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R.S.ROYAL ASIATIC OF SOCIETY GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. SCULPTUKED TOPE ON AN OLD STONE AT DRAS. F. January^ 1882. LADAK.G. WILLIAM SIMPSON. .

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. OR BUDDHIST TOPE OF THE PRESENT DAY IN THIBET.^ ^ -y^ti^^ CHORTEN.

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. SKETCHED ON THE SPOT IN 1861.'1 SCULPTURE OF TOPE ON OLD STONE AT DRAS. LADAK. BV W. SIMPSON.

They all wear necklaces. village of Dras. 381-82. there are which the people call Chomo. two feet nine inches broad.Nti 100 A SCULPTURED TOPE ON AN OLD STONE AT DRAS. am — Cunningham gives drawings of both stones. and anklets. On the back of the pillar there is an inscription of eight lines in Kashmirian Tdkri. The eastern pillar has one principal figure. On the pedestal are several small kneeling figiu-es with their hands is raised and joiiied in attitudes of prayer. which I believe to be a Sati pillar. these with the above description are evidence that he must have devoted 1 472 . By William Simpson. as the nearly obliterated Kashmiri Tdhri. This opinion is strengthened by the fact that there a third un- doubted Hindu pillar standing close to them. earrings. a four-armed female. placed on the pillar of a Rajputni Sati. on the road from Cashmere to Leh. This pillar six feet nine inches high. and two attendant females. to denote that her husband was a soldier. and as scribed them in his work on Ladak.R. amulets. also a four-armed two attendant females on each side. and one foot thick. This pillar is six high. Dras is a village on the banks of a stream of the same name. about the distance of one march beyond the Bul-tul pass. one on each side. F. On one side is sculptured a horseman. two I shall Cunningham has dequote from him : " On the side of the road. or 'The Women. I believe. and each with one leg bent. which is the usual emblem.G. which I unable to translate satisfactorily. between the hamlet of Styalbo and the pillars of granitic mica-slate. From have no hesitation in stating the style of these figures. with feet pillar has the same priacipal figure." pp. as well as from the nature of the alphabetical characters.S. LADAK. There are two sculptured stones at this place. one foot six inches broad. have inscriptions are in no connection with Tibetan Buddhism. The western female. I my is opinion that they are Brahminical statues erected by some Kashmirian Hindus. and one foot thick.' but which. and not in Tibetan characters.

This is a representation of a Buddhist Tope. have all round bases. here given. a square base distinctly visible. The great Tope at Peshawer is described as having live stages. The Jelalabad Topes had a passage all round the square base a few feet from the ground. thus producing an appearance which might be described as two In the sculptured example there are some indicastages. We are led from this to the supposition that the art on the quite in keeping with one side belongs to a different date from that of the other Buddhist is . Cunningham's conclusions but we can scarcely suppose that the Tope was the work of Hindus. LADAK. that we do not require to assume a very ancient date for either. but I think they show that there must have been some departure from this type. from which it is possible that in the Peshawer Valley the number at times varied. so far we as yet know. The Topes beyond the Khyber had another distinguishing . and of those at Jelalabad and at the the Chortens or Topes of the present day in same time on .:? ^i^fU oy^^ 2 SCULPTURED TOPE AT DRAS. consists in its bearing on the form of the Topes of the Peshawer Yalley. The well-known of these structures. considerable time to them. so far as I is am able to judge. showing that the form was derived from the right bank of the Indus. and yet he has quite overlooked a very important sculpture on the back of the eastern pillar. The value belonging to this representation of a Tope . tions which suggest stages. Thibet. of the sculpis tured Tope at Dras. The style of sculpture of the female figures. It also suppose that the the older of would be important if we knew the exact date of both styles of sculpture — this I cannot pretend to deter- mine all that may be said is. " Buddhist Railing " of the Bhilsa Tope will recall to the mind the ground-plan to the right When we cross bank of the Indus. . Now in the drawing. and not from the left. from Amravati to Manikyala. and from the Khyber Pass to Gundamuck this form seems to have been followed without any exception. we find a marked change a square base appears. as The Topes of India. and we may the two.

and facing the stairs of approach. stair. it There is a small sculpture of a Tope in the Lahore Museum." Vol. found what T supposed were the remains of where it had been placed. I think. and the very had four. The small Topes had one largest stairs the larger had two. 3 that was. and on it there is re- presented a sitting figure at the base of the circular part of it. the remains of Topes beyond the Indus explain the peculiar points of the one found at Dras. i. ^ Given in Fergussou's Indian and Eastern Arcliitecture. was found in the Peshawer Valley. qui est haute de seize pieds. but merely indicated three umbrellas. ^ the surmounting umbrellas. 1880. " Sur la 1 In describing the Great Tope at Peshawer. 110.SCULPTURED TOPE AT DRAS. so I made no attempt to realize this part of the design. they had stairs leading up to the top of the square base.^ but as it was only a relic casket. p. it did not seem of sufficient authority. and belonged to the Indian side of the Indus. in which a copy of the restoration is given. The only hint available was what might have been derived from the small model of a Tope found at Manikyala. that being a common number in the more southern. in no case did I find the summit of one of their domes. where there was a platform used in some way for the ceremonials performed at these shrines. mains of any of these figures. 80. : — '^ . tinct in the Dras This particular arrangement sculpture. one on each side of the structure. and I assumed them to have been a part of the In no case did I find the rebut in more than one Tope I design before I had noticed the sculptured Tope in the Lahore Museum.^ is very dis- Thus far. In the sculptured Tope the stair appears prominently.. Hiouen Thsang states face meridionale de I'escalier de pierre du Grand Stoupa. LADAK. p. These on the more magnificent Topes must have had a very imposing appearance. From my own explorations at Jelalabad I should say all figures that the Topes there had in this position. il y une image peinte diL Bouddha. Read r2th Jan. In a paper read to the Royal Institute of British Architects I attempted a restoration of one of the Jelalabad From the ruined condition of the monuments. This left me destitute of any guidance as to the number or size of Topes. feature .

he recommended that it should be published. . such structures in India. LADAK. transl. and that may explain why there were such a number of Chattas we may reasonably assume that the smaller Topes would have and that the number was ' fewer. 108.4 Topes. they form a solid structure. and the large number of them — thirteen—but we have their great new feature in our knowledge of height. and now in the Lahore Museum . Hiouen Thsang gives a rather more detailed is account of the Great Tope at Peshawer than usual with Stoiipa. this sculptured Tope gives an approximate idea of the umbrellas of the Trans. also be seen the larger number of umbrellas and it will at the same time be noticed that there is no pretence of a pole to support them. on showing it to Mr. SCULPTURED TOPE AT DRAS. He ^ states that : " Sur le sommet du Grand eleva encore une coupole en cuivre dore qui avait vingt-cinq Stages. a strong resemblance in the size and form of the umbrellas distinctly visible. Hiouen Thsang. variable. That they were i. vol. This extensive exactly the case in the Dras Tope where it will . pyramidal form into that of a extended diameter of the umbi'ellas in this Dras Tope. and the diameter of the lower one width of the lower umbrella is is equal. . Julicn. the diameter of the Tope beneath. Fergusson. doing. they form a solid pyramidal mass over the Tope. by M. p. if it does not exceed." This was by far the grandest Tope in India. which forms quite a That this distinctive characteristic belonged to the Trans-Indus Topes I think can be made out pretty clearly. with some indication of ornament between each umbrella. and its value as bearing on the Jelalabad Topes became at once apparent and. We have not only the raises the spire. it has only three or perhaps four umbrellas. which I have much pleasure in now stone. That to show. I have a photograph of a small sculptured Tope found in the Peshawer Valley. il him. I had completely forgotten this sketch of the Dras which is in one of my old sketch-books it was only the other day that I chanced to look it up.Indus Topes I will now proceed By comparing is it with the small model Tope found at Manikyala.

the a Dras sculpture. a Tope or Dagoba. I have not the slightest doubt after seeing the now in my own mind. There is one bit of detail in the Dras Tope. it will be seen these pyramidal mass. it will be seen that the Dras sculpture In Fergusson's gives us the connecting link to this form. ment can be pointed out Tibetan Dagobas there in various On a spire on the summit. whether made of copper or other material. has now been In my restoration of the Ahin Posh Tope at Jelalabad. 302. which is too roughly represented for us to realize its exact character. Such a mass of umbrellas. in which is . towering high above the structure beneath. — — 1 p. Indian and Eastern Architecture. In order to complete that restoration there should be added. the Temple of Swayambunath. It is most probably an external support for the umbrellas it starts from the dome of the Tope. That these discs were derived from umbrellas has all along been gene- rally assumed. As the um. but up to the present evidence to show found. and that they were arranged in a pyramidal form. I had authority for all its parts. the same number as the Dras sculpture. as it was a large Tope. except the surmounting umbrellas. 693. with series of discs or rings. as well as liable to be blown down by storms I can speak of the strength of the wind in the Jelalabad Yalley from experience and means would be necessary to prevent this. . let us say. ^ This last is. its derivation. is Vestiges of this arrangedirections. 5 large in proportion to the Tope. I think. and I believe you will have a very fair rendering of what the structure was like. and it is surmounted by a spire formed of thirteen discs. in fact.SCULrXURED TOPE AT DRAS.^ there an illustration of a monumental gateway to a Buddhist monastery in Pekin over the gateway is a Tope of the Tibetan form. illustration rings or discs are combined into a In the same work will be found another of the same arrangement. a spire of thirteen umbrellas. would be heavy. LADAK. and is continued like a frame on the outside of the umbrellas up to the pinnacle. in Nepal. we had no monumental This. that is. » p.

a fact. I come now to deal with this sculpture in relation to the "We know the form of the tee of the Peshawer Valley Topes from a couple of small ones in the Lahore Museum they resemble the one on the Casket Tope found at Manikyala. In the Tope on the gateway at Pekin. it gives us a very curious transformation. and no doubt went from that region into Ladak. Now in these Chortens. of this sort may be accounted for by a long period of copying and re-copying by clumsy workmen but. that it was a garland which we have a well-defined example among the Bharhut Sculptures. LADAK. but the dome below has in course of time disappeared from the design. of which there are numbers in almost every village at the present day. we have an important question to determine as to how this was brought about. for the Chortens there at the present day are still thickly coated. already mentioned. Should this suggestion of mutation be accepted. what we would call the body of the Tope is exactly the form of the tee of this sculptured Tope at Dras. and is represented now by a few plinths. which was the practice beyond the Indus. will easily account for the change If this should turn out to be in form which has occurred. I should say that the form there shown had resulted from a continued copying of the first one in a rude manner. in thick coatings. in some places they are more numerous than the houses. this is may perhaps If this not the correct explanation. till the mouldings of the cornice had been lost in the process. and become merely a part of the square base. I have made a rough outline of a Tibetan Tope. we may assume that this part of the construction would be the same. — — spire. side of the discs. the only other suggestion which occurs — of is. there is an ornamental form which hangs down on the be a vestige of of flowers it. The Tibetan Topes. Very great changes . They all have a projecting cornice on On comparing them with the tee of the the upper part. . were gilt and ornamented. The use of plaster. but in a reduced form. although possible. but the sculpture gives us no indication of this. Dras sculpture. has been retained. like steps.6 brellas SCULPTURED TOPE AT DRAS. it is difficult to .

and which was celebrated in the early centuries of the Christian era. it is pretty out that this sculpture at Dras goes a long is the natural route into Northern and the style of art and architecture followed in the Peshawer Valley. Fergusson has thrown out the idea that the tee of the Buddhist Dagoba was originally a tomb. but does not prevent other suggestions from being considered. and that is long before the Indo. Fergusson possible that the tee may have originated. This process of undevelopment might have it taken place. Mr.Classical style had been used for the Buddhist structures in the Peshawer Valley. the idea. way to establish The square base on which they rest seemed to me As the pushim of Tibet a strong reason for this conclusion. In the paper read tects. Buddhist missionaries went This theory I favour. with rites attached. feel much inclined to adopt. We Se- have thus a well-authenticated type from which it is quite Mr. 7 believe that the principal part of the structure could have been entirely lost. to the Royal Institute of British ArchiI need scarcely point the probability was pointed out that the Tibetan Chorten was derived from the Indus Valley. and they are only small shrines reminding one of the usually given restoration of the Tower of Babel. no doubt forced strong evidence that that . with the simulated co£&n on summit. Thibet at least . or at least a simulated relic casket.SCULPTUKED TOPE AT DEAS. mentions another illustration possible —the tomb of Akbar its at cundra. The so-called tomb its of Cyrus at Pasargadae presents itself as an illustration in George Smith described to me the Zigarets of the Euphrates Valley as having been placed on the tops of mounds. We Two may take it for granted that the Thibetans had mounds. or cairns. stiU finds its way into India through Kashmere. centuries to the Himalayas. It is quite that the Tibetans may have had some customary form of their ancestral mounds or cairns. and hence the reason that the dome was neglected. which caused them to look on what we call the tee as the most important part of the Dagoba. and even dagobas. LADAK. before the style of construction beyond the Indus had penetrated to and a half before Christ Kashmere.

me that the old Chinese books distinctly stated that such was ^^ the case. as well as others. and the resemblance is The absence of the dome and the stairs shows a considerable modification. and increased in size. The Tibetan Chorten is wide in resemblance to the Bhilsa Tope. I can is different. thrown out some hints. and I think no one would but. I tried to get information ^ / . of Chinese Pagodas which we generally see are those of Southern China. present been quite satisfactorily accounted \. A glance at its high tower of umbrellas will show that its transformation into a Pagoda was easy. For the one change I have which time has produced. we had instances where the upper portion of the Dagoba is more extended. All I could learn was. name two examples —the Tien- . { The origin of these structures has not for. till they became roofs. The pictures . assured ^v^ / — / . which further research may confirm or demolish . LADAK. the difiTralty was to discover what particular form of structure had been copied. but that the umbrellas had got multiplied. when in Chiua. with the Topes of Jelalabad and those near Peshawer. the style Now in the North. however. itself was. sculptured stone and that is with reference to the Pagodas 'n^ of China. TTMr. to give it a satisfactory confirmation. up to the About eight on the years ago. Edkins. compare the Chortens./ To one acquainted with the architecture of India. is still There another probability to be derived from this . way through its this passage. particularly about Peking. for the other nothing can be said at present in the way of elucidation. Place a drawing of a Pagoda from Southern China beside the Bhilsa Tope. that they were imitations of buildings in India. and each with a room under it. not so distant. this became Still it wanted something like monuthe most probable. subject. In the absence of almost any other theory being likely. that the ^ The only explanation which ofiered Dagoba might have been the form that was followed. and mental evidence that has been found in this sculptured Tope under consideration. however unlike suspect any connexion between the two in this case. and its exaggeration into the Pagoda was thus a theory which might be accepted.8 its SCULPTURED TOPE AT DRAS.

on tially the the north of Peking." the importance of which in Chinese ideas will be familiar to those who have read the Yih-King. Under the lower roof only are the walls of an inclosed space.SCULPTURED TOPE AT DRAS. : . it It may would be about the time when the Pilgrims were sent to India for books and statues we might be pretty certain that they would carry back the details of the Buddhist religious buildings. 9 Ning-Si. about fifteen miles from Peking. Probably the date when this style of building began in China may be found in the old books of that country. exactly the are represented as constructed on each other. A Indian and Pagoda of this kind will be found in Fergusson's thirteen of them number as in the umbrellas in the Easte^-n Architecture} It is at Tung-Chow. Instead of a room under each roof. it also has thirteen roofs. it will be seen. and there are same Dras sculpture. close to the western wall of Peking. although differing in the ornamental details. and the Pa-Li- Chwang Pagoda. The octagonal form of the Chinese Pagoda resulted from a very mystical figure of eight sides. Pagoda was copied from the Topes of the Indus Valley and -^"^ Afghanistan. Having accounted for this peculiarity of these Peking Pagodas. I feel satisfied that we may take it as now established that the Chinese . if we remove the distinctive construction as well as the ornament of the Chinese style from them. The design of these. EUe avait cinq escaliers et etait surmontee d'une coupole sa hauteur totale etait de cent be assumed that . and just previous to his death a large stupa was erected for the preservation of It is stated the books and statues he had brought with him. called the " Pah-Kwah. We have direct information from Hiouen Thsang on this point. that what is left would be almost identical with this Tope sculptured on the pillar at Dras. " Dans sa construction. 697. on avait imite fidelement la that forme adoptee dans I'lnde. '^C^ft7-fdy . 1 p. LADAK. and more particularly that of the Dagobas. showing that this was a very favourite number. is essen- same. the roofs in each of these Pagodas. He died in 664.

The Peshawer Tope had five stages." .10 SCULPTURED TOPE AT DEAS. combined with the Chorten. supported by perpendicular blocks. which were a marked feature of the Trans-Indus Topes. That it was by way of Tibet that the type of the Pagoda went to China. there is an exact facsimile of a Chorten on some rising ground near the marble bridge on the west of the palace it is called the " White Ming Pagoda. There are in the nine within thirty miles of Shanghai ' At Lo-yang. and it is possible the mistake may be on this point. but also on the names given " The number to them in China. We find one on the gate In Peking of the Buddhist monastery already referred to. on the Yantze Kiang. to have made the blunder. . the passage underneath is formed by large stone lintels. of which no trace is left in the Pagodas now. would be as curious an anomaly if found in Tibet as on the banks of the Yantze quatre-vingts pieds. 318. of pagodas in China is very great. having seen so many Topes in India. Edkins' Chinese Buddhism which is worth adding. for the Hindu architecture of the passage. Since this paper was written I have found a passage in Mr. . but would not seem strange in India. which are unlike Chinese architecture. and its celebrity may have made it the model. as it not only bears upon the dates of the Chinese Pagodas. or it may have crept into the Chinese original. p. There must be an error either in the translation. ^ Here we have the stairs copied. we have an additional evidence in the fact that the form of the present Tibetan Chorten has also penetrated along the same route. I saw another at Chin-Kiang." and I was told that it contained a scab from Buddha's body. as to the number of them it is difficult to understand how five stairs could be arranged on a foursided structure. I could get no information on the spot as to how this very peculiar mixture of architecture came to Chin-Kiang. It stands over a narrow street. Vie et Voyages de Hiouen Thsang. with bracket capitals. Kiang. and Hiouen Thsang must have been too famiKar with this. LADAK.

are also of a Clii-tiP honoured with the erection — Chinese Buddhism. which he presented to the Imperial Court. the spot where he became enlightened. to By the Eev. He also gives some A how the models most probably came to Shaman called Dharmarakcha came from the western countries bringing a large number of Buddhist and Brahminical works. or where he entered into the Nirvana. When bodies of deceased Boddhisattwas and other revered persons were burnt. as topes. richly painted. also S. where he was employed with other Shamans from 265 a. where he taught. The Eev. and died at Lo-yang but there is no notice of Pagodas at this early date. LADAK.SCULPTURED TOPE AT DRAS. " '"When there is no 'relic \^she-li. to 308 A. in Sanskrit shart'ra'].d. pp. 134-5. from three to nine stories high. Beal. xxiv. place of Buddha. These relics might he a hair. says have been described by ' ' the Cyclopaedia Fa-yuen-chu-lin. and it is these that travellers. The original purpose of the edifice was to deposit relics of Buddha. there were forty-two. in Afghanistan and other regions where Buddhism formerly prevailed. now in universal use. Joseph Edkins. Lo-yang is now known as Honan. D. in his Introduction to Fah-Hian." data which explain that place. tooth. and Edkins mentions a native of India.D. metamorphosed piece of bone. translating Buddhist books. article of dress. has displaced the older names feu-Pa [hudii) ixniX fo-Pu (buddu). as having been "formed after Indian models. This man took up his residence at Lo-yang. The word Pa (formerly Pap).. p.d.d. H Tsin dynasty (a. and it ' the building is called Chi-U ' [in may be intended to commemorate the birthFootsteps of Buddha. who came to China shortly after 61 a. the fourth or beginning of the fifth century is the period introduced. From this we see that the names came China with the models from India. the remains were placed in structures which received the same name. called Kashiapmadanga. 350). Pupa or sPupa. Sanskrit Chaitya~\. or rice vessel. when Pagodas after the Indian models were first .D. mentions the forty-two pagodas at Lo-yang. hence it may be concluded that the end of . an image of a Bodhisattwa or of a Pratyeka Buddha. dnd formed after Indian models.

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