

mont(em).]
in nine
i

nca-la'ouii (113), approach.

(43),

monk.

[Ger. nearunes (nearo-)
guish, agony.

(51.

5),

an-

Monch.]

murcnung

(51. 6; 144), sorrow,

nearu

(51.

a),

difficulty;
straits.

nearu
[Cf.

unhappiness, lamentation. muscule (Lat.), mussel.

ffrowian, be in

Mod. Eng.

narroio.]

VOCABULARY.
neat
(47), cattle.
[Cf.

307
(57),

Mod. Eng.
oil,'

nifferlic

low-lying.

[Cf.

'neatherd,' 'neat cattle.'
(

'neat's-foot
'

Ger. nieder.']

Shakespeare has niiff-h^te (44), malignant foe.
:

The steer, niff-hycgende (61), evil-scheming. Wint. T.I. 2. 124) the heifer, and the calf Are all niff-plega (53), hostile play, martial game. called neat; Cymb. 1. 1. 148: neatherd's no, see na. Would I were
'

A

daughter.']

nefne, except.

neh, see neah, prep. nellan (139),* will

noht, see naht. noldon, see nellan. HOT'S (69), northward.

not. [See norfran, from the north. Chaucer, Prol. 550, Spenser, norfr-daJl (43), northern part, north.' F. Q. 1. 6. 17; 1. 9. 15, Shak.,

Haml.

5. 1. 19.]

notian (118;
&),

164. o), use.

n$uman
name).

(115.

mean
156.

(lit.

nu, now; yet. nyste, see nytan.
[See

neosian (neosan) (118;
seek, look for.

m), nytan (126), know not. Chaucer, Prol. 284.]

neowolnes
[Orig.

(51.

5),

abyss, deep.

from nihol-, *nihold-,
sloping.']

* nihald-,
vior.

O.
(43. 6),

neriend (nejegend)

Sa-

of- (142).
of, of;

from ; out

of; by.
in.

nied (51. 6), need, necessity; use. ofen (43), oven. nled-faru (neid-) (51. a), needful ofer, over; across; upon;

ofer- (142). journey. [Ger. ilber-.] nied-ffearflic (57), needful, neces- ofer-braedan (113), suffuse. ofer-cuman (IV. 105), overcome, sary. niehst, see neah, adv. overthrow.

nlehsta, see neah, adj.

ofer-gan (141),
beast,

overcome,

come

nieten (47.
cattle.

1),

creature,
16.]

upon.

[<neat, by

nieten-cynn (47), kind of cattle. niht (52), night.

ofer-hygd (51. 6), pride, arrogance; mid oferhygdum, arrogantly,
haughtily,
supercili-

nihtes (74), by night. ously. niht-lang (58), night-long, of a ofer-raidan (113), read through. ofer-swiffan overcome, night, one night. (113),
nihtlic (57), night. conquer. ninian (IV. 105), take; seize; ofer-ft^ccean (114), cover over. capture, catch ; pluck up. [Ger. ofer-winnan (III. 104), conquer, nehmen ; cf a character in Shak., subdue, overthrow.
.

M.

W.~\

ofer-wreon
ofestlice

(I.

102), c,over over.
ofst-)

nis, see 138.
nitf (43),

(ofost-,

(70),

man.

quickly, forthwith.

308
ofet (47) fruit.
,

VOCABULARY.
(Ger. Obst, prop-

erly 06s.]

on-hreosan (II. 103), on-hre ran (113), stir
on-innan,
on-liehtan
nate.
into,

fall upon.

up, agitate.

ofostlice, see ofestllce.

among.
light,

of-slean (VI. 107), slay, kill. of-stlgan (I. 102), descend.
ofstllce, see ofestllce.
oft, often, frequently.

onlic, see anlic.
(113),
illumi-

[<

leoht, by 16.]
unlock.

on-liesan (113), release.

of-tredan (V. 106), tread down, trample upon. [Ger. abtreten.~\ of-ffyncean (114), offend, grieve,
vex.

on IIICMM

(II. 103),

on-s^ndan (113\
on-s^ttan (113),

send.
lay.

on-spannan

(R. 109), open.

oht, see aht.

on-styrian (116), move. olfend (43), cUmel. [<Lat. ele- on-tynan (113), open. [<tun, phantem ?] fey 16.] on, on, upon ; in ; into ; with ; on on-wacan (VI. 107), awake. an, see an. on-weg, away.
'on- (142).
oii-!cla.n (113), inflame.

on-windan
on-winnan
on-wrlffan
close.

(III.

104),

retreat.

[Cf. Ger. entwinden.]
(III. 104), assail.
(I.

on-cierran (-cyrran) (113), turn.
(R. 109), know ; perceive; recognize; acknowledge. on-cweffan (V. 106), address, call
unto.

on-cnawan

102), uncover, disinhabit.

on-wunian (118), open (57), open.
or
(47), beginning.

[Ger.

offen.']

Qnd(-), see and(-).

on-drsedan (R. 110 159. a), fear. onettan (113), hasten, hurry. on-fangennes (51. 5), reception. on-fon (R. 110; 164. j), receive,
;

or- (142).

ora

(53), vein f ore? oreta, see oretta.

oret-in^cg (-msecg) (43), warrior. oretta (53), combatant. orf (47) cattle. on-gean, adv., again, back. or-feorme (59), deprived, abanon-gean, prep., against; toward;
accept.
,

opposite. [Cf. for engegen.~]

Ger.

entgegen,
slay.
strip.

doned, forsaken.
(Lat.), plur., organs. or-giete (-gete) (59), manifest. or-maite (59), boundless; enor-

organa

on-ge-slean (VI. 107),

on-gierwan
.

(113),

divest,

[Cf geare.] on-gietan (-gtyan) (V. 106, 18),
perceive, learn, understand.
[Cf.

mous.

or-modnes

(51. 5), despair, des-

andgiet.] ongin, see anginn.

peration. oroff (47. 6), breath.

ort-geard
chard?}.

(43),

garden

(or-

on-ginnan

(III. 104), begin.

ongitan, see ongietau.
on-hicldaii (-hgeldan) (113), intend.

orffian (118), breathe.
off, until.

off- (142).

VOCABULARY.
offer (80; 89. a; 24), other; secrest of. off-ffaet, until.

309
(43. 6),

rand-wlgend (-wiggend)
shield-warrior.

ond;

read
(III.

(58), red.

[Ger. rot.]

offffe (seft'Sa), or.

off-ffringan

104),

reaf (47), raiment, apparel. [Ger. wrest Eaub, Mod. Eng. robe, through
Fr. robe ; cf. Ital. roba.] reaf-lac (47), rapine, plunder.

away.

P.
paell (43), purple garment.

pard (Lat.), panther. pining (43), penny (but

re,ccean (114), relate, narrate; expound. rece-leasian (118, 156), despise.

this

does

not represent the Latin, which has sestertia, not sestertios ; the

would represent four cents each, the former about fortythree dollars each). [Cf. Ger.
latter

recene, straightway. regn (ren) (43), rain; shower. [Ger. Eegen.] regollic (57), regular. [< Lat. cf. Ger. regel(recht).] regula; ren, see regn.

reocan

(II.

103),

reek.

[Ger.
gifted

Pfand.]

Piht (43), Pict. plega (53), game, play.
plegian (118), play;
pliht
(43),

riechen.]

reord-berend
with speech
[Ger.

(43. 6),

man

(lit.

act.
risk.

speech-bearer).
[Cf. Ger.

reordian (-igan) (118), speak.
b], couch, bed.

r$st (51. Mod. Eng. plight.] East.] Lat. talentum, puncl (47), pound,
Pflicht,

peril,

pondus.

[< Lat. pondus.~\
1),

purpre

r$stan (113), rest. reffe (59), fierce, violent.
reffues (51. 5), violence.

(53.

purple garment.

[< Lat. purpura.~]
R.
racian (118
sway. raid (43),
der(s) ; archaic
;

ribb

(47), rib.

rice (48. 1), kingdom. [Ger. Eeich, Mod. Eng. (Frederick, (Hen)ry, (bishop^ric; cf. Lat. rex.]
rice (59), powerful, noble.
reich,

164. i), rule, govern,

[Ger.

Mod. Eng.

rich.]

counsel,
benefit.

advice; or[Ger. Eat ;

Mod. Eng. rede; cf. Shak., Haml. 1. 3. 51.] rsedan (113), read. [Cf. Ger.
rsed-snottor
counsel.
(57),
discreet

rlcsian (118), bear rule, have dominion. [< rice.] riht (47), right. [Ger. Eecht.] riht (58), right; direct. [Ger.
recht.]

in

rlhtlice (70), accurately, correctly. riht-wis (58, 146), righteous.

riht-wisnes
ness.

(51.

6),

righteous-

rses-bora (53), counselor.

rieswa (53), chief, leader. rah-deor (47), roebuck.

rinan

(113, 161), rain.
*

rand

(ro,nd) (43), shield,

rinc (43), warrior, man. ripe (59), ripe. [Ger. reif.]

310
rod (51. 6), Mod. Eng.
loft,

VOCABULARY.
cross.
rod-,

rood;

[Ger. Bute, cf. rood-

'ships,' leaving his

meaning

to

rodor

Holyrood, Hand. 3. 4. 14.] (43), firmament, heaven.
stout.

be guessed."] sse-werig (57), sea-weary. sie-wiht (51. ft), sea-animal.

rof (59),

salowig-pad
lioman.

(58), dark-coated.

Romanise

(57, 146),

samninga
denly.

(70), all at once, sud-

Romane

(Lat.), plur.,

Romans.

[Cf.

samninga.]

rQnd, see rand. rose (53. 1), rose.

samod
[Lat. rosa.~\

(sgrnod), together.

sand
sang

rowan (R. 109), row. rowend (43. 6), rower.
rownes (51. 5), rowing. rudu (51. a), redness.

(47), sand. [Ger. Sand.~\ saiid-hl iff (47, 20), sand-hill. (43), song.

[Ger. (Ge)sang.~]
sore.

sar (47), sorrow. sar (58), grievous,

[Cf. Ger.

ram

(43),

room,

opportunity.

sehr, (vef)sehren.~]

[Ger. Raum.~\ rawe (53. 1), tapestry?

sar-cwide
lery,

(44), taunt, gibe, rail-

sarcasm.

S.

sarlic (57), doleful. sarlice (70), lamentably, mournfully.

sacerd

(51. 6), priestess.

[<Lat. sarnes
[Ger.

(51. 6), grief,

sacerdos.~] 51. sSd (43;

saw (o)l
6),
sea.
8eele.~]

(51. 4),

unhappiness. soul; life. [Ger.

note, p. 324.] sse-bat (43), sea-boat, vessel.

#ee;

cf.

sawol-leas

(58, 146), soulless.

sceadu

(51. a; 18),

shadow.

[Cf.

sai-beorg (43), sea-cliff. ssed (47), seed. [Ger. aa.] ssed-tima (53), seedtime.
sai-flota (53), sea-floater.

Ger. Schatten.~\ sceal, see sculan.

scealc (43, 18), man. sceam-faest (58, 18),
[Cf.

saj-he^ngest (43), sea-steed.

[Mod.

Eng.

shamefast

modest. see ;
[Ger. [Ger.

Ger. Hengst, Eng, Hengist.~] sai-holm (43), sea (swelling sea?). sye-lad (51. &), sea-voyage. sieleoda, see sailida.
sselic (57), marine, of the sea.

sceamu
sceap

Spenser, F. Q. 5. 5. 25.] (51. a; 18), shame.

Scham.]
(47,

18),

sheep.

Schaf.]

sai-lida

(-leoda)
(43),

(53),

seaman,

sceap-hierde
scearpe
(70,

(44)
18),

,

shepherd.
[Ger.

sailor, mariner.

sae-mearh

[Cf. liftan.] sea-steed. [Cf.

[Ger. Schafhirt.~\
sharp.

scharf.~] Jebb, Classical Greek Poetry, pp. 91-92: "Homer speaks of sceat (43), corner, region, quar* ter. swift ships, which are the horses [Ger. Schooss ; in the sense of Lat. angulus, plaga, Hesiod of the sea for men as Isa. 11. 12, Rev. 7. 1.] would not have scrupled to use coin. the phrase 'horses of the sea' sceatt (43, [Ger. 18), as a substitute for the word SchatzJ]
'
;

VOCABULARY.
sceaff (51. b; 18), sheath.
Scheide.~\

311

[Ger.

sceafra (53, 18), enemy. [Cf. Ger. Schade, Schddiger, Mod. Eng.
scathe.~\

scir (58), bright, gleaming. [Cf. Spenser, F. Q. 3. 2. 44, Shak., Rich. II. 5. 3. 61.] scire (70), dazzlingly, radiantly.

sclr-majled
(118),

(57),

splendidly

marked, splendidly decorated. watch; behold, see. [Ger. schauen, Mod. Eng. scop (43), minstrel. show (with changed meaning).] Scottas (43), plur., Scots. sc^ncan (113), pour out, give to scrid (57), fleet? (Grimm, rigged). drink. clothing, raiment, [Ger. (ein)schenken, ar- scrad (47),
chaic

sceawian

Mod.

Eng.

skink ;
4. 26.]

cf.

attire.

[Mod. Eng.
,

shroud.']

Shak., I Hen. IV. 2. sceolde, see sculan. sceor (18), see scur.

scrydan (113), clothe, array. scucca (53) the devil, Satan.
scafan
shall.
(II. 103), thrust.

sceort (58, 65, 18), short.

sen la ii (133, 188), ought, must;
[Cf. Ger. sollen.~\
(43,

sceotend (43. 6), man. sceo-wyrhta (53,

shooter, marks18), shoemaker.

scar

(sceor)

18),

storm;

sciccels (43), cloak, mantle. scield (scild) (43, 18), shield.

[Ger. Schauer.] scyne, see sciene. scyppend, see scieppend.
se (84; 87; 154. &). seal in psalm. (43),

shower.

scield-burh
tudo,

(scild-) (52, 28), tes-

roof of shields, roofed phalanx.

shield-

[<

Lat.

psalmusJ]
sealt-seaft (43), salt-spring.

sciene (scyne) (59, 18), beautiful. [Ger. schon ; cf. Chaucer, K. T. 210, Spenser, F. Q. 2. 1. 10.]

seamere (44. 1 143), tailor. [Cf. Ger. Saum, Mod. Eng. seam.]
;

scieppan (VI.

107,

18),

create.

searu

(49), device, contrivance.

[Ger. schopfen.']

searu-ffancol (searo-Sgncol) (57),
discerning, sagacious.

scieppend (scippend, scyppend)
(43. 6; 18), creator.

secean (secan) (114), seek; seek
out;
visit.

scieran (IV. 105, 18), cut, cleave. [Ger. scheren, Mod. Eng. shear.']
sciertra, see sceort. sciete (53. 1), sheet, linen cloth.

[Ger. suchen.~]
hero.
(123, 36), say
;

scg

(43),

man,

s^cgean (s^cgan)
speak;
tell.

[< sceat.]
scild, see scield.

sedl, see setl.
102),
shine.

scman

(I.

[Ger.

scheme n.~\
scip (47), ship.
[Ger.
;

Schiff.']

sail. [Ger. Segel] seld-cuff (58), strange, novel, out of the way. [Cf. F. Q. 4. 8. 14.] se^len (51. &), bounty, bestowal.

segl (47?),

self (seolf, sylf) (86), (my, him) scip-ferend (43. 6 147), sailor. naval scip-h^re (44. 2; 147), self; own; same; very. [Ger.
force, fleet.
selb(er).]

scippend, see scieppend.

se.llan

(syllan)
;
sell.

(114,

36),

give;

scip-weard

(43), shipmaster.

give to be

312

VOCABULARY.
sige-rof
ergy.

selest (selost) (66), best. sellic (syllic) (57), strange, queer,

(58),

of victorious en-

remarkable.

[< seldic.J

selost (76), best. selra (53, 66), better.

sige-ffnf (43), triumphal banner. Lat. tufa.'} [ffnf

<

sige-wang (-wgng)
[See

(43),

field

se^nninga

(70),

suddenly.

samniriga.] seudaii (113), send; hurl.
seo, see se.

seofon

(78,

20),

seven.

[Ger.

of victory. sigor (43), victory, triumph. simle, always. sin (83), his. sine (47), treasure, riches.

siebenJ]

sinc-weorffung

(51.

3),

gift

of

seofon-feald (58, 146), seven-fold.
seofoffa (78, 80), seventh. seol, see seolh.

treasure, costly gift. sind, see wesan.

sin-gal
ceasing.

(58),

constant,

never-

seolh

singan (III. 104, 22), sing ; praise. seolfor (47, 20), silver. [Ger. [Ger. singen.'] sittan (V. 106), sit. [Ger. sitzen.'] Silber, Goth, silubr.'] seolf pen (57), silver. [Ger. silb- slS (43, 30), journey ; adventure; plan, errand; time. [Cf. Ger. ern.~] SCO'S ff AH, see siffffaii. Gesinde, Chaucer, Prol. 485, sessian (118), subside. Spenser, F. Q. 3. 10. 33.] setl (sedl) (47), seat; throne. siff-faet (43. 2), journey ; passage. Sessel ; Mod. Eng. settle.'] slSC-fram (-from) (57), ready for [Ger. seines (51. 5), foundation. (their) journey. sittan (113), set, set down ; place ; siff-nese (53. 1), prosperous voy1

(43. 3; 21), seal. seolf, see self,

make ; make
by
sibb
16,
.

to turn. [Formed, from the second stem of
;

age. siffffan (seotfSan, syfrSan) (84.3),

sittan (cf le^cgan) Ger.
(51.

&),

peace;

setzen.~\ love. [Cf.

when ;
ward.
Cor.

after

;

as soon as; after;

[Ger. seitdem

cf

.

Chau-

Mod. Eng.

gossip.]

cer, Knight's Tale 1244, Shak.,
3. 1. 47.]

sid (58), roomy, ample. side (53.1), silk. [< Lat. seta ; cf
Ger. Seide.~\ sle(n), see wesan.

.

slaecan (113), defer, delay.

[Mod.

Eng.

slack(eri).~]
,

siexta (78, 80), sixth. siextiene (syxtyne) (78), sixteen.
[Ger. sechszehn.~\ sige (44), victory. [Ger. Sieg.']
sige-faest
(58,

sleep (43) sleep. [Ger. Schlaf.~\ shttpaii (R. 110), sleep. [Ger.
schlafen.']

triumphant,
sige-hreiffig
victory.

146), victorious, \ulting in victory.
(57), ex-

slean (VI. 107, 37), smite, strike; strike down, slay. [Ger. schlagen; cf. Chaucer, Prol. 661.]
sle^cg
(51.
&),

hammer,
consider,

sledge.

sige-hremig (-hrjemig)
(57),

[Cf. slean.]

radiant

with

sinean
into.

(113),

inquire

VOCABULARY.
smeaung
smercian
Eng.
(51. 8),

313
&),

meditation; insmile.

spraec (51.
tale.

speech; language;
[sprechen.

vestigation.

[Ger. Sprache.]

(118),

smirk.']

smiS

1

(43),

blacksmith.

[Mod. sprecan (V. 106[, speak. [Ger. springan (III. 104), spread. [Ger. springen, Mod. Eng. spring.] [Ger.
spryttaii (113), bring forth. [Cf. Ger. spriessen, Eng. sprout.] staefna, see stefna.
stieiien (57), stone.

Schmied.]
smiffidFe (53. 1), smithy.

smylte
ruffled.

(59),

calm, smooth,

un-

[<

staii,

by

smyltnes (51. 5), serenity, calm. snel(l) (58; 35. a), active, swift, fleet. [Ger. schnell, Scotch snell.] snellic (57), swift.
snelnes
(51. 5), agility, celerity.
(II. 103),

16

;

Ger. steinen.']

staeppan (VI. 107), step, march. stan (43), stone. [Ger. Stein.'] stand an (VI. 107), stand; stand
still ;

fall upon.

sneowan

hasten, speed.

starian (118), gaze.
stare.]

[Mod. Eng.

snottor (57), wise.

snud (43?), speed. snade (70), quickly. somod, see sa iiKxI.
soiia, soon
;

steap (58),
steep. ]
,

lofty.

[Mod. Eng. [Mod.
Statt,

as soon

;

immediately ; at once ; when.
distress;

stede (44) place, position. Eng. stead; cf. Ger.
Stdtte.]

sorg

(51. trouble.

6),

anxiety,

[Mod. Eng.

sorrow."]

stede-heard (58), firm, strong. ste/le-wang (43), plain.

sorgian (118), be anxious. [Mod. stefn (51. b), voice. [Ger. Stimme ; cf. Chaucer, Knight's Tale 1704, Eng. sorrow, Ger. sorgen.~] soft truth. Spenser, Shep. Cal., Sept. 224.] (47), [Mod. Eng. sooth; cf. forsooth, soothsayer.] stefn (43), prow. [Cf. from stem
'

soft (58), true.
soft,

to stern.']
[Cf.

adv.,

verily.

Spenser,

F. Q.

3. 3. 13.]

soff-faest

(58),

just

and

stefna (stsefna) (53), prow. steoran, see stieran. steorra (53), star. [Cf. Ger. Stern, true;
Lat. stella, Gr.
sterced-ferhiff
[Cf.
do-rijp.]

righteous.
fast.]

[Mod. Eng. sooth-

soff-faestnes (51. 5), truth. Chaucer, Nun's Priest's
508.]

(58) , souled, stout-hearted.

resolute-

Tale
[Cf.

stieran
[Cf.

(steoran) (113), Ger. steuern; and

steer.
cf.

Gr.

so81ice (70), indeed, truly.

(rravphs ?]

soothly, Spenser, F. Q. 5. 10. 8.]

spartan

(118),

spare.

stiern-mod (styrn-) of mood. [Ger.
stig (51.
[Cf. [Cf.
stair.]

(58),

stern
line.

spare n.] spell (47), account. spildaii (113), fling away. Shak., Haml. 4. 5. 20.]

&),

road,

course,
stile,

Mod. Eng.

stirrup,

stigan (I. 102, 28), ascend, enter, go aboard ; go down (cf Ps. 107.
.

VOCABULARY.
23).
cf.

[Ger. steigen, Gr. (rre/x etj/

;

Spenser, F. Q. 4. 9. 33.] stillan (113; 164. i), calm, appease, hush. [Ger. stillen.~]
stille

styriendlic moves.

(57),

moving,

that

styrman
17
;

(59),

still;

quiet,

silent.

(113), storm. [< storm, Ger. sturmen.~\ styrnrnod, see stiernmod.

[Ger. stille.'] stilnes (51. 5), calm, quietness. storm (43), storm. [Cf. Ger.

sulh-scear (43 ?) plowshare. [Cf
,

.

Sturm.]

stow
Eng.

(51. 5), place.
stow.~]

[Cf.

Mod.

Lat. sulcus.] sum (89. a; 151), some (one); (a) Chaucer, certain; one. [Cf. Knight's Tale 397, 399.]

sumer
sund

(43.

5),

summer.

[Ger.

strail (43), arrow. [Ger. StrahlJ] strait (51. 6), street; public place.

Sommer.']
(47),

swimming ;

course.

[< Lat.
strand
strang

strata

;

Ger. Strasse."]
sea-shore.

sundor-ierfe (-yrfe) (44), private
property.
1), sun.

(43),

strand,

[Ger. Strand."]
(58, 65),

sunne (53. strong; power- sunu (45),
suU-dsel
south.
~

[Ger. Sonne.~]

son.

[Ger. Sohn.~]

hard, severe, ful; violent; arduous. [Cf. Ger. streng.~]

(43),

southern

part;

strangling

(51. 3), invigoration,

quickening.

su9'-\vesterne (59), southivestern. [Cf. Ger. sudwest.~]

stream

(43),

stream,

current.

[Ger. Strom.']

stream-wielm

(43), (-welm) whirlpool, maelstrom. string (43), rope; plur. cordage, [Cf. Mod. Eng. rigging, tackle.
string.']

swa, so; as; yet; since; such; which ; call swa, see call swa swa (202), so (swa)
;
.
.

.

.

.

.

as,

as

... as;
(47),

the

.

.

.

the;
or.

inasmuch as ; whether ...

swaisendu
food.
epulce.]

plur.,

[For the plural,

cf.

viands, Lat.

str^ngre, see strang. stre^ngfru (51. a; 144), strength. streonan, see strienan.

swaefforian, see sw^e(o)8'erian. swa-hwaeflfeir (89. a), whichever.

strienan

(streonan) (113), win over, gain over, convert. [See
(51.
6),

swa-hwaet-swa
ever.

(89. d),

what(so)-

gestreon.]

swan
while; stunde [Ger. Stunde, aras
in

(43), swan. (47),

[Ger. 8chwan.~\
if.

stund
chaic

swa-swa,
swatig;

like ; as ; just as ; as

(176), now.

bloody.

[Ger.

Mod. Eng. stound,
Tale

schweissig.']

354, Chaucer, Knight's Spenser, F.Q.I. 8. 25, 38.]

swa-freah, nevertheless.

swaffu

(51. a), track, footprint.

stycce-maelum
little

(72)

by

little.

gradually, [Cf. Ger. stiick,

swefan
swefel

(V. 106), sleep. sulphur. (43),

[Ger.

weise.~]

Schwefel.~\
roll.

styrian (118), move; flow, [Mod. Eng. siir.]

sweg

(43), music.

sw^eg-craeft (43), music.

VOCABULARY.
swegel (47), sky, heaven. sweging (51. 3), noise.
swiff e
greatly,

315
(swySe)
very;
(70),

much,
rather,

comp.

sw^ncan
wear

(113),

weary, fatigue,

more.

[Formed from the swiff lice (70), exceedingly, greatly. second stem of swincan, by 16.] swiff-mod (58), vehement- souled. svveora (53), neck. swutol, see sweotol. sweorcan (III. 104), grow dark, swylce, see swilce. become overcast. swyrd, see sweord.
out.

sweord (swyrd) (47), sword. sweot (47), troop, army.
sweotol (swutol) (57), clear. sweotole (70), clearly, plainly.
sweotollice (70), plainly,
clearly.

swyffe, see swiffe.

sybb, see sibb.
sylf, see self.
syllaii, see sejlan. syllic, see sellic.

swejian (VI.
schworen.']

107), swear.

[Ger.
cf.

syn(n)

(51.

&),

am.

[Cf.

Ger.

8unde.~\

swete

(59), sweet.

[Ger. suss;
^5i5j.]

synderlic (57, 146), separate, individual.
[Cf. Ger. sonderlich.~]

Lat. suavis, Gr.

swetnes (51.5;
goodness.

144), sweetness;

syndon,

see

wesan.

syn-full (58), sinful.

swe(o)fferian (118), depart, melt syffffan, see siffffan. away, vanish; subside. syxtyne, see siexjiene.

swican

(I.

102; 164. n), desert.
swift, fleet.

swift (58),
celerity.

swiftiies (51. 5; 144), swiftness,

tacen (47),

sign,

signal.

[Ger.
(lit.

Zeichen, Mod. Eng. token.] swige (53. 1), silence. swigian (118), be silent, keep tacen-bora (53), groomsman
silence.

standard-bearer}.
a),

swilc

(89.

such,

this

sort.
cf.

t

arnian (118),
indicate.

signify,

betoken,

[< *swalic

<

swa +

lie;

taicean (114), teach. ta-laii (113), blame, censure. swilce (swylce), conj., as if; eac tal (51. b), censure; to tale, cens\vilce, s\vilce eac, see eac. surable, blameworthy. swimman (III. 104), swim. [Ger. tear (43), tear. [Cf. Ger. Zdhre
swich, Chaucer, Prol. swilce, adv., likewise.
3.]

schwimmen.~\

swincaii

and Gr. 8di<pv.~\ work with te,lg (43), dye. (III. 104), effort. [Cf. swincan, and ar- tempel (47), temple. [< Lat. chaic Mod. Eng. swink, as in templum.~\ Chaucer, Prol. 186, Milton, Com. teon (II. 103), pull, bring. [Ger.
293.]
ziehen.~\

swingan

(III. 104),

whip? throw? teon

swiff (58, 64, 30), strong ; comp. right. [Cf. Ger. geschwind.~]

(tian) dain.

(113),

arrange,

or-

ticcen (47), goat.

[Ger. Zicke.~\

316
tid (51.
1),

VOCABULARY.
time, season; while;
in

[draefan

<

second

stem

of

day; Eng.

hour.
tide

[Ger. Christmastide,

Zeit,

Mod.

(In fa n (102), by 16.] to-foran, before.

Whitsuntide.']

to-gaedere, together.
variegated

to-geanes, towards, to meet. Lat. tegula.~\ tiles, to-ge-Iecan (113), add. [tigel tigris (Lat.), tiger. to-ge-laedah (113), bring. til, to. [Mod. Eng. till; cf. Ger. to-glidan (I. 102), glide away, slip away. Ziel] tilian (118), gain, obtain, pro- to-hopa (53), hope. [Cf. Ger. vide. [Ger. zielen^Mod. Eng. hoffen.~\ to-hreosan (II. 103), fall away. tfll.] tohte (53. 1), conflict. tilung (51. 3), acquisition, proto hwon, why. curing. tiina (53), time. to-middes, amidst, in the midvt
tigel-fag
(58),

with

<

timbran

(115. &), build, construct.

of-

[Ger. ^iraweni.] tin (47), tin. [Ger. Zinn.~]

top

(43), top? ball?

[Ger. Zopf.]

tinterg (47) punishment. tir (43), glory, fame. [Ger. Zier.] tiff (51. b 28), &oem.
, ;

torht (58), resplendent. torr (43), tower; watch-tower;
crag.

[< Lat.

turris.]

tiffian (118; 159. bestow. [Cf. tiff.]

;

28), grant,

to-sceacan (VI. 107), depart, pass away. to-sceadan (R. 110), separate,
divide.

to, prep., to; for; according to; the sign of the gerund, and gov-

to-slitan
stroy,

(I.

102), rend, tear, de[rnpt.

erning the following infinitive as a noun in the dative. [Ger.
zu.~\

to-t\vaeman (113), divide; interto-\veorpan (III. 104), blot out,
forgive (lit. break in pieces) quell, compose, Lat. dissolvere. traef (47. 4) building.
,

to, adv., too. [Ger. zu.~\ to- (142). [Cf. Spenser, F. Q.
7.

;

4.

8

;

5. 9. 10.]

to-berstan

(III. 104),

go to pieces. treow-cynn (47), sort of tree. Tale 1753, 1833, 1899.] treownes (51. 5; 144), trust. Knight's to-brecan (IV. 105), break in treow-wyrhta (53, 147), carpenpieces,
brechen.~]

break up, [Cf. Chaucer,

treo

(47. 3), tree.

shatter.

[Ger.
[Cf.

zer-

ter.

[Cf.

wyrhta.]
(115. a),

triim (57), secure, strong.
Ger. heut

to-daeg,

to-day.

trymman

confirm,

es-

zu

Tage.~]

tablish, strengthen.

[< trum,
heavenly

to-d&lan
der,

(113), divide, part asundisperse.

separate,

[Ger.

by 16.] tungol (47.
body.

6),

star,

zertheilen.~\

to-don

to-drsefan

(140), separate. drive (113),

tosc (43), tusk.

away.

twa, see twegen.

VOCABULARY.
twegen
(78, 79), two.

317

[Mod. Eng.

twain, Chaucerian tweye (Prol. 704), archaic Ger. zween.~]

which; by which. [Ger. dannen; cf. Mod. Eng. thence. 1 ffanc (43), thank(s~). [Ger. Dank.]
!

tw^lf

(78,

24),

twelve.

[Ger.

ffanciau

(118

;

159.

a),

thank.

zwolf.]

[Ger. danken.]
(78),

twentig

twenty.

[Ger.

ffancol-mod

zwanzig.~]

(58), discreet, heedful, attentive.

(118 159. 6), doubt. Tyrisc (57), Tyrian.
;

tweonian
tyrnan

ffanc-snottor (^Qnc-snottur) (57), wise of thought.
84.
ffas, see 85.
ffa-ffa,

(113),

revolve.

[Mod. ffara, see

Eng. turn.]
>.

when;
.

ffa-ffa

.

.

.

ffa (202),

tc^en

.

.

fta-fte, ffe,
ffa,

(then}. see 87.

pron. see 84, 87. cer, Prol. 498.]
;

[Cf Chau.

ffe

.

.

.

9e

(202),

whether

.

.

.

or.

iflfa

where.

then, when; there, [Ger. da; archaic Mod. Eng. tho, as in Chaucer, Knight's Tale 135, Spenser, F. Q. 1. 1.
(84.
1),

ffeah ("Seh), though, although; i5eah ffeah yet; (202),
.
.

.

though

.

.

.

yet.

[Ger. doch.~]

18.] ffaece (53. 1), roof.

ffeah-hwseS're, nevertheless. ffeah-ffe, though, although ; fteah-

[Ger. Dach,

Mod. Eng.
(Va'in,
ft air

thatch.']

5e h\vsel5re, (yeah-iffe swa-ffeah (202), though
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

see 84.
(75),
there,

yet.

where.

[Cf.

frearf (51. b
benefit.

;

21. a),

need

;

profit,

Chaucer, Prol. 34, 172, 547.]
ftaira, KfaJre, see 84.
flCaer-on, therein.

[Cf. ffurfan.] ffearfa (53; 21. a), needy (owe),

Sfaer-to-eacan, besides, in addition
to that.
flaes,

poor. [Cf. ffurfan.] ffearfendlic (57), poor.
Sflfearle

(70),

greatly,

very,

very

see 84.

much, exceedingly.
1.

ffaes-ffe,
ffset,

see 157.
;

ffearlice (70), violently.

see 84

189. 3.

ffeaw
33.]

(43), conduct; plur. morals,
[Cf. Spenser, F. Q.I.
I.

ffaet, conj., that.

virtues.

ffaette (34), that; to ffon ffaette, so that. [< fraet-fre.]

ffafian
allow.

(-igan)

(118),

permit,

ffegn (43, 28, 24), vassal, retainer, thane. [Archaic Ger. Degen ; cf. Gr. TKVOV.~\
ffeh, see ffeah.

ffa-hwaeflfre, yet.

ffa-hwile-S'e, while, so
[Cf. Ger.
cftetoei'Z.]

long as.

saf^ncean
ffe^nden

(114),

think,

consider,
as.

reflect ; devise.

[Ger. denken.']
28), serve,

ffain, see 84.

(^nde), inasmuch
164. e
;

ffanan
there
;

(fife)

(75),

thence,

from Fenian (118;
minister
to.

whence ; from which ; of

318
tfenung
service
sflfeod

VOCABULARY.
(51. 3
;

28), ministration, first course.
;

ffrean (113), rebuke. ffreat (43), band, crowd, multitude.

(51. 6), people,

nation; re[Cf.
cf.

gion, country, Ger. Deutsch.~\

province.

ffreatian
[Cf.

(118),

reprove,

chide.

ffeoden (43),

lord.

dryhten

< dryht,

[< ffeod

;

cyning

<

threaten.'] ffridda (78), third. [Ger. dritte.'] ffrie (ry) (78, 79), three. [Ger.
drei.~]

Mod. Eng.

cynn.] ffeoden-hold (58), faithful
lord.

to his

ffrines (51. 5

;

144), trinity.

ffringan
(53),
(44.
1

(III. 104),

press forward.
cf.

ffeod-guma
people.

man
;

of

the

[Ger. dringen;
throng.]

Mod. Eng.

freod-scipe
pline. ffeos, see 85.

144),

disci-

ffriostru, see ffiestru. [dreist.] ffrlste (59), bold, confident. [Ger.
ffrltig (78), thirty.

ffeow
ffes,

(58), bond, unfree, serving.

Uriffcyning, see ijryffcyning.

ffeow-dom
see 85.
ffider

(43), service.

ffroht-heard (58), patient, muchenduring.
thither;
plur.,

(yder)

(75),
(47),

wherever.
ffiestru
(ftrlostru)

ffrowian (118), suffer, endure. ffrowuiig (51. 3), passion.
ffry, see ffrie.

darkness. [Cf. Ger. duster, and, for the plural, Lat. tenebrce.]
ffin
(83,

ffrym(m)
glory.

(43),

force;

troop;

81),
5),

thy,

thine.

[Ger.
[Cf.

dein.]

ftrym-faest (58, 146), glorious. ffrym-full (58, 146), glorious.

afmen

(51.

handmaid.

ffegn.]

ftrymlic (57), glorious. ftrym-sittende (61), sitting
glory.
ftfryft (51. 6),

in

Sing

(47), thing; sake; aenige ffinga, in any way, by any

might; the translap. 219,

means.
Sffing-gewrit (47), document. ft is, ffisne, ffissa, ffisse, kisses, ffissum, see 85.
1

tion of
1. 3, is

>reata ^ryffuin,
doubtful.

ffryiff-bearn (47, 38), mighty son,
i.e.

mighty youth.
(*ri*-)

Siwen

(51. 5),

handmaid.

ffryff-cyning

(43),

king

frolian (118), endure, experience. [Scotch thole ; cf. Ger. dulden.~\
ffon, see 84, 175 ff. ; sometimes for fraem, ffain, through the shortened ffam, ffan.

of might.
fra,

see 81.

ffahton, see fryncean. ffurfan (131), need. [Ger. (6e)durfenJ] ffurh, through; throughout; in;

ffone, see 84.

9onne, then; when; since; than
(with comparatives) ffonne (202), when
ffoffor (43), ball.
;

by;

by means of; ffurh call,

ffonne
.

.

.

.

see call.

.

.

(then).

ough-

[Mod. Eng. th(p\rChaucer has thurgh,

Knight's Tale 362.]

VOCABULARY.
ffurstig
durstig.~]

319

(57),

thirsty.

[Ger.

un-cystig (57, 146), wicked. under, under; among. [Ger.

afus, thus

unterJ] (always with a verb of under-fon (R. 110), assume; reutterance in these texts). 8" u send (78, 79), thousand. ceive, take in, entertain. ffusend-mailuin (72), by thou- under-standan (VI. 107), understand. sands. under- afeodnes (51. 5; 144), subffweal (47), bath. mission. ffwieres (Sweores) (71), trans[See underffiedan.] under-Sledan (113), subjoin, add. versely.
ffy,

see 84, 175

ff.

[<a-eod, by
un-eaiffe,

16.]
difficulty,

ffys, see 85.

with

hardly.
2. 1. 27.]

SFyder, see ftider.
fry-lajs-ffe,
lest.

[Cf. [Cf.

umeffe, and F. Q.
1

Lat. quolike,

un-for-cuff (58),

excellent.

[Cf.

minus.]
Sfyllic
(89.

fracoS .]
a),

such

this

un-for-wandiendlice(70),
saucily, forwardly.

boldly,

kind.

Sfyn (113), coerce, restrain. 164. I), seem. SFyncean (114 [Ger. dunken, Mod. Eng. (me);

un-ge-cnawen
known.

(62,

109),

un-

thinks.~]

un-ge-lsered (62), untaught, unlearned, uneducated. [See laeran.]
(47), mishap, ill-luck. un-ge-rydelice (70), suddenly, on

Syrel

[< *8'urhil (47), hole. Cf. Chaucer, Knight's (16).
Tale 1852; Spenser, F. Q.
1. 11.

un-ge-limp
a sudden.

20, 22.]

ffyrstan (113, 190),
dursten, Mod. Eng. ffyssum, see 85.

thirst.
thirst.']

[Ger.

un-ge-sewenlic (57),
un-ge-ffanc-full
(58,

invisible.

146),

un-

thankful, ungrateful.

un-ge-ffwaJnies

U.

5; 144), (51. wickedness, depravity. un-ge-wened (63) unexpected.
,

ufan-weard
above.

(58

;

166. 1), upper,

[See wenan.]

un-ge-werged
dawn, daybreak.
[See werig.]

(62),

unwearied.

uhte

(53. 1),

un-aeffele (59), plebeian, simple.

un-ge-wunelic
un-ieffe

(57, 146), unusual.

un-a-se^cgende (61), unspeakable,
ineffable.

[See wunian].
difficult. [See (59), uneafre.] un-lifiende (-lyfigende) (61), unliving, dead. [Cf. libban.]

un-a-swundenlice

(70),

forth-

with, without delay. un-cuff (58, 30), unknown. [Mod. Eng. uncouth; see Chaucer, Knight's Tale 1639, Spenser, F. Q. 1. 11. 20, Shak., Tit. And.
2. 3.

unnan
un-nyt
tute.

(129; 159. a), grant, allow.
(57,

[See est.]
155),
devoid,

211.]

*

desti-

320
un-riht-wis
eous.
(58,

VOCABULARY.
146),

un-riht-wisnes
righteousness.
ii

(51.

ate (69), outside. fit-gan (141), go out. 5; 144), un- fit-gangan (R. 109), go out. utou (wuton) let us.
unright,

ii-rin i

(47

;

154.

a

;

142)

,

multi-

tude.

un-rot (58), sorrowful, dejected. un-sce^Slg (57, 146), innocent.

W.
waBccen
(51. 6), vigil.

un-scrydan

(113,

162),

divest.

[See scrydan.] un-softe (70), harshly,
[Cf. Ger. unsanft.']

cruelly.

un-stille (59), unquiet, restless. un-stilnes (51. 5; 144), disorder,
confusion.

\vaed (47), water, billow, flood. waid (51. 6), garment. [Cf. Chaucer, Knight's Tale 148, Spenser, F. Q. 2. 3. 21, Shak.., Sonn. 76. 6, and our 'widow'*;
weeds.']

wiedla
one.
(51. 5; 144), illness,

(53),

poor man,

destitute

un-trum

(57), sick.

im-trymiies
up, up.

waifels (43), cloak, mantle.
(43),
billow,
flood.

disease, infirmity.

[< untrum.] waig

[Cf.

Chaucer, K. T. 1100, Spenser,
F. Q.
2. 12. 4.]

(51. 5; 144), pride, arrogance. [Cf. fipahebban. ] fip-a-hejbban (VI. 107), lift up. [Cf. Chaucer, KnighVs Tale

up-a-hsefednes

\vseg-flota (53), water-floater, ship. wael (47), slaughter. [Cf. Walhalla, Walkyrie.~]

1570.]

wael-gifre (59), greedy for slaughter.

np-a-standan (upp-) (VI. 107),
[Cf. Ger. auferstehen.'] fip-a-stigan (I. 102), rise, ascend.
rise up.

wael-grim
guinary.

(57), fierce, cruel, san-

fip-gan (141), go up.
gehen.~\

[Ger. auf-

wael-hreow (58), cruel. wael-hreownes (51. 5; 144),
elty.

cru-

ftp-gang (43), rising.
fiplic (57, 146), upper, above. uppan, upon, on top of.

waelm, see wielm.
wael-scel (4f?), carnage.

uppe, up.
fire (user) (83), our, ours.

\vsepen arms.

(47.

1),

weapon;

plur.

[Ger.

unser.~\

waer wair

(47), ocean.
(51. 6),

covenant; protection,
covenant-

firig-feftere (59), dewy-feathered.

care, safe-keeping.

u i-n on, see user, see fire.
fit,

wser-faest

(58, 146), keeping, faithful.

out.

fit-S-blawan (R. 109), blow
breathe out; exhale.
fitan, about, externally,
sia'e.

out,

wsestm (43), growth, size ; fruit. [Cf. weaxan, and Ger. Wachstum ; Mod. Eng.
waeter
(47.
1,

on

the out-

waist.] 6), water.

[Ger,

[Ger. aussen.~\

Wasser.

VOCABULARY.
waBter-broga
wseter-^gesa
(53), terrible waters.

321
(47), weather.

water terror,
(53), dread

weder
ter.]

[Ger. Wet5),

(-e,gsa)

weder-candel
candle,
i.e.

(51.

weather-

of the waters, dreadful waters. waeter-flod (43), water-flood.

the sun. Weg.~]

waeter-scipe
water.

(44.

1),

body

of

weg (43, 24), way. [Ger. wegan (V. 106), carry.
wel,
well.

wafian (118), waver. wald, see weald. waldend, see \vealdend.

wela

(53), wealth, riches, weal. [Cf. Chaucer, Knight's Tale 37.]
(57,

welig
'

146),

rich,

wealthy,
off,'

wana
\vang

(158), wanting, lacking.

abounding.
well to do.']

[Cf. our 'well
(61),

(43), field,

mead.
black.
1

wann
wat,

(worm) (58), dark, [Mod. Eng. wan.]
1 1

wel-willende

benevolent,

kind-hearted, generous.
.

warcS waruS
,

,

see

wearoS

see \vitan.
(53), woe.
[Cf. Ger.

wel-willendlice (70), lovingly. wel-willendnes (51. 5; 144), generosity, liberality.

wea
est.

Weh.]

weald

(wald) (43), weald, for-

wen

chance ;

(51. 1), expectation, prospect, is ftaet, perhaps,

wen

wealdend (waldend) (43. 6), ruler,
lord.

wenan

wealh-stod (43), interpreter, translator.

weall

(43) wall, rampart.
,

[< Lat.
foam.

[Ger. Wahn.] (113; 156.gr), expect, look for; think, suppose, imagine. [Ger. wahnen, Mod. Eng. ween; cf. Shak., 1 Hen. VI. 2. 5. 88.]

perchance.

vallum.]

w^ndan
seethe,

(113),

turn;

return;
cf.

weallan (R. 109), [See wielm.]

translate.

[Ger.

wenden;

Mod. Eng. wend, went.]

weard
wearoS
1

(43),

guardian, warden.
(43),

winding

[Ger. -wart]
(warofl, wanrS) strand, shore, beach.

we^nian (116), accustom,

(51. 3), rotation. train.

weoloc (43, 20), cockle, whelk. weoloc-read (58), scarlet.
weoloc-sciell (51. 6), cockle-shell.

wearofr-gewinn (wanrS-)
strife

(47),
surf,

of

the

shore,

i.e.

breakers.

weolor (-ur) (51. b; 20), lip. weorc (47; 21. 6), work; exercise; deed; energy.

wearS

1

,

see weorfran.

[Ger. Werk.]
(47, 20),

weax (47), wax. [Ger. Wachs.] weorod (weorad, werod) weaxan (II. 109,24), grow, be fruithost. [< wer.]
ful, increase.
cf.

[Ger. wachsen; Shak., M. N. D. 2. 1. 66,
1. 3.

weorffan (wyrSan)
21.

Haml.

12.]

w^ccean

wcg

(114), wake. (43), metal. [Mod.
cf.

Eng.
1.

(104; 187; be; weorffan become; to sometimes nearly ^weorff an. woe [Ger. werden ; cf. our worth the day.']
6),
'

wedge;
4. 26.]

Shak., Rich. III.

weorfrian (118;
alt.

21. &),

honor, ex2. 2.

[Cf.

Shak., Lear

128.]

322

VOCABULARY.
wlf (47,
Weib;
38), wife
cf.
5.
;

weorff-full (58, 146), honorable. weorfflic (-He) (57, 146), honorable; exalted. Tveorfflice (70), worthily, honorably.

woman.

[Ger.

Chaucer, Prol. 445,
139.]
sex.

Shak., T. N.

wif-had

(43),

female

weorft-mynt

(43

orig.

51.

b
1

wig wigend (wiggend)
(47), war.
rior.

(43. 6),

war-

144; 34), dignity.

[<*weor8 -

wig-hus (47), war-house, tower. mundijm.] weorff-scipe (44. 1; 143), honor, wiht (47; cf. 89. 6), whit. dignity. [Mod. Eng. worship; wild (58), wild. [Ger. wild.] cf! Shak., W. T. 1. 2. 314, Lear wildeor (47, 38), wild animal, wild
1. 4.

weoruld,

288.] see

beast.

woruld.

willa (53), will; request; desire;

wepan
by

(R. 109), weep.

[< wop,
[Cf.

delight.

[Ger. Wille.~\
will,

16.]

willan (wyllan) (139, 188),

wer

(43),

man, husband.
(43),

Lat. vir.]

wish, desire. Lat. velle.~]

[Cf. Ger. wollen,

wer-had
had.]

male

sex.

[Cf.

werig (57, 146), weary. werod, see \veorod.
wer-ffeod

wilnian (118), desire. [See Chaucer, Knighfs Tale 751.] win (47), wine. [<Lat. vinum;
Ger. Wein.~]

wesan

(51. 5), nation. (138, 187), be.

wind (43), wind. [Ger. Wind.] windan (III. 104), fly about. [Ger.
windig
wine
winden, Mod. Eng. wind.'} (57, 146), windy. [Ger.
windig.]
(44. 2, 4), friend.

westan, from
west-saj (43;
west.

the west.
51.

&), sea on the

wic

(47),

dwelling.

[Cf.

Mod.

Eng. bailiwick;
Lat. vicus, Gr.

cognate

with wine-ffearfende (61), needing a
friend.
[Cf. ffearf.]

of/cos.]

wician

(118),

visit,

lodge, sojourn.

win-geard

(43), vineyard.

[< wic.] wid (58), wide.
wide

winnan
[Ger. weit.~\
(trav-

(III. 104), struggle, toil.

(70), ividely, far.

winstre winter
storm.

(60),
(43.

left.

5),

winter

(year};

wid-ferende (61), traveling eler} from a distance.
tensive.

[Ger. Winter.]
(57, 146), winter,

winterlic
try.

win-

wid-fceffme (59), capacious, ex[See faeffm.]

wlr
wis

wid-gill (58), extensive ; spacious. wid-gilnes (51. 5; 144), extent, compass. wielm (wylm, wselm) (43), boiling, swelling, surging. [See weallan, and Mod. Eng. whelm.'} wierdan (113), mar, injure.

[Ger. winterlichJ} (43), wire. (58; 155. e), wise.
(118), point out.
true.

[Ger.

weise.]

wisian

[Ger.

weisen.]

wislic (57, 146), wise,

wist
[Cf.

(51.

&),

provisions,

food,

wesan.]

VOCABULARY.
witan
(126), know.

323

[Mod. Eng.
cf.

to wit, Ger.

wissen ;

Chaucer,
1. 3.

woruld (51. 1, 3; 26; 20), world; in woruld worulde, for ever
and ever. woruld-bisgu
occupation.
(51.

K. T. 402, Spenser, F. Q.

6.]

witan
wite

102), blame, censure. [Cf. Spenser, F. Q. 2. 12. 16.]
(I.

a),

worldly
art,

(48), punishment, torture. [Cf. witan.]

penalty,

woruld-craeft (43), secular
secular occupation.
1

witga

(53), prophet (psalmist?).

witodlice
wiff,

(uutedlice)
(hostility)

(70),

.

in-

deed, truly.

with

;

against;
;

(51. 6), worldly honor, worldly dignity. woruld-Hf (47) worldly life. woruld-sped (51. b), worldly suc,

woruld-ge-ffyngS

cess. toward; in return for. [Not to be confounded with mid cf. wr^ccean (114), awake, arouse.

withstand.]

wreon

(I.

102), clothe.

wiSer- (142).
wifrer-trod (47), retreat.

wr$$jan
(53), adversary.

(118), support, uphold.

wrigon, see wreon.

wifrer-winna

wudu
reest,

(45), forest, wood.

wifr-innan, within. wiff-sacan (VI. 107
nounce,.

wudu-bearu
;

(-bearo) (43. 7), for-

164.

m),

grove.
(47), glory, splendor.
(43), king of of majesty. [Cf.

wuldor
(VI.
107),

wiff-standan
stand.

with-

wuldor-cyning
glory, king Ps. 24. 7.]

wiff-ffingian (118), talk with, speak to. [Cf. Mod. Eng. hustings."]

wuldor-dream

wlanc (58), proud, lordly. wl^ncu (51. a), pomp, splendor. glory. wuldor-spedig (57, 146), glorious. [< wlanc, by 16.] wlite (44), beauty. [Cf. and- wuldor-9'rym(m) (43), glorious
wlita.]
majesty.

(43), heavenly joy, heavenly rapture (lit. glory-joy). wuldor- faeder (43. 8), father of

wlite-beorht (58), beautiful. wlitig (57, 146), beautiful, comely.

wuldrian
celebrate.

(118), glorify, magnify,

woleen

(47),

cloud.

[Cf.

Ger.

wulf

(43, 24), wolf.

[Ger. Wolf.]

Wolke, Mod. Eng. welkin.} wolde, see willan.

wund

(58),

wounded, sore.

[Ger.

wund.]

WQim,

see

warm.
weeping (tears).
[Ger. Wort.}
(47, 147), treasury

wundenlocc

wop

(43),

wundor

word

(47), word.

Wunder.]

(58), curly-haired. (47. 1), wonder. [Ger.
(57, 146),

word-hord
words.

of wundorlic
of

wonderful.

[Cf. Ger. Hort.}
(53,

[Ger. wunderlich.]

word-loca
words.

147),

coffer

wundorlice

wondrously. (70) [Cf. Chaucer, Prol. 84.]
,

worhte,

see

wyrcean.

wundrian

(118), wonder.

[Ger.

worn

(43), multitude.

wundern.]

324

VOCABULARY.
(51.

wuniaii (118), dwell, remain, live. wyrt-ge-m$ngnes [Ger. wohnen ; cf. Chaucer, Prol. spice.
388, Spenser, F. Q. 2.
1.

5;

147),

51.]

wyscan
schen.]

(113), wish.

[Ger. wiin-

warning

(51. 3), dwelling.
cf.

[Ger.

Wohnung ;

Chaucer, Prol.

606, Spenser, F. Q. 6. 5. 13.] wurdon, see weorlffaii.

Y.
yean, see iecan.
yfel (57), yfel (47),
evil,
evil.
\_ubel.~\

waton,

see uton.

wicked, bad.

[Ger.

wyllan, see willan.

wylm, see wyn-sum
pleasant.

\vielm.
(57,

yfele (70),

evil,

wrongly.

146),

winsome,

ymb(e),

about.
(113), embrace. 110), surround.
(43), compass,
cir-

[Ger.

wonnesam.]

ymb-

(142).

wyn-sumlice

wyrcean
work;
and

(70), winsomely. (114; 161; 184. a),

ymb-clyppan

do;

construct,

ymb-hon (R. make, ymb-hwyrft
cuit; orbit.

build; yield. Chaucer,
1901.]

[Cf. Ger. wirken,

Knight's
craftsman,

Tale

ymb-hycgean
ymb-seJQan ymb-sittan
around.

(124), consider.

wyrhta

(53),

work-

(114), envelop; beset. (V. 106, 142), sit
(115.
a),

man, maker. [Cf. wyrcean; Mod. Eng. -wright (see Chaucer,
Prol. 614).]

ymb-trymman
round.

sur-

wyrm

(43),

worm.

[Ger.

Wurm.] ymb-utan,
;

wyrm-cynn (47), kind of worms. wyrt (51. 1),. herb. [Mod. Eng.

about, around. yrre, see ierre.

yff (51. b 30), wave, billow, flood. [Cf. Lat. unda, and 30.] wort; cf. Ger. Wurz, Wurzel, Gewurz, and Chaucer, Nun's yff-bord (47), ship ? Priest's Tale 401.] yff-lad (51. 6; 215), billow-road.

wyrt-ge-mang
NOTE.

(47), spice.

yaP-lid (47, 215), ship.

The EWS. forms

Other sees, dat. sai, ace. sae. nom. ace. sses, sse, dat. saiuin,

of sae (p. 310) are: sing. nom. sai, gen. forms are sing. gen. dat. ssewe ; plur.
:

sanvam.

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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE METHODS
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By CHARLES MILLS GAYLEY,

CRITICISM.

Professor of the English Language and Literature

in the University of California, and FRED SCOTT, Junior Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Michigan.

NEWTON

Volume
Volume

I.

THE BASES IN AESTHETICS AND POETICS.
Cloth.

I2mo.
II.

587 pages.

For introduction, $1.25.
[In preparation.

LITERARY TYPES.

Consulting the needs both of special students of criticism

and of those who desire a working basis for the critical study of Literature as related to Art, this work aims to cover, in a helpful
Literary Theory. of each chapter embraces (i) a discussion of such problems as the topic in hand presents for consideration, (2) a comprehensive bibliography, with critical commentary on each important reference, (3) suggestions for special investigation. While the work is not intended to set forth any special system of criticism, being rather a clue to the sources which will acquaint the student with any or all systems, yet some pains has been

way, the

field of

The plan

taken to distinguish, in the commentary, those theories which are thought to rest upon a sound scientific and aesthetic basis.

Following are the subjects of the chapters in Volume I. i. Theory of Criticism 2. History of Criticism 3. Theory of Art 6. Comparative Litera4. Development of Art 5. Theory of Literature ture 8. The Historical Study of Poetry 7. Theory of Poetry 9. The Historical Study of Poetics; 10. Principles of Versification. Appendix:
: ;
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Bibliography of Aristotle's Poetics. The volume contains a full and carefully classified index to authors and works.

The chapters of Volume II. the following subjects
:

upon LITERARY TYPES cover
;

The Theory and History of the Lyric the Theory and History of the Epic the Theory of Tragedy the Dramatic Problem (Conception, Collision, and Catastrophe), the Construction (Ancient and Modern Canons of Unity and Technique), the Effect (Classified theories of the Catharsis) the Theory of Comedy the Historic Development of the Drama Minor Types of Poetry Prose and its Artistic Types the Theory and History of Romance and Novel Phrases of Literary
; :

;

;

;

;

;

;

Classicism, Romanticism; Realism, Idealism; Modern Development: Volume II. is in preparation. Literary Movements. [

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Outline of the Philosophy of English Literature
BY WHITE, A.M., B.D., Author of "A Sketch of the Philosophy of A merican Literature?

GREENOUGH
I
:

Part

The Middle Ages.
price, $1.00.

12mo. Cloth. vi + 266 pages. Introduction

THE

motive of this treatise

is

to determine the

bounds of the

great historical divisions of English literature, to discover the salient features, the peculiar characteristics of each epoch, to trace the connection in thought between each, and to view all
against a background of European history, literature, and art. It is believed that the causes of historic change, the principles that control the succession of ages, the revolutions of thought, so that sentiment, and action, are here clearly discriminated in this little book, in a word, a sound philosophy of mediaeval
;

history

is

suggested.

J. Courthope, Professor of Poetry at the University of Oxford: would be quite impertinent in me to criticise the manner in which the work has been executed, but I may be allowed to express my admiration of the orderly manner in which its very diverse materials are arranged and of the agreeable style in which the narrative is conducted. To accomplish this result in so vast a subject as English literature as a whole is in itself a proof of the most skillful workmanship, and I cannot too strongly express my conviction that this comprehensive survey is based upon sound knowledge and just reasoning. Edward Dowden, Professor of English, Trinity College, Dublin : It interested me much, and seemed to me something new and needful, not merely a work of erudition, but a contribution towards interpreting the results of erudition a book not merely of knowledge, but of ideas. I as an elucidation of knowledge Especially on this ground value the work. The way in which it keeps the European movement present to the reader's mind, with England as having a part in it, is of

W.

It

.

.

.

great importance.

Edmund Gosse, Author of a" History of English Literature in the Eighteenth Century" etc. : I have read the book with pleasure. It appears to me to deal freshly and brilliantly with the old, worn lines of
history.

Leslie Stephen, Author of 11 Hours in a Library good, the style is good, and the matter interesting.

"

etc. :

The

design

is

Alois Brandl, Professor of English at the University of Berlin: voll allgemeiner Bildung sich zeigt drei Viertel [?] der Darstellung gelten politischen oder kontinentalen Verhaltnissen. Gefallen hat mir eine Bemerkung iiber Chaucers 'gentle pile' und ' ' pilous joye (S. 81-2).

Whites Buch

.

.

.

GINN & COMPANY,

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REFERENCE BOOKS ON POETRY
A
Book
Selected and edited by FELIX E. of Elizabethan Lyrics. SCHELLING, Professor of English Literature in the University of Pennsylvania. 327 pages. For introduction, $1.12.

Old English Ballads. Selected and edited by Professor F. B. GUMMERE of Haverford College. 380 pages. For introduction, $1.25.
Introduction to the Poetry of Robert Browning. By WILLIAM J. ALEXANDER, Professor of English, University College, Toronto. 212 pages. For introduction, $1.00.

Hudson's Text-Book of Poetry. By HENRY N. HUDSON. Selections from Wordsworth, Coleridge, Burns, Beattie, Goldsmith, and Thomson. With Lives and Notes. Cloth. 704 pages. For
introduction, $1.25.

Sidney's Defense of Poesy.

Edited by ALBERT S. COOK, Professor of the English Language and Literature in Yale University. 103 pages. For introduction, 80 cents.

Shelley's Defense of Poetry. Edited by Professor 86 pages. For introduction, 50 cents.

ALBERT

S.

COOK.

Cardinal

Poetry. With reference to Aristotle's Edited by Professor ALBERT S. COOK. 36 pages. For introduction, 30 cents.

Newman's Essay on

Poetics.

The Art

The Poetical Treatises of Horace, Vida, and with the translations by Howes, Pitt, and Soame. Edited by Professor ALBERT S. COOK. 214 pages. For introof Poetry.
Boileau,

duction, $1.12.

Addison's Criticisms on Paradise Lost. Edited by Professor S. COOK. 200 pages. For introduction, $1.00.

ALBERT
S.

What

is

COOK.

Poetry ? By Leigh Hunt.. Edited by Professor ALBERT 98 pages. For introduction, 50 cents.

A Primer

of English Verse. By HIRAM CORSON, Professor of English For introduction, Literature in Cornell University. 232 pages. of Poetics.

$1.00.

A

Hand-Book

By FRANCIS

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GUMMERE,

Professor of

English Literature in Haverford College.
duction, $1.00.

250 pages.

For

intro-

Characteristics of the English Poets, from Chaucer to Shirley. WILLIAM MINTO. For introduction, $1.50.

By

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BOOKS ON ENGLISH LITERATURE
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"Forms of Discourse"
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teaching of formal rhetoric has been emphasized to such an extent that in many schools it forms the

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pupil
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The book has
tion

a practical value in
It is

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one of the few text-books

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is

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academy

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THE FORMS OF DISCOURSE
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Instructor in Rhetoric in the University of Wisconsin.
12mo, Cloth. 356 pages, For introduction, $1,15,

THIS text-book, for high schools and colleges, presents the subject of Rhetoric with special emphasis on Invention. The author believes that most courses in elementary rhetoric
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little

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Style

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but com-

pletely treated in

an introductory chapter, brevity being

gained by giving only enough examples to make plain the A student needs to be cautioned regardauthor's meaning.
ing the use of slang, and hints as to the relative merits of loose and periodic sentences but he also needs a training that will help him, in writing on a given subject for a parti;

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Narration, Description, Exposition, Argumentation, and Persuasion are fully discussed and carefully chosen examples of each are given for analysis and special study, thus obviating the need for a separate book of selections.
;

prefer to illustrate errors and excellences of style from the student's own composition, rather than from stock examples, will find in this
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work everything necessary

for a high-school or elementary course in Rhetoric. The book may, however, be used, college if desired, in connection with one of the many excellent
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Instructor in English Literature at Yale University.

12mo,

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book is a study of the germs of English Romanticism between 1725 and 1765. No other work in this field has ever been published, hence
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the influence of Milton's minor poetry, the love of mediaeval life, the revival of ballad literature, the study
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;

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The treatment

historical rather

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HUDSON'S SHAKESPEARE
For School and Home Use.

BY

HENRY

N.

HUDSON,

LL.D.,

Author of "The Life, Art, and Characters of Shakespeare" Editor of " The Harvard Shakespeare" etc.

Revised and enlarged Editions of twenty-three Plays. Carefully expurgated, with explanatory Notes at the bottom of the page, and critical Notes at the end of each volume. One play in each volume. Square i6mo. Varying in size from 128 to 253 pages. Mailing price of each:
cloth, 50 cents; paper, 35 cents. Introduction price, cloth, 45 cents; paper, 30 cents. Per set (,in box), $10.00.

Why is Hudson's Shakespeare the standard in a majority of the best schools where the greatest attention is paid to this subject ? Because Dr. Hudson was the ablest Shakespearean scholar America has ever
His introductions to the plays of Shakespeare are well worth the price of the volume. He makes the characters almost living flesh and blood, and creates a great interest on the part of the student and a love for Shakespeare's works, without which no special progress can be

known.

made.

Whoever can command
is

author or his works

the interest of the pupil in a great the person who renders the greatest service.
is

The

list

of plays in Hudson's School Shakespeare
Henry Henry Henry Henry
the Fourth, Part the Fourth, Part the Fifth. the Eighth.
Juliet.
I.
II.

as follows

:

A Midsummer Night's Drettm. The Merchant of Venice. Much Ado about Nothing. As You Like It.
The Tempest. King John. Richard the Second. Richard the Third.

Macbeth.

Antony and Cleopatra.
Othello.

Cymbeline.
Coriolanus.

Romeo and
Hamlet.

Julius Ccesar.

Twelfth Night. The Winter's Tale.

King Lear.

lish Literature,

The

C. T. Winchester, Professor of EngWesleyan University:

notes and comments in the school edition are admirably fitted to the need of the student, removing his difficulties by stimulating his interest and quickening his
perception.

Hiram Corson, Professor of English Literature, Cornell University: I conThe sider them altogether excellent. notes give all the aid needed for an underof the text, without waste and standing
distraction
of the

student's mind.

The

introductory matter to the several plays especially worthy of approbation.

is

We invite correspondence with all who are

interested in the

study of Shakespeare in the class-room.

GINN & COMPANY,
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PE 135

C6 1900

Cook, Albert Stanburrough A first book in Old 2d ed. rev. and enl, English

PLEASE

DO NOT REMOVE
FROM
THIS

CARDS OR

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POCKET

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