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MATHEMATICS 2

FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
CHAPTER 8
DERIVATIVES OF FUNCTIONS
Derivatives of Algebraic Function
If the function of is differentiable for each in the domain of D where D R,
then the derivative of the function and states by formula of:





a. is called the derivative of the function of
b. The process of finding from is called differential.
c. Another notation for the derivative of the function is or or
The notation of or is called the Notation of leibniz
) (x f
x e
) (
'
x f
) (x f
h
x f h x f
x f
h
) ( ) (
) ( '
lim
0
÷ +
=
÷
) (
'
x f
) (x f
) (x f y =
dx
x df ) (
y
'
dx
dy
dx
x df ) (
dx
dy
1.Derivative definition
A
2.Derivatives of Exponential Function
Let = where n is a called an exponential function. The derivative of this kind
of function is :
) (x f
n
ax
1
1
1 2 3 2 1
3 3 2 2 2 1
0
3 3 2 2 2 1
0
0
0
) 1 , (
) ... ) 3 , ( ) 2 , ( ) 1 , ( (
lim
... ) 3 , ( ) 2 , ( ) 1 , (
lim
) ... ) 3 , ( ) 2 , ( ) 1 , ( (
lim
) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
=
=
+ + + +
=
+ + + +
=
÷ + + + + +
=
÷ +
=
÷ +
=
n
n
n n n n
n n n n
h
n n n n n n
h
n n
h
h
anx
x n aC
h
h h h x n C h x n C x n C
a
h
h h x n C h x n C h x n C
a
h
x h h x n C h x n C h x n C x
a
h
ax h x a
h
x f h x f
) (x f '
Therefore, if = where n is a positive integer, then =
) (x f
n
ax
) (x f '
1 ÷ n
anx
3. Derivatives of Sums and Differences of Function
Suppose where is the sum of two function , if and
exist, then:









Similar to the proof of
If , then

) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u + = ) (x f ) (x v ) (x u'
) (x v'
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
)) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) ( (
) ( ) (
lim lim
lim
lim
lim
0 0
0
0
0
x v x u
h
x v h x u
h
x u h x u
h
x v h x v
h
x u h x u
h
x v x u h x v h x u
h
x f h x f
h h
h
h
h
' + ' =
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
+
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
+
÷ +
=
+ ÷ + + +
=
÷ +
=
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
) (x f
'
) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u + =
) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u + =
) (x f ' ) ( ) ( x v x u ' + ' =
4.Derivatives of Products and Quotients of Function
Suppose where and exist, then:

) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u · = ) (x u' ) (x v'
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
)) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) ( (
) ( ) (
lim lim lim lim
lim
lim
lim
lim
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
x v x u x v x u
x u x v x v x u
h
x u h x u
h
x v h x v
h x u
h
x u h x u
x v
h
x v h x v
h x u
h
x v x u x v h x u x v h x u h x v h x u
h
x v x u h x v h x u
h
x f h x f
h h h h
h
h
h
h
' · + ' · =
' · + ' · =
÷ ÷
· +
÷ +
· + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
+
÷ +
· + =
· ÷ · + + · + ÷ + · +
=
· ÷ + · +
=
÷ +
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
) (x f
'
Therefore, if , then ) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u · =
) (x f ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x v x u x v x u ' · + · ' =
1. Derivatives of Sine and Cosine Functions
Suppose = sin ,then:











Similarly, the derivatives of the function = cos is -sin
) (x f x
x
x
h
h
h x
h
h h x
h
x h x
h
x f h x f
h h
h
h
h
cos
2
1
cos 2
2
1
sin
) 2 (
2
1
cos 2
2
1
sin ) 2 (
2
1
cos 2
) sin( ) sin(
) ( ) (
lim lim
lim
lim
lim
0 0
0
0
0
=
· · =
= · + =
· +
=
· +
=
÷ +
=
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
) (x f
) (x f x = ' ) (x f x
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
B
2.Derivatives of Tangent Functions
Using the derivates of sine and cosine function, we can determine the derivatives of
other tigonometric functions. Next is the explanation of deriving tangen functions.


Suppose : then
then


0 cos ,
cos
sin
tan ) ( = = = x
x
x
x x f
, cos ) (
, sin ) (
x x v
x x u
=
=
x x v
x x u
sin ) (
cos ) (
÷ = '
= '
{ }
x
x x
x x
x
x x x x
x v
x v x u x v x u
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
sec
cos
1
cos
sin cos
) (cos
) sin ( sin cos cos
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
= =
+
=
÷ · ÷ ·
=
' · ÷ · '
= ) (x f
'
From the result, we can draw conclusions about the derivatives of trigonometric
functions is as follows
If = sin , then = cos
If = cos , then = -sin
If = tan , then =
If = cot , then =
If = sec , then = sec tan
If = csc , then = -scs cot
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
x
x
x
x
x
x
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
x
2
sec
x
x
x
x x
x
x
2
csc ÷
Derivatives of Composition Function
Definition

If f and g both are differentiable and F = f o g is a composition function defined by
F(x) = f(g(x)), then F can be differentiated to be F’ with the formula of


In the notation of Leibniz, if y = f(u) and u = g(x) and both function are differentiable
the derivative of the function value can be formulated is as followers.
) ( )) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x g x g f x g f x F
' '
=
'
=
'


dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
· =
C
Equation of tangent on a curve
h
a f h a f
a h a
a f h a f
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
÷ +
=
÷ +
÷ +
= AB
m
The tangent to a curve
The gradient of the curve at point A represents
The derivative of the functions y = f(x) at x = a.
The gradient of the tangent on curve of y = f(x) at
Point (a,f(a)) is determined by:
The gradient of the chord AB is: ) (
AB
m
) (
) ( ) (
lim
0
a f
h
a f h a f
m
h
'
=
÷ +
=
÷
And can be determined by the formula of:
) (
1 1
x x m y y ÷ = ÷
where ) (
1
x f m
'
=
Increased and Decreased Functions
a. The function of is called increased function if > 0
b. The function of is called decreased function if < 0
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f '
) (x f '
The Theorems of Increased and Decreased Functions
If a function of y = f(a) is continuous and differentiable at x = a and f ’(a) = 0, then
the function has a stationary value at x = a


a. A condition of a function will have a stationary value if f ’(x) = 0 for
a value of x.
b. If a function of has stationary value f(a) at x = a, then point of (a,f(a)) is
called a stationary point.
) (x f
Stationary Values
Types of stationary values
Maximum returning point Minimum returning point
Horizontal turning value
Application of Derivatives
If function of f(x) is differentiated and result in another new function of f ’(x)
then f ’’(x) is called the second derivative of f(x) . The notation of the first derivative
is y = f(x) is y’ or f ’(x) or or , the notation of the second
derivative is y = f(x) the similar ways:


dx
dy
dx
df
2
2
dx
y d
2
2
dx
f d
y’’ or f ’’(x) or or