D200 Catalog

A. SHAFTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION Shafts are used to transmit motion, torque and/or power in any combination.They are also subject to lateral loads. These can be constant or fluctuating. The sizing of shafts, therefore, is usually determined as a function of torsionally Induced stresses (shear stresses), bending stresses (tensile or compressive stresses) and the nature of the load (constant or fluctuating). 2.0 DETERMINATION OF STRESSES FOR SOLID CYLINDRICAL SHAFTS (a) Nomenclature Let d = shaft diameter, in. H.P. = horsepower Km = shock factor for bending loads Kt = shock factor for torsional loads M = bending moment, In-lbs. N = revolutions per minute (RPM) S = shear stress, lbs/in² Smax = maximum allowable shear stress, lbs/in² T = torque, in-lbs. Tmax = maximum allowable torque, In-lbs. (b) Relation Between Torque and Horsepower T = 63,025 (H.P.) N (c) Torsional Loading For shafts under steady torsional loads (and no bending loads), d= (5.09 T)1/3 (2) S In the particular case of a shaft in which Smax = 12,000 psi (for example in the case of #303 stainless steel and a gradually applied load), equations (1) and (2) can be combined to yield: Tmax = 2353 d3 and (H.P.)max = 0.037 d3N (3) (4) (1)

Table 1 shows maximum safe torsional loads based on #303 stainless steel with Smax = 12,000 psi and a gradually applied load: T12

0 (5) If we arbitrarily consider only minor shock loads and assume that Km = Kt = (2)½ ≅ 1. etc. (d) Combined Torsional and Bending Loads Combined bending and torsion arises as a result of component weight.0 1.TABLE 1 MAXIMUM SAFE TORSIONAL LOADS BASED ON #303 STAINLESS STEEL WITH Smax = 12.1 ((KmM)² + (KtT)² )1/2]1/3 Smax where the values of the shock factors (Km.38 1/4 36.60 5/32 8.93 3/16 15.000 PSI AND GRADUALLY APPLIED LOAD Shaft Diameter (inches) Tmax 1/16 0. gear-tooth forces.56 3/32 1. sudden load Heavy shocks.46 3/8 124. In that case shaft size can be determined from the equation: d = [ 5.64 7/32 24. Kt) are given in the following table: TABLE 2 SHOCK FACTORS VS.0—1.000 psi.5—3. sudden heavy loads Km 1. belt tension.1 1/2 295 The maximum torques in this table can be converted to horsepower for a given value of N (RPM) by the power Nomogram given in the Designer Data Section of this book.41 and (as before) Smax 12.0 1.5 1.77 5/16 71. the combined allowable bending and torsional moments can be related to shaft size as shown in the following table: T13 .0 Kt 1.0 2.0—3.89 1/8 4. TYPE OF LOAD Type of Load Gradually applied load Minor shocks.4—2.

5 25. 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 Moment Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending Tortion Bending 0 0.804 1.396 0 1.60 1.P. (315) Referring to Table 3 (Combined Loading).325 3.3 40.06 50.2 698.9 104 181 203.362 0.5 85.2 26.2 70.8 168 243.31 4.6 40.5 5.975 3.73 15.8 10.4 200 121.2 192 162.803 2.44 10.02 ) = 4 in-lbs.4 20.342 0.317 0.2 491.11 10.238 0.3 13.23 1.3 280.4 10.938 0.8 387.53 23.P.42 4.25 0 6. and the diameters given in the tables have to be increased by 15%.8 10.06 6.396 0 1. From equation (1).8 244.86 3.268 1.47 5.28 2.4 177.1 2.670 1.5 324. T = 63.5 0 87.28 1.18 2.72 17.7 43.6 0.134 1.5 2.079 0. the load application being sudden.88 6.56 8. (actual 4.16 16. If there were no bending moment and the load were to be applied gradually (Km = Kt = 1) Table 1 shows that a 1/8” shaft diameter would be sufficient.4 36.8 0.80 24.07 1.82 10.0 607.8 20.1 421.7 62.60 14.78 8.9 351.52 5.6 404.119 0. Example A 1/50th H.4 0.632 6.2 93.236 1.32 0 11.98 2.44) together with an allowable bending moment in excess of 6 in-lbs.9 38.34 0 3.28 0.1 0 17.07 0.6 421.8 30.88 15.0 12.5 0 87.9 0.30 2.31 0.0 561.0 0 50.8 13.3 35.2 43.89 6.4 30.77 87.63 2.76 9.2 0 702 0.5 631.4 11.000 psi.02 3.51 7.3 45.5 0.1 80.2 0 26.8 75.44 16.402 1.9 1.025 (H.6 17.8 305.3 83.95 2.92 1.6 166.7 0 208 0 406.4 127.8 5.4 52.4 372.20 25.4 687.0 351.86 12.2 46.16 1.3 6.79 5.6 20.60 3.68 2.60 25.650 3. (actual 10.378 0.20 1.66 8.6 669.) N = ( 63.8 15.2 0 702 0 If AISI 1213 steel is used.58 13.79 4.8 5. motor drives a shaft rotating at 315 RPM and is subject to a bending moment of 6 in-lbs.9 0.4 187.0 0 50.34 0 3.317 0.09 1.6 145.3 Inch-Pounds 0. T14 f .3 0.6 325.1 49.2 0 26.4 23.536 1.8 3.55 9.3) first occurs for a 3/16" shaft diameter. we find that the combination of an allowable torsional moment in excess of 4 in-lbs.26 6.040 0.2 290.6 207.21 0. Determine shaft size for a #303 stainless steel shaft.1 0.99 4.388 0.2 561.4 83.19 78.159 0.9 41.7 0 208.7 20.TABLE 3 TABLE OF COMBINED LOADING OF SHAFTS (Based on #303 stainless Steel With Smax = 12.4 70.5 7.572 2.283 0.4 62.4 40.1 0 17.05 3.2 48.77 7.6 151 284.025) (0.22 10. Smax = 8000 psi.198 0.5 365.8 643.4 501.394 0.3 8.25 0 6.0 0 406.173 1.95 5.5 7.6 205 81.43 5.16 5.7 18.8 15.5 35.2 18.2 398 140.5 210.8 15.33 0.953 2.24 0.356 0.6 70.2 124.1 61.0 22. end Minor Shocks) Shaft Dia.277 0.2 52.32 0 11.33 10.

Equating this ratio for both the hollow shaft and the equivalent solid shaft of diameter deq we have: π (d04 — d14) = πd3 eg. Mises—Hencky etc.). New Jersey. Various failure theories have been proposed (e. All of these result in formulas involving both the average loading and the reversing component of the loading.M.F. N. Third Edition.0 HOLLOW CYLINDRICAL SHAFTS In the case of hollow cylindrical shafts under torsion and/or bending. Third Edition. McGraw. Shigley: “Mechanical Engineering Design”. we can convert the design calculation to that for an equivalent solid shaft of the same material by noting that the stress is inversely proportional to the ratio of moment of inertia (of the shaft cross-section) to shaft radius. New York. 1970. as well as cold-drawn precision low-carbon steel shafts are available from SDP. To size such a shaft for torsional and/or bending loads. d0. as featured in our catalog. McGraw-I-fill. (ii) J.Hill..Y. case hardened stainless steel (440C) and thru hardened stainless steel (416) is being offered for use with bronze and needle bearings. Chapter 3. 1961. Agreement with experiment varies depending on the nature of the material and failure mode.Y..g. nominal and oversize dimensions. (e) Combined Torsional and Bending Loads for Fluctuating Loads With Stress Reversal In such cases fatigue failure governs the design. Third Edition.E. N. For a fuller treatment the reader is referred to the following literature: (i) R. Suppose a hollow shaft has an outside diameter. New York. we have: deq = ( d04 — d14 )1/3 d0 (6) T15 . Spotts: “Design of Machine Elements”. Chapter 6. Englewood Cliffs. and an inside diameter. 1977. 3. (iii) M. Prentice-Hall. Soderberg. A new line of case hardened steel (C1060).Precision ground stainless steel shafts in undersize. we can proceed as follows. 32d0 32 Solving for deq. dj. Chapter 13. The equations resulting from these several theories also involve yield-point stresses and endurance limits and the various considerations governing the applicability of a particular set of equations extends beyond the scope of this discussion. Phelan “Fundamentals of Mechanical Design”.

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