) (
'
x f
) (x f
) (x f y =
dx
x df ) (
y
'
dx
dy
dx
x df ) (
dx
dy
1.Derivative definition
A
2.Derivatives of Exponential Function
Let = where n is a called an exponential function. The derivative of this kind
of function is :
) (x f
n
ax
1
1
1 2 3 2 1
3 3 2 2 2 1
0
3 3 2 2 2 1
0
0
0
) 1 , (
) ... ) 3 , ( ) 2 , ( ) 1 , ( (
lim
... ) 3 , ( ) 2 , ( ) 1 , (
lim
) ... ) 3 , ( ) 2 , ( ) 1 , ( (
lim
) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim
=
=
+ + + +
=
+ + + +
=
+ + + + +
=
+
=
+
=
n
n
n n n n
n n n n
h
n n n n n n
h
n n
h
h
anx
x n aC
h
h h h x n C h x n C x n C
a
h
h h x n C h x n C h x n C
a
h
x h h x n C h x n C h x n C x
a
h
ax h x a
h
x f h x f
) (x f '
Therefore, if = where n is a positive integer, then =
) (x f
n
ax
) (x f '
1 n
anx
3. Derivatives of Sums and Differences of Function
Suppose where is the sum of two function , if and
exist, then:
Similar to the proof of
If , then
) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u + = ) (x f ) (x v ) (x u'
) (x v'
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
)) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) ( (
) ( ) (
lim lim
lim
lim
lim
0 0
0
0
0
x v x u
h
x v h x u
h
x u h x u
h
x v h x v
h
x u h x u
h
x v x u h x v h x u
h
x f h x f
h h
h
h
h
' + ' =

.

\

+
+

.

\

+
=

.

\

+
+
+
=
+ + + +
=
+
=
) (x f
'
) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u + =
) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u + =
) (x f ' ) ( ) ( x v x u ' + ' =
4.Derivatives of Products and Quotients of Function
Suppose where and exist, then:
) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u = ) (x u' ) (x v'
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
)) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) ( (
) ( ) (
lim lim lim lim
lim
lim
lim
lim
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
x v x u x v x u
x u x v x v x u
h
x u h x u
h
x v h x v
h x u
h
x u h x u
x v
h
x v h x v
h x u
h
x v x u x v h x u x v h x u h x v h x u
h
x v x u h x v h x u
h
x f h x f
h h h h
h
h
h
h
' + ' =
' + ' =
+
+
+ =
)
`
+
+
+
+ =
+ + + + +
=
+ +
=
+
=
) (x f
'
Therefore, if , then ) (x f ) ( ) ( x v x u =
) (x f ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x v x u x v x u ' + ' =
1. Derivatives of Sine and Cosine Functions
Suppose = sin ,then:
Similarly, the derivatives of the function = cos is sin
) (x f x
x
x
h
h
h x
h
h h x
h
x h x
h
x f h x f
h h
h
h
h
cos
2
1
cos 2
2
1
sin
) 2 (
2
1
cos 2
2
1
sin ) 2 (
2
1
cos 2
) sin( ) sin(
) ( ) (
lim lim
lim
lim
lim
0 0
0
0
0
=
=
= + =
+
=
+
=
+
=
) (x f
) (x f x = ' ) (x f x
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
B
2.Derivatives of Tangent Functions
Using the derivates of sine and cosine function, we can determine the derivatives of
other tigonometric functions. Next is the explanation of deriving tangen functions.
Suppose : then
then
0 cos ,
cos
sin
tan ) ( = = = x
x
x
x x f
, cos ) (
, sin ) (
x x v
x x u
=
=
x x v
x x u
sin ) (
cos ) (
= '
= '
{ }
x
x x
x x
x
x x x x
x v
x v x u x v x u
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
sec
cos
1
cos
sin cos
) (cos
) sin ( sin cos cos
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
= =
+
=
=
' '
= ) (x f
'
From the result, we can draw conclusions about the derivatives of trigonometric
functions is as follows
If = sin , then = cos
If = cos , then = sin
If = tan , then =
If = cot , then =
If = sec , then = sec tan
If = csc , then = scs cot
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
) (x f
x
x
x
x
x
x
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
) (x f '
x
2
sec
x
x
x
x x
x
x
2
csc
Derivatives of Composition Function
Definition
If f and g both are differentiable and F = f o g is a composition function defined by
F(x) = f(g(x)), then F can be differentiated to be F with the formula of
In the notation of Leibniz, if y = f(u) and u = g(x) and both function are differentiable
the derivative of the function value can be formulated is as followers.
) ( )) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x g x g f x g f x F
' '
=
'
=
'
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
=
C
Equation of tangent on a curve
h
a f h a f
a h a
a f h a f
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
+
=
+
+
= AB
m
The tangent to a curve
The gradient of the curve at point A represents
The derivative of the functions y = f(x) at x = a.
The gradient of the tangent on curve of y = f(x) at
Point (a,f(a)) is determined by:
The gradient of the chord AB is: ) (
AB
m
) (
) ( ) (
lim
0
a f
h
a f h a f
m
h
'
=
+
=