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^497 IN




*B 273 757


The Libraij

University Berkeley,

H S Jones

701 Rialtd
San Franc



Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2007 with funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation .


Copyright 1916 by TECHNICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY r ' ^ .

try over the Diesel engine in the past

which has been aroused in this counfew years is re-

markable, but not nearly so much so as the engine Until four years ago there were but few buildAt the present ers of the Diesel engine in America. time there are twenty or more manufacturers building different types of Diesel engines, several of them adopting foreign designs. Between four hundred and five hundred plants in the United States are now being operated with engines of the Diesel type, ranging from one to as high as eighteen engines in a plant. It has been the duty of one of the authors to visit most of these plants in the capacity of an instructor, and in so doing he became acquainted with the men who are operating and also the knowledge they had of their work. It is safe to state that not ten per cent of the operators of Diesel engines know one-quarter as much about their engines as the average steam engineer knows about his engine. Naturally there is a reason for this a steam engineer, before he receives his license, is generally compelled to fire a boiler for two or three years and sometimes longer. Then he receives a fireman's license, and in two or three years more of firing the boiler, if he can pass a certain examination, he is

eligible to a third class

steam engineer's




all this

work gladly

to learn the business.


With the men who are employed to operate the No license is required Diesel engine it is different. and the majority of men who are employed by the purchaser of a Diesel engine expect to be chief engineers
in three

Diesel engine, like any other high class maand attention to get the best In fact it requires much more attention than


chine, needs proper care

the steam engine and closer attention due to


any average steam engineer after three weeks' thorough instruction and proper application should .be able to properly care for and operate an engine of this type without the least trouble. It is the purpose of this book to give all engineers and those who are interested in the Diesel engine the
parts, but



many years of practical experience in operating the Diesel engine. As far as the authors know all other books published on the Diesel engine have omitted to deal with this important subject, which after all, is the information most necessary to the purchaser and his engineer; and it is to them that this book is
benefit of

respectfully dedicated.






Bases of Operation Experience With Earlier Installations
Fuel Oil
. .

21 31




Effect of Altitude


Operation and Care of Engines
Diesel's Life



and Reliability


Modern Engines



Commercial Situation
Diesel Applied to Marine Purposes

Combustion Engines

at P. P.


E., 127

and Mcintosh & Seymour Co. Diesel Engine Exhibits at Panama -Pacific International Exposition .Busch-Sulzer Bros.

THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE CHAPTER I HISTORICAL Interest in the Diesel engine is so widespread and the questions presented so varied that it may be well to review the early history of this remarkable in- vention. and the one point that stands out most clearly is that had not Diesel been so positive regarding the correctness of his mathematical and thermal calculations he would not have been so persistent with the actual construction of the engine. A wrought . So we find the calculalate Dr. as responsible for this epoch-making in- Diesel engine. constructed in 1893. the with a piston rod and external crosshead. Diesel engine was invented in 1892 by the Rudolph Diesel of Munich. the vertical cylinder having no water jacket. The invention was the result of years of painstaking labor. The tions of an engineer coupled with the persistence of a genius vention. Germany. The cam shaft was placed very low and the valves In the first piston was fitted were operated by means of long rods.

The second machine would not run and was always a source of danger. the use of the invention was limited to one licensee in each of the principal countries. injection of fuel was operated by air supplied by a pump driven directly from the engine. late presi• dent of the American Society of Mechanical Engi- . Meier. the life of a patent in this country. but indicator cards were obtained during the few revolutions that it did operate. A second crude engine was then built. however. the engine being driven by outside power. ENGINE. It had a base similar to the first. The first two engines together proved the practical possibility of carrying out the combustion process that had been developed theoretically years before and which had been regarded mpossible by the technical world. and the cam shaft was placed The most important difference was that the higher. IN PRACTICE wi til "rivet eel'" flan'ges was used for storing and there was no air supply pump. This proved to Dr. Patents were obtained in all of the principal countries. Louis. 1892. that pure air could be compressed to such a high point that fuel injected into it would ignite and burn. obtained the sole rights to Diesel's patents in the United States and Canada after a thorough investigation had been made in his behalf by Colonel E. as at the first injection of fuel.6 THJi: p'ipe' DIIS^SL. those obtained in England bearing the date The patents in the United States of August. During the patent. the fuel being injected directly. were taken out slightly later and extended for seveniron starting air pressure teen years. Mo.. The late Mr. but was provided with a water jacketed cylinder. Diesel. This engine never ran. Adolphus Busch of St. D. an explosion destroyed it.

HISTORICAL Fulton Iron Works and New London Ship & Engine Co. Fxhibits at Panama-Pacific International Exposition .

The question is frequently asked why the Diesel engine has made such strides abroad and so little progress has been made in this country. Mr. Second: The steam engine in America is much cheaper than abroad.p. This makes it difficult for it to compete with the cheaper are type of steam engine in the United States. organized a stockholder in this company but his principal contribution lay in the value of the patents he had acquired.- to be done. We .8 ^ THE DIESEL ENGINEl IN PRACTICE neers. In 1898 a twin cylinder 60 h. while the leading idea in Europe is economy in operating cost. a crude but practicable machine. : known of to a vast proportion of in this machinery businessmen and buyers country while abroad it forms the basis for every contract. as the actual construction of the engine had hardly been started at this time. fio^evef. the leading idea in the United States The word efficiency is unis economy in first cost. engine was built.' simply stated what was and were of small practical value from an operating standpoint. A com- pany was formed sell ican Diesel Engine United States called the Amerto build and the engine under Diesel's patents.**'^*"'?lie'paldrfts. engine and must be constructed of the highest class of materials with the most skilled workmanship. Busch was in the Company. being the first Diesel engine in the world to be so operated. accustomed to engines at a low price and the price of the Diesel per pound seems exorbitant. but the Diesel engine is not and It aims to be the best will never be a cheap engine. This is due to several reasons: First Coal is much cheaper in the United States than in Europe and therefore it is more wastefully used. which was placed in commercial operation under load.

p. as v^ell as other expenses. . while the largest engine manufactured in this country to date is less than 1000 h. regardless of cost. in Diesels were in operation in this country may not appear as so bad a record when all the obstacles it had to overcome are taken into consideration. the main object being to manufacture quickly and in quantities. for there are at present in operation in Europe engines of 4000 brake h. The American company adhered to practically one basic type during nearly the whole term of the patents..HISTORICAL : 9 Third The lack of capital on the part of the prospective purchasers and the high rate of interest on capital and investment in the United States hinders the advance of the Diesel. though it has since been superseded and the engines now placed on the market in the United States are abreast of the best European designs in the stationary types of engines. advanced to the large sizes prevailing abroad. was not taken into earnest consideration.p. in four cylinders. To these reasons may be added that the financial strength of the American Diesel Engine Company was never vigorous and the exploitation was consequently retarded. however.000 h. The fact that before the expiration of the patents approximately 50. They have not.p. Fourth profits in : In the last decades the general business America have been so large that little thought was given to the most economical methods of production and the strictest economy in the fuel bill. America has not had to compete with the industrial countries of the world as Europe has.

1.CHAPTER II BASIS OF OPERATION operation of the four-stroke-cycle Diesel enbe simply described as follows. with the assistance of the diagrams shown in Fig. The second diagram represents the second or upstroke of the piston. admitting air from the atmosphere to completely fill the cylinder when the piston is at the bottom end of its stroke. Four-stroke Diesel Diagram. 1. called . gine The may 1st Cycle lutake 2d Cycle Ijd Cycle 4th Cycle Compression Workiug Stroke Exhaust Fig. The first diagram represents the downward stroke of the piston. the valve being open.

when the piston commences the downward stroke. in. 2. in. all the valves being closed. At this point. per sq. fuel oil is sprayed or atomized into the cylinder during a definite period of the down stroke. When the piston has practically reached the lowest point the exhaust valve . Compression Temperatures for Diesel Engines. corresponds to 1000 100 200 300 400 500 600 Absolute Pressure at Lnd of Compression In lb. per sq. giving the necessary pressure for the power stroke. Fahrenheit. When it comes in contact with the compressed and heated air it burns and expands.BASIS OF OPERATION 11 the compression stroke. deg. in. When the piston reaches the top of stroke. Fig. the air has reached a pressure of about 500 lb. and as compression of air increases its temperature. as may be plainly seen in Fig. 2. the 500 lb. leaving only the small distance between the top of the piston and the head. per sq.

and probably the most efficient conversion of energy ever developed. Diesel finally accomplished stroke. in his engine practical. This is what Dr. The cycle just described represents a four-stroke-cycle. and represents the most economical. the one most used for smaller engines.12 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE Opens and relieves the pressure during the upward and exhausting the burnt gases. . the piston expelling Fig. Diagram Illustrating- Two-stroke Diesel. there being but few companies making a two-stroke-cycle stationary engine in the United States. in fact the one most frequently used in this country. 3. completing the cycle in readiness for the down stroke.

1. with the accompanying rise in temperature. ff/TM u£i :/>)4A^ T/a/¥ \ s. ^ i_ ^ -^ _ ' 1^ ^/vr CrA/r ^ _». On the upstroke the full cylinder of air remains and is compressed to assists the about 500 lb. allowing the exhaust gases to pass out. 1 opens ^ \ \Y r § 150 V V V -Cf. 1 represents an opening in the cylinder which is uncovered when the piston is in This is called the admission or inlet this position.. . Assume the piston in its extreme lowest position. Valve 2 then opens and fuel oil under pressure is sprayed or atomized as in the four-strokecycle. in. or ^r^oKf Four-Stroke Cycle Diesel Indicator Card. in. 4. When No. per sq. \ >s KV r^ ^ ^ ~ ~" P'ig. No. This figure shows the later type of two-strokecycle cylinder with a valve in the scavenger air inlet to assist filling the cylinder with low pressure air.BASIS OF OPERATION 13 The two-stroke-cycle may be described with the assistance of Fig. the inrush of air under slight pressure hastens and burnt gases to escape. valve No. provided by a scavenger pump. 3 represents the exhaust port which opens slightly before No. 3. port and delivers air at from 5 to 6 lb. > */ /tor. per sq.

for examcycle. usually called four- after the exhaust Fig. line . ple. the vertical rise in this showing the gradual increase in the pressure. The line 4 shows the up2. The burning of the oil forces the piston downward. giving a power stroke every two strokes in place of every four strokes. 5. a short distance before the top center when the fuel is allowed to enter and continues The balance of the until the point "Y" is reached. Two-Stroke Cycle Diesel Indicator Card. 4 represents an indicator diagram from a four-stroke-cycle engine and if we assume. line 3 being the continuance of the expansion. while the trend to the left shows the decreasing distance between piston and the head until the point "X'' is reached. the line 1 represents the downof the piston and the drawing in of the The line air at approximately atmospheric pressure. as in the four-stroke-cycle engine. V \ \ \ \ N <> \ n2 \V V ---> < ^ "" — "" _ 4o z X » Fig. due to the burning of the oil. the upstroke of the piston. a vertical engine. ward stroke V~ X ^ \ . \ r\ /A > or taon •e»M •i£ rA4A ttOM — \ \.— 14 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE is partially covered.

. The line 1 represents the upstroke in a vertical engine. The line 2 shows the burning and expansion of the oil the . Fig.BASIS OF OPERATION 15 ward stroke and the exhaust atmosphere. 5 shows a diagram from a two-stroke-cycle engine. ST/?Of<£ 6. ^ //A£JfC£A/r i (((((((«(«« \ Af£c//AA//CAi looses / M£CffAN/CAl /O ^£» C£A/T loSSfS \ /Spsp cjTA/r sS\\\\^ Foi//f . point "X'' point of fuel injection and "Y" the point of closing of the fuel valve. The difiference from the four-stroke-cycle is I's^^V'sV \ \ \ \ \ \ N \ \ €7/>£^C£A/T >)))»»y/>y. of the burnt gases to the Fig. »))»yVy))y\V. . easily noticeable.www Cyci£ TkVO St/?o/cs CYCI£ Comparative Efficiencies of Two-stroke and Four-stroke Cycles.

/'/foM AcruAi B/tAHeTrar' /~oi//f •— Figr.. however. 6 and 7. however. Fig.. Fuel Consumption Curves. The comparison shows the fourefficient shown Figs. exhaust port when the pressure is at a higher point than in the four-stroke-cycle would appear to lessen the efficiency of the cycle.16 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE point ''Z" being the starting of the opening of the exhaust port." The necessity of a scavenger cylinder and the power to •70 \ \ "•-. ^•-. being slightly before the scavenger air The necessity of uncovering the is allowed to enter. . 6 stroke-cycle to be 74 per cent mech anically and the two-stroke-cycle 67 per cent These efficiencies. is nearly compensated for shown in Fig. 4. "S/^O¥^"0/L £/vG/A/r. This. 7. should not be confused with the thermal efficiency which ranges between 30 and 35 per cent.^ % -€0 X. 7*vo Cyci £ Crci £. drive is it makes the two-cycle engine in of lower overall efficiency than the four-stroke-cycle. by the loop between the in the four-stroke-cycle lines ''1" and "4. % '50 * '30 ? 5 ! 5 S i t \I \I % % /'usI CoA/st/Mf>T/o/v Curves.

41 X for each h. 4-Cycie Diesel Engine Plant.000 = 7380 B. Graphic Illustration of Heat Balance.u..t. so dividing the output in heat units by the input in heat units gives 2545/7380 -= . . of oil per brake a 18. are fed to the engine pound horsepower hour.41 of 8. per pound the full load consumption of the four-stroke-cycle is shown to be to Fig. developed for one hour's operation.t.BASIS OF OPERATION This is 17 shown by the following example by referring Assuming a four-stroke-cycle engine and 7. based on the con- .u. The thermal efficiency of the two-stroke-cycle.345 or 34. .000 B. A horsepower hour contains 2545 B. oil to contain 18.p. Fig.u.5 per cent thermal efficiency.t.

The actual use of these two kinds of engines is based on several considerations. Practically all the American engines operating on the Diesel principle are of the four-stroke-cycles. a cost of manufacture against econlow first cost for the purchaser versus a low operating cost. when larger sizes are approached the becomes too large and the two-strokecycle is forced into consideration. The efficiency of the theoretical cycle does not include the mechanical losses which range between 10 and 15 per cent. in other words. how- by placing low omy of operation. These are. the cost of fuel to run it and the cost of freight on the engine should be taken into consideration in each separate case in balancing the one type against the other. but some manufacturers ad- . and here it has its most economical application.48 X 18. They have higher efficiency than the two-stroke-cycle. However. The value of the money size of cylinders to be invested in the engine. The largest and most varied experience has been had with the fourstroke-cycle of low speed. however. 8. So the reason for changing to two-stroke-cycle in smaller and moderate sized engines is but slight. These can only be balanced when all the conditions of operation are taken into consideration. and their absolute reliability has been proven beyond a doubt.18 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE sumption shown in the same figure is 25457. is settled by the manufacturer. . both actual overall thermal efficiencies and moreover the ones that may be easily expected in practice and covered by rigid guarantees offered by the manufacturers. The problem ever. A = graphic illustration of the heat balance of a Diesel engine is shown in Fig.000 29 per cent thermal efficiency for the two-strokecycle.

as twice the heat must be removed in a given cylinder size in a The latest types of twotwo-stroke-cycle engine. stroke-cycle are provided with mechanically operated scavenging ports in addition to the uncovering funcIn this way the scavenging air tion of the pistons.). the highest mechanical efficiency was attained with a compression pressure of 30 atmospheres. in. would be obtained by compressing the air to a pressure of . even in sizes as low as 80 h. But the actually attainable efficiency is limited by the characteristics of the available materials and modified by the mechanical losses. due to the excess pressure of the scavenger air above that of the atmosphere.BASIS OF OPERATION 19 here to the two-stroke-cycle. or the higher the mitial compression pressure and the lower the terminal pressure. per sq. Dr. although the theoretical thermal efficiency increased slightly beyond this point. and a compression temperature of 500 deg.) Balancing these advantages against one another. as applying to heat engines. F. (868 deg. Carnot's law. affected by the weight and dimensions of the moving elements of the engine. Diesel demonstrated that. The simplicity of the two-cycle engine. C. is well understood the higher the initial temperature and the lower the terminal temperature. with its absence of valves except for fuel and starting.p. and increases its volumetric capacity. in two cylinders. (450 lb. the higher will be the theoretical thermal effi: ciency of the engine. . that the highest actual efficiency. is a decided advantage. enters the cylinder after the exhaust port is closed. and the greatest useful power development per unit of cylinder volume. but there must be balanced against this the fact that cooling the cylinders and pistons is much more difficult.

(868 deg. the fuel must not enter the cylinder until after the full compression has been . per and a temperature between 500 and 600 deg. (2848 and 3200 deg.) and introducing the fuel in such manner as to obtain combustion at constant pressure with a maximum combustion temperature between 1600 and 1800 deg. to 1048 deg. C. the actual efficiency of the engine diminished. to avoid ignition during the progress of the compression. F. attained. On either side of these limits. It is selfevident that the stated compression temperature is *'far in excess of that required" solely for the ignition of any carbonaceous substance which would ordinarily be used as fuel also that.) sq.20 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE between 30 and 40 atmospheres. in). . These deductions do not apof practical pear to have been proven incorrect after twenty years and diversified experience. F. C. (450 to 600 lb.

These were. engines were of the splash lubrication type. in turn. The exhaust valves and fuel valves .p triple cylinder machines installed were of the same type and design as those built by the American Diesel Engine Company until the latter part of by 1914. All of these engines had separately driven air compressors of the two-stage Ingersoll-Rand type. It was superseded by two twin cylinder engines of 60 h.p. triple cylinder machines.CHAPTER III EXPERIENCE WITH EARLIER INSTALLATIONS of the first plants to be operated commerAmerica with Diesel engines was owned by the Manhattan Transit Company. have been junked.p. The first three engines installed were belted to direct current generators. the cylinder dimensions being 10 15 in.p. The two last engines installed are still in operation. In the first engines installed the admission valves were automatically operated. The power was to be used in generating current for charging electric vehicles. opening inward. New York City. cially in One In 1902 this company purchased a 30 h. being closed by a spring. each. single cylinder Diesel engine. The last two 75 h. however. The All of these first three. The last two 75 h. located at Fortyseventh street and Second avenue.p. were direct connected to the same type of electric generator. superseded by two 75 h.

The plant was visited by prominent men of New York City.22 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE were operated by an eccentric and pin operating a rod connecting^ to the valves which were closed by springs. I. one of the new features being removable heads. James McPherson and manufactured in Providence. in no way followed European prac- . while the fuel valves were of the horizontal One of these engines was wrecked.p. the admission valve of this engine was automatic. The two last 75 h. Pennsylvania crude oil was used for fuel. R. in diameter and 8 ft. in designing this last engine. They had splash lubrication and a cam shaft running through the crank case with cams to open the exhaust and fuel valve. at a cost of 4 cents a gallon. Mr. per sq. The second one was wrecked due to mechanical troubles. especially from Wall street.p. broken connecting rod which at that time was made of cast iron. in. which were adopted with this engine for the first time in this country.. McPherson. having three 25 h. The machines operated 24 hours a day and after the last engines were installed furnished lights for the daily business block as well as furnishing current for charging the electric vehicles. similar to that on the first design. engines installed in this plant. were designed by the late Mr. at the old Corliss engine works. in length they were imported from abroad and tested at 3000 lb. being purchased in barrels . The owners of the Manhattan Transit Company were important figures in the financial district and enthusiastic about Diesel engines. This type was a distinct advantage over the first American design. the dimensions of the cylinders being 10 by 15 in. cylinders. due to a type. Six air bottles or steel tanks were supplied with each engine of approximately 8 in.

All engines were built with three cylinders with corn- Fig. 170 h. by 24 in.. The 225 h-.p. 9.of American Diesel Engine. 9 consisted of three 16 in. engine shown in Fig. cylinders. and 225 h. the cranks being .EXPERIENCE WITH EARLIER INSTALLATIONS tice 23 and after the successful operation of this size he designed engines of 120 h.p.p. pressors either belt driven from the engine or motor driven.p. Sectional Drawing.

being of one casting. The main bearings were babbitt lined and permitted of adjustment by wedges.24 THE DIESEL ENGINE . These engines were started from one cylinder which was provided with a starting valve in addition to the usual inlet. IN PRACTICE set at 120 degrees the connecting rods with wrist pin were made of forged steel. the seat being part of the head. The first three engines of 225 h. The cylinders were solid. exhaust and fuel valves. a concession in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. The admission valve was set in a cage while the exhaust valve had no cage. m. The fuel needle was set horizontally and was mechanically operated from the cam shaft. were shipped to St. the other two were cut in at dusk. the atomizers being made of bronze. the pistons having four compression rings but without wiper rings. The clearance at the bolts top of the pistons was J^ in. and ran until midnight. The engines were direct connected to direct current generators and supplied light and power for the Tyrolean Alps. Indiana. this clearance giving a compression of 500 lb. Louis and installed in the Tyrolean Alps. During the entire fair there was no time that they were without light and power. The first engine was started at 11 a. having no liners. All three are still in operation .p. The combustion chamber extended over between the exhaust and admission valve. These cylinders were water jacketed and a bypass led the water into the head while cooling water was also used in the exhaust chambers. Fahrenheit. as in the present types. per sq. in. while for the first time all valves were mechanically operated from cams. and a consequent temperature of 1000 deg. After the fair one engine was sold to the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia.. and two to Ball Brathers Glass Company. Muncie.

Of course. the third being on the opposite side. R. Machinery Hall at the St. as they call it today. if anything about the Diesel engine. The real business of the American Diesel Engine Company. Louis Exposition. exhibited a coal-oil engine and the Otto Gas Engine Company were about the only ones in the hall. of New York. The power house at the Tyrolean Alps was typical. a Webber gas producer being set up out in the boiler room and at that time was looked upon as being somewhat dangerous. and it was a great curiinstalled in the osity. all motor driven.EXPERIENCE WITH EARLIER INSTALLATIONS in 25 connection with others afterwards purchased and same plants. Many different designs of steam engines were installed and in operation. started at the St. two-stage horizontal and two built by the American Diesel Engine Company at Providence. The Mietz & Weiss Co.. was not even known. of the two-stage vertical type. laid out and set up in the latest and most approved manner at that time. the room was fitted with hardwood polished floor. in fact everything appeared as if it was intended for permanent operation. at that time there were few people who knew much. we might say. The three compressors were set to one side of the engine room. thousands of people stopping daily to observe what was termed at that time the handsomest machinery in the world. These engines at the Tyrolean Alps attracted a great deal of attention. I. A large number of engines were sold from . The engines were painted with black enamel paint and had gold trimmings. one being of the Ingersoll-Rand type. but at that time the semi-Diesel. Louis Fair was an extremely large building. two engines being arranged on one side of the room.

R. largely to Germany. for lighting the city. it is interesting to note how nearly the fuel consumption over the year's operatests on tion approached the fuel consumption on full load tests seven years before. 1910. 1905.. making eight 300 kw. These engines all run in parallel. 1913. to February. The Gorham Silver Company at Providence. driving sixty cycle alternating current generators of 2300 volts. This plant afterwards was bought by the Texas Power & Light Company. city plant furnishes light for the service. Sixteen of their engines are set up in double units. even though they have a large and up to date steam turbine plant for some of their work. During the year from March. of Sherman. 1912 and 1914 so that all told they have 19 Diesel engines in operation daily. who now have in operation approximately 20 or more Diesel engines and are still buying. the yearly operating log being shown also. which is used as a fertilizer and a large majority of the thousands of tons obtained daily are shipped to foreign countries. The Prairie Pebble Phosphate Company of Mulberry. I. Fla. Texas.26 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE this installed in exhibit and during the year there was a plant Sherman. showing conclusively that the Diesel not only maintains its original economy but also is extremely economical on the fluctuating loads of a central station. Tex. . The power in this plant is used for driving centrifugal pumps for hydraulicing the banks of phosphate rock... The Prairie Pebble Phosphate Company purchased engines in 1904. The Sherman. 1912. supplying 24 hours this The engine are shown in the accompanying table as having been made in January. sets. and numerous other plants were sold in this year.

m. per 100 kw. Eff.0 14.b. EfC. $1.0 13.7 35. 5..u. 70 atm.7 159.000.0 160.-hr.66 Physical Data.88 6. atm.p.0 159.p Cost of fuel oil f.-hr.0 160.33.05 9.22 5. developed per hr.0 158. p.. p. 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 72 Gal. atm. developed in 1 hr 245. 16.5 14.0 21. No.300 1.M.048 117.1 33. atm.212 101. 10.704 85. 72 atm. m. 1905. 168. m. Per Cent. a. at 92% Gen. p.1 kw.-hr. rating of plant.0 15. a. 675. 1 at $1.4 24.43 4.75 17.6 232. 156. Volts.0 23.2. hr.41 gal..P.0 14. m. per bbl. 18. m.5 34.105 105. kw.75 17.335 34. Wages of men per day.6 168. m. developed 38325 Average kw.5 157. Output Month.0 157. Diesel Engine No. Diesel Engrine. plant. 24 Total hours run Total kw. per b. at 92% Gen. Oil 138. 640 635 655 620 640 655 650 665 670 655 665 660 675 162 164 163 164 104 163 164 164 163 164 164 162 160 Consumed Oil. Per gal.69 6.83 7.17. a..4 25.6 6. $9. Total KW. atm.96 8.0 14.75 15. SHERMAN.0 13. atm.H.75 atm.5 14.50.230 91. Load Factor.0 160.5 Average 29.0 161.5 14.h. 28. p.506 117.915 76. 1912. TEX.5 Max. a.0 K.o. m.70 7. 1 at $3. fuel oil per 100 kw. 1 at $2. 1 at $2.P. of oil. 11 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 3 5 m. a. m.168. a.-hr. p. . Size of each. m.0 h. 225 h.027 97.328 77. Developed During: Test. of engines. 3.5 13..820 70.5 15.2 35. .0 161. H.4 h. Time.10 March May April June July August September October November December 1913 January February Total 115. atm. .7 27.0 15. 5 7 9 p.31 6. atm. Air Pressure. Average air pressure .70 atmospheres (Oil consumption as shown averages 9.l59.025.t. 242 242 240 243 238 239 240 239 238 240 238 242 243 Amp..28 6.5 19. m.0 14. 71 atm. 67 atm.499 Mills Per kw.4 32.46 gal.p.05.) — — . 225 B. R.0 14.P.p.W.5 14. m. m.0 15. B. 6. 95. p. Central Station Installation.360 114. Total Operation and Maintenance.5 13. Three Cylinder 16x24.50 5. JANUARY 1.0 14. — 450 lew.EXPERIENCE WITH EARLIER INSTALLATIONS 27 TABLE I. Average gal. OFFICIAL ACCEPTANCE TEST.0 18.

Florida.p. Diesel engines today are driving ice machines. which is only used for household purposes. A great many Diesel engines of this same type with some improvements. formerly used . This engine does 18 hours a day service year in and year out. to which also was belted their steam engines and from that a large belt running to a generator. have been sold and put in operation in over half the states of the Union and in fifty-nine or more different kinds of industries. as the salt atmosphere necessitates the changing of all water piping every six months or at least once a year. to operate their trolley system and these engines are all in operation at the present time. They operated at first in connection with their steam plant two 225 h. In the spring of 1907 they installed a third 225 h. paper mills and innumerable other industries.000 and warm the year round. woolen mills. all other water being obtained from inland wells whose water is brackish on account of its proximity to the ocean. The conditions at Key West. cotton mills. Fla. excepting rain water. and as Key West is a city of 25. The water used for circulation is of the worst kind. flour mills. chocolate factories. One flour mill with a capacity of 1000 barrels per 24 hr.28 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE Electric Another interesting plant is that of the Key West Company at Key West.p.. In 1908 the Diesels were disconnected from the jack-shaft and individual generators installed. The engine that operates their trolley system also operates their electric quite fan circuit. as naturally there is no fresh water on the island of Key West. make it hard to maintain any kind of machinery. who were among the early purchasers of Diesel engines. engines belted to a jack-shaft. direct connected to the engines. the fan load is considerable.

now with Diesel engines turns out the same amount of flour on from 11 to 13 bbl. The public. That engine is no good.000. in general. In a steam plant. with no idea of the care boiler. Diesel engines up to the present time have never had an honest chance.. of fuel oil under boilers every 24 hr. he generally tries to get the cheapest man possible to operate it. but when the same man or one of his type. Diesel engines require more care and attention than steam engines." — that fully." etc.000 steam plant will want the best steam engineer he can obtain at almost any price to care for and operate his plant. . a saving of over $1100 a month in fuel alone. There are ice plants being operated with Diesel engines in some of our hottest states. is necessary to make an engine operate successis Another thing that has always seemed strange that the purchaser of a $25. that the engine will start or stop. "Why. purchases a Diesel engine plant costing $25. a man who has had years of training along this line. has heard more or less of the troubles with Diesel engines. everyone would have ''their sign out" *T told you so. but we will have to buy a new But when it comes to the Diesel engine. that are making ice at a fuel expense of 18 cents a ton. that's too bad. A great majority of those put out into the world are operated by men who simply know if they open this valve or that. such as Louisiana.EXPERIENCE WITH EARLIER INSTALLATIONS This plant 29 55 to 58 bbl. Someone would say. not considering the boiler plant or pumps and auxiliaries. but it is the same thing with any new invention placed upon the market. for instance. the boiler could blow up and kill a half dozen people. if a minor difficulty should occur and cause the lights or power to be off for ten minutes.

for four years. As he entered the plant the engine sounded more like a stone crusher than an engine and this noise all came from lost motion in the valve gear. writer recalls a plant that he visited at one time The engine had been operating almost in Arizona. caused by neglect and lack of knowledge. furnishing power for a water pumping station. The following day when the engine was shut down for inspection the lost motion was found between the cams and the rollers connected to the rods that open the exhaust and admission valves to have from On in. five times as many parts. and he had never touched them. night and day. four years before. to a Diesel engine as there are to a steam en- The and lost motion on all these parts is considerable. that the man who erected the engine set the rollers that way. Yi in. clearance instead of only 1/32 in. continuously. or more.30 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE There are approximately gine. That was his idea of operating and caring for a Diesel engine! % . to asking the engineer what this meant he said not to blame him.

It was for this reason alone. that one large gas company. There does not appear to be any limitation to the possibility of using mineral oils in Diesel engines. or lower. from powdered coal to gas. The available supply of these fuels is large in proportion to the demand for them. that been no inducement to use it for Diesel there has engine fuel in preference to the cheap petroleum fuels. after successfully using the tar from its own works as fuel in its Diesel engines for some years. so that they may generally be purchased at prices as low as. . fuels In the United States the relative value of tar is so high. than those of crudes. from which the valuable lighter and heavier constituents have not been ab- — stracted. on account of the marketable products obtainable from it and its use for roofing and similar purposes. finding it possible to sell the tar for more than the cost of the oil. have been tried experimentally in Diesel engines. but commercial and practical considerations tend to give preference to fuel oils ranging between 24 degrees and 36 degrees Beaume. from the heaviest crudes to refined kerosene.CHAPTER IV FUEL OIL Although almost all forms of carbonaceous and hydro-carbon fuels. changed to oil. commercially successful operation has been confined to liquid more particularly to mineral oils and coal tar.

and rapidly eat out the exhaust piping. should con- tain the lowest proportions of the following impurities. and it has a detrimental effect upon the regulation. More than one-third of one per cent of water should be considered excessive. this much abused term is susceptible to so various interpretations.. and. which will not volatilize under certain definite conditions. — Ash a comparatively minute percentage of entirely noncombustible matter in the fuel causes an accumulation on the oify cylinder walls. Nor has the method for its determination been standardized. reduces the efficiency of the engine. IN PRACTICE for use in Diesel engines. that it has no definite significance. will corrode and pit the exhaust valves and seats. viz. the combination of the sulphurous fumes with the vapors of the water combustion. between these and the piston. which will result in excessive wear. if fuel containing more than this has been accepted. the complete combustibility in a Diesel cylinder under the conditions existing in it and within the available time. the percentage of residue remaining after the sample of oil has been gradually brought its to a temperature of 570 deg. with oils con- taining a substance. it increases the maintenance costs. other than ash. Several years of careful observation and records have induced the oldest Diesel engine builders in this country to adopt. the water should be settled out. by heating the oil by means of a steam coil. for such comparisons. The various chemical and mechanical (penetration) determinations have little or no bearing upon the real issue under consideration here. Water — Sulphur if in excess of IVz per cent. A comparison of results — Asphaitum — many and obtained in actual us© for the above purpose. and then subjected to this . appears to be the best guide as to the proportion of this substance which will render neces- sary an excessively frequent cleaning of the cylinder and adjuncts. F.: 32 THE DIESEL ENGINE Fuel oils. compatible with the prices demanded it because it is charged for at the fuel oil price.

The form of the atomizer does not appear to have any bearing upon this question." according to the various methods of determination in use. its use must be guided by the relative cost of the oil. % Ioad'/OO'/ % B'*AH£ /^oftse Pewefi:- Fun Fi/ei CoAfst/Mf>r/o/v Curves "Au/s. This percentage is equivalent to anywhere from 7 to 30 per cent of "asphaltum. termined that. in which combustion does not take place. in a closed furnace. Under this treatment the sample It has been deis reduced to practically constant weight. as the substance does not become objectionable until after the fuel has entered the cylinder and its most volatile constituents have become gasified. unreasonably frequent cleaning is not necessary.C/fAiMt/fS' S//^'GLe Cr-t/A/as/f On F/vo/f^e Pig. If the fuel oil contains more than the above-mentioned 10 per cent of residue.FUEL OIL 88 temperature for 120 hours. 10 illustrates the consumption of fuel oils of widely varying gravity. and the cost and inconvenience of labor and stoppages required for the more frequent cleaning. although it may render the fuel so 'Tieavy" that warming is necessary to enable the oil to flow to and be handled by the fuel pump of the engine. 10. in the same engine. so long as this residue is less than 10 per cent of the original weight of the sample. ^ Mex/CAN CRUDf 17360 BTU TCXAS CfiUD£ I783S BTU /eese Bra TfxAs CifUDe 59' £AST£ffN DiSTtUATi /9525 BTU 12' ir 19' \ % % % '^ %. Fig. Fuel Consumption Curves. .

9% 20. as usual with oil companies.12% 39.4 130 145 149 201 Water Residue 3.7 . Union Oil Co. commercially. 1 or "Diesol" fuel oil No.89% . per lb 19. King Oil Co.t. 80c 70c SOc 65c f. 19.100 25 200 235 Crude Oil..7% % % This table shows the percentage of asphalt by the evaporation. having the gasoline removed.8 Asphaltum % % % % 3.18% . 60c f.08% 1.1 50. 2 and 3 are products of the refinery.b. No. of the .08% 15. 212 Burning Point °F. 268 237 97 138 Sulphur 2. 4 2 3 5 Producer: Standard Oil Co.46 186 213 18.68% 9. Regular Fuel Oil.66% .0 3.b Refinery per bbl.3 2.o.: 34 THE DIESEL ENGINE The IN PRACTICE fuel oils of the West that are available on the Coast all fall within the limits set forth by the Diesel manufacturers and a table showing their com- Pacific position follows Composition of Fuel No. . 27. 1 Oils. 3.92% 54. Field.776 19. The oils sell for approximately the price noted.2 . and also by the test as mentioned above for the determination of asphaltum or residue. per lb Gravity °B at 60° F Flash Point °F Burning Point °F 18.229 29.o. 234 Sulphur 74% B.097 Mexican Crude. 08% 25. Nos.°B at 60° F.250 Gr.127 17. % % % Price f.b.20 Flash Point °F. Field. .136 15.u. B. 1.499 18. considered to be the most adaptable.6 — 18.t. Heat Value. "Diesol" Fuel Oil.2 Crude. 2 of the table price is is the most economical if the selling from 1-8 to 1-10 of a cent less per gallon than such oil as "Calol" fuel oil No.642 19. Coalinga Trade Name: "Calol" Fuel Oil. the California fuel oil least fitted for use in the engine.o.44% 53. 18.5 182 212 2.u.73% . 146 304 19.0%.5 17.08% .9 Asphaltum % 43.- 18. 19. Union Oil Co.

Gravity Correction Curve for Temperature. heated to 100 degrees Fahr. not taking into consideration the cost of heating this low gravity oil to make it flow readily to the fuel oil pump. The Mexican oils are expensive at any price. 11 shows the effect of temperature upon gravity. If the oil is at. 2. Although oil is generally spoken of in degrees Beaume the real comparison should be based on specific grav- . It may be roughly stated that any oil that will flow through a 1 in. pipe from a gravity tank and available for purchase on the Pacific Coast can be used in the Diesel engine. This can be easily accomplished by making use of the water for cooling the engine which usually flows out at 110 degrees to 130 degrees. A 20 degree Beaume oil at 60 degrees Fahr. such . is equivalent to a 22. It would appear more economical to use No. flow at room temperature it must be heated. Fig.FUEL OIL California 35 oils. 11.4tf Fig.5 degree Beaume oil and its viscosity will be increased.a gravity that it will not 20 2 22' 23* 24' 25° 26' 27' 28' 29* 30' . due to the high sulphur content.and the oil will flow more readily.

349 Ton.202 59.355 61.621 60. 287.06 7.65 6.6 276.9395 .4 299.2 286.9929 .912 61.149 54.991 51.5 305.59 6.73 6.76 324.8805 .91 6. 35.27 8.6 278.24 322.83 7.240 lb.78 7.3 38.16 312.380 58.4 301. 8. Gal. Bbl. 349. =zl bbl. 62.34 344.2 39.5 39.29 7.04 7.7 293.2 37.14 7.8484 .4 284.7 297.° 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 35 40 Data for Fuel Oil.903 54.14 320.53 7.69 6.8 272. Bbl.7° Be. For each 10° F. B.8750 .8917 .9210 .0000 .72 7.9790 .5 38. 1. The table showing this comparison follows Specific Wgt.62 7.58 333.680 56.809 57.475 61.560 52.981 58. Wgt.86 326.28 7. Uniformity of the oil that has passed through the refinery is of extreme value.94 316.57 7. 42 gal.582 58.48 7.9090 .72 340.3 282. 268. Ton. below 60° F.9 270.7 38.8 41.2 316. the cheapest oil is not always the most economical.55 7.053 56.06 330.88 7.6 280. Gravity.1 36.9150 .6 40.3 140 The above tabl<5 is based on the formula 1 Qrt Sp.09 7.9333 .8 326.06 309.28 306.9 37. 292.93 7.99 7.8974 . Ton. Ft.9 36. Ft. THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE the relative weight per unit of volume compared to water at a given temperature.3 40.4 43.04 317. Wgt.9523 .045 60.5 37.33 8.82 6.9859 .18 296.9722 .2 307.50 6. above 60° F. 1 ton z=: 2. by the composition between limits being guaranteed while the composition of native crude oil It is easy to understand that is exceedingly uncertain.54 6.82 342.792 59. _L -Ra _Z_ For each 10° F.78 39.1 38.8235 Gal.07 6.86 6.7° Be.86 347.428 57.1 42.01 7.24 7. 6.8 274.601 55.8 39.: 36 ity.43 7.34 7.9655 .9 290.21 8.38 7.9032 .46 6.26 314.20 337.96 328. subtract 0.9271 .8 40.96 7.94 288.43 6.1 40.16 8.5 36.32 7.67 7. for its seller .96 308.9589 . The matter priced oil is of using the lower gravity a matter that and lower must be determined in each separate installation.9459 .195 57.12 Cu.68 335.957 55.319 55. Gr.7 36.77 6.10 8. based on the character of the service the engine has to perform.18 7.8860 .86 Cu. add 0.4 303.9 295.

Gravity at 60 degrees F. A residue of 10 per cent is conservative. while some others are prone to make extravagant statements that cannot be lived up to in practice with good service.01 per cent. It has been the experience of a large majority of Diesel users that the slight increase in the cost of the better oil is economical and advisable in the long run. per pound and 19. not over 10 or 15 per cent. Residue 18.u. and 125 degrees F. This is equivalent to approximately 30 per cent asphaltum by evaporation. burning point between 160 and 300 degrees F. Sulphur between . just as the use of fuel under boilers. Ash not over .000 B.5 per cent Water not over . however. to ll^ per cent. the cheapest coal is not necessarily the most economic fuel tained with Guarantees for fuel consumption will be mainoil falling within the following limits Beaume.000 Flash and burning points are specified on account If the oil is stored underground a flashpoint as low as 95 degrees F. not heavier than 20 degrees nor lighter than 40 degrees Flash point between 125 and 250 degrees F.u.) British thermal units per pound. On the newer type engines sulphur as high as 2j^ per cent is not objectionable.3 per cent. Many plants are in operation successfully with fuel as high as 15 per cent based on the test for 120 hours. that usually manufacturers are very conservative as to the quality of oil recommended for use in the engine.: FUEL OIL 37 the cost of repairs and attention will necessarily increase as the quality of the oil decreases. It may be stated.t. may be used. of the hazard of storage. particularly of coal. Heat Value: The heat value usually ranges between (B.t. .

009. The fact that all of the principal oil pro- ducing companies in the United States have oil to offer that is acceptable to the Diesel engine users and competition may at all times be expected is another point to be taken into consideration in regard to an advance in price.406.568 J 88.000 98.899 15.000 2.000 20.000 7.000 800.963. The oil for Diesel engines is not available in drums or barrels being shipped in tank cars of from 6500 gallons to 13.600.893.788. a 20. there is little likelihood of it ever increasing in price beyond a reasonable limit.000 7.525 63.282 2.000.000 15.000 21.446.000 the production of oil as compiled by the United States As the oil generally used in a Geological Survey. Diesel engine throughout the United States is practically a by-product of gasoline.828 11.000 700.498.384 23.000. 1914. State.000 50.522 2.478 12.000 11.000.790 10.095 902.s.230 292.000. California Oklahoma Illinois Texas Louisiana West Virginia Ohio Pennsylvania V^yoming Kansas Indiana New York Kentucky Colorado other States 103. The plant usually has a tank of sufficient capacity to take a carload with a slight overlap.375.38 THE DIESEL ENGINE The production IN PRACTICE of fuel oil and its future is a questhat presents itself to every prospective Diesel engine purchaser. .843 248.700.211 524. The table shown herewith gives tion Oil Pro<liiotioi» in Hnrrel.029 956.468 7.567.781.000 gallon tank being sufficient with the size tank car now in use.000 gallons capacity.579.000 4.000 500.000.000.000 1913 97.500.000.299 8.000 150.000.

) Barometer Atmospheric Proportionate Utitude in Pressure in Atmospheric Table of respond.72 14.73 0. is practically proportional to the atmospheric densities.4 26.69 13.75 0.20 12.77 0. 2500. Consequently a Diesel engine will not develop as much power at a higher elevation as it will at lower altitudes.9 27.1 24.3 22.45 13. Feet. For altitudes less than 500 ft.86 0. 4000.94 0.83 0.2 23. 6000.91 0. 7000. 30.18 13.26 . Inches. 2000.98 0.7 20.93 0. 8000.65 10. 5000. the amount of oxygen drawn into an engine cylinder is lessened and therefore the quantity of fuel with which it will combine and burn is relatively decreased. that is the weight per cubic foot of the atmosphere at higher altitudes.00 500.70 10000.44 11. 3000. Atmospheric Densities.00 0.80 0. 1.0 25.89 0.lng- Effect of Altitude. above sea level no reduction in horsepower or alteration of fuel consumption need be contemplated but at higher elevations a reduction in horsepower is necessary in accordance with the accompanying table : with corapproximate Barometric Readings. Pressures and proportionate (The capacity of an internal combustion engine at higher altitudes. Density.94 13. 0.9 in lb. 1500.4 27.9 28. 1000. 14.30 11. per sq. Altitudes in feet above sea-level.45 14.CHAPTER V EFFECT OF ALTITUDE Due to the reduced density. as compared with its capacity at sea-level.04 10. 9000. in.0 29.85 11.75 12.5 28.5 21.96 0.9 26.

83 or 415 h.p. the usual overload guarantee of 25 per cent for 2 hours but instead will only carry 15 per cent overload. Ordinarily internal combustion engines are rated at 10 per cent below their ultimate capacity and it is dangerous and uneconomical to operate the engines at a greater load than specified by the manufacturers. must also be revised. It would be manifestly uneconomical to purchase a generator having a greater ultimate capacity than that of the engine. elevation. a certain amount of oxygen giving complete combustion to a certain amount of fuel oil. The capacity of the cylinder also definitely limits the output of an internal combustion cylinder at any altitude. an addition of 1 per cent or fraction thereof being made for each 1000 ft. The fuel consumption of this engine. however. as the combustion of the fuel depends entirely upon the amount of oxygen in the cylinder. at SOOO ft. The horsepower output of the engine will be proportionate to the equivalent density.40 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE This table shows the height of the barometer in inches and the equivalent density of the atmosphere. elevation 500x. corresponding to the overload capacity of internal combustion engines. The electric generator manufacturers supply a generator especially rated for internal combustion enThese machines are not capable of standing gines. from the exhaust shows that the combustion in the cylinder has not been complete and is the forerunner of a flame in place of the usual exhaust dry gas. . although this may be possible The evidence of smoke coming for short intervals.p. a 500 h. that is. at sea level. This flame Avill burn and destroy the exhaust valve. which in turn develops a certain amount of power.

which on good ground will vary. otherwise sound bonding between portions is impossible. ring. to be mixed wet and rammed every 8 in.p. 1 part cement. diameter galvanized spouting may be used and left in the founthe dation. important element in the erection of the Diesel the foundation. square and at least 4 ft. Grouting should be of equal parts of Portland cement and clean sand mixed wet enough to flow readily. depending upon the size of engine. 2J^ parts sand and 5 parts clean stone broken to pass a 2 in. Concrete should not be allowed to set hard before other concrete is placed on it. the box to have a taper toward the top so that the box may be removed. This foundation should be constructed of concrete. depth until water appears on the surface. yd. The grouting must fill all of the space around the foundation bolts. current applications the ability of the generators to operate in parallel when driver by oil engines must be thoroughly understood and guaranteed by the electrical manufacturer. Foundation. for a 500 h. to 125 cu. for a 100 h. The templets which are set for the anchor bolts should remain open to permit ramming. yd. above concrete.EFFECT OF ALTITUDE It 41 cannot be emphasized too strongly that is when part of the Diesel equipment its selection must be given as much care as the engine itself and the reliability of the manufacturer and the guarantees a generator In alternating offered must be carefully analyzed. long should be placed. projecting not more than in. from 40 cu. engine is An ^ . If preferred. Around each foundation bolt a wooden box approximately 4 in. 4 in.p. engine of the vertical type.

keeping the shaft in line and other adjustments that are made inside the crank case. that is the Diesel with the splash lubrication system. The Diesel engines that are being manufactured today of the later type are greatly improved in this respect. An engineer who lacks pride in keeping himself clean will never have a clean engine room. unless they are reasonably paid. Nine times out of ten if you should meet the engineer outside of his plant at any time during his watch you could safely judge the condition of his engine from his personal appearance. especially when the engine requires attention inside the crank case. In a great many plants visited by the writer the engine or engines were so dirty and covered with oil that it was impossible to go near them until they had been thoroughly cleaned. are willing to do this ''dirty" With used in the work. as it might be called. Few men. One of the most important things in connection with the Diesel engine is cleanliness. there is any amount of unpleasant work. Sometimes this would take a day . the majority of them have forced lubrication so the inside of the engine is naturally cleaner for working.CHAPrER VI OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES the type of engine now most extensively United States. together with the fine attention required by the main bearings.

with some types. It is the writer's l)elief that just this trouble was often the cause of broken shafts in the early days of the Diesel engine. the starting valve is held open during the time by the starting valve cam. causing a false start. As fuel oil or lubricating a general rule all of these leaks are either a loss of oil. If the engine is left just back of starting center until . As to the operation of the engine there is but one way to be successful and that is to be clean about all your work in connection with the engine. Some instructions will tell the engineer to place his engine in starting position as soon as the engine is shut down. All true Diesel engines work along the same lines and require about the same care. always wise for the engineer to be on duty in ample time to carry out the necessary preparations for starting the engine without undue haste. If the engine is placed in starting position and left over night. either one of which is an expense to the owner. as dirt to any extent is the worst enemy It is of machinery and especially a Diesel engine. This valve is closed by a spring and as there is always more or less moisture in the starting air it will cause corrosion around the valve stem and often times the valve will not close as quickly as it should. It is well to get the engine on the right revolution for starting but not to bring up to the starting position until almost time to commence operation. require more attention in regard to cleanliness than others.OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES or two. but some. I do not agree with this. It is an old saying that little things make big ones and if small leaks. due to their construction. are attended to there will be no large leaks. 43 There is no leak around a Diesel engine that cannot be stopped. when they are first seen.

If air should be in the oil line or pump it is doubtful if the engine will pick up oi start work at once and it often is the cause of a false start and the loss of starting air. There are so many .44 THE DIESEL ENGINE when it is it IN PRACTICE the time of starting position if it will move this valve turned up into starting and break the corrosion has set in. which. is undesirable in connection with the Diesel engine. above the compression in the engine cylinders. of course. . After the engine is placed in starting position. it being necessary to get a solid stream of oil at the telltale before the pump is. the engineer is ready to prime the fuel oil pump or start a flow of oil through the pump to the telltale. but the result of all is the same. there would be insufficient spray air pressure to blow the fuel into the cylinder and the heat from the compression would be liable to ignite the oil in the atomizer and cause severe trouble. ready to operate. according to the design of the engine. The engineer should always see that the circulating waiter is running through the engine before it is started if this should be neglected and the water is low in the cylinder and closed when starting the engine so that regardless of the decrease of air in the starting bottles the spray bottle pressure will be kept as high as possible and must always be at least 100 lb. If the pressure in the spray bottle should get lower than the pressure in the cylinder when the fuel needle opens. different designs of the Diesel engine being built at this time that it is hard to describe the starting moves of each engine. After the engine is started it is always wise to refill the as soon as possible starting bottles and close the valves tightlv to prevent loss of air.

OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES 45 Then all lubricators should be looked after to see that they are doing their work and kept well filled. Practirallv ^11 of the level and the rigfht mixture. some three. page 46. The circulating water should be regulated according to the load on the engine so that it is not above 130 degree*^ Fahrenheit or cooler than 90 degrees Fahrenheit. page 45. as the piston of the Diesel engine only has to make a few strokes before the heat of the compression and the burning oil would raise the temperature of the head to such a degree that water coming in contact with it would cause it to '"^ crack. vessels as they Diesel engines air bottles. e top of ERRATA NOTE Lines 8 to 27. The header which connects the bottles together is always provided with a valve between the starting This valve should always be set an d spray bottles. should follow line 7. page 44. Where there are six bottles four are for starting and used for this purpose only. page 45. are shipped with the engine forming part of the installation. or tanks. Line 6. per sq. and as a general rule are shipped all With from the factory containing air at 1200 lb. These bottles are all tested to 3000 lb. in. or may be called. The other two are used for atomizing or spray air. builders ship six bottles. With engines of the enclosed crank case type and ^ spla sh lubrication many engineers have found _itAwturned on after the engine is started it is often the cause of cracked cylinder heads. should follow line 20. mgineer rht mix^ ^^^er P^^^tmg . Two starting bottles are used at one Some time and one spray bottle where six bottles are provided.

there would the cylinder wh( '^ '^*^^-r^ be insufficient s] the cylinder and 3iTOVi ATA^a^a ^ollo^ Wijoila be liable to igr . above the compression in the engine cylinders. If air should be in the oil line or pump it is doubtful if the engine will pick up oi start work at once and it often is the cause of a false start and the loss of starting air.jk . ready to operate. which. . ^ * 9^^ . and close the ^g . according to the design of the engine. different designs of the Diesel engine being built at this time that it is hard to describe the starting moves of each engine. of course. .\S oi 8 ei severe trouble.OS .. There are so many ^ ' '' ^^nd refill the sta ^*'"'*^ Wuortt . After the engine is placed in starting position. but the result of all is the same. The engineer should always see that the circulating water is running through the engine before it is started if this should be neglected and the water is low in the cylinder and closed when starting the engine so that regardless of the decrease of air in the starting bottles the spray bottle pressure will be kept as high as possible and must always be at least 100 lb. is undesirable in connection with the Diesel engine. it being necessary to get a solid stream of oil at the telltale before the pump is. the engineer is ready to prime the fuel oil pump or start a flow of oil through the pump to the telltale. ^. If the pressure in the spray bottle should get lower than the pressure in ^'^^"^ "pedle opens. •^'^ ssnq After the .9^ a^o.44 THE DIESEL ENGINE when it is it IN PRACTICE the time of starting position if it will move this valve turned up into starting and break the corrosion has set in.^ ^„ii ^^j.a|.

Some builders ship six bottles. The circulating water should be regulated according to the load on the engine so that it is not above 130 degree^! Fahrenheit or cooler than 90 degrees Fahrenheit. or tanks. and as a general rule are shipped from the factory containing air at 1200 lb. per sq.OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES Then 45 all lubricators should be looked after to see that they are doing their work and kept well filled. Where there are six bottles four are for starting and used for this purpose only. Practically all of the engines of this type have a lj4 in. These bottles are all tested to 3000 lb. With engines of the enclosed crank case type and spla sh lubrication many engineers have found JXc^^ ^' turned on after the engine is started it is often the cause of cracked cylinder heads. The other two are used for atomizing or spray air. If before the engine is started the engineer is sure that the oil and water are about the right mixture and height in the crank case he should. Two starting bottles are used at one time and one spray bottle where six bottles are provided. after starting the engine. are shipped with the engine forming part of the installation. or may be called. Diesel engines air bottles. remove the plugs and by putting his finger into the hole in the door he will soon become all With vessels as they . some three. plug in the top of each door. level and the right mixture. as the piston of the Diesel engine only has to make a few strokes before the heat of the compression and the burning oil would raise the temperature of the head to such a degree that water coming in contact with it w^ould cause it to crack. The header which connects the bottles together is always provided with a valve between the starting This valve should always be set an d spray bottles. in.

This has been found to be >^ the simplest and most satisfactory way to obtain this ^^^Ttroublesome to keep the water and oil at the proper '\] information. which causes the oil to run off of that. careful v/atch must be kept on the pressure of the spray air. off gradually. the pistons water in the cyl- oil will inder jacket around them so hot that the lubricating run off the pistons and there will be nothing left to lubricate them v/hen the engine is again started. The tops of the pistons in 'a Diesel engine naturally become very warm while running under load and when the engine is shut down. if possible. Then again the hot pistons would cause the gummy oil that is around the rings to fry and cook and naturally cause the rings to stick. if possible. and when the engine is started it is some time before lubricating oil can again reach this point. black smoky exhaust will appear.46 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE accustomed to the amount of oil and water that splashes so that any time while the engine is running he can do this and feel sure as to the amount of oil ^ and water in the engine. to let the circulating water run for ten or fifteen minutes after the engine is shut down so as to cool it off gradually. It is always advisable. ^-^ When the engine is running. The appearance of the exhaust will indicate whether the air is too low or too high. If it is too high. If too low. In stopping the engine. This would naturally add to the loss of compression and sometimes causes trouble in starting. Also the heat from the piston will heat the wrist pin at this time. if the circulating water is in a stationary position will heat the cut off at once. a pound will be heard on the fuel valve and white smoke will appear. throw the load If it is necessary at any time to shut .

the quickest way A . When the engine is at a standstill close the lubricators on the engine and the compressor and close the valves on the air bottle as tightly as possible. This. of course. The spray air should never be shut oflF the engine until it is almost stopped. By this is meant the valves and the cages in which they set. In this way on Sunday. When using an oil with an asphalt base it is always quite necessary to put coal oil in the exhaust valve stems before shutting down. As the engine starts to slow down the bleeders on the air compressor should be opened. if that is the day the engine is to be shut down for a few hours' inspection. The first thing to do is to shut off the fuel. to always have a number of spare parts on hand. The writer would advise the owner of a Diesel engine or a prospective purchaser. The reason for this is that with a small load on the engine the exhaust valve stem is liable to become gummed with the unburnt oil. the admisMon valve and exhaust valve can be taken out of one cylinder and the two valves in perfect condition put down some other reason. the most essential being one admission valve and one exhaust valve complete. In nearly all Diesel engines there is a small hole provided somewhere in the exhaust valve cage which allows the engineer to inject a little coal oil on the exhaust valve stem.OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES the engine 47 quickly in case of accident or for is to shut off the fuel and let the engine stop or die with the load on. as the success of the operation depends entirely upon their being kept tight. The care of the valves of a Diesel engine is a very important thing. fuel oil high in asphalt is more liable to cause gumming than oil with a paraffine base. greatly depends upon the kind of fuel oil being used. which is the life of the engine.

he naturally does the work in a hurry. In this way if it IS a three-cylinder engine there should be three of each of the parts. one atomizer. so there never would be a time when it was necessary to shut the engine down to grind valves. one fuel pump suction valve. A good way to do that is to wipe the seat of the cage and the valve as clean as possible and then mark the seat crosswise about 1 inch apart all the way around with a lead pencil. and by so doing the valves would always be in good condition. Nearly all Diesel engine builders furnish with the engine a number of spare parts. say every three or four weeks. If the engineer tries to grind valves on a Sunday. the valves being more In or less hot and the work is not done properly. If by so doing all pencil marks are cut off the valve has a perfect seat. one fuel pump discharge valve. while if of four cylinders four of each ex- . But to have a safe supply of spare parts everything they furnish singly should be brought up to the number of cylinders on the engine. If any of the marks are left it is necessary to keep on grinding until they all come off by turning the valve. Then put the valve in place and give it half a turn. one complete set of springs for all valves and one complete set of gaskets. following week the engineer could see that those taken out were put in condition and ready for the next change. or any day that might be selected for the two or three hour shut down. grinding either the exhaust or admission valve it may be often observed after grinding a few minutes that the valve and seat will appear to be in perfect condition but it is always a good idea to test the seats before putting the valves together.48 THE DIESEL ENGINE The IN PRACTICE in their place. giving an absolute assurance of a good seat. This could be continued. one fuel pump plunger. consisting of one fuel needle.

It is good practice. cating engine is of splash lubrication the lubrishould be cleaned out of the crank case at If there is leakage by the least once in six months. The cylinder heads should be lifted at least once a year. but it is inadvisable to run the engine longer than five minutes as the crank pins will get hot. the ring grooves and rings thoroughly cleaned and if any of the rings show wear they should be replaced. the wrist pin taken out and the bearings examined and refitted. it is necessary to clean the crank case at shorter intervals. way of doing this work is to bail out all the oil and water that can be taken from the crank case. If the oil shows black in the sunThe proper light it is time to clean the crank case. and always advisable to have at least a half dozen piston rings on hand. At such a time during the overhauling of the engine all bearing caps should be lifted and the shaft and bearings examined. the pistons taken from the engine. rings due to wear or stuck rings.OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES it is 49 cept gaskets. All rings should be removed from the piston. if you can get a green shade the oil is still good. After this inspection is finished put in the regular amount of water that would ordinarily be followed by a new supply of lubricating oil. at such a time. dark. Of these there cannot be too many. then add three or four pails of fuel oil to each crank pit. by taking a small quantity on your finger and going to the sunlight. then the caps reset If the oil and locked. put . as much as possible. The engineer can always judge the condition of the oil in the crank Even though the oil might look case by its color. to start the engine up with the doors ofif and watch the lost motion or anything that might be loose in the crank case and cannot be seen at any other time.

if it turns free it is all right to go ahead with another run or until it is necessary to overhaul again. then putting the cap on and pulling down as hard on the nuts as possible so as to allow about . It also prevents either the lint from rags or waste that might be used in cleaning remaining in the crank case and finally after running collecting in the lubricating holes of the bearings.50 THE DIESEL ENGINE It will IN PRACTICE it the doors on and start the engine and run utes. 10 fuse wire. The water and oil should then be bailed out and thrown away. to use No. placing four pieces across the shaft. in order that the clearance . or in any place where it might fall in while the doors are ofif. idea. the usual amount of water and lubrithat the washed off. the cap pulled down as hard as possible and the engine turned over. one at each end and two near the center. After removing the wires build up with metal shims until it is all you can do to pull the nuts down to the marked places.006 clearance. After once going over the engine in this way and resetting caps with thin shims it will be easier to make the adjustments from that on as one can be taken out from each side. for 15 min- be found when the doors are taken off working parts of the engine are thoroughly method cleaning the bearings where it is impossible to wipe out the dirt. In the setting of the main bearing caps it is a good may be known exactly. Then your cap will be solid and you know the clearance is correct. then mark the nuts and bearing with a center punch so that they may be brought back to the same place. this cating oil placed in the case ready for running. Waste should never be used at any time inside of the engine.



The admission valve is contained in a cage designed to permit the removal of both valve and seat to allow of easy access for grinding. If the valve should get into bad condition it may be necessary to ream the seat and face the valve. This should rarely be necessary, but if done, great care should be used in maintaining a true and even pressure on both valve and seat at an angle of 45 degrees. Every precaution must be exercised to remove all cuttings or emery and all parts should be thoroughly cleaned. When replacing the admission valve cage into the cylinder head see that all contact surfaces of both the head and cage are well cleaned and that the gasket is in good condition. Tighten the holding down nuts with a wrench only. Do not use a hammer or length of pipe on the wrench and be careful to get the cage down evenly on the joint. After starting the engine watch the valve for evidence of leak, and should there be a sign of one carefull}^ draw up on the nuts. Do not delay doing this or the gasket will rapidly burn at the leak and have to be replaced. A leaky admission cage will cause a serious
loss of


casting which contains the fuel needle and the other accessories to the fuel valve is known as the fuel cage. This cage is an iron casting which is sub-


The high pressure in this valve is confined in the steel bushing which is pressed into the casting. The injection air and fuel oil connections are both screwed into steel bushings. Water circulated around the bushings keeps it cool and prevents overheating of the fuel oil. The fuel needle is made of a special alloy with a cast iron spring case on the outer end in which the spring operates to close the valve against the action of the fuel cam.
jected to high pressure.


best quality of

or similar

woven vulcabeston,

material, should be used for packing the fuel needle
stuffing box; the packing must contain no rubber or gutta percha, as oil quickly softens and destroys these


The atomizer where the injection air and fuel oil meet before entering the cylinder must be frequently examined to see that it is not clogged with dirt, which may come in the oil, or scale from the pipes. As a precaution against the clogging of the atomizer keep
needle seat should wide and should not require grinding very often. A reamer and guide should be on hand to ream this seat when necessary, and great care must be taken to apply an even pressure to the reamer to prevent chatter marks which would spoil the seat. To prevent undue wearing of the needle withdraw it once a week and oil the packing with graphite and cylinder oil applied by means of a rag on a wire. The needle may readily be withdrawn after loosening the gland nuts. The exhaust valve seats in some engines are not removable. It may be reamed when necessary, using the guide furnished with the reamer which fits into the head. Care must be exercised to cut as little as possible from the seat and to maintain an equal pressure on the reamer to insure a true and smooth surWhen the valve needs refacing it should be put face.

strainer clean.




a ring all

around about 1/32


into a lathe

and skimmed ofif by a competent man, removing no more material than necessary to true up the face and maintain an angle of 45 degrees.
It is the writer's opinion that all Diesels should be provided with a safety valve on each working cylThis valve is intended to relieve any undue inder.



pressure in the cylinder and is set to open at 800 lb. per sq. in. The piston traveling slowly downward at the time the first ignition takes place allows the pressure to increase above the normal; the relief valve is intended to take care of this increased pressure. Also in case needle should stick open and allow the fuel to enter the cylinder during the compression stroke a premature ignition will occur, this increased pressure causing the relief valve to pop and give warning that
the fuel needle


consists in general of fuel plungers, suction valves and discharge valves, together with their driving and controlling mechanism. The plungers are driven by eccentrics and are attached to the suction valve mechanism by means of connecting rods and eccentric levers. Oil is delivered to the chamber



which the plunger travels through a mechanically operated suction valve. The plunger in its turn delivers the oil through the discharge valve to the fuel The opening of the valve on the engine cylinder. suction valve is controlled by an eccentric fulcrum, the position of which is regulated by a governor according to the load on the engine. At full load the suction valve starts to open at about mid-position of the plunger on its downward suction stroke and closes about mid-position on the upward delivery stroke. At no load the suction valve remains open during The fuel complete upward stroke of the plunger. pump suction valve is made of steel and the valve stems are nickel steel. The stuffing boxes of these valves should be packed with Blackhawk or similar packing, just tightly enough to prevent leakage as excessive friction prevents the springs from closing

otherwise no oil will be delivered to the fuel value and no work done in the cylinder. Careful straining of the fuel oil is an important factor in the successful operation of these valves. The ball set is made of brass or steel with a brass tip so that the ball will not be marred. due to wear or reaming of the valve seat. Test the discharge valve to know that it is tight. The fuel pump discharge valves usually consist of hardened steel balls in steel cages. When replacing the valve cage after having cleaned all parts of the valve. A ball set should be used foi this work. be sure to get the lower joint tight. The valve should then be ground in the seat with very fine emery and finished with pumice stone. these valves require little attention.54 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE the valves promptly and affects the regulation of the engine. The lift of the ball should nut be greater than 1/16 in. Should they become worn the seats must be reamed and a new ball put in place. Dirt or scale may mar the seats sufficiently to affect the operation of the engine. When it becomes greater than this. Both surfaces of the joint must be thoroughly cleaned and the hole in the gasket must be large enough not to interfere with the operation of the valve. it is necessary to use a new cage. In case of such injury to a suction valve the seat should be reamed with a tool provided for this purpose and the valve trued up in a good lathe by a careful workman. When the fuel oil is thoroughly strained and contains no grit. This joint is made with a corrugated brass gasket. using the guide which comes with the reamer as a guide for the ball set. disconnect the * . To do this. To seat the new ball only one solid tap of n hammer is necessary.

and the tubing to 6000 lb. gauge may then be used at any time for comparison By holding one gauge in reserve the with others. to read high Gauges in use for some time tend and lack of air pressure will make the engine appear overloaded. as all high pressure fittings furnished are tested to a pressure of 3000 lb. to 900 lb. to use 75 atmospheres.. It is desirable when the peak of the load runs over the rated load of the engine. in. in. At half load. be tested by means A of a gauge tester. 1125 lb. the discharge valve or the suction valve. per sq. in If this pressure' is too low for the load of the engine the exhaust will smoke. sudden increase or decrease of pressure often causes a gauge to read incorrectly. 975 to 1050 lb. In every engine room there should be one gauge This fitted with a valve and this valve kept closed. per sq. The gauges which indicate the injection pressure should be frequently calibrated. easily adjusted. 55 supply pipe between the discharge valve and the fuel Place a cage on the outlet of the discharge valve and operate the fuel pump by hand to obtain a pressure of 75 atmospheres on the cage.OPERATION AND GARE OF ENGINES valve. The cylinders of practically all Diesel engines are lubricated by force feeding. or 450 lb. look for a leak in the gasket. per sq. If the pressvire does not remain constant. others may frequently be checked and when found incorrect. To positively check gauges for correctness they should. it should range from 50 to 60 atmospheres. The pressure of 75 atmospheres is absolutely safe. and under. the valves to 2500 lb. The injection air pressure should be graduated according to the load. If it is too high the engine will knock. The lubricating pump in . Above half load from 65 to 70 atmospheres. say every six months.

The engineer should use his judgment in order to keep the level in the crank case about right. Three or four bucketsful of water should also be added tc crank pits at this time. 10. In splash lubrication the oil is thrown by the crank and conveyed to the various parts by oil grooves and oil holes designed for the purpose.56 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE some types is driven from the end of the cam shaft and must always receive proper care. that it opens to admit fuel at the proper time and closes at the correct mo- ment after the fuel is all injected. This condition should be avoided as it causes excessive wear of the engine bearings without increasing the engine capacity. that is. typical diagram is shown in Fig. No lubrication is necessary for the admission or exhaust valves. The oil cups on the fuel pump and governor must be kept well filled. It is of the utmost importance that the fuel valve be correctly timed. Some engines will evaporate more water than others. The figures given are sufficient and if the engine will not pull its rated load when adjusted correctly look elsewhere for the trouble. shaft bearings. cam rollers and all wearing surfaces oiled enclosed in the crank case are kept well by the splash or forced lubrication. Every Diesel engine builder will furnish with his engine a table giving A the correct measurements for his special engine. Where splash lubrication is employed three or four pints of oil should be added every four hours to crank pits. but the admission valve dash pot should occasionally be oiled. with the idea of forcing the engine to pull more load. . If the fuel valve opens too early the pressure in the cylinder will increase. The connecting rod boxes. Do not increase the lead beyond that given in the table.

If the fuel valve closes too late injection air be wasted. When setting the fuel valve compressed air in the air storage bottle should be used to indicate the exact time of the opening of the needle.OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES If the fuel 57 valve opens too late difficulty may be encountered in pulling the rated load. 10. will . If the fuel valve closes too early the engine may have a smoky exhaust and burn too much fuel for the load which it is run- BOTTOM CENTER Fig. Typical Valve Timing Diagram. ning.

in the cam body. nothing. the fuel as the case may be. just hear the least bit of air ascertain the point of closing of the fuel turn the fly wheel ahead slowly until no air 'is heard to escape from the fuel valve when Determine the valve on the air line is open. you is careful about this adjustment blowing by. and also at any time that it has been found . change the adjustment of the valve rod until . It is good policy to check the timing of these valves at least once a month.: 58 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE To ascertain the point of opening this valve proceed as follows By barring the fly wheel. When nose is in its correct position any space between the ends of same and the fuel cam body should be carefully and tightly filled with metal shims to insure the nose remaining securely in its place. and closing of this valve cannot be accomplished by adjusting the vertical push rod it is then necessary to To valve move the fuel cam nose slightly forward or backward. Be very and see that the blow the same after you have regulated your adjustment. point of closing by measuring from this point. Then turn the fly wheel ahead until the required lead is reached. If the correct opening to dead center position. whether it be 2^ or 5 inches or more before the dead center-mark on the wheel when set at the proper measurement according to your table for the lead turn on the injection air and listen at the indicator hole for If you hear a leak by the needle into the cylinder. set the engine a few inches back of the position at which the valve should open. Pull up lever that relieves the compression on the cylinder or take out the indicator plug. Always check and properly time these valves after a fuel needle or atomizer has been removed or reground.

according to the load. but the timing of the valves is practically the same. This type of engine does not require as high a spray pressure as some of the others. in. due to the number of manufacturers going into the Diesel engine building. per sq.. Some are horizontal and some vertical. air pressure ranging from 40 to 65 atmospheres. 59 necessary to take the needle out or to remove the valve There are quite a number of differently designed Diesel engines at this time and no doubt the number will increase rapidly. 600 to 975 lb. but all true Diesels work along the same lines. . Some of the latest designs have all valves in the top of the head.OPERATION AND CARE OF ENGINES cage.

CHAPTER VII DIESEL'S LIFE AND RELIABILITY. The life of a Diesel engine It is is something that is often discussed. representing a large part of their original cost. an increasing of its reliability and facility in handling and a perfection and renewals. flywheel and foundation. stack and piping. a lengthening of its life. Some of these features. and its life will compare most favorably with the entire equipment of a steam plant. each year show a marked deterioriation and loss in efficiency. the boilers notably. None of these features exist in the Diesel. Diesel progress has been one of increasing refinements. maintained in fair state of up-keep by frame. condensers. nor do we here. when the Diesel was first built. heaters. Ten. continue in service. Yet. the engine and pumps represent less than forty per cent of the cost of a steam installation about sixty per cent being in the boilers. expect to increase its thermal efficiency to a very great extent. The story of the Diesel engine is quite different from that of gradual obsolescence of the old steam plant. its efficiency throughout its life remaining practically unimpaired. even fifteen years ago. it showed the same extraordinary efficiency. The — . No builder of Diesels abroad. not unusual to find steam enin service gines and steam repairs pumps which have been thirty years. shaft.

leaky valves and worn cylinders result in reduced efficiency. and connecting rods. pressure at instant of combustion. is eliminated. those parts which wear and deteriorate most. In other words such conditions as militate against the life of engines and their economy absolutely cannot exist long enough in the Diesel to do serious damage. the cause of which is not always apparent. the massive fly wheel. etc. If the engine is not loaded to capacity this consequently may not be detected until much damage has been done and The Diesel. Since these non-wearing parts form the larger cost. Another feature of the Diesel which adds to its and which sets the Diesel apart from all explosive types. It is easy to realize this by recalling that the entire boiler equipment. is the absence of any sudden rise in life. or consume fuel much money fect in useless effort. unapproached by any other type of prime mover. Gradual introduction of fuel during ten per cent to twelve per cent .DIESEL'S LIFE of AND RELIABILITY 61 In these it its governing under varying loads. of necessity. In the steam engine and in all explosive and hot-bulb types of internal combustion engines. if compression fails ignition ceases and the engine stops. compression for its ignition. depending upon perlost. The heavily designed frame. form a much larger proportionate cost of Diesel equipment than do these parts in a steam installation. the shaft. and that wear and tear is confined to parts which represent less than oneis third of the original Diesel investment. does not permit a continuance of such losses. with all its auxiliaries.. form a less proportionate part of Diesel equipment than they do of steam equipment.

Texas. is a fair example. it was necessary to bore them out and purchase new pistons. a more uniform Two 225 h. With the same handling in the future as they have had in the past. new pistons are not required. of the Diesel years. However. The water pumping station at Sherman. — The reliability doubted for many the engine itself judging from the experience of the numerous plants that have been in continuous operation. as they became worn. Diesel engines in a Texas power house during the nine years since they were installed. Reliability. owned by the city.p. simply the rings and the cylinder walls. With this system. they have proven very successful. not . Their cylinders were rebored after nine years' service.p. This is an installation of two 170 h. These liners and require only a small amount machine work.62 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE in of the stress combustion stroke results and longer life. so naturally are not expensive simply a case of cast iron at so much a pound. In the first engines. have operated on an average eighteen hours per day. they should outlive a steam plant of like capacity. the wear and tear on the operating parts will be much less than in the older design. engines which for the past four engine has been from the performance of but from false reports. as the piston of a Diesel engine never wears. the cylinders were solid. so that in five or six years. In the later designs the cylinders are fitted with a liner so that they may be replaced by merely lifting them out and slipping are of new ones made of cast iron in their place. With late designs.

Donaldsonville pumps directly into their lines. but wonderful economy in upkeep. At the end of this time the engines are shut down. The City h. Texas. pressure on the system. They state that their engine . one at Marshall. and judging from reports received from their mechanical engineer. inspected and adjustments made if they are required. These engines furnished the light and the power for the city water works system. the pumps being driven with motors operated automatically to hold 50 lb.p. purchased Diesels in about 1912. The reliability of the Diesel engines in this plant was highly endorsed by the Fire Underv/riters and the plant shows a wonderful saving over their old steam plant. not only in the extreme economy of operatioii. the other at Big Springs.DIESEL'S LIFE AND RELIABILITY 63 years have been operating continuously 24 hours a day on 30 day runs. two 170 The Texas & two Pacific Railroad Company operate of their railroad shops with Diesel engines. Louisiana. There are any number of plants that have but one engine used for city lighting service and in manufacturing industries. of Donaldsonville. If the engines in either case are operated on 24 hour schedule they arrange to shut down for a few hours on Sunday for inspection. a saving of between $1000 and $1100 a month in fuel for the city. this engine is giving perfect satisfaction. while the Diesel plant. uses 3^ barrels of oil per 24 hours. with practically the same load. The Marshall engine has been operating a number of years. Texas. While a great many cities in the south have a standpipe in connection with their water service. The steam plant used 32 barrels of oil in 24 hours or 90 barrels of coal.

when upkeep of boilers.p. When the engine was overhauled the writer was there to note its condition and found out of eighteen rings.p. only two piston rings broken on the three pistons. Lyndon. as smooth as When the reliability for continuous a looking glass. in fact when it was sold second hand it brought nearly full While operating the steam engine they only price. Diesel engine three years ago. This engine furnishes the lights for the city. if 13 hours of installed a 120 h. etc. was operating a modern steam engine.64 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE consumes 8 gallons of fuel per hour with an output of 90 kw.. if not more so. Their average oil consumption was 1 bbl. pumps and auxiliaries is considered. of oil per hour.. is at Plant City. in excellent condition. The load has been increased by extra street lamps and new The City . and — the cylinders were in perfect condition. The engine is 120 h. than the steam plant. ran from dusk to dawn. and was operated almost continuously for three years before any repairs were made. also that the average upkeep of the engine for the past three years has not been more than $2 a month their engineer knows his business! The engine in the shops at Big Springs has been operating over two years with perfect success and little upkeep. Kansas. Florida.ple of the reliability of the Diesel engine. None were stuck. operation is questioned it is safe to state that the Diesel engine is fully as dependable. both for endurance and upkeep. it was 10 bbl. in connection with furnishing power for manufacturing ice. turned around the generator which had been belted to the steam engine and belted it to the Diesel. Another marvelous exam.. if they ran 10 hours The city 13 bbl.

Another Diesel plant at Coeymans. furnishes the light and power for three towns. generators operating in parallel. . Y.p. ventilating a mine.. DIESEL'S LIFE AND RELIABILITY 65 users. one 120 h. is the cleanest and best kept Diesel plant in the United States. both residence and stores. N. Ravina and New Baltimore. It has been in operation for the past seven years and the owner stated on several occasions.c. and they were operated on California fuel oil containing 25 per cent asphaltum. he would much rather pay the price for Diesel engines.. figuring 365 days a yeai Naturally they are highly pleased and are now con- lights sidering the purchase of another Diesel and furnishing and power for small surrounding towns. but even with the increase of output the Diesel engine does not average a barrel of oil per night. Diesel engines connected to a Roots blower with rope drive. Since that time they have purchased two more. and he had to buy the fiiel to run it.p.. The first two engines installed were 120 h. These are simply now instances of typical Diesel plants of which there are over 400 in operation in this country. and one 225 h. Arizona.p. that if he had his choice of being presented with the best reciprocating steam plant that could be furnished.p. without a doubt. The longest run the writer can recall was 94 days continuous operation in Jerome. all direct connected to a. The plant consisted of two 225 h. when asked what he thought of Diesel engines. Coeymans. This we consider "going some" for combustion engines. This plant. namely.

The matter of cleanliness and absence of vapors being blown from the crank case is also an argument advanced by the latter. as claimed by case. Diesel engines are divided two classes. This type of construction. both as to the size and the weight of the casting which . are accessibility of the "A" frame and cheapness of construction as against the more expensive and more rigid construction of the box type into crank case.CHAPTER VIII MODERN ENGINES In present day design. however. the vertical and horizontal. On closed crank case has also the other hand the operation of the enmany advocates and has been proven by long experience. particularly for high speed engines. cannot be carried into extremely large sizes as the capacity of freight cars is limited. In the vertical engine some manufacturers are using the open "A" frame construction while others have adopted the closed box-frame crank The advantages of these types. and this type has been operated in America with entire success. Steam engineers in general are advocates of the "A" frame construction. It has been adopted by the largest European builders and is preferred there. the manufacturers. In Europe there has been a general adherence to vertical engines and at present the greater number of American builders are following lead. Each of these types has their advocates.

11. can be transported.MODERN ENGINES 67 Fig. It is usual with builders of "A" frame engines to enclose the working parts with some type of guards of sheet steel with small removable doors for observation. Section of Mcintosh & Seymour Oil Engine. The Mcintosh & Seymour engine is designed with **A" frame as shown in section in Fig. The main bearings are lubricated by chain oilers. The cylinders .

The atomizer is that invented by K. which delivers its oil to a "V" shaped vertical groove in the are lubricated at Fig. from this groove the oil is forced through a hole in the center of the wrist pin. Mcintosh & Seymour Atomizer. (Swe- . whence it is lead to the bearings. piston. The piston pin is provided with a separate lubricating pipe from the mechanical lubricator. H. from a mechanically driven sight feed pump. Hesselmann of the Aktiebolaget Diesels Motorer. 12. The crank pins are lubricated by centrifugal oilers. E. one in the front and one in the back.68 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE two different points.

between the valve stem and the receding wall of the surrounding fitting. even at an overload. Air is admitted to the chamber A-A and passes through the ports B-B. The engine is started from a single cylinder. Its essenfeature is that instead of pulverizing the oil by it crowding it down through perforated plates it draws by the injector principle into the current of ingoing injection air. Means are provided. The cam shaft is located on the level of the heads. the cams not being housed.p. passes through the expanding passage F-F.MODERN ENGINES tial 69 dish Diesel Engine Co. preparatory to starting. the rocker arm shaft being supported by steel pedestals fastened to the cylinder heads. 12. No attempt is made to relieve compression in starting as this is claimed to be unnecessary in engines below 500 h. the air. The charge of oil is deposited in a chamber. induces by injector action a difference of pressure which causes the oil to flow to the space. while it has also access to the oil chamber through the space E-E. The rocket arms on these engines are practically alike. for holding the exhaust valve open during the turning or barring of the engine by hand. however. having been elevated and broken up through slotted plates K and L is drawn and picked up by the ingoing air.) shown in Fig. which atomizes and absorbs it as fast as it is drawn up. The the fuel variation of the quantity of oil oil pumped by pump is accomplished by varying the . into which the oil. rushing through the port. The form of the fuel plate has an important effect upon the efficiency of the atomizer. which it does not fill. When the fuel valve opens. They are driven by a vertical shaft and screw gears.

p. The engine is of the "A" frame type. designed by Mr. split horizontally. The cylinder steel. The Lyons Atlas engine as built by the Lyons Atlas Engine Co. The speeds are suitable for direct connection to 60 or 25 cycle alternating current generators. The upper or wrist pin boxes are of phosphor bronze backed by a steel wedge. in six cylinders and have constructed several machines of this type. These ratings are claimed to be exceedingly conservative and the engine permits of an overload of 20 per cent. in one cylinder to 1000 h.p. Each bearing is fitted with two ring oilers. is unique. Adjustments can be conveniently made from the outside through side openings. The main shaft is a solid forging of open hearth with counter-weights rods have solid upper ends. with automatic lubrication. ample protection being supplied to the working parts by sheet steel covers. It is not connected in anyway with any European concern. The main bearings are in halves. It fits on the base. the lower boxes are babbitted. Norman McCarthy. the cranks being fitted to absorb vibration. the reservoir box being filled with splash in the crank case.70 THE DIESEL ENGINE pump IN PRACTICE off the Stroke of the vertical shaft. completely covering the crank pit. It is of the vertical. The connecting . being truly of American design. enclosed type. The "A" frame for each crank is cast in one piece with the cylinder. The base contains the housings for the main shaft bearings and also forms a reservoir for lubricating oil. of Indianapolis. plunger eccentric operated The Mclntosh-Seymour Corporation are also bringing out an inclosed crank case engine in sizes ranging from 60 h. single-acting.

The Fulton-Tosi engine built by the Fulton Iron Works of St. developing 150 h. This governing stage operates against pressure not in excess of atmosphere and is sufficiently sensitive in action to perform its important functions with the necessary quickness and accuracy. A hardened steel wrist pin is ground to a perfect surface and firmly secured in the piston. The pistons are of the long trunk type fitted with seven compression rings.m. by 30 in. Two engines of this size were shipped to China and one of this size is in operation in the Hawaiian Islands. the tity of oil that is to be admitted. The in a cast-iron encased . stroke.p. is similar in most respects to the other A frame engines. no wiper ring being provided. Louis. when operating at 164 r. engine in four cylinders. stage being directly controlled by the governor and serving to measure at the last instant before the beginning of each working stroke the exact quan- company for The fuel first lubrication.MODERN ENGINES is 71 provided with a liner cast separate from the cylinder proper. The cam-shaft is on the front of the engine at the level of the cylinder heads.p. The heads are of close grained cast iron and are water jacketed. this being the largest Diesel engine yet constructed in America. p. and can be removed without disturbing the valves. These engines have cylinders 21 in. The valves are in cages to permit of ready removal for regrinding. The Lyons Atlas Company have built a 600 h. It is housing for the full length of the shaft and the cams and gears operate in oil. The splash system as well as the forced lubrication system is used by this injection pump is of the two-stage type.

72 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE cam shaft is driven from a vertical shaft which also drives the governor and the fuel oil pump. The engines (shown in section in Fig. This is shown in Fig. cranks and wrist pins. The main bearings. 13. Variation in the quantity of oil delivered by the fuel oil pump is accomplished by maintaining a constant stroke of the pump plunger with a constant pump cylinder volume during the suction stroke and varying the pump cylinder volume during the delivery stroke.p. all parts under force feed lubrication main bearings. 14) are of the box frame type with the cylinders. -L f<tee/vT»ic Roa vi^^^Jf J Fig-. adhere strictly to the box type up to 500 h. Fulton Tosi Fuel Oil Pump. crank pins and wrist pins are lubricated with a positive displace- . The rocker arm slips off the end of the supporting rod without disturbing any other parts of the arm or head. The method is in general use in America. bronze and steel spiral gears being provided. The cylinders of construction — are lubricated at six different points by a sight feed mechanical lubricator. Busch-Sulzer Bros.

the same sized hole extending ^ . 15) in. ment rotary pump located in the crank case and driven by gears from the main shaft. 14. It takes its oil from a filter and cooler below the floor line at the end of the engine.-Diesel Engine.MODERN ENGINES 73 Fig. hole and connecting rods are provided with a extending from the main bearing through the web to the center of the crank. Section of Busch-Sulzer Bros. The crank shaft (see Fig.

Fig. fffSi'y yyw ^i»«' i^Mf . Engine. 16. shown in stroke is ously in connection with the bottle containing the high-pressure injection air. 15. and. so that when the fuel valve opens. by most of the Diesel licensees. Fifteen pound pressure is maintained on the lubricating oil by the rotary pump and a gauge in plain sight of the operator indicates the pressure. the oil coming through one of the perforations of the top plate is driven against the solid portion of the next is that employed by Sulzer. The atomizer in type at least.-z •''•> . which is continu- . At the bottom of this chamber are disks with perforations which do not register. Lubriicating System of Busch-Sulzer Bros. 74 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE through the entire length of all connecting rods both for working cylinders and compressor.. The charge of oil for the coming delivered to the chamber. as Fig.

These engines are equipped with removable cylinder liners. plate with a velocity induced by a difference of presit is broken up into a spray. at a maximum and spread into a saucer-shaper. in which form it is swept through the The successive places. becoming finally atomized. truncated cone below these disks is grooved on its outer surface.MODERN ENGINES 75 Fig. umbrella like flame all over the surface of the piston. Sulzer Atomizer. and the oil-laden air passes through these grooves and is directed against the edges of the opening in the nozzle plate in such a manner that its stream upon entry into the combustion chamber is sure of some 400 lb. .

76 THE DIESEL ENGINE The engine is IN PRACTICE is started from two center cylinders furnished with a mechanical device for simultaneously releasing compression on all cylinders by means of an additional cam which opens the exhaust valve on the compression stroke. . It is encased in a cast iron housing the full length of the shaft and the cams and gears operate in oil. and ecct/^r/tK^OD fCCfAfT/f/cPoa * STPone 3 C Busch-Sulzer Fuel Pump. The cam shaft of the Busch-Sulzer engine is on the front of the engine at the level of the cylinder heads. The cam shaft is driven from a vertical shaft which There are ring. six compression rings and one wiper This latter is a knife edge ring which is very efficient and effects a great saving in lubricating oil.

shown in Fig. Both the plunger and the push rod have constant strokes but the action of the bell crank operated by the push rods is varied by its eccentric mounting. "B" and "C" respectively show the parts in half and full load positions. Diagram "A" shows the parts in no load position. using the open type of fuel nozzle of that name. The fuel pump is similar to that in general use in Europe and operates by what is known as the "by-pass" method. 18. parts and is claimed to permit of easy removal of the valve cages. the suction valve being held open almost throughout the entire delivery stroke. This engine is designed under the Lietzenmayer patents. The Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee are manufacturing a horizontal oil engine. shown in Fig. This by-passing is accomplished by holding open the suction valve of the pump during a portion of the delivery stroke. 17. 19. When this valve is lifted from its seat the stream of air scours over the surface of the accumulated fuel and atomizes it w^ith an action similar to . This is illustrated by steel spiral gears are . particularly the exhaust valve.MODERN ENGINES also drives the governor 77 and fuel oil pump. which is rotated under governor control so that the suction valve of the pump is held open during the longer or shorter portion of the delivery stroke of the plunger. the fuel is delivered by the pump into a passage which through a nozzle is at all times in open communication with the cylinder. and Fig. Bronze provided to drive the vertical The rocker arm is in two shaft and the cam shaft. The compressed injection air is closed off from the passage by the injection valve. In this type of nozzle.

. The size of the 115 h.000 lb.78 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE Fig. 18. Section of Allis-Chalmers Engine. The lubrication of the cylinders. A gravity oiling system with filtering arrangement and pump is used for all important bearings. stroke. in diameter. fly wheel. The multi-stage air compressor is mounted on the side of the frame and actuated from the crank shaft.m is 18 in.p. The weight of a 230 h. Air is delivered directly to the fuel nozzle without the use of the usual storage tank. The final atomizing and spreading is performed in the passage through the nozzle as in the case of the Diesel atomizer. engine of two cylinders of the above size is 160.p.000 lb. 27 in. and in special cases that of the exhaust valve stems is performed by a forced feed oil pump. cylinder operating at 200 r. The regulation is performed by varying the eflfective stroke of the fuel pump plunger under governor control. including a 17. .p. that of a file upon a metal surface.

An .air compressor is mounted on a pad on the . The Snow oil engine built by the Snow Steam is Pump Works of Buffalo. 20) a four- stroke-cycle engine. Sectional View of Snow Engine. Liietzenmayer Fuel Nozzle. although this company manufac- Fiff. 20.. Y.MODERN ENGINES 79 /Ufl Fig. tures engines both of the two-stroke-cycle and fourstroke-cycle. N. 19. (Fig. These engines are provided with cross- heads.

being bolted on to the piston proper. free from valves and naturally simple in its construction. of course. The piston head in many of the engines manufactured by this company is removable.80 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE side of frame and is driven by a drag crank on the end of the shaft. is. The lubrication of the cylinder is effected by a Richardson positive force feed pump. The Dow Willans Diesel type oil engine is built by the Dow Pump and Diesel Engine Company. under the license of Willans-Robin- . California. 21. Alameda. Section of W^illans-Robinson Cylinder Head. In this way the portion of the piston which is subject to the greatest heat is easily removable and renewable. The cylinder head. These engines employ a modified Fig-. type of open nozzle and the regulation is accomplished by varying the stroke of the fuel pump plunger by means of a sliding w^edge operated by the governor. particularly in the two-cycle type.

the lubrication of the cylinders also being under control of a mechanically operated lubricating Fig-. The cam shaft is open type. The main bearings are ring oiled. which is of the "A" frame type with centrifugal oilers on the crank pins and mechanical lubrication of the pistons pin. 21.) The compressed air for both starting and atomizing is delivered by a Reavell air compressor directly coupled in the end of the crank shaft. the valves in the head of the engine being contained in cages shown in section of Fig. England. any number of units being combined to make engines of from 150 to 450 h. Willans Compressor. pump. per cylinder. This engine is built in 50 h.MODERN ENGINES 81 It naturally follows very son of Rugby.p. 22. closely the design of the engine built in England. This .p.

14. and the compressor delivers absolutely cold air at 1000 lb. Another type of compressor is a two-stage directly coupled to the engine. pyramid piston. 22. in. cut of this A compressor shown in Fig. capable of com.and after-coolers. The Nordberg Company is at present manufacturing a duplicate of the two engines installed under the Carels' license. These are of 1250 b. per' sq..h. being . in five cylinders and are direct connected to electric generators. typical type of air compressor. To avoid lubricating difficulties and the danger of explosion of lubricating oil gases as well as to reduce the dimensions and power consumed in the compressor. the compressor. The Nordberg Manufacturing Company is of Mil- waukee. are at present installed in manufactured in Air Compressor. It is of the three-stage type with two cylinders for the first stage. closed by springs.p. the valves being set in cages which can be readily removed for regrinding. The compressor is provided with automatic valves of very limited lift. see Fig. This compressor is often integral with the engine and driven directly from the main shaft.82 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE air compressor is of a type built in England and has the four cylinders set two vertically and two horizontally opposite each other. of course. A pressing to 1200 lb. it is thoroughly water cooled. is of the three-stage type. Wis. pressure. are to manufacture a Diesel engine under license from Carels Brothers of Belgium. There New Mexico two engines Belgium. being provided with ample inter. These are the largest Diesel engines at present in operation in this country and the report of the purchaser is entirely satisfactory.

tically alike . All the Diesel engines made in America at the present time supply some type of directly driven compressor. The advantage of this rigid construction is obvious in the case of multi-cylinder engines in which there are a number of bearings in line. Other engines . The shafts are usually an American product. It is necessary in this type of bearing to scrape the cast iron in which the bearing shell rests to a perfect fit to the shell. it is difficult to adjust such bearings without removing the shaft. Some manufacturers are directly connecting a separate air compressor by vertical Diesel engines are with ample surface provided for sufficient lubrication so that the wear on them is negligible. the bearings scraped in with the mandrel made the size of the shaft and replaced the same way it was turned out. 4. No. bringing the shell on top of the shaft and this can be accomplished without lifting the shaft. 1 being toward the fly wheel. although some companies were depending on shafts shipped from abroad. 3. the cranks are set at 180 degrees. in. means of a coupling. The bearings in the quires great care and patience. per sq. the two centers against the two ends the firing of the cylinders is usually No. The lower shells of the rigid bearings are made in a complete circle so that they can be turned out in case of accident by taking oflf the cap and turning the engine over. 2. the coupling being inside the crank case. 1. The extension shaft of some engines is provided with one outboard bearing. The shaft in four-stroke-cycle engines are prac. The bearing could be then rebabbitted.MODERN ENGINES 83 thoroughly water-cooled and will deliver air at from 1000 to 1200 lb. which rerigid.

The fly wheel on the Busch-Sulzer engine is split on the arms. the usual practice and the one followed by many manufacturers with good success. The weight of the fly wheel is varied to suit the service performed by the engine. All Diesel engines are provided v/ith a thorough water cooling system. such as the cylinders. The former. which gives additional strength against bursting over a fly wheel split between the arms. The connecting rods of practically all Diesel engines are of forged steel. air compressor and in some cases the exhaust piping. one each side of the generator with a coupling between the inside bearing and engine. fly wheel and generator. With this ar- rangement there is less floor room occupied but the two outer bearings prevent a strain on the rigid coupling between the extension shaft and the crank shaft. with the one outboard bearing.84 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE are provided with two outer bearings. exhaust valve stems. has a bearing of extra dimension inside the engine to support the additional weight of the extension shaft. hour. however. which is. It is often the case where an engine is belted to design a flywheel that will also be a band wheel and in this way the space occupied is greatly reduced and the expense also lessened. The bearings at the crank end are of the marine type. Salt water can be readily used for this purpose the average cooling water consumption is approximately four to six gallons per horsepower . the heaviest fly wheel being provided with engines driving alternating current generators. taking care of the parts of engine which need cooling. however. cast steel and babbitt lined. . heads. in the case of ^ direct connected electrical equipment.

It is customary to operate the governor from the vertical shaft. in the smaller. which in turn drives the cam shaft. The governor in practically all types of Diesel engines is of the inertia type controlling the fuel oil pump by a series of levers. Certain manufacturers provide an additional safety device which operates in case of overspeed. however. This. Some manufacturers provide upper end bearings with wrist pin bolts. In the larger sizes the wrist pin bearing boxes are steel castings babbitted. .MODERN ENGINES end of the rod 85 bolted to the tee-shaped end of the rod. is not supplied on moderate sized units. solid bronze. The upper is usually closed and contains the bearing of the wrist pin.

A small portion of this air being contained in an aux- volume iliary chamber which is in open communication with the interior of the cylinder and which has been heated to a high temperature. is therefore. at or about the completion of this in the compression. sumption of this type of engine is slightly greater than that guaranteed by the Diesel engine. per sq. depending upon the type of engine. The introduced. the combustion taking place more suddenly and with a greater increase in pressure than in the Diesel. In both this type of engine and the Diesel type the maximum pressure is approximately the same. resulting from the mechanical compression.CHAPTER IX SEMI-DIESELS In the so-called semi-Diesel the entire cylinder of pure air is compressed to from 150 to 300 lb. in. Fig. considerably hotter in this chamber than fuel is main portion of the cylinder. 23 shows typical The fuel condiagrams of a semj-Diesel engine.. either directly and entirely into this auxiliary chamber. and being followed by a more rapid drop. in the semi-Diesel considerably lower. the full load compression being guaranteed in engines from though the compression pressure type is . or through the chamber and partially into the cylinder and gasified and ignited by the heat of compression of the air in the chamber.

the size 300 h.p. at
.5 lb.


of fuel oil at full load, .65 lb.

load and .75 lb. at half load. It will be noted that although the full load consumption corresponds to the Diesel engine that of J^ and ^4 loads are considerable higher than those obtained in the true Diesel engine. These semi-Diesel engines are, therefore, economical on steady loads at or near their full load,


but do not show nearly the economy of the true Diesel













V ^^
sr Lofto




































Fig. 23,

Typical Semi-Diesel Engine Indicator Cards.

The oil that these engines will use is practically the same as that used in the true Diesel engine and rigid guarantees from responsible manufacturers of this type of engine will completely cover this point. A cut of a De La Vergne engine is shown in Fig. 24. This engine is horizontal single-acting of the fourstroke-cycle type. "A" representing the inlet valve.
on fluctuating loads.






the combustion chamber and "B" the exhaust These valves are all operated by rocker arms

driven from an eccentric shaft. A two-stage air compressor is supplied to maintain air for starting and spraying the oil. This is driven by an eccentric on the engine shaft. Air from the first stage of the compressor, at 150 lb. is stored in a tank and is available for starting the engine, this pressure being sufficient.



Longitudinal Section of De La Vergne Engine.

The second
in capacity

stage of the air compressor is quite small and handles only enough air to spray the oil from stroke to stroke. Speed regulation is guaranteed to be approximately 2 per cent. This company manufacturers engines of from 65 to 200 h.p. in single cylinders and from 130 to 400 h.p. in two cylinders and from 200 to 800 h.p. in four cylinders.
cross section of a semi-Diesel engine manufactured by The Bessemer Gas Engine Company of


Erie, Pa.,



in Fig. 25.

This engine



double-acting to the per sq. in. pressure is obtained on the extent that 5 lb. forward stroke of the engine, which is used in filling the cylinders with fresh air and sweeping out the products This engine of combustion on the scavenger stroke.
zontal, using a cross

head and

The hot operate on the two-stroke-cycle principle. bulb '*D" is a hollow projection which is all that re-

Fig. 25

Section of Bessemer Semi-Diesel Engine

quires heating preparatory to putting the engine into
sq. in.

compression pressure of about 180 lb. per The water is delivered to a is used. brass cup "E" by a pump under the control of the governor so that the amount of water injected varies with the fuel used in the same time, but the hand adjustment enables the operator to vary the volume at any time, after which it will still remain proportional. The water flows down into a screened trough and is picked up by the air entering at "C." This is not of the crank case compression type as the stuffing box isolates the crank case from the air pump end of the


arings. Metz & Weiss Engine. 26. In the larger size it is way Fig. . The cross head on this engine elimipossible to provide autobe.90 THE DIESEL ENGINE in this IN PRACTICE cylinder and matic lubrication to all of engine oil coolers are provided to reduce the temperature of the lubricating oil before it is returned to the system.

65 lb. The fuel is injected at "C" in quantities measured by the governor which controls the stroke of the feed pump.p. "A" is heated by a torch "B" before starting and after the engine is in operation the torch is extinguished and the temperature of the bulb kept by the combustion of the fuel in regular working. (gauge). The bulb der. in small engines to .SEMI-DIESELS 91 nates any side wear on the cylinder. at which pressure it enters the cylinder through the port "E/' being deflected upward by the lip "F" and expelling the gases through the exhaust port "G. per sq. This company manufactures both horizontal and vertical stationary engines and marine engines of the reversible type. of fuel oil per brake horsepower hour." Vapor from the water is drawn in with it through the pipe "K" and the cock "J" allows enough jacket water to go in with it to prevent pre-ignition. in accordance with the load on the engine. 26 shows this engine in section. per cylinder of . in. per h. which will bring oil contents above the ignition point of the fuel at a comparatively low pressure of about 100 lb.p. The jackets quantity of fuel oil is regulated by the governor. The Mietz & Weiss type of semi-Diesel or heavy engine employs steam which is generated from water heated in the jackets for scavenging the cylinFig. The incoming air enters the closed crank case through the port "H" when that port is uncovered by the piston on its upward stroke and is compressed its after the piston closes the port on the downward stroke at about 3 lb. with a fuel consumption between 1 lb. in large sizes. hr.65 lb. Mechanical lubrication . The manufacturer guarantees a fuel economy in engines developing 100 h.

p. stops and reverses the engine. The same handle that operates the air also admits the fuel. for . with a flywheel. The air for starting is supplied by an air tank supplied by air directly from the engine or by a separately driven compressor. In the marine engine the reversing is accomplished by an air distributing rotating valve driven by bevel gears from the engine shaft.92 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE all the bearings and pins is provided. Air is allowed to enter through a two-way valve into one or the other side of the distributing valve. in small sizes to $45 in larger units. being coupled directly to the propeller shaft. These engines are all stroke-cycle. The engine ranges in price from $60 per h. so that operating one lever starts. depending on the size These engines are not provided of the installation. depending upon the desired direction of rotation of the engine.

for economical and reliable as the engine is it will not answer. together with the retirement of the principal by depreciation or placing a certain sum aside to re- whole cost of the installation in a given number of years all must be given their full consideration. Such to inducements of low rates to the character of load which the Diesel is most suited that need careful consideration. If after making an extravagant statement the facts prove otherwise the engine and engines as a whole are discredFuel economy is not the whole story in the ited. for the matter of fixed charges and the relative cost of coal and oil must be weighed impartially. In certain industries where the load factor is high or the ratio of the average load to the . economically. It is questionable if the Diesel is suitable to a territory served by an electric transmission system having a diversified load factor comtire the posed of many for dififerent industries with a maximum day and system can demands offer power at different times of the at different times of the year. The matter of first cost and interest on this fixed charge. economical generation of power.CHAPTER X COMMERCIAL SITUATION The commercial situation of the Diesel Engine is unique. for all possible needs. To call the Diesel Engine a "cure-air* is a mistake and it hurts the entire Diesel situation.

h. Lubricating oil may be guaranteed to be 1/10 of a gallon per hour. . charging half to the power and half to the actual manufacture of ice. This will amount to 24X -40/10=96 cents per day. or $5 per day for fuel.p.p. In an ice plant it would be difficult to justly apply the cost of labor exactly where it belongs. This 13 per cent amounts to $1560 per annum or $4.94 THE DIESEL ENGINE is IN PRACTICE ice maximum demand where the ice high. There would be required in such a plant as we are considering a = . To this must be added the cost of fuel. X'24 hours 1574 lb. will cost about $12. for 24 hr. the engine of approximately 150 or 160 h. such as with plants machines are operated 24 hours per day over the large part of the a price ranging from 30 to 40 cents per gal. Suppose an ice plant having a capacity of 50 tons of ice in 24 hours considered and the cost of power only is analyzed. A simple example can be cited.33 per day. the number of barrels will be 1574/315 or approximately five barrels. . For convenience let us divide the cost of labor in half. the Diesel engine shows its superiority and can compete with any type of power and show a saving. per b.. or day.41 lb.p. Assuming that a barrel of oil costs $1 and weighs 315 lb. If the ice machine were operated by electric motors the cost of labor would be as great as if the plant were operated by the Diesel engine and less with the Diesel engine than with steam driven ice machinery. each The fuel consumption is .000 set up ready to operate. considering that the engine is of the four-stroke-cycle type and is delivering its full 160 h. Let interest and depreciation be figured at 13 per cent per annum is which is enough to retire the whole cost in ten years.p.41 X 160 h.

a half of which. such as new valve packing.42 and $21. This shows the saving by using a Diesel engine with this type of service amount to $21. however.. If. emery.20 with electricity at the Yz cent rate.42 to charge against the cost of power.-hr.-hr. making $37. least a part of the and two To recapitulate : Cost per day of 24 hours. The output making a all of this plant is including cost per ton of ice for charges. and two engineers at $100 per month. and $5. of $150 per year or approximately 50 cents per day.33 5.00 Interest and depreciation Fuel Lubricating oil 96 5. or a total labor charge of $325 per month.42 per day for labor.42 respectively. this with an electric motor driven same size ice machine it would require a 160 h.-hr. per day of 24 hours. To this must be added $5.00.p. springs. A charge must also be made for engine room repairs. the total cost of power per day. 50 tons of ice per 24 power 32 cents. etc. gaskets. $ the chief taking at 24 hour operation for his watch. at ^ cent per kw.21 hours. the yearly load factor should be only 50 per cent. motor with an imput of 133 kw. or in other words the plant should be . this would amount Comparing plant using the to $32.. or 3200 kw. At 1 cent per kw. assuming 90 per cent motor efficiency. salary of the chief engineer $1500 per year or $125 per month.COMMERCIAL SITUATION chief engineer 95 assistants.20 per day with current at 1 cent per kw.42 Labor Sundries Total 50 $16.83 per day. or $5. $16 per day. or $10.




run for only six months and shut

down completely


the balance of the year the apparent Diesel saving would be materially reduced, for $16.21 182 days of operation $2950 cost during the time the plant is in operation, but during the balance of the year the



in addition a

and depreciation continue and there must be charge of $4.33 X 182 days or $790 fixed charges, making a total of $3740 per year. While with electric power the cost would be entirely prointerest

portionate to the number of days' operation, the fixed charges on the electrical apparatus, which would cost approximately $1000, being wholly inconsiderable. With power at 1 cent and cent per kw.-hr. the cost of power would be $37.42 X' 182 $6810.00 and 182 days $21.42 $3900 respectively.





gives a clear conception of the great on the total cost of power. In other words, fixed charges, interest, depreciation, insurance and taxes go on day and night regardless of whether the plant is being operated or not. A far more marked example may be assumed where labor joins fixed charges and must be retained whether or not the apparatus is doing the full useful work, for instance, in an electric light plant where 24 hr. service is maintained and during part of this time but an exceedingly small load is carried.
effect of load factor

The above

In comparison with a steam turbine the Diesel engine will cost considerable more to install, but the total cost of operation, including fixed charges labor,



and maintenance




ably less with the Diesel if the* load factor 25 per cent and 50 per cent.




The following comparison




a plant consisting of one 200 kw. unit and one 400 kw. unit, a total capacity of 600 kw., having a load'
factor of 25 per cent, oil to cost $1 per barrel.


steam turbine plant erected would cost approximately' $50,000 while the Diesel engine would cost $73,000. These costs would include building and all necessary apparatus in connection with each of the installations. Operating at 25% load factor the average load per hour would be equivalent to 125 kw. or the load per year would be 125 kw. X 365 days X 24 hours, or 1,100,000 A steam turbine plant of this size may be kw.-hr.


to develop 190 kw.-hr per barrel of oil, while Diesel engine plant will develop 100 kw.-hr. for every 9 gal. of oil, or 466 kw. hr. per barrel. The number of barrels per year for the steam turbine will be

1,100,000/190, or 5800 barrels; for the Diesel engine the consumption per year will be 2360 barrels. The fixed charges of 14 per cent on the installation cost on both Diesel and turbine plant, including the boilers the life of the turbine plant being equal to



of the Diesel.




to $7000 per

annum on annum for

the steam turbine plant and $10,220 per the Diesel engine, the total of fuel and

fixed charges in the case of the turbine being $5800

and $7000 With the Diesel $12,800 per annum. engine fuel cost $2360 in addition to $10,220 $12,580. The wages in the Diesel engine plant will be less than those in the steam turbine plant but the lubrication of the Diesel engine will be slightly in excess of that of the steam turbine. The maintenance, including boiler and turbine will be greater on the steam plant than on the Diesel engine. The cost for water on the







steam plant will be in excess of that of the Diesel engine and it would be difficult in any ideal case as we

have assumed, to compare any of these figures, as they so greatly depend upon the locality of the plant, but neither type of prime mover will have any distinct advantage over the other in these regards. From the above comparison of the cost of fuel and fixed charges the Diesel has so slight an advantage over the steam turbine at 25 per cent load factor that the case alone would not indicate the choice of prime
mover. However, as the load factor increases the advantage of the Diesel becomes more apparent and with 50 per cent load factor the following is the result
fuel cost of the

steam turbine

Fixed charges

$11,600 7,000 $18,600

.With the Diesel, fuel charge Fixed charges

4,720 10,220


This is a saving of approximately $4000 per year over the cost of operation of the steam turbine plant. It will be noted that the fixed charges remain constant and the fuel charges increase, making the Diesel continue to show an economy as the load factor increases and even as it decreases between from 50 per cent toward 25 per cent the advantage will still be with the At the 50 per cent load factor it will be Diesel. noted that the $3600 per year saving represents almost
5 per cent on the total cost of the Diesel installation or the saving on the Diesel would return the difference in cost over a steam turbine plant in approximately six and one-half years.

m. But there enters here the consideration of the consumption of coal. In a comparison with a steam plant using Corliss engines the Diesel can show a saving at lower load factor than when compared with steam turbines. F laut Load.m.-hr. kw. E. A. kw. a.m.-hr.m. 360 220 220 680 50 680 300 450 220 200 kw.m. kw.m. but more so with the steam turbine where the fuel consumption is at a greater rate.m. so again the situation must be looked into for the special locality of the proposed installation. 8 a. 24 hr. kw.m.-hr. kw. kw.m.m. All problems of the installation of a Diesel engine revert to fixed charges or the value of the money invested. kw. 141 kw. to 1 p. B. 11 p. 1 G. 5 a. kw. kw. kw. 9 p. D.-hr.m. to 5 to 7 a. 110 220 170 50 170 300 150 110 100 .m. 3380 kw. 5 p. although the fuel consumption for a steam engine plant may be slightly better. Where oil is expensive and coal cheap another problem presents itself and again the load factor will undoubtedly be the determining issue. Peak load say 315 kw.m. 1 noon p. I. . kw. kw. to 9 p. kw.-hr. kw. to 8 a.COMMERCIAL SITUATION 99 It will also be noted from this analysis that the advantage of the Diesel increases with an increase of price of oil for the item of fuel consumption would increase in each case for both the steam turbine and the Diesel. 7 a. Av.m. to 5 p.-hr.-hr. C. kw. to 6 p. J. day. kw. Per av. and in each case must be analyzed on its merits.-hr. kw. 6 p.m. kw. to noon to 1 p. H. load. to 11 p. Total load.-hr.-hr.m.m. a. F. Average Load 90 kw.-hr.m. Time.

2 24. Diesels.00 1. 65° to 75° F.65 .00 . 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 110 110 85 50 85 8.9 Total fuel gal. running.p.62 .8 61.6 8.64 .) At 32c per gal. each with a 160 kw.8 42. .67c gals. $ Labor Fuel 2. = $8. gal. 24 hr.746c per kw. B.9 61. Lubrication — = = = — — $325 X 2 = $650.00 8. per eng.83 . 1500 gal. Cost of pumping 2c per 1000 gal. fuel 39.5 (Gal. r= $1. 12.70 or . Diesel Engine Plant.20 per day. cost) Per day.5 8.65 . hr.6 9. Water—At 6^/4 1^4 pints per engine hr. E. delivered $2. 1 at $60 = $240 mo.100 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE Diesel Plant.20 Water (pumping Supplies 50 $23.9 18. (40 eng. $150/42 3. day (48 eng. Load on each kw. 90 Fuel Gal..6 J. per day.6 2 6 2 2 Add 8 per cent for ordinary conditions 304. Fuel per day.68 . 32.8 Engine hr. delivered. X . 4 2 A.0 18. direct coupled generator. 650 365 X r=$1. day). C.62 .h.) (Call 40 hr). 48 Operating Expenses Lubricating oil —Diesel Plant.50 per day. F. 8. I. $25.20 or .5 per day.9 17.50 per bbl. 40 all running hr.-hr.50 Total operating expense per annum.20 $25.1 2 8 11. 25 per annum per generator.000 gal. Actual only 40 per day.-hr.7 18. G. . 1 at $80.702c per kw. oil at $1.-hr. 1 1 2 Fuel per kw. Maiuteuance $300 per annum per engine. consisting of 2-240 b. H.6 9.1 1 8 150 75 8.8 5.3 37 2. hr. 365 =r $9200.00 per day. per day. or $12 1 Labor — man at $100 mo. lb. Maintenance 1. D. Engines Period.62 .. 110 100 9.-hr.63 per loo kw.62 .=: 60.8 25.00 per day.5 328.6 8. hr..

20 per bbl. hr.P. generator. . starid^?. B. 1 Oil Storage Tanli 12. G. 1 Total dry Engine hr. F. 2 — — Approximately. 100 r. pumping cost = $5. Condensers taking 25 to 1 condensing water. Load (El. P.33 per day. Station Wiring. Pening. 45 I.P. 2 oilers at $2. I.77 $39. E.97/3380 = Steam Plant. loss).p. 95920 X 25 288.Vri'^ing^anX>Sundry.v.77 per day. 1250 gal. $14. $41. Engines in runelec. 101 . fuel oil. water per. 3 = — — ^ = — — — = — = 8. $39. H. and 45 h.. 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 120 147 295 227 67 227 402 201 147 134 165 192 385 317 157 317 492 246 192 179 2 660 384 385 1268 157 1268 492 738 384 o58 engines. 2 Generatdrs. depreciation.75 per hp.75 per day. each engine due to mechanefficiency of engine.p.m. 121 lb. boilers.85 times as much as Diesels). (3.P.H. per cent leakage and condensation. liabor 2 licensed engineers at $125 mo.97 Total cost per day 1.000 gal. $16. . 2. 1 Switchboard.-hr total expense. 4 2 1 4 1 4 1 3 2 H. hr.00 day each. each with 140 k.P.p. ^ Diesels and. h.= $35. p6r day.3 At 2c per 1000 gal. Foundations. per center $5382 per annum $25.. 10 per cent aux12480 iliaries and oil burners 108400 Total steam for boiler (Per day) Fuel Actual evaporation. A. Erection. Fuel at $1.86c per gal.COMMERCIAI>. H. 3-100 h. W^ater Boiler feed taken from condenser. 13 Interest.000 gal.20 = Operating Fixed charges Or.H.rd equiE<nj^n't. lb. Fuel per day 108000 121 =: 9000 lb. including fric- tion and windage losses. each.. D. J. 14. C.a. steam to riod.p. SITUATION Plant Cost .76 day.18 cents per kw. Consisting of 2-200 I.00 day each $490 mo. generating efficiency. I. 9510 5530 5540 18250 2720 18250 7330 11000 5530 5160 88820 7100 Test conditions 6094 Add 8 per cent for ordinary conditions Add 95920 15. 120 yd. 2 firemen at $2. compound condensing Corliss engines.400. ical Total constant loss.H.

with water at 70° F. 3-phase. Comparison —Annualoperating expenses.Corliss Engines .50 per barrel.p. Cross Steam Plant Equipment.p. vacuum ref'd to 30 Barometer. ga. This comparison lighting and is a most rigid one. 100 r.600.. compound condensing. closed heater.00 Difference in favor of Diesel $13.00 22. .83c X 365 per kw. Or.00 per annum or 2*^ times the total interest and depreciation on Diesel plant. the cost of the steam plant $1. feed pumps All station piping". It is interesting to note the difference in favor of the Diesel and its comparison . steam operating expenses. 2300-volt.50 per h.. the Diesel plant consisting of two engines direct connected to generators. 100 r. (1000 sq. ft. 2-140 k. 35.p Auxiliaries -rurxning" at Engines and generators annum. annum.00 9.m.m. all 1 oil ft.-hr.88 = $22.p. 2-200 sq. 2-12000 gal. 2 belted exciters for same.a.200. 2-50 g. per day Oiierating Expenses — Steam = $1.37 5. complete with trimmings. pressure and 24 vacuum ref'd to 30 Barometer.— 102 THE DIESEL ENGINE 200 Vi. per kw.96 -^ 3380 Maintenance Total operating expense per = 1. 3-100 h. Eng.p.20 per barrel. $ 1. burning" equipment complete for above boilers.-hr. price per barrel for oil being placed at a high figure— in the case of the Diesel $1. Diesel Annual 2-200 h.400. 2 jet condensing equipments. IN PRACTICE $300 per 125 per 175 per $700 MalDtenauce— -Boil3rs $1.cost) 75 $59. heating surface) boilers. type g-enerator. the cost of current with steam engine for operation alone exceeds the total cost of current with the Diesel. for direct connection to alternator.p. complete for above engines suitable for 24 in. showing a power load.v.p. annum.33 per day.92 Plant $16.77c = 1. for 150 lb.600. 80 per cent P. oil storage tanks.F.92 $61.m.75 Labor Fuel Lubricating oil Water Supplies 1. 60-cycle.75 (pump'ng.88 -^ 3380 annum $61.

exciters and all of two 500 h.-hr. including fuel oil. the. . per year. The cost of power. 103 . necessary equipment. delivered and erected for $78.p. with oil as noted at $1 per barrel.000. The operating cost is shown on the basis of 8 hours. If the proposed plant operates more than 10^ hr. generators. a sinking fund of 7 per cent fixed charges. plant. the Diesel is the most economical type of prime mover. This emphasizes plainly the bearing of load factor to the cost of power compared with the purchase of electricity.-hr. . The result of this comparison is plotted in Fig. it would be more economical to install the Diesel engine than to purchase electricity at the low rate of Ic per kw. 24 and shows that as the number of hours of operation : increases the cost of purchased electricity increases at a more rapid rate than electricity produced by the Diesel engine and that if the plant is operated for over 10^ hr. lubricating oil. 16 hours and 24 hours' operation.p. of $16 to $38 per h. Diesel Another interesting comparison between the cost of power as produced by the Diesel engine compared with the cost of purchased electricity is illustrated in Assume a plant to consist the following example engines. labor and fixed charges show a total cost per horsepower year varying from $18 to $27 as against the cost of purchased electricity at 1 cent per kw. maintenance. including taxes and insurance. to amount of 15 per cent per annum on the total investment.COMMERCIAL SlTUAtlGN with the total interest and dtipreciatlcnjc^r. interest figured at 7 per cent per annum.

.104 'THE DIElSEI^ feMlNE IN PRACTICE Fig-. 27.

.. Fuel consumption oil (at $1 bbl) Lubricating oil at 32c per gal Maintenance Labor.-hr. Fixed Cliarg^es Interest. each. 24 hr. 6540 512 300 9810 768 300 at at 2 3700 3 $1500 per $1100 per yr hr.700. depreciation.000 or $116 per kw. 16 hr. ..75 27. 1 yr..052 4800 $15.p. 1 at $1500 per $1100 per yr 24 yr. at $6. exciters. 8 per hr.12 22. 1 at yr.378 $ $ $18. including an oil tank. piping and connections. switchboard.25 27. per day.126 $22. erected in a suitable building. $ 18. based on 672 kw. $11.. SITUATION 105 First Cost. taxes — and -insurance at 15 per cent 8 hr. yr..37 38. for $78. 2 generators. 0]>eratinsr day. capacity $ 16.p.COMMERCIAL.752 $ $ Or cost per h.. A plant to consist of 2 engines.426 Total $11. per annum. 1 at $1500 per $1100 per yr 16 hr.60 ... 500 h. 8 hr. 3270 256 300 2600 16 hr.12$ Electric power at Ic per kw.678 $27. per day. per day expense operating 300 days per year at and 24 hr. 336 kw. for power..

that cheap oil and expensive coal does not tries. whereas other fuels are for mercantile ships expensive in that vicinity. In this way there existed in Russia several marine Diesel engines long before the rest of the world earn- .sia for two reasons: oil wells at the Caspian Sea. where circumstances are similar in this respect. This brought. They were designed for ships owned by the firm of Nobel Bros. therefore. because there are large . in Petrograd and were partly built in their own shops and partly at the Kolonna Works in Moscow and at the Swedish Diesel Engine Company in Stockholm. as well as of ships and engine works. The second factor was the progressiveness of Nobel Bros. had everything in their possession necessary for the realization of their plans in the this line.. first stationary engines from the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg at an early time to these counBut.CHAPTER The beginning XI DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES of the application of Diesel engines was made in Russia on the river Volga and the Caspian Sea. necessarily lead to the early adoption of marine Diesel engines is demonstrated on the Pacific Coast of the United States in regard to stationary engines. who. These new marine engines were first built in RusFirst. being owners of oil fields.

big Diesel engines for sea-going ships. In 1910 for the first time. But. The was mainly the same as of the standard stationary engines of the Nurnberg type with slight changes. and the Machinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg.DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES estly considered the 107 manufacture of such engines. a box-shaped piston with piston rod. stationary engines . After the engines of Nobel Bros. of Winterthur. however. a few small marine Diesel engines were turned out in 1910 by Sulzer Bros. very light and to provide for big apertures. many . to which the connecting rod was fastened. By these means it became possible to keep the cast iron frame in which the connecting rods move. These engines were highspeed. They did not yield much satisfaction in continued service. Up to 1910 all marine Diesel engines were designed with the long trunk piston in which the wrist pin was fixed. known in their country as the Nurnberg Company. when observing the present day construction. box frame engines of comparatively low power. being much of the type of light weight submarine engines. as this box-shaped frame had to carry the weight of the cylinder only. cross-head and guide was introduced in place of trunk pistons and are now used in almost all types of marine Diesel engines. inal in it is noticed that the valves and valve gear are copied from the orig- otherwise they are different ways. At this time there was also applied the four tie-rods around each cylinder coupling most directly the upward forces due to the pressure on the cylinder heads and the downward forces on the main bearings due to the pressure on the pistons. no forces being transmitted through it.

108 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE Fig. .h.p." 450 b. 28 Six-Cylinder Werkspoor Marine Diesel Engine of the "Vulcanus.

differ .p. and it is in permanent full satisfaction service in India at present. shown in section in Fig. There is only one pump and one spare pump for the whole engine. The hand-wheel for the reversing is mounted on a handle case. one with cams set for forward motion.7 in. The "Vulcanus" is now plying between the East Indian Islands. in diameter and 31. however. The valves and levers in the cylinder heads do not from what is ordinary practice for four-strokecycle stationary Diesel engines. The oil is pumped into an accumulator. among completed successfully every voyage undertaken. others a trip from France to Singapore without an extra stoppage at sea. The fuel pump shows an interesting feature. The ship has. The ship is of 1000 tons. at 180 The cylinder was 15.m. where all the operations necessary for starting. 28. stroke.p.. regulating and stopping can be controlled.5 in.DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 109 After the small Diesel marine engines. This engine had a capacity of 450 b. the other for backward motion. of of the "Vulcanus" is directly reversible. In the beginning trouble was encountered with the air compressors and also through the lack of experience of the engine attendants.h. two cam-shafts. The engine there being reversing. The hull and engine was built in Amsterdam it was ordered in 1910 and in December of the same year the . to the the owners. making short trips. trial trip took place. r. owned in Holland. which stops the pump when full by keeping the suction valve open. the sixcylinder engine of the "Vulcanus" was the first fullpowered reversible Diesel engine.

.p.110 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE Fig. 1100 b. Werkspoor Marine Diesel Engine.h. 29.

06 Cargo Dead weight 976 tons 1112 tons 13.4 tons 1013 tons 1225 tons A Striking example of the advantages associated with low fuel consumption is to be found in the fact that the ''Vulcanus" recently completed a voyage of eighty-eight days without bunkering at any intermediate port. from .03 tons per diem.26 7. service "Vulcanus. 6 9 in. Length Breadth Draught Deadweight Carrying capacity Displacement Engines 196 37 12 ft. ft. S. in. Thus the total consumption was 134 tons in 65. ft. ft. ft.: — : DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 111 There is inserted here a comparison made by the marine superintendent of the Anglo Saxon Petroleum Company. in. 41/2 in.7 1530 miles Mean speed Average 24 hr oil knots consumption per day of 2. in. s "Vulcanus" "Sabine Rickmers" 200 30 16 ft. 1235 tons 2080 tons 6 cylinder reversible 1269 tons 2290 tons Triple expansion The following economic in results have been shown S." 7. Nevertheless.04 days 1473 miles 8. covering a distance of some 10. six tons of liquid fuel remained on board after the completion of the voyage.7 operating days or 2. 9 in. . the following comparison showing the result of two years' actual working with the Diesel Ship " Vulcanus" and the S. ^*Sabine Rickmers" using coal s. The ''Vulcanus" held for the full year the place of being the only full-powered Diesel ship afloat. On this particular run she left Europe in August with 140 tons of fuel oil in her bunkers and returned in November." Total running time on voyage Total distance 8. S.7 days Knots tons "Sabine Rickmers.750 miles.

ft. 10 % (coal) 8720 tons 770 tons built in 1911 by Swan Hunter & Richardson and driven by triple expansion steam engines. ft.: 112 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE structed. It may be interesting to note the results obtained with one of the latter Burmeister & Wain engines.h. S. each. Beam Draught Deadweight Bunker capacity in. ft. four-cycle. in. They are the most economical and latest type of steamships in every respect. The Diesel-engine ship "Siam" was built and engined by Burmeister & Wain of Copenhagen. 6 30 (oil) in.p. by each "Kina" and "Arabien" are single-screw ships : of 'the following dimensions Length 385 53 ft. In February. the engine being This vessel proved very successful and reversible. 1912. She is a twin-screw vessel with engines of 1000 b. S. Beam Draught Deadweight Bunker capacity 26 ft. Oin.p." The ships belong to same owners and the voyages are the first made ship. in. Oin." the first marine Diesel engine installation built by Burmeister & Wain of Copenhagen. 9700 tons 1250 tons . was completed. is at present running to the East Indies. the "Selandia. when the "Seml3ilan" was conThis vessel had a comparatively small en- gine of 200 h. the end of 1910 to 1911. by comparing the Diesel ship ''Siam" with two steamships the "Kina" and ''Arabien. the owners having since ordered five engines for larger vessels. in three cylinders. The dimensions are They were Wigham Length 410 55 ft.

.0577 oz.3 282.6 10.7 lb. 0. tons cargo Diesel-engine ship "Siam..0 2. to Full first voyage.14 2.818. .7 179.) 1.8 Fuel consumption for firing up Stand-by losses For full steam no propulsion Regular propulsion Manoeuvering Electric light Heating Winches and pumps Fuel for niain engine Fuel for auxiliaries . so that the results are well suited for comparison.P.5 days 27." two D. Voyage..1' fUel consumption: 4.6 tons 7.415. .858. Time passed in harbor Distance in miles Numbers of hours regular running.6 tons 31. ''Kina. ships. — — — = 7558 = 7788 tons cargo.497 82 11.061.25 kg.9 59.0072 oz.6 lb.) Lubricating per hr oil consumption per I.5 . S.0 2.Tot3.98 tons 14. Manoeuvering Mean speed.576. home Mean 9500 tons 493 tons load in Hankow 1168 tons 9500 tons cargo 8670 tons.6 4. to No- vember 25. "Slam." first voyage June 16.4. S. (.6 23.74 tons 19.127.H." the following data are of interest S. knots Number of hours auxiliary engine run• • • • H-O Number ning starboard .48 1.3 .206 gr. 163 days 109 days 54 days 92 1st Voyage. of hours auxiliary engine running port Fuel consumption per mile 174. (384. oil (88.84 1.) 1. . (.666.04 tons 0.6 tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 1. 1911: Full outbound load in Antwerp 1162 tons 8720 tons Fiull homebound load from S'abang 932 tons 8720 tons Mean Cargo 7673 tons. — — — = 9007 tons tons = 8332 From . coal .0 71.2 tons tons tons tons tons . engine working. April 9.—— — — : DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 113 'Tire voyages made by these ships are the same.72 43. Duration of trip Time passed at sea. the engine room report 1st of these "Kina." October 4. 1911.) 49. 1913: Full outbound load in Antwerp 1913. S.5 kg.808.5 40. S.64 gr.5 days 74. . 182 days 107.

2 69.4 kg.0 cts.25 7.5 lb. coal . 236 days 140 days 96 days 34.) $8.: 114 THE DIESEL ENGINE Economic results for IN PRACTICE trip.5 kg.866 gr.533.8 lb. .. "Arabien" "Siam" Duration of voyage Tim'e spent at sea engines working. coal Price of fuel per ton 1000 tons of cargo carried one mile at a speed of 11 knots at fuel expense of Total fuel expense for a cargo load of 8500 tons for transportation from (50.5 16.9 18..P.) Lubricating hour oil consumption per I.03 (410.. 109 Average speed.H. 300 days 2d voyage.5 18.357.4 27.900 1555 tons 8870 — 1085 tons = 7635 tons 8720 — 1120 tons = 7600 tons 8720 7500 tons the engine log book of these following items are of interest: S. S.60 (oil) 4. (.75 102.279 88 10.65 kg.539 2.3 cts.665 41.6 2.9 1.376. oil (10. oz. S.95 7. 4.818 miles) at a speed of 11 back knots Outgoing cargo Cargo when plying between the West Coast and Japan Homebound cargo Average cargo for the whole voyvoyage about —$30 300tons = 7165$9. .8 1.863.673 1000 tons of cargo carried one mile at a speed of about 11 knots at fuel consumption 22. 183 days Time spent in port 117 days Distance in miles 45.600.) $5.75 49. knots 10.3 23. 5th voyage.3 lb.25 396. Copenhagen to East Asia and (27.25 lb. one round Europe.446 tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons .40 (coal) 12.7 tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons 1. 4.819 3.5 149.676 Number of hours regular running.8 kg.278 Number of hours manoeuvering. From two ships the D. East 8.7 Number of hours auxiliary engine running port Number of hours auxiliary engine running port Fuel consumption per mile 186.) Fuel consumption for firing up Stand-by losses Fur full steam no propulsion Regular propulsion Manoeuvering Electric light Heating Winches and pumps Fuel for main engine Fuel for auxiliaries Total fuel consumption 66 77.7 670 8.670 Asia and back Cargo 7.) 0. oil (91.

2 cts. expense for a voyage round the world covering 35.000 miles.6 knots at fuel consumption of kg.8 knots amounts fuel to $40. Attention is drawn to the following.) $5.9 1000 tons of cargo carried one mile at a speed of 10. 2 assistant engineers and 14 firemen.5 cts.DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 115 Economic results for trip around the world: 25 kg. .1 lb.000 $12. Price of fuel per ton 1000 tons of cargo carried one mile at a speed of 10.) $8.60 (oil) pense of Total 13.6 knots at fuel ex- (10. 4. CNCiNC Typical American Marine Engine._ MIETZ & WEISS DIRECT RtVERSiete OIL. which coincides with Diesel engine ship "Siam's case of 8500 tons at a speed of 10.8 lb.40 (coal) 4. (55. ''Kina" consists of 3 engi- neers. S. The engine a total of room attendance in S.600 rf7TTi~Tr-.

In the Diesel ship "Siam" it consists of 4 engineers. Fifth Voyage: ing' the voyage. S. The extra saving by smaller crew. : Outgoing cargo Cargo when plying between West Coast and Japan . etc. S. Homebound cargo S. Vladivostok and back through the Suez Canal: age. — 780 9500 — 1056 9500 — 1215 9500 tons Average cargo for the whole voyage about tons tons =: 8285 tons 8500 tons = 8720 tons = 8440 tons "Arabien". The steamship "Arabien'' bunkered 14 times durThe Diesel-engine ship "Siam" bun- kered only three times during the voyage. South America to west coast of the U.. a total of 13 men. A saving of about 68 per cent in fuel expense is the practical result obtained with the use of the Diesel-engined ship on This included all consumption needed the voyage. S. the more economical the Diesel-engined ships are. heating. "Kina" bunkered coal 10 times on the voy"Siam" bunkered oil twice on the voyage. China. S. bigger cargo-carrying capacity of the Diesel-engined ship were not even trip the ficient to carry the ship At the end of the taken into account. remaining oil was sufback to the oil-supplying port without bunkering under way. the last time so much that the ship on the next trip over the same route only needed bunkering once. for loading and unloading. The longer the voyages are without stopping. and of these one was caused by a mistake in the execution of the order. lighting. trip around the world.. From Europe. A. S. . 5 assistant engineers and 4 oil men. Diesel ship "Siam" Second voyage. from thence to Japan. the . D.116 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE 19 men.

p. thus preventing the exhaust gases from entering in the air line first and afterward securing an abundancy of fresh air at the start of the compression. single-acting with four cylinders of 18. In 1912 Messrs. installed engines in The two engines are two ''Monte Penedo.9 feet ^ 10 knots tons tons tons h. stroke.: DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 117 The onl}^ condition in the choice of route to be taken for the Diesel-engined ship is that it should be such that the ship may enter ports where oil is available.9 in. having a speed of 160 r. one above the other. Sulzer Bros. It makes a simple cylinder head but involves complications in the cylinder wall. Of those there are two rows.5 in. The data of the ship are • the Length " Beam Depth Speed ." cycle. The ex- haust takes place through openings in the cylinder wall forming one-half circle. . Deadweight Bunker capacity Weight of engines and auxiliaries Power 4000 700 160 1700 The "Monte Penedo'' engines are remarkable for the absence of inlet and exhaust valves. This arrangement serves to keep the scavenging air pipe closed at the beginning of the exhaust and then to keep it open after the exhaust is closed. 351 feet 50 feet 26. bore and 26. whereas the other half of the periphery is taken by openings for scavenging air. The only valves in the cylinder heads are those for fuel injection and starting air.m. ' and the communication between the air main and the top row of openings can be blocked by a doubleseated valve.p.

ft. It must not be forgotten.900 ft. 11 knots. 362 ft. x 40 x 30 x 23 6 in. ft. x 30 x 30 ft. 3 3 in. The ship's dimensions are: 400 ft.p. 5 in. ft. ft. ft. x 25 x 25 ft. 8350 tons. ft." built by Messrs. 5 in. in. of I. speed. in. After some trouble with the pistons on the first voyage (the extension required to shut the exhaust and inlet ports worked loose) the construction was altered. 6 in. In 1913 the *'Hagen.P. ft. x 29 6 in. ft. weight of machinery.. 6 6 Length x Beam x Depth. ft. running 140 r. stroke. ft. 2. ft. S3 ft.. x 46 x 46 x 46 x 46 x 27 x 27 x 27 x 27 ft ft. ])eam and 32. 362 Fionia Kronprincessin Margrarete . long.H. 2000 3000 3000 tlie 2 2 Werkspoor gines for: Name. In 1914 the increase of ships with motors is quite remarkable. ft..H. of I. ft.118 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE The "Monte Penedo" is probably the most successtwo-cycle marine motor at present in service. ft. ft. ft. 5 in.. ft. ft. 5 in. Length x Beam x Depth. Screws 2 2 2 2 2 375 345 346 Selene 346 Hermes 346 Jules Henry. however. ft. each composed of 6 cylinders 18. ft. that these engines were of the best workmanship that can probably be found and were operated by trained engineers. Krupp started on her first trip. Burmeister & Wain of Copenhagen delivered in 1914: ful . ft. ft. ft. 6 in. of Amsterdam has Size of Ship delivered en- No.3 ft. 580 tons. bore and 31. ft.5 in. ft. 2000 20oO 4000 Kronprince Gustaf Adolf . Screws 2 2 2 2 x 51 x 51 x 53 ft. 305 Poseidon 185 Elbruz Ares Artemis x 40 ft. in. 2300 2300 2300 2300 1350 450 2 1 . and since then the motors have given full satisfaction. 410 . ft. Name Pacific Size of Ship No. ft. x 25 ft. x 13 3 in.. depth carrying capacity. ft. x 38 3 Malakka Tonking- 362 410 410 x 51 x 55 x 55 ft. 6 in. She is equipped with two single-acting two-cycle engines. ft.9 in. 6 in. 6 in.m. in. 6 in.P.

This engine is installed in many vessels on the Pacific Coast and many more on the Atlantic. The Bolinder.p. taking the side thrust of the connecting rod. due to the absence of valves. speed . the lower portion of which acts as a scavenger air compressor and also for starting the engine. The engine is reversible and as the engine operates on the twostroke-cycle principle this is comparatively simple. The engines are of the sigle-acting. per in. This engine. 1914.DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 119 The Southwark Foundry and Machine Co. a semi-Diesel engine. but they did not give satisfaction.. the "Arum. 175 lb. In manoeuvering a vessel the air cylinder is said to assist the working cylinder by using compressed air if it is desirable. made in Sweden. are building the Southwark Harriss Valveless Engine. has been successfully operated in a number of vessels in this country. stroke 3. bore 16. is allowed to enter the lower cylinder. The starting air of relative low pressure." with English-built Polar type engines made her trial. each for the "Sebastian. The engine is made two to eight cylinders from 120 to 2000 h.p.. In May. in this way avoiding the necessity of this cold aid entering the working cylinder and causing violent temperature changes.2 in. two-cycle type. Each of the two engines has 4 cylinders. though it is made for both stationary and marine application is used most extensively aboard ship. This lower piston also acts as a crosshead.9 in.. The Polar Diesel Engine Company of Stock-* holm. delivered the twin-screw two-cycle engines of about 800 h." built at Dundee. It is of the verticle two-cycle type operating on the full Diesel principle. In the marine engine a step piston is used.

. 22 ft.p.r 120 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE power rated at. pal American line. The pistons are cooled with fresh water.h. The owner. The German motorship ''Secundus" started her career likewise in 1914.m.p. driving propellers with reversible blades promise a great future for such engines for . each The princidimensions of the ship are 360 ft. The "Secundus" made one complete voyage from Hamburg to Nevv^ York and back. The lower part of the engine resembles a steam engine." The former has fourcycle Burmeister Wain engines. now possesses two motor motor vessels. speed 120 r. 650 l). The air enters the cylinders through 4 poppet valves in each cylinoff The scavenging The exhaust gases leave the cylinders through openings in the cylinder walls.m. which may be considered an unnecessary complication. The results obtained with a few non-reversible engines of 350 b.p. Each of these two engines has four cylinders of 23. by 47 ft.6 in. draft. the crankshaft bearings are water cooled. by levers der head. air is produced by a pump worked one of the cross heads. by 27 ft. At the outbreak of the war she had not started her second voyage and is now therefore presumably at Hamburg. and a water-cooled pipe. depth. power 1850 h. Hamburg135 r. per engine.. which was perfectly successful according to reports obtained.. "Christian X" and "Secundus.. After performing various short trips. h.2 in.p. the stroke is 36.p. but forced lubrication is employed. the latter has twocycle engines built by Blohm & Voss of Hamburg. carrying 550 tons. bore. the "Arum" was sent on her first long voyage to the Persian Gulf.

or when the motor has to slow down often. staff of fuel to heat a boiler is expensive. To drive the auxiliaries by compressed air has not proved a success the air compressors must be too large. by Diesel engines and drive everything Where is this system In first engineers is required to undertake many novelties at once. In designing a motor ship an important question to drive the deck-machinery and the auxiliaries^ When plenty of money and good in the engine room. To save first cost and to keep the novelties in the ship within the smallest limits. also the most economical in the long cost it is. The reversing of the blades performed with aid of the engine power. however. and drive everything by steam. giving plenty of steam for steering and for the whistle.DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 121 medium is size crafts. the best plan is to have two donkey boilers. which is controlled directly from the bridge. run. The installation is of course far simpler than one with reThe manoeuvering air reservoirs versible engines. the greatest. the waste gases can heat the donkey boiler. The gain is about 1 ton of oil per day for ships of about 6000 tons. are cut out and the auxiliaries are of a far simpler nature. including the air compressor required When the ship runs to manoeuvre the main motor. the best system is to generate is. how electricity electrically. this system cannot be applied. personnel is available. The advantage of this is the excellent security of manoeuvering. In short runs. Fire them either by coal or oil. In tank ships it is good practice to make the main cargodischarging pump centrifugal and drive it by a Diesel . depending on the price. . and a several days continuously and the motor is four-cycle.

Europe. consequently. its record to date is as follows to unload often. but.000 h. Their efforts have been directed largely toward The engines being applied to merchant service are of the four-stroke-cycle type with the cam shaft on both sides of the cylinder for the operation of the admission and exhaust valve. a typical type is shown in section in Fig. the shipping business has never been given much encouragement.p. the European shipowner considered ultimate saving. This system is slightly more expensive in first cost. There has always been a difference between the European and American point of view. In the United States. pumps. if the operating economy would show on ultimate gain.000 60 h. capital was scarce. due to condiIt may be stated. and was willing to pay a greater first cost for his propelling plant. which started operation in 1910 have built a large number of the marine Diesel engines produced in the United States. It also Engines built and building No. and those who have gone into the busiFurness have had to seriously consider first cost. it is cheaper in service than steam permits the ship to unload the cargo when it would be dangerous to fire a steam boiler. engines for sub-marines. . the fuel valve being verticle in the center of the head. that. approximately Total horsepower. when the ship has engine. approximately Smallest engine Largest engine 107 600 40. 1. The New London Ship & Engine Company.: 122 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE The same engine can then drive the air compressor for manoeuvering. in tions. Although it has been in operation only a comparatively short time. 30. in general terms. of cylinders.p.

New London Ship & Engine Co. both coal and oil are comparatively cheap in this country. information in regard to Diesel engines has been obtained principally from the technical description of foreign vessels. so that first-hand information from actual observation has been scarce.DIESEL APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 123 Fig-. ibermore. In the course of time. the basic advantages will be realized in the United States and the necessary trained operators will be developed. . A further draw^back to American development has been the lack of trained operators. It is only comparatively recently that Diesel-engined ships have visited American ports. Engine. Finally. 30.

To one acquainted with the operation of a Diesel engine. the fuel price in the parts of the world where the ship has to run will generally decide to which the balance will incline. . the quality of the men must. The same amount of the same fuel used in a Diesel engine would run four ships instead of one. This latter saving depends on the distance or intervals between the places where it is economical to replenish the bunkers. as the boilers are omitted and the bunkers can be made much smaller. In special cases. because the Diesel engine takes up less room and weight than the steam installations. especially when the waste gases are passed through a steam donkey-boiler. The large motor ship requires fewer. Probably the two-cycle motor will eventually become cheaper to manufacture than the four-cycle for the same power. Difficulties with the troublesome firemen are eliminated but the motor ship if not well attended to. and will remain probably. is apt to require more repair in harbor than the steamship. The running economy of the fourstroke-cycle is the greater. men to run than the large steamship. about 1/3 higher than to make a good reciprocating steam-engine and boilers of the same power. are being fitted with to burn oil under their boilers.124 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE ships intended for trade between the Atand Pacific Coast. The cost to make a good marine engine is. but this higher proce is partly compensated by the cheaper ship. . or would carry one ship lantic Many four times as far. . be higher. through the Panama Canal. however. this seems to be almost a wicked waste. Balancing these good and bad qualities of motors and steamships.

have been the overenthusiastic advocates. The individual or firm with small resources is taking a desperate chance when plunging into this line of work. also. Many have made promises they could not fulfill. So. That it is possible for a motor ship to bunker only at very long intervals. APPLIED TO MARINE PURPOSES 125 however. And last. the fuel price will not be the main factor to be considered. Others have built and installed engines which were experiments. if .DIESEL. but not least. during the past ten years. the motor ship can start at full speed as soon as the oil tanks are filled. three or four times longer than a steamship. the good and the bad suffer as a result. Probably the worst enemies of the marine Diesel engine. and naturally do not publish all of the practical points which they develop in the course of their work. New firms are continually entering the field. little realizing that the design and construction of these engines are highly developed specialties. In hot climates this quality will go far to turn the balance when the engineers have a say in the decision. The experienced builders approach perfection only by close application. unfortunately . The Diesel engine as applied to merchant ships to the present time has proved that this engine. The first engines produced in this way are generally failures and. that motor ships can be made in which the part of the ship where the engines are placed is of absolutely the same temperature as the other parts of the ship. but the following properties of the motor-driven ship are of greater value. That it does not require any warming up of boilers or engines. are the customers who buy the first engines turned out. even if nobody has been on board in advance.

P. H. weight for weight. . 240 I. is reliable enough for the longest voyages and is at least more economical in fuel consumption. well made and well attended to. Valveless Engine. Southwark-Harris Diesel Principle.126 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE well designed. or nearly 3 times more economical than an oil-fired steamfour times ship. than a coal-fired steamship. Marine Type.

capacity direct connected to electric generators.E. The Mcintosh Seymour Corporation operated in connection with a water rheostat. Y.I. N. The Mcintosh Seymour Corporation of Auburn. Louis. Both of these engines demonstrated their ability to operate on all .p. Naturally internal combustion engines occupied a prominent position at the Panama-Pacific Internationa Exposition and were the feature of the Palace of Machinery. This gave the BuschSulzer Bros. both exhibited engines of 500 h. They were unfortunate in not having their engine ready for operation during the earlier periods of the Exposition.CHAPTER XII INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AT P. A large weight attached to an extension of the starting lever started the engine when President Wilson pressed the button 3000 miles away. -Diesel Engine Company of St. -Diesel Engine Company an opportunity to participate in the opening ceremonies. The exposition was opened by wireless from" Washington. Mo. a receiving station being established on the grounds and the wireless impulse closed a metallic circuit which was connected to a trip on the Busch-Sulzer engine... Busch-Sulzer Bros. The latter company supplied direct current to the Exposition for various purposes and operated throughout the times that the palace was open to the public.P.

50 3 Diameter Stroke R. cyl. lb 600-800 375 Governs by Air starting Piston water-cooled Air starting pressure. BuschSulzer Bros. Mcintosh & New S'.m in inches . Piston speed Control of Control of Control of Control of suction 2 lb. Yes . lb h. cylinders 500 4 Liondon & E..p.p.800-850 816 2/3 No 800 780 No 750 875 No 700-1000 600 .128 THE DIESEL ENGINE IN PRACTICE kinds of load and their reliability was tested out to The accompanying table gives the a large degree. stroke 1 suction 3 by-pass 2 cyl. 19 241/2 18% 28 3/g 8 9 121/2 200 164 350 400 Compressor Compression AVeight per 3-stage in lb 2-stage 500 600-800 324 2-stage 450 800 100 2-stage 500 825-975 100 500 Injector pressire. 180 6 8 Fulton. principal dimensions of these machines. Seymour 500 4 Rating No. Co. cyl. Section of Mcintosh & Seymour "A" Frame Engine. cyl.

but those who did exhibit had the opportunity of showing their product to a most appreciative and receptive public and were fully repaid for their expense. resented by one being direct connected to electric generator sup- . two stationary. and although the American Diesel Engine Company had and in operation at St. its engines on exhibition Louis in 1904. Mietz & Weiss Company of New York. I. The engine was operated at frequent intervals and it typifies one of the best types of marine Diesel engines in this country.. The low compression.. Many manufacturers were handicapped by the great distance from their factories and the consequent expensive freight. P. this Exposition was the first opportunity for any number of Diesel manufacturers to exhibit their product. E.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AT ton. The details machine seem to be carefully worked out and the workmanship and finish show care and precision. P. 129 The New London Ship & Engine Company Conn. or semi-Diesels. was not erected so that it could operate so it was unable to of the demonstrate its ability in this regard. Pa. The Fulton Engine Company of Erie. were repThe Bessemer Engine Company of Grove City. and two marine. the power from which was exhibit of the utilized to drive a pump in the Pelton Water Wheel Company. Pa. exhibited a vertical of Gromarine engine. The engine.. This engine is of the type manufactured in America for marine purposes and is somewhat similar to the large number of engines supplied by this company to the United States Navy for submarines. These constitute the four examples of high compression engines. however. The first of these exhibitors showed a number of engines. had a small engine on exhibit.


another engine of the stationary type drove a centrifugal pump through a rope drive. three of whom are exclusive manufacturers of stationary engines and two exclusive manufacturers of marine engines. principally for operation on natural a The August Mietz Company showed cylinder. burned in Diesels and There were also exsmaller engines of by this company several different types. the former carrying considerable electrical load. I. both of these engines being in operation. city gas or motors for driving power within the Exposition Palaces. one making both stationary and marine types. In all there were six companies exhibiting in the Diesel and semi-Diesel class. It is interesting to note that on account of the fire hazard the Diesels and semi-Diesels were the only internal combustion engines to operate on their regular type of fuel. These latter. These engines operated on California fuel oil similar to that operated entirely satisfactorily. This company also showed a horizontal stationary engine and a vertical engine direct connected to an air compressor. were seldom in operation. vertical three- engine connected to electric generator and a reversible marine engine of three cylinders. The carburetted type of engines having to rely upon compressed air. . E. hibited gas.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AT P. however. 131 plying electricity to the Exposition. P.


121. Admission Valve. 19. 50. 34. 93. 84. Compression Release. 41. Crank Case. Crank Pins. Alps. 119. Consumption. 24." Ash. Colymas. 42. 16. 50. Asphaltum. 32. Air Compressors. Auxiliaries. 30. 70. 62. 43. Altitude. Spray or Injection. Locomotive Works. Co. Appearance of Exhaust. Air Compressors. Co. Cost of Repairs of Diesel Engine. 82. Bessemer Gas Engine 129. Coal Oil. Compression Pressure. "Christian X. 19. "Arabiem. C Cage. Cost of Turbine Plant. Clearance in Bearings. Four-Stroke. 9. 70.. Centrifugal Oilers. Compression. Air Compressors. Cleaning. Atmospheric Pressure and Densitv. Charges. Advantages. Marine.. 105." "Arum. 52. Fuel Oil. 22. Cycle. 39. Cost. Coal Tar. Atomizer. Composition of Fuel Oil. Glass Works. Fuel. 99. 77. 34. 116. 27. 23. Three-Stage. Bases of Economy. Shaft. Balance. 58. Cost of Marine Engines. Reavell. Air Bottles. 34. 111. 79. 88. Belted. 96." 120. 18. 83. Carel Bros. Carnot's Law. Marine. 17. Inclosed.. 68. 44. Care of Diesel Engine. 47. 112. 37. Rand. Bottles. 21. 131. Y. Air. Baldwin 24. 105. Ingersoll- Cam 51. 29. 46. 25. 12. August Meitz Company. 24. 72. 124. 101. 50. Air. Adjustments of Bearings. 50. 24.. Heat. Busch-Sulzer Bros. 31. Adjustments. Injection. Burning Point.INDEX Blohm and "A" Frame Engine. 111. 48. N. Voss. 89. Admission Valve Cage. Scavenging. Coal Competition.. Crank Case. Degrees. 99. Air Compressors. Admission Valve. 31. 27. Carbonaceous Fuels. 65. 29. Comparison. Burmeister and Wain Co. Available Fuel Oil. 71. Bearing. Cycle. Marine Engine. Continuous Operation. 64. 65. 13. 46. Co. Clearance. 119. American Diesel Engine 21. 31. 25. 26. 120. 25. 127-128. 66-70-71. Corliss Engine. 11. 81. Engine Works. Cost of Electricity. Two-Stage. 120. 44. Attention of Diesel. 55. 49. 29. 24. Marine. 22. Adjustments of Valve Rods. . 33. 91. 21-22. 72. 112. Ball Bros. 39. 70. Acceptance Test. 76. 21-22. 45. 74. 81. Effect. Fixed. Bearing. Broken Shafts. 72. 121. 95. 58. 103. 24. 97. Tyrolean. 84.. 40. Bolinder.. Corliss Bearings. 103. Clearance in Cylinders. 82. Air Compressors. 22. Commercial Situation. Compression Rings. 47. 45. 76. 97. Cleanliness. Air. 222. 72. Baume. Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Air Compressors. 50. Connecting Rods. 24. 69. 10. Outer. Cost of Ice. Bearing. 34. Two-Stroke.

De La Vergne. Cost of. 27. 24. Fluctuating Loads. 80. Corliss. Rebored. 16. 42. Gravity of Fuel Oil. 52. Fuel. 8. Uniformity. 121. Fuel Consumption. Steam Turbine. Foundations.. 34. La. 97. 105. Carbonaceous. 96. 19. 24. Diesel Engine Co. Water-Jacketed. 19. Pump. Fulton Engine Company Erie. 97. 36.. Split. 84. 101. 22. 66. Heads. 26. 38. 121. 64. Inclosed Crank Case. 18 Heat Value of Oil. Gorham Generators. Semi-. Cylinder. Depreciation. Diesel. Economy. Degrees. 93. Fuel Expense. Limitations. 41. 34. Generators. 40. 16. 103. Dimensions. P^uel Fuel Pump. Equivalent Density. 44. 24. D Deck Machinery. 29. Engines. 40. Discharge Valve. 37. 31. 77. 20. . INDEX Capacity. Starting. 101. Dow Pump & Co. Oil. 75. 68. Marine. 72. 34. 87. Electric Transmission. 77. 31. 93. 103. 116. Diesel Engine Cost. 77. of Fulton-Tosi. Needle. Hydro-carbon Fuels. 21. Mechanical. Generators. Reduced. Governing. Double Acting Semi-Diesel. 26. "A" Frame. 121. Marine. Open. 89.. Cylinder. 60. 40. Hazard of Storage of Oil. Cylinder. 25. Rodolph. 115. 21. 62. Fuel. Pump. 41. First Engine. Fuel. Lubrication. Engines. 31. 70. Forced Lubrication. 71. 52. 71. Rating. Electricity. Governor. 62. 63. Diagram. Supply. Efficiency. 21. Cylinder. 69. 10. 97. 39. 17. 63. Cylinder. Cylinder. 93. Direct Connected. Engines. 34. . 38. Priming. 109. 61. 97. 129. 66.. 93. 55. Fixed Charges. Straining.134 Cylinder. Fuel. 66 Expense. Fuel. 86. H Hamburg-American Line. 5. 47. Diversified Load Factor. 37. Fuel. 22. 93. Production. 40. Exhaust Valve. Density. 105. 29. Price. Diesel. Engine. 48. Cylinder. Baume. Operating. 37. 67. 40. 36. 70. Cylinder. 15. 14. 51. 105. 16. 29. Thermal. Foundation Bolts. Temperatures. Frame of Engine. 16. Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel 54. Fly Wheel. 106. Scavenger. Donkey Fuel. 21. Engines. indicator. Direct Connected Generator. 80. 29. 37. American. Expense. Parallel Operation. History. 5. 71. 68. 71. 66. 40. 61. Sr)iral. Horizontal. Effect of Altitude. G Economic Results. Horizontal Engines. 61. Liners. First Plants. Removable. 53. Generators. Dr. 21. 39. Cylinder. 71. 20. Grinding Valves. 41. 35. Fuel Saving. 99. Dimensions. Gravity. 102. 86. 5. Engine Tests. 24. 61. Heat Balance. 124. Gears. 33. Four-Stroke Cycle. 24. Silver Co. Cylinder. Efficiency. 37. 48. 31. 28 Direct Reversible Marine Engines. Vertical. 31. Diesel Engine Fulton Iron Works. Atmospheric. Engines. 101. 22. Boiler. 19. 109. 65. Rating. 28. Pump. 28. Specific. 72. 72. Nozzle. 105. 54. 67. 101. 71. Donaldsonville. Fuel. Efficiency. Hesselman Atomizer. 69. Cooling.

21. Premature. 127. Expense. Nordberg Mfg. 24. Motion. 44.. 76. Lyons Atlas Co. 30. K Key West •Kina. Atmospheric. Maintenance. 80. Limitations of Fuel Oil. 62. 25. Trunk. N Insurance. Pressure. 26. 38. 28. Nurnburg. 55. Removable. 111.. Injection of Coal Oil. 119. Loads. 127-128. 63. 47. 111. Patents. 77. 34. 51. 124. 41. 35. Seymour Corp. O 77. 124. Patents.. 97. 31. McPherson. 65. Oil. Lubricating Oil. Marine Engines. Ports. 47.. 70. Ship & Engine 82. 112. 68. 77. 55.. 52. Oxygen in Cylinder. 84.. 97. 115. 21. Operators. Nobel Bros. Spray. 72. 60. Pressure. 77. SO. Splash. "Monte Penedo. Exposition. Diversified. . 15. 26. 72. Forced. Marine Engines. 119." Electric Co. Burning Marine. Lost Motion. 44. 135 Cost of. Marine Engines. 18. Mechanical Efficiency. 34. Piston Head. 39. 102. 42. 78. Operating Expense. 105. 81. Letzenmayer Patents. 16. 72. Fluctuating. Wrist. Oil. Lietzenmayer. Liners. Semi-Diesels. 26. 101. 24. Marine Engines. 70. 75. Meitz & Weiss Co. Priming Fuel Pump. Operators. Marine Engines. Lubricating Oil. Large Sizes. Air Pressure. Pressure.. Carnot. Cost Comparison. Powder House. 22. Ignition. 48. Injection. Pressure. 72. Piston.INDEX Marine Engines. Co. 90. 16. 129. 55. Lubrication. 86. Outer Bearing. 92. 102. Pressure. oilers. 24. 40. Oil.. 30. Continuous. Lost. 95. Typical. 107. Plants. Cylinder. 16. Nozzle. Marine Engines. Law. Loop in Indicator Diagram. Parts. Norman. 65. Economic Results. Co. 25. Price of Fuel Oil. 73. Production. 38. 53. Piston. Marine Engines. 107. 31. Marine. 9." 117. Oil. 49. 96. Parallel Operation. 106. Load Factor. 67. 43. Load Factor. Open Fuel Nozzle. Crank. Maneuvering. 93. Mexican Oil. Mexican Crude. Polar Diesel. Pressure. Spare. 42. 80. (See Fuel Oil). Auxiliaries. Bases of Economy. 105. Inclosed Crank Case. Premature Ignition. Centrifugal. 19. 14. Lubrication. Open. Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 116. 25. Pins. 96. Panama-Pacific International M McCarthy. 121. 19. 93. 74. Pins. Price. Electric Drive. 53. Indicator Diagram Loop. Step. Fuel 109. Scavenging. Lubrication. 19. Labor. Needle. Rings. 35. 6-8. Life of the Diesel. Compression. Advantages. Indicator Diagram. Manhattan Transit Coj. James. Fuel. Lubricating Oil.. Otto Gas Engine Co. 74. New London 122. 122. Operation. Cost. First. 30. Mcintosh. Marine Engines. 19. 44. 105. Marine. 121. Operations of Starting. Pump. 119. Ice. 124. Piston. 70. Lubricating Oil Pump. Cylinder. 22. 46. 121. Prairie Pebble Phosphate Co.

Steam. Main. Starting Valve. 21. 89. Shafts. 8. 36. Soare Parts. 61. Oil. 91. Turbine. S'pray Air. 119.. 16. Water. 34. Spiral Gears. 70. Saving in Fuel. Step Piston. Temperature in Cylinders. 122. Supply of Fuel 72. 101. Starting Operations. Chamber. 119. 52. Valve. 44. 76.. 56. Troubles. W Wafires 97 24. Release Compression. 71. Oil. Sulzer Bros. Torch. 96. 42 55. 63. Williams-Robson. Valves. Reversible. Semi-Diesel. Fuel Oil. Semi-Diesel. Tests of Fuel Oil. Shafts. Reliability. 89. Tar. Snow Steam Pump Works. 97. 70. 60. 26. Semi-Diesel. Steam Scavenging. 29. 48. Ring. 73.. 8. Springs. Pressure. 48. Scavenging Ports. 109. 22. 24. 58. 63. Valves. Semi-Diesel. 120. 77. 124. 30. Residue in Fuel 37. Pump. Texas & Pacific Co. 62. 46. Turbine. 55. Direct. Cost. Admission. 33. Water in Fuel Oil. 62. S. Gear. 38. 40. 31. Rods. "Siam." 112. 26. Busch-. 24. 25. 21. Coal. 30. 107. 71. Safety Valves. 69. Economy. Salt Water Cooling. Texas Power & Light Co. 36. 13. 84. Wrist Pins. Specific Gravity. Progress in Europe. Typical Power House. Vertical Engines. Semi-Diesel. Progress in the U. Piston. 40. 38. Pump 55. 32. 107. 37. 24. 84. Two-Stroke-Cycle. 96. 72. 84. 76. 52. Submarines. 28. 83. Water Jacket. R Rating of Engines. Compression. Valve. "Sebastian. Rebored Cylinders. Rocker Arm." 120. 19. 32. Splash Lubrication. 80. 24. Scavenger Cylinder. 24. 70. Two-StrokeCycle. Water Pumping. Sulzer Bros. 89. Semi-Diesel. Grinding. 44. 16. Thermal Efficiency. Rating of Generators. 37. 29. Tyrolean Alps. Tests of Engines. 86. 25. 47. 37. 47.. Shafts. Taxes. Starting. 96. 20. 97. 43. Auxiliary U Uniformity of Fuel Oil. Wiper Rings.' Cooling. Timing of Valves. 72. 34. 31. 52. 76. . 21. Valves. Removable Piston Head. "Vulcanus. 44." 109. Valve. 119. Fulton. 24. 46. 49. 89. 48. Wiper. Pumping Plunger. 72. Split Flywheel. Fuel ConsumpSemi-Diesel. Safety. 118. Turbine. 34. Injection. Pump. Spray Pressure. Reduction of Efficiency. 35. 71. Double Acting.136 INDEX Steam Turbine. 32. Sulphur in Oil. Ring. 89. Starting Cylinder. Broken. 91.. 47. Ring. 80. 86. 19. Timing. Torch. 84. Rod Adjustment. 118. 66. United States Geological Survey. Water. Trunk Piston. Werkspoor of Amsterdam. Production of Oil. Valve. 43. Tosi. 24. 86. 119. 60. Repairs. Connecting. 91. Valves. 79. Exhaust. Lubricating. 24. "Secundus. Cam." 119. Water. Plant Cost. 48. tion. 107. 77. Fuel.

Pa.Westinghouse Electric Generators Are Especially Suitable For Direct Connection to Diesel and Semi -Diesel Engines Both Alternating and Direct Current Types Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Co. & East Pittsburgh. Offices in all principal cities .

1 Air Compressor Cylinder Oil Manufacturers of special for the lubrication oils of DIESEL ENGINES We arc familiar with the lubricating requirements of of all types DIESEL ENGINES . SCRYMSER COMPANY NEW YORK Diesel Engine Cylinder Oil No.BORNE.


. P. Many plants are now operating and giving most satisfactory service. Dallas. Charlotte. Both types are built in stock lots. Y. SOLE AMERICAN LICENSEES SWEDISH DIESEL ENGINE COMPANY Branch Offices New Yor^k City. a this type are built in sizes up to type is 1 000 H. San Francisco. C. Washington. 609 Mills Bldg. Send for Descriptive Bulletins MclNTOSH & SEYMOUR CORPORATION AUBURN. N. 223 Slaughter Bldg. 514 Sheldon Bldg. therefore assuring prompt delivery. 50 Church St Kansas City. 221 Dwight Bldg. with four cylinders. El Paso. Room.MclNTOSH & SEYMOUR DIESEL TYPE OIL ENGINES TYPE B ENGINE Engines of B. Southern Bldg. 1100 Realty Bldg. The "A" column built only in 500 horsepower size. N.

THE BEST PUEL FOR ENGINES Of THE Diesel Type DIESOL Afloat or Ashore: This oil has demonstrated its efficiency. ranging up to the — and largest stationary plants in motor ships up to 12. 000 tons capacity. UNION OIL COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA Los ANGELES NEW YORK San Francisco Coast All Principal Cities Pacific HONOLULU PANAMA . in the various types of Diesel Engines.

It is unusually low in carbon content. and the wide range of conditions that must be met. three essential qualifications for internal combustion engines. and the general lubrication of the machine. TEXACO URSA OIL is an exceptionally rich product. or any lubricant you may require. the selection of the proper lubricant for the Diesel Engine is of par- amount importance. THE TEXAS 19 COMPANY BATTERY PL. with excellent body.. . and can be used with great economy. air compressor. and low in flash. high in boiling point. All together. —and it is We will be glad to furnish TEXACO URSA HOUSTON any further information on OIL. The Engineers of The Texas Company have had an enviable opportunity for the study of the Diesel Engine. in this country^ as well as abroad. n^wyork DEPARTMENT "D" NEW YORK CITY Distributing: pointts in principal cities.LUBRICATING THE DIESEL ENGINE — Because of the mechanical conditions involved. this one oil taking care of the lubrication of the power cylinders. We have developed in TEXACO URSA OIL • a lubricant of unusual suitability for this class of work. of all types a product admirably adapted for Diesels many of the leading manufacturers have welcomed the opportunity of being able to advise the use of an oil so thoroughly suited to their engines.

30 1200 Brake Horse Power. on the Unit Plan One. LOUIS . to Five or Six Cylinders. Two.FULTON-TOSI Slow Speed Heavy Duty DIESEL OIL ENGINES in the Preferred Vertical Built "A" Frame Type in Four Cycle. Three. Four. Full information on request FULTON IRON WORKS ST.

Extremely simple to operate as the number of working parts has in been reduced to a minimum. S. WRITE FOR BULLETIN The Standard Fuel Oil Engine Co. U. OHIO. A. .THE STANDARD FUEL OIL ENGINE (DIESEL TYPE) A sturdy and dependable engine for that insures ample power your plant at a very low cost. Unexcelled economy and regulation. WILLOUGHBY.


-DIESEL ENGINE CO.The 4-B-125 Diesel Unit. LOUIS. 520 Brake Horsepower BUSCH-SULZER BROS. ST. 419 RialtoBldc SOUTHWEST SALES AGENTS: YORK ENGINEERING & SUPPLY COMPANY Houston CI Paso Fort Worth New Orleans The Original Manufacturers of Diesel Eng^ines in America Write for Performance Bulletins . SAN rRANCISCO. MINNEAPOLIS. 754 Plymouth Bide MO.

Julius Roos. vertical stationary type in sizes from 2 to 400 h. coal August Mietz Machine Works 128 JVfott street New York 71-20 . and in vertical marine type in sizes from 2 to 600 hp. being direct reversible and requiring no reverse gears whatever. and since the fuel sprayed directly into the combustion of the chamber ports. These is engines two-stroke cycle type.p. maximum power from and may be depended upon to render service conditions.. or direct to M. & W. on entire structure the and lubri- troubles avoided. apply to our San Francisco representative. 45 to 600 hp. require pressors. For complete detailed information. excessive pressures. stresses medium the speed are of type.. rated output under the most difficult Being bearing cating of the medium severe are compression. just before completion compression stroke. there can be no loss of fuel through crank case leakage or through the exhaust no auxiliaries. the marine engine. They are built in horizontal stationary types in sizes from 2 to 300 hp. high pressure air combunkers. ENGINES boilers.ECONOMICAL POWER can best be secured by using an engine which will utilize to the fullest extent the Being tion entirely phenomenal heat unit content of our California fuel free from delicate complicated carburetion and oils. igni- devices the Ml delivers &W its Oil a given full Engine volume of fuel. Mr. producers and the like..

7. 19. Light Sheet Steel Removable Fronts. Bed Plate. Main Main or or Workias Working Cylinder. Crank Pin. Scavenging Air Inlet Ports. 28. Atomizer Levers (one Ahead. Cylinder Head. Wrist Pin. Scavenging Air Manifold. 14. Air-operated Intercepting Valve for Air Starting. 17. 32. 9. 26. 10. for Starting Air Ex- 11. 9 A. 18. 29. Exhaust Pipe. Cam Shaft ' ^3 '^ Atomizer Actuating Rockers (one Ahead. 24. 3.' one Astern). Crank Pit Drains to Filter. Starting Air Inlet Passage. Silencer haust Inlet. 25. Exhaust Outlet Ports. Scavenging Air Delivery Valve. 30. Housing. one Astern). 33. By-pass to Starting Bottles. 15. 8. Injection Air Storage Bottle. Connecting Rod. 27. 16. 31. between Adjacent Cylinders. 21. 5. 23. Atomizer Spindle. Scavenging Air Outlet Passage. Floating Packing Rings. 6. Section of Southwark-Harris Marine Engine . one Astern). Outlet for Starting Air. ScaveM^ig Air Inlet Valve. and Scavenging Air Vents for Housing Fumes. Injection Air from Compressor. 30. Crank Shaft. 12. Radius or Atomizer Push Rods (one Ahead. 13. Piston.1. Scavenging Air Inlet to Working Cylinder. 22A. 22. 2. Scavenging and Air Starting Cylinder. Removable Front Columns.


Standard CHI Company (California) 200 BUSH STREET SAN FRANCISCO . Cal. cylinders. Wash. with characteristics definitely determined for Diesel Eng^ines Calol Diesel Engine Oil A heavy bodied. Cal. Point Wells. Seattle. Cal. El Segundo. clear. light amber oil es- pecially adapted for the lubrication of Diesel eng^ines.— Correct Fuel and Lubricant for Diesel Engines CALOL FUEL OIL The Gold Medal Product Received highest awards at San Francisco and San Diego Expositions. Cal. Richmond. and all external parts. The SCIENTIFIC oil. Puget Sound. includingr lubrication of the air com- pressor. These oils are supplied from storage at the following points: Bakersfield. San Francisco. Wash.


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