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Aquacultural Engineering 45 (2011) 103–108

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Aquacultural Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/aqua-online

Effect of pressure and pH in ammonium retention for nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes to be used in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS)
Beatriz Cancino-Madariaga a,∗ , Carlos Felipe Hurtado b,1 , Rene Ruby a
a b

School of Food Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Waddington 716, Valparaiso, Chile School of Marine Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Altamirano 1480, Valparaíso, Chile

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Recirculation systems are becoming widely used in the aquaculture industry, where ammonium removal results are crucial for a proper performance considering its high toxicity on fish. The objective of this study was to assess the ammonium retention, when the transmembrane pressure (TMP) in nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are changed. Two pH levels were tested: pH 5, where ammonium is as NH4+ , and pH 7 which is an average of the most common range in aquaculture (pH 6–8). In this study a model solution of ammonium–water and commercial membranes of polyamide supplied by Alfa Laval (DSSHR98PP) and Dow (NF90, NF200 and NF270) were used, with a membrane area of 0.01018 m2 . A critical TMP was determined, where the repulsive electrochemical forces at the active layer were exceeded by the transmembrane pressure, causing an irreversible decrease of the retention values. The maximum TMP values for NF and RO membranes were 16 bar and 24.5 bar, respectively. Ammonium retention at pH 7 was higher than pH 5 for all assessed membranes before the critical TMP was reached, with average values of 100, 99.7, 98.4 and 87.5% for membranes NF90, DSSHR98PP, NF200 and NF270, respectively. It may be concluded the ammonium retention mechanism in the studied membranes basically corresponds to an electrochemical mechanism, where pH and critical TMP influence the retention values of ammonium. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 15 January 2011 Accepted 5 August 2011 Keywords: Nanofiltration Aquaculture Ammonium removal Reverse osmosis

1. Introduction Hatchery’s production may be done in open systems as well as in closed systems, these last ones are known as recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). RAS recirculate a specific rate of the water that goes in the system and present, among others, the following advantages: lower standards of water consumption, concentration of the residue that is produced in its interior, lower discharges of wastewater into the environment, higher standards in biosecurity and independence on the production unit’s location. It is widely known that production units used to be attached to places where water had high quality according to the needs of each culture (Merino et al., 2009). This is no longer necessary on RAS as the system provides itself with the specific environment requested. To maintain water’s optimum quality according to the requirements and established uses, control of critical parameters as dissolved oxygen concentration, nitrogenous compounds concentration – specially the ammonium (NH3 )–, CO2 concentration,

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +56 32 2274226. E-mail addresses: beatriz.cancino@ucv.cl (B. Cancino-Madariaga), felipe.hurtado@ucv.cl (C.F. Hurtado). 1 Tel.: +56 32 2274264; fax: +56 32 2274264. 0144-8609/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.aquaeng.2011.08.002

temperature, pH, and total solid concentration, is necessary. Nitrogenous compounds, such as ammonium and ammonia, represent the main rejected catabolites through gills and feces of fish, as they result in highly toxic for the organism (Ali et al., 2010; Qin et al., 2005). Therefore, they need to be rapidly eliminated from the RAS and especially from closed systems, as they cause damage at the cellular level, as well as gas exchange problems at the respiration level in the fish gills (Breton, 2007). The industry has given a solution to this problem by generating biological treatment systems (Biofiltration) that are currently available in the market as a unique technology for aquaculture, becoming one of the most important processes in a RAS (Timmons et al., 2002; GutierrezWing and Malone, 2006). Biofiltration can be highly effective on controlling ammonium (which is the main objective of our study), in comparison with water’s gradual changeover process. This process, biofiltration, depends exclusively on two groups of autotrophic bacterium that participate jointly and perform nitrification (Chen et al., 2006). In biofiltration, nitrifying bacterium normally coexist with heterotrophic microorganisms, protozoa and micrometazoa, that biologically metabolize degradable organic compounds (Davidson et al., 2008). Heterotrophic bacterium grows significantly faster than nitrifying bacterium and prevails over them, competing for space and oxygen in biofilters when concentration on dissolved

ultrafiltration.. the means of support used has to balance a large specific area with a voids ratio in media big enough for an appropriate hydraulic behavior. but makes the biofilters capacity on removing ammonium decidedly dependent on the total available area for nitrifying bacterium development. 1994). In nanofiltration process (NF). the particle. Furthermore its been shown. 1998). monovalent salts and small organic compounds from divalent ions to bigger compounds (Van Reis and Zydney. which represented one of the few papers in this area and one of the few prototypes at pilot scale. turbulence levels. the lower the permeation (Nilsson et al. it was drew towards the membrane creating a positively charged layer that allowed the repulsion of the ammonium ion. Once the nitrogen concentration in the storage tank exceeded a limit value. The ion charge exclusion depends on the membrane charges. size exclusion depends on the membrane structure: the denser the structure. obtaining a maximal retention of 85. Compared to other traditional techniques. ammonium and nitrite concentration. there are no investigations for removal of ammonium in fresh water aquaculture with an application of nanofiltration membranes. removing the ammoniacal compounds. (2005) presented one of the first papers on ammonium removal using RO. The paper shows a promising and successful system. Cancino-Madariaga et al. as a “back up” or as a self standing answer. thus showing significant variations in the removal efficiency. (2007) investigated the use of RO system for aquaculture wastewater. The above referenced data. According to the authors’ literature review. Few investigations have approached its potential use in aquaculture systems. Permeate was recirculated to the fish tank and the concentrate was sent to the storage tank to be reprocessed with new wastewater coming from the fish tank. In 2010. Among classic membrane processes used in water’s industry. alkalinity. this explains why biofilters must be carefully designed to avoid limitation by oxygen. They obtained removal rate between 90% and 97%... and positively charged for low pH conditions (Tanninen et al. 2008). Further studies in the topic would help to comprehensively understand the complete process. the brine discharge was produced. respectively. the results of our investigation could be satisfactory in RAS. The membrane charge is positive under the isoelectric point. the charge separation or exclusion is mainly based on the charge differences of the species to be separated (Donnan effect). Ionic force and ion valence influence the membrane charge density and the isoelectric point. NF membranes are usually negative charged for neutral (pH 7) and alkaline conditions. becomes a potential technology for aquaculture in terms of ammonium ion removal. In this paper we proposed. the possible alternative use of these last two membrane processes in RAS as a complementary solution to ammonium removal due to the characteristics of their processes. such as the membrane processes. due to their low hydration radius. On the other hand. They evaluated both. an adsorption by competition between positive and negative ions would occur in the membrane’s functional hydrophobic groups.104 B. 2006). Qin et al. 2001). This forces not only to maintain water in biofilters as clean – with the lowest total solid concentration – as possible (Wheaton et al. we can describe four of them according to their higher or lower selectivity rates as: microfiltration. Such characteristics involve a marked difference from the biological filtration processes depending on microorganism such as bacteria. Ali et al. in marine water. 2007). Bearing this in mind. On the other hand. 2000. and negative above it. however Bódalo et al. membrane processes involve advantages like the possibility of combination with other auxiliary processes for water treatment without affecting the quality. due to the amount of papers lately presented. / Aquacultural Engineering 45 (2011) 103–108 and particulated organic material is high (>40 mg/L).49% at 4 bar. trying to connect the shear rate with the molecular orientation to produce better membranes for aquaculture applications. this has promoted the interest for new technological alternatives.. (2005) prepared their own polyethersulfone (PES) membrane to test fish wastewater coming directly from a sand filter. Liu et al. this phenomenon will represent a stronger effort when trying to maintain a maximum efficiency. pH. given the characteristics and exclusion mechanisms that occur in membrane process. such as its application on drinking water production processes. which are unable to respond immediately to changes in the water quality and even more when their behavior and efficiency is strongly affected by the quality of the water. 2010). Later. then. being ammonium a cation. Nanofiltration process. (2005) working with the University of Hawaii group. This study is aimed to assess the performance of nanofiltration membranes. In order to reach it. They found that shear rate in the preparation of the membrane influences the behavior of the membrane related with the retention factor of ammonia–nitrogen compounds.. NF membranes having a pore size smaller than ultrafiltration and bigger than RO. nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. molecule or ion exclusion is achieved through charge and size exclusion methods (Seidel et al. can widely separate solvents. have complicated biological treatment systems. Therefore.7% and 96. This phenomenon is known as “binding site of counterions” which can be classified as a type of adsorption in the membrane’s surface mainly related to electrostatic interactions. some authors commonly acknowledge that. Chen et al. a fact that is characteristic of nanofiltration membranes and dielectric mechanisms. organic matter and hydraulic matter rate (Satoh et al. preferential adsorption occurs with higher probabilities in hydrophobic areas (Childress and Elimelech. 2000) and a great capacity to integrate technology through automation processes (Bodzek and Konieczny. 2005). This is possible ever since the nanofiltration membranes can operate under low pressure and could be more profitable in comparison with RO membranes on certain applications. evaluating the ammonium retention (AR) and permeation flow per membrane area unit (Flux) at different . mainly because of its concentration of NaCl. However. with high presence of NaCl. Furthermore. Although this mechanism works with both types of water. the potential exploitation of this technology seems closer when using fresh water than marine water. The presence of positive and negatively charged groups on the membrane’s surface causes a rise of electrostatic interaction phenomena between the surface and the dissolved ions. NaCl has a stronger affinity with the membrane and it can generate a charge in its surface due to simultaneous acid–base dissociation processes of hydrophilic functional groups. salinity.. Other parameters that affect nitrification capacity are: dissolved oxygen (DO). However. This discharge was treated in a different reactor. In fact. the retention of total ammonium compounds and phosphorous.. 2004. among others. shear rate was studied in their own prepared PES membrane by Ali with other collaborators (Ali et al. that the use of nanofiltration to remove other molecules and ions in water treatments has importantly raised and turned into several implementations. 1998). ammonium removal in marine water would be lower in comparison with levels reached under the same process in fresh water.. by the results of our experimental and evaluative research. Inevitably. Bandini. ionic adsorption may occur in the membrane’s surface specifically because of electrostatic interactions. They treated part of the brine coming from the tank with fish in a close circuit with RO. and on swine production treatments. began to study in a pilot unit the recirculation of water and the removal of nitrogen using reverse osmosis membranes (RO). temperature. 1996). low field and space requirements (Paugam et al. excessive solids charge or high biochemical demand on oxygen or ammonium (Rusten et al.. the ionic force and the ion valence. added to legal environmental and production restrictions in increase.

RESUN. The TMP applied was 1380 kPa. 2.3.4 ± 1. Total recirculation system at stationary condition for the different experiences.25% at 3. 2. (1) (Cheryan. 2010. This will permit to infer the operational parameters from the flow requirements and maximum ammonium levels according to the culture stages and processes of different species.. Each membrane was washed and conditioned according to a protocol developed in our lab. To impulse the flow. The washing protocol included: step 1: cleaning the membrane with pure water (distilled water with conductivity lower than 5 S/cm).. 2009).5 (NaCl)b Reference Tang et al. DSHR98PP is a polyamide thin film composite membrane (Bódalo et al. Ecolab) at 0. Tang et al. The compaction was made at 15 bar during 1 h using pure distilled water with a conductivity below 5 S/cm at 20 ◦ C.3 n/i % Retention 94.3 30 32.1. b Permeability was assessed through MilliQ water and retention was done using a NaCl (10 mM) solution at pH 7. (2009) Bellona and Drewes (2005) Bellona and Drewes (2005) Sjömana et al.B. The membrane compaction is important to maintain the flow conditions during the normal use of the membranes. Two pH were studied.3a −6. Isoelectric point 3.3. (2): RM = m (2) is the viscosity of water with m as the slope of the curve J vs. c MgSO4 2000 mg/L at 4. (2009) Tanninen et al. (2009) n/i.001 (Pa s). Emparanza. (2) high pressure pump.9 63. RM can be obtained directly using the slope of the J vs. A test using pH and conductivity was then done.7 ± 1. Germany). 2007.. NF membranes from Dow are membranes with an active polyamide layer. USA and DSHR98PP provide by Alfa Laval. 3. (2004) Bódalo et al. NF 200 and NF 270 from Dow Liquid Separations. step 2: cleaning the membrane with Ultrasil 10® (Henkel.8 (NaCl) n/i >97.01 mg/L and a typical EMC deviation of ±0.02.5 (NaCl)b 95 (NaCl) 60 (NaCl) > 97% (MgSO4 )c 56.8 bar. (2007). 2009).5. J= PT − ˘ (RM + RF + RCP ) (1) where J is the flux. using Eq. NF 200 and NF 270 have specifically a semi-aromatic piperazine-based polyamide as active layer with Table 1 Characteristics of the commercial polyamide membranes used. Equipment All experiments were carried out under a total recirculation mode (Fig. 2004). at 15 ◦ C. When the solution is pure water. 3. because at pH 5 the ammonium is as NH4+ form and because pH 7 is the average of the normal values used in aquaculture systems. Denmark. and included some modifications done at the Laboratories of the PUCV (Chile). PT is the transmembrane pressure. RCP is the concentration–polarization resistance.3 30 n/i Zeta potential (mV) −37a n/i n/i −41. each membrane was compacted after the washing. is the viscosity and is the osmotic pressure. e Results obtained during steaming potential experiments. series HI-83000) with a resolution of 0. Hilal et al. The temperature remained constant at 15 ± 1 ◦ C during all experiments. that is 0.2 30. pH 5 and pH 7. Membrane NF90 NF200 NF270 DSHR98PP Cut-off (g/mol) n/i 200 300 150–200 n/i n/i Contact angle (◦ ) 44. (Colt. / Aquacultural Engineering 45 (2011) 103–108 105 Permeate Concentrate 4 3 2 3 Feed 1 Fig. 5. Bellona and Drewes (2005) concluded NF 90 membranes are more negatively charged than the NF 200 at pH greater than 5 in presence of 10 mM NaCl or KCl. model C-1500 was used. 2009). as shown in Eq. Cancino-Madariaga et al. .2. step 3: washing the membrane at least three times with pure water until the Ultrasil was removed from the circuit. Permeate ammonium concentration was measured using a multi-parameter photometer (Hanna Instruments. Luo et al.8. 1. 2.6 ± 1.. RF is the fouling resistance.. a high pressure Speck GmbH pump (Germany) working between 0 and 140 bar was included. RF and RCP are zero. Membrane resistance: After the membranes were washed and compacted. transmembrane pressures (TMP) and pH in an ammonium–water model solution at a stationary state.2 3. d Measured by streaming potential measurements through pores (first value) and along the surface (second value). In this case. no information. 2008. Compaction of membranes: According to the protocol previously described. which was developed and designed by the GKSS Research Centre (Geesthacht. and only RM exists.6 Close to pH 4e Close to pH 4e <3. Working conditions All experiments were carried out using an ammonium model solution (Merck. PT . The main characteristics are shown in Table 1. 2006. Cancino et al. a Executed measurement at pH 9. 1998.. the membrane resistance was determined through a recirculation of pure water. Germany) and distilled water with conductivity lower than 5 S/cm. Membranes characteristics and conditioning Four commercial membranes were used: NF 90. Tanninen et al. and to control temperature a Chiller. using a flat stainless steel high pressure cell. Materials and methods 2. maintaining the temperature at 15 ◦ C at different transmembrane pressures. 1). PT curve. −15.9 ± 3. (1) Flat high pressure cell.5 bar with 40 ◦ C during 45 min. (3) manometers and (4) valve.0d at pH 7 n/i polysulfone as support material (Sjömana et al. RM is the membrane resistance. The latter will allow the determination of the maximum TMP the system is able to work before a significant decrease of the AR is observed.

pH5 AR% 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2. Retention of ammonium at a stationary phase. (a) Membrane NF270. 2007). 211.1. the counter-ions site binding on dissociated hydrophilic sites and the third mechanism is the competitive adsorption of anions and cations on the hydrophobic functional groups of the membrane. In this work.6 146.25 × 1013 2.21 × 1014 13 100 80 NF270.0 56. 184. Comparing these RM results with Table 2. while the lowest value was reached by NF270 membrane with a value of 2. One is the acid–basic dissociation of the hydrophilic functional sites of the membrane.6 50. while the lowest values were observed in RO membrane.5 ± 0.58 × 1013 m−1 . Filtration assessment The AR percentage was calculated using Eq. it is used as an illustration of the process in a micro level and a validation of our research results. and for NF 90 they were 57.2. Bruni and Bandini (2009) explained the phenomena through the ADS-AMF model developed by Bandini (2005).0 12.4.21 × 1014 m−1 .2 81. Membrane NF90 NF200 NF270 DSHR98PP B. Processing conditions: 15 ± 1 ◦ C and 6.7 23.51 × 10 5.43 × 1013 and for NF 90 RM is 3. pH7 b AR% 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 TMP (bar) NF200. (2008). it is possible to obtain the RM value of the experiments carried out by Hilal et al.0 69. NF-200 NF-90 DSS-HR98PP Hilal et al. Such difference may lie on the fact that temperature used in Table 3 Flux at different TMP.2.5 24. Hilal et al. As previously mentioned. (3): AR = 1 − Cp Cf × 100 (3) TMP (bar) where Cp and Cf represent the ammonium concentrations (mg/L) in permeate and concentrate. 3. Bandini’s research functions as a deeper explanation on membrane’s structure. related in some points that will be explained with our results.4.9.8 16. pH7 TMP (bar) 15 20 25 30 d AR% 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 NF90. 2. (2008) calculated the pure water flux (L/m2 h) for NF270 and NF 90 membranes without any temperature specification. / Aquacultural Engineering 45 (2011) 103–108 a Resistance (m−1 ) 6. thus producing an easy flow through the membrane. 8 and 9 bar. it can be observed that the range of magnitude is the same and also that the membranes used in this work have higher resistance.4.0 186. depending on the membrane material and also the effect of the solution over the membrane itself. (b) Membrane DSSHR98PP.8 92.0 9.001 Pa s for the viscosity. respectively. the membrane compaction treatment used in our work is higher compared to the 9 bar used by Hilal et al. On this matter. pH5 DSSHR98PP. pH5 TMP (bar) Fig.8 10.7 for 6. For the NF 270 membrane RM is 1. 67. three mechanisms are present. and 236. causing a denser membrane compared to a low pressure treatment. TMP (bar) NF-270 Flux(L/m h) 3. (2). as well as the mentioning of the following studies. pH7 NF90. Results and discussion Table 2 illustrates that the highest membrane resistance (Rm ) was reached by DSS-HR98PP (RO) membrane with a value of 1.4 for the same data of transmembrane pressure. On the other hand.3 106. 76. The results for NF 270 were 157. (c) Membrane NF200 and (d) Membrane NF90. in Table 3 we can see an inverse tendency where the highest flux’s flows are present in NF-270 membrane.3 29. and 86.pH5 c AR% 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 NF200. (2008) was higher. Furthermore. 7.0 57.6 42. Processing these values according to Eq. second. (2008).7 35.106 Table 2 Membrane resistances.5 36. respectively. using 0.0 16.7 2 DSSHR98PP.3 84.5 mg/L of ammonium. These results agree with the different phenomena that could explain the ion retention of the AR. In her model.6 27. . pH7 NF270.7 65.5 6.58 × 1013 1. NF’s membrane acts as a result of combination of steric and electrostatic effects (Ismail and Hassan.33 × 1013 . Cancino-Madariaga et al.

Comparing this result with Table 2. lower flux. the counter-ions site binding on dissociated hydrophilic sites and the third mechanism is the competitive adsorption of anions and cations on the hydrophobic functional groups of the membrane. thus helping the ammonium ion retention (NH4+ ) in the areas of the negatively charged active layer. offsetting their rejection effect and allowing the ion ammonia to go through the membrane (Pontalier et al. As shown in Fig. 2007).8%. especially at pH 5. NF’s membranes act as a result of a combination of steric and electrostatic effects (Ismail and Hassan. NF200 and NF270) and 24. Membranes DSSHR98PP. produce a more dense membrane.. At 20 bar with pH 7. NF200 and NF90 showed a higher permeation at pH 7.05) were observed in the permeation flow of the studied membranes between pH 5 and 7. This explanation becomes the reason. which managed the repulsion of other ammonium ions and exceeded for all cases a 76.2 L/(m2 day kPa at) 25 ◦ C. and Chellam and Taylor (2001). pH7 NF200.86 × 1012 m−1 ) as we did in our work. 3..65 E-5 (m3 /m2 s) with a 100% of AR.228 E-5 (m3 /m2 s). (2005). the positively charged layer creates an incremental rejection due to increased pressure caused by solute (NH4+ ) retained by superficial forces of the membrane active layer. Permeation flux at the stationary stage for the membranes with TMP and pH variation. added to the relevance of pH factor over the efficiency in AR and its application potential in RAS. pH5 DSSHR98PP. Whenever the pressure reaches the critical TMP or higher values.B. (2005) prepared their own PES membrane to be used as a low pressure membrane in an aquacultural system. once again the difference can be attributed to the difference in the membrane compaction and also to the fact that Ali et al. the membrane pore grows allowing an increment in the permeation flow. (2) with a viscosity of 8. Paugam et al.7% at 4 bar obtained by Ali et al. 99. Fig. RAS can manage the above without problem. 3. DSSHR98PP.. second. Membranes NF90. The flux reported by the experiences of Qin et al.7. These results agree with the different phenomena that could explain the ion retention or the AR. the various electrochemical forces are surpassed by pressure forces. (2005) is used according to Eq. Thus. thus generating a lower diffusion coefficient with respect to the rest of the studied membranes (Bellona et al. / Aquacultural Engineering 45 (2011) 103–108 NF90. Consequently. (2005) was between 8. Cancino-Madariaga et al. for example the flux is 1. the membrane resistance obtained in our experiments resulted slightly lower. Processing conditions: 15 ± 1 ◦ C and 6. 2b. NF 200 and RO membranes presented higher AR.0E-05 2.05) in ammonium retention were observed in the studied membranes at these pHs.5 mg/L of ammonium. pH7 Flux (m3/m2*s) NF200. Ali et al. named critical TMP. three mechanisms are present. this process allows the reduction of the chemical potential of the ammonium ions (DebyeHückel Theory). pH7 NF270. respectively. this behavior coincides with Mänttäri et al. The same happens in the work of Qin et al.516 E-6 (m3 /m2 s) and 1. (2005) prepared a special thin membrane to produce high flux.4 and 76. 98. The coupling of ammonium ions to the active layer of the membrane forms a positively charged superficial layer.937 × 10−4 Pa s at 25 ◦ C. these rejection forces are independent from pressure as long as.5 ± 0. (2006). 2001).0 and 4. pH5 4. which is approximately between 3. thus explaining the difference in the critical TMP. One is the acid/basic dissociation of the hydrophilic functional sites of the membrane. the RM is 8. NF 90. The critical TMP value was determined for all the membranes involved in this study with values of 16 bar for the nanofiltration membranes (NF90. Significant differences (p ≤ 0. 2004). Using Eq. All membranes showed a higher AR at pH 7. (2005).0E-05 NF270. why its indispensable to maintain pH variable in a value close to 7. No significant differences (p ≤ 0. 2 shows the ammonium retention for all the studied membranes at pH 5 and 7. the higher the charge was. pH5 107 1. 1999. This behavior can be explained because the furthest they were from their isoelectric point. who established that as pH increases. 3 shows the influence at the flux when the TMP varied.0E+00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 TMP (bar) Fig. they obtained a lower membrane resistance (4. Bellona and Drewes (2005) determined the pure water permeability for NF 200 in 1. pH7 DSSHR98PP. the system integrates monitoring of pH methods. Such explanation totally coincides with the principle of electroneutrality described by Schaep and Vandecasteele (2001). pH5 6.0E-05 NF90. . In this model. When the data supplied by Ali et al.0E-05 0. This effect may be due to the previously mentioned compaction procedure.0E-04 8. (2). Observing Fig. with approximately 96% of AR with the RO module. As previously mentioned. those charged functional groups attract ions of the opposite charge (Chellam and Taylor. Fig.8% of AR. Bruni and Bandini (2009) explain the phenomena through the ADS-AMF model developed by Bandini (2005).06 × 1013 m−1 . depending on the membrane material and also the effect of the solution over the membrane itself.3. 2004). higher RM and a higher AR. near the critical TMP and pH 7. RO membrane presents a thicker active layer with diffusion areas smaller than the hydrated ammonium. To follow the interpretation.5 bar for the reverse osmosis membrane (DSSHR98PP). NF200 and NF270 showed values of AR 100. the value obtained by NF 90 is within this range. A higher compaction as the treatment done for NF and RO membranes. According to the AR value of 85. the latter keeps below a limit value.

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