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AFRICA REGION SECURITY ORGANS CAPACITY BUILDING WORKSHOP ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS

:
Prevention, Response and Peacekeeping

24 — 24 June 2011 Lemigo Hotel, Kigali - Rwanda

Prepared by the Kigali International Conference Secretariat

A Report on

AFRICA REGION SECURITY ORGANS CAPACITY BUILDING WORKSHOP ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS:

Prevention, Response and Peacekeeping

24 — 24 June 2011 Lemigo Hotel, Kigali - Rwanda

Prepared by the Kigali International Conference Secretariat

24 — 24 June 2011 Lemigo Hotel, Kigali - Rwanda

Table of Contents

Background ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Opening Remarks ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Chief of Defense Staff – Lt. Gen. C. KAYONGA ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Guest of Honor – Hon. T. KARUGARAMA ............................................................................................................................................... 6 Participants’ Expectations ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Training................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Gender Concepts and Principles – Gad RUNEZERWA ................................................................................................................... 8 Gender Based Analysis – Prof. Shirley RANDELL and Dr. Venera ZAKIROVA .......................................................................... 8 Gender Based Violence and Culture - Immaculee INGABIRE........................................................................................................ 8 International legal frameworks for addressing GBV - Prof. Shirley RANDELL.......................................................................... 10 African Regional Instruments for addressing GBV – Gad RUNEZERWA .................................................................................. 11 Country Experiences ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Botswana Police Service....................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Burundi .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Democratic Republic of Congo .......................................................................................................................................................... 13 Ethiopia Federal Police Commission ................................................................................................................................................. 13 Ghana ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Kenya ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Nigeria .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Rwanda................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Tanzania ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16 Uganda ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Zambia ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Gender Mainstreaming in Peacekeeping Operations ................................................................................................................................ 18 Capacity building for security organs - Developing a Training Manual ............................................................................................... 19 Action Plan ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Participants’ Recommendations .................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Closing Ceremony .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 28 Commissioner General Correctional Services – Rwanda DCGP Mary GAHONZIRE...................................................................... 28 UN Resident Coordinator Mr. Aurelien AGBENONCI .......................................................................................................................... 28 Guest of Honor – Hon. Aloisea INYUMBA Minister of Gender and Family Promotion .................................................................. 28

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Africa Region Security Organs’ Capacity Building

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Background

The workshop was held at Lemigo Hotel in Kigali, Rwanda from June 20th to June 24th 2011 under the theme, “Africa Region Security Organs Capacity Building on Violence Against Women and Girls: Prevention, Response and Peacekeeping”. It was hosted by The Rwanda Security Organs: Rwanda Defense Forces, Rwanda National Police and Rwanda Correctional Services, the current hosts of the Kigali International Conference Secretariat. The workshop was attended by Security personnel from Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The Kigali International Conference Coordinator CSP Damas GATARE welcomed the participants and explained that this workshop was a follow up to the Kigali International Conference held in October 2010 to launch the Africa UNiTE campaign against violence against women and girls in Rwanda. The conference theme was “The Role of Security Organs in Ending Violence against Women and Girls”. The Kigali Declaration was signed at this conference CSP GATARE said Africa UNiTE campaign was launched in Rwanda by security organs because of the role Rwanda Security Organs have played in preventing and fighting against gender based violence and supporting survivors of GBV. At that conference, he added, it was decided that a Secretariat be set up to be hosted on a rotational basis by signatories. It has therefore been

based in Kigali since October 2010. He informed this meeting that the next host for the October meeting would be chosen at this workshop. This workshop, CSP GATARE explained, was the second step in fulfilling the Kigali Declaration after the creation of the Kigali International Conference Secretariat. Among the countries represented, Kenya and Tanzania were the only countries that had not signed the Kigali Declaration. He welcomed representatives from these two countries to this workshop. Gabon, Chad and Central African Republic were the only signatories of the Kigali Declaration absent. He explained that the objective of this workshop was to strengthen the role of African security organs in ending violence against women and girls by scaling up sensitization, capacity building and training targeting violence against women and girls by developing modules for the Standardized Generic Training Manual that will be used in future to conduct training at the regional level. He added that the workshop was also intended to focus on improving skills and knowledge on the role of security personnel in Peacemaking, Peace building and Peacekeeping missions and also advocating for increase of participation of women in all Peace Support Operations (PSO).

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Opening Remarks

The workshop was officially opened by the Rwandan Minister of Justice, Hon. Tharcisse KARUGARAMA. The opening ceremony was attended by the Hon. Minister of Internal Security Sheikh Musa Fazil HARERIMANA, Chief of Defense Staff (CDS) Rwanda Defense Forces Lt. Gen. KAYONGA, the Inspector General of Police (IGP) CGP E.K. GASANA, the Presidential Defense and Security Advisor Brig. Gen. R. RUTATINA, the Prosecutor General Mr. Martin NGOGA, representatives from the UN and senior Rwanda government officials.

Chief of Defense Staff – Lt. Gen. C. KAYONGA
The Chief of Defense Staff Lt. Gen. C. KAYONGA welcomed participants to Rwanda on behalf of Rwanda’s Security Organs hosting the workshop. He praised the governments represented for their commitment to ending violence against women and girls. He encouraged participants to take the opportunity to share best practices from their respective countries. Lt. Gen KAYONGA shared that the security organs in Rwanda have taken the initiative in fighting violence against women and girls by establishing Gender Desks in the Army and Police, the Rwanda National Police’s One Stop Centre, community Policing, anti GBV Clubs at the grassroots as well as mainstreaming gender topics into their training curricular. He welcomed the Guest of Honor Hon. KARUGARAMA and said his presence at this ceremony demonstrated the commitment of the Government of Rwanda and their support to the security organs to play their role. Lt. Gen KAYONGA added that Rwanda is on track to meeting the requirements of the UN 1325 Resolution of women taking up 20% the forces contributed to Peacekeeping since the number of women in Peacekeeping from Rwanda National Police and Rwanda Defense Forces is increasing steadily. He wished the participants a happy stay in Rwanda and expressed the confidence that they will acquire skills and network better as security organs for the sake of this noble cause. Prof. Shirley Randell

Guest of Honor – Hon. T. KARUGARAMA
In his opening remarks, the Guest of Honor Hon. KARUGARAMA said the presence of security personnel from different security organs from different countries shows the importance attached to the issue of fighting gender based violence in the region. He referred to gender based violence as a human security issue as well as a hindrance to development. Hon. KARUGARAMA stressed the importance of fighting against sexual and gender based violence which has far reaching consequences especially in post conflict communities like Rwanda. In Rwanda for example, he said children born of rape and sexual abuse during the genocide were now adults who need support and counseling as they seek answers to their many questions. He stressed the importance of employing a multi-sectoral approach to dealing with GBV in order to provide all round care to survivors of GBV. The Hon Minister expressed Rwanda’s great pleasure to be at the forefront in fighting gender based violence. He thanked participants for representing their countries and urged them to share best practices and come up with innovative ways of preventing and responding to gender based violence. He thanked the UN and the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre for their invaluable support and urged UN agencies to continue supporting such initiatives so that the goal of ending violence against women and girls can be achieved.

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Participants’ Expectations

Mr. John MUTAMBA, one of the facilitators, explained that this was a results oriented workshop. He encouraged participants to feel free and share with each other so that they may all learn from each other. Participants shared their expectations of the workshop which included: • Sharing experiences and learning from best practices on setting up gender desks, preventing GBV and dealing with survivors of GBV, Networking with other security organs, and Discovering how to promote women in security organs and increase numbers of women in peacekeeping. Participants

• •

Mr. MUTAMBA explained that the workshop would ensure that participants understand the key concepts relating to GBV in order to become better advocates, they would also be equipped with tools to enable them plan and deliver services better as security personnel in the fight against GBV. He added that in order for this to be done effectively, they would need to network with other countries and this workshop provided an opportunity to strengthen such networks.

Participants

“...the workshop would ensure that participants understand the key concepts relating to GBV in order to become better advocates, they would also be equipped with tools to enable them plan and deliver services better as security personnel in the fight against GBV. “
John Mutamba

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Training

Gender Concepts and Principles – Gad RUNEZERWA

In a discussion following this presentation, participants pointed out the need for gender mainstreaming even in the security organizations they work with. They emphasized the need to target men as partners in the campaign against GBV and not merely as perpetrators. They also pointed out the need to deal with the mindset towards gender in most communities in order to ensure that GBV is considered a crime that can be put to an end in society.

Gender Based Analysis – Prof. Shirley RANDELL and Dr. Venera ZAKIROVA
Prof. RANDELL started by giving participants real life examples to show the difference between sex and gender and to further emphasize that gender is social identity which changes while sex is biological and does not change. This was followed by a quiz in which the participants were required to identify whether given statements described sex or gender. Prof. RANDELL went on to explain that gender equity is the process of achieving gender equality which is a position where both men and women enjoy equal opportunities. She explained that CEDAW, the UN International Bill on Women’s Rights signed by 189 countries including Rwanda identifies 12 areas of inequality. CEDAW provides the basis for realizing equality between men and women so that women can enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms. She defined gender analysis as a basic tool for understanding differences in gender roles, activities, needs and opportunities in order to understand communities and promote gender equality. She gave examples of scenarios in the community to which gender analysis is applicable and added that gender analysis is necessary to identify: 1. 2. 1. Who is benefiting? What is getting better/worse? Activities and roles: Who does what? Who decides what? How? Access to resources: Who has what and who needs what?

Gad Runezerwa Mr. RUNEZERWA started by differentiating sex from gender. He defined gender as a social identity while sex is a biological one. In defining roles, society refers to biological makeup. Culture is also responsible for the roles ascribed to gender and gender discrimination is a result of social expectations based on these roles. Whereas gender changes overtime and across cultures, sex does not change. He went on to define other concepts used in gender mainstreaming to enable the participants to fully understand the subject. He explained that gender mainstreaming means the differences between men and women are taken into consideration when programmes are being planned, designed and at the monitoring and evaluation stage. He also stressed the need for sex disaggregated data which is very important in dealing with gender based violence. In addition he explained gender equality, equity, gender needs, budgeting and gender responsive budgeting, Participants gave the following examples of gender discrimination: failure to promote women to senior positions, maternity and paternity leave among others. Mr. MUTAMBA stressed that GBV cannot be addressed without considering gender differences and gender roles. It is therefore important for security personnel dealing with GBV to understand these concepts. He pointed out the need for security personnel to be knowledgeable in order to deal with survivors and perpetrators of GBV more capably.

3.

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4. 5.

What should close be done to close gender gaps? Who wins? Who loses?

Prof. RANDELL pointed out that gender needs are based on basic human rights and when they are identified and the gaps are met, this creates a gender balance and leads to gender equality. This was followed by discussion of a case study handed to the participants to do in groups. Participants were able to discuss the above questions in relation to the case study and recommend what gender considerations need to be made. According to the case study, the groups reported that although women do the hard work, men are the ones who enjoy the benefits from this hard work by making the decisions and taking the profits – being in control of power and resources. This is also true in many communities other than the case study. They made the following recommendations: • Women need to be empowered financially and also to be able to make decisions and say no to exploitation Men need to be sensitized to take up their roles in society and treat women as equal partners. Education is an important aspect and women should be trained to see gender inequality as a problem and men to see the impact it has on women. Balance of power is also necessary to ensure that women are able to make decisions and are in control of the results of their labor.

It was concluded that GBV is about power and control and there is a need to empower women to be self reliant and make the best decisions for themselves and have the power and resources to act upon those decisions. Panel Discussion To conclude the day’s presentations, Mr. MUTAMBA challenged participants to think about constitution of men and women in our society and how this underlying current explodes in violence and loss of life. He urged them to think of how the tools they had been learning about could be used in their communities. He said gender analysis would enable them as security personnel to discover what issues in society bring about domestic violence and added that what happens at household level has repercussions on crime at national level. He referred to the problem tree and said as security personnel, participants were encouraged to deal with the root causes and develop a culture of thinking out of the box in order to come up with solutions to such issues. Participants shared that culture and religion were major factors influencing men and women in response to GBV. Whereas men were given a position of control by most cultures, it kept women from taking these cases to court and religion encouraged women to accept the torture and exploitation. They emphasized that attitude change and empowerment were vital elements in the fight against GBV. Another challenge brought up was that although some officers were committed to ending GBV in their communities, it was not a priority of some decision makers in their respective security organs and this hindered the progress. Since change does not occur overnight, participants were encouraged to start small, be persistent and patient and learn from what has worked elsewhere in order to make a change in their communities and consequently grow political will. This discussion was ended on an optimistic note that even though GBV was a global problem, with a positive attitude, commitment and hard work, it will be overcome just like HIV/AIDS which started out as an insurmountable problem but has now been controlled considerably.

Prof. RANDELL pointed out that as a tool Gender Analysis can be used to improve the planning and implementation of a project so that it benefits both men and women.

Gender Based Violence and Culture - Immaculee INGABIRE
Ms. INGABIRE defined gender based violence as any act of violence perpetrated against a person resulting into inequality of power based on her/his socially constructed roles or any threatened or actual harmful act targeted at women and girls or men and boys as an expression of differential power. Although men and boys can be victims of GBV, women and girls are more often

Immaculate Ingabire

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the victims and GBV is sometimes referred to as violence against women. She explained that the violence can be physically, sexual, financial, emotional, domestic or psychological. She explained that female genital mutilation and early marriages are cultural forms of GBV. Young girls are denied access to education and as a result they do not get involved in decision making positions and cultural forms such as early marriage are not considered as GBV but are welcomed by the women and girls. Various aspects of culture promote disrespect of women; she gave an example of women being given names that refer to them as weaklings or simply beautiful objects while men are given names that refer to them as brave or victorious moreover, the legal and regulatory framework protects men over women. She emphasized the need for gender analysis in circumstances such as dealing with culture. Perpetrators often include influential members of the community or male partners and in most cultures; the male partner is given power over the female partner which power when abused results in discrimination, violence and abuse. Ms. INGABIRE went on to enlist the needs of survivors of various acts of GBV such as medical treatment, legal aid, counseling and social support. Although culture is a stronghold, Ms. INGABIRE encouraged participants to consider ways in which culture can be changed and sensitize members of their communities not to promote aspects of culture that may lead to GBV. In the discussion following the presentation, participants pointed out that culture made it difficult for women who were victims of GBV to report and when they did, they were not able to bring the perpetrators to justice because they were either dependants or they felt guilty of bringing their husbands to book.

Participants also stressed the need to consider causes of GBV and the needs of perpetrators and not just survivors so as to deal with causes of the problem as well. The need for role models in the community was also brought up and the need for men who would stand up against GBV and also present a good example for other men to follow. They added that it is necessary to create awareness among women so that they may know their rights.

International legal frameworks for addressing GBV - Prof. Shirley RANDELL
Participants were taken through the international instruments for gender equality and women’s rights to increase their knowledge and capacity to fight GBV. The instruments include: • • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948); International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966); Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1979); Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993); Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995); United Nations General Assembly Resolution 52/86 on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Measures to Eliminate Violence against Women (1998); Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (2000); United Nations General Assembly Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons especially Women and Children (2000);

• •

• •

Prof. RANDELL noted that the latest Human Rights Council Resolution was introduced by South Africa in June 2011. This resolution seeks to protect people from violence directed at them for their sexual orientation. She outlined the instruments and went on to explain how they are ratified and domesticated to make them law in a particular country and the mechanisms put in place to monitor them. International instruments affect what happens at national level.

Prof. Shirley Randell

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African Regional Instruments for addressing GBV – Gad RUNEZERWA
Mr. RUNEZERWA explained that in order for operational measures to be put in place, there must be instruments. Regional commitments refer to the commitments in the region such as the policies which he explained create an understanding of what actually needs to be done in the region and nation. He gave an example of the African Union gender policy. The African Union’s Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights Of Women in Africa which is designed to promote and ensure respect for the rights of African women. He explained that when nations signed a protocol and adhere to a principle, it is easier to show what the nation stands for and what the responsible parties are accountable for. In addition, mechanisms can be put in place to enable what the protocol entails. African Union Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa (2004) promotes gender equality and women’s empowerment. It reduces women’s dependence on men, in terms of economic empowerment. Mr. RUNEZERWA stressed that the important thing is to ensure that all the instruments translate from being protocols to implementation - being implemented regionally and nationally. National Commitments: He gave some examples of legal instruments in Rwanda, such as the Land law, Gender Based Violence law, Liberalities & Succession law and others included in Vision 2020, Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS), Decentralization Policy, and National Gender Policy. Most African countries constitutions are almost the same. What’s different is how this constitution is implemented. The constitution needs to be supported by strong laws. For instance, the constitution of Rwanda is gender sensitive. In Rwanda, all men & women are equal by law. The concern of the Rwandan government is the prevention of GBV; especially reducing women’s economic dependence. He said all the participants’ countries have visions and the challenge is implementation. Institutional mechanisms: These mechanisms support the national commitments by providing frameworks in which implementation can be done and raising the necessary resources as well as monitoring progress. For example the Ministry of Gender and Family Protection is responsible for promoting gender equality through the development process of the country. The Gender Monitoring Office is an organ provided for in the new constitution of the Government of Rwanda in its article 185 with the role of monitoring and evaluating progress towards gender equali-

ty. Gender affects every ministry, institution, private or public sector, churches & different organizations. The Police and the Army are also mechanisms that implement and monitor implementation. The presenter stressed that the fight against GBV requires a multisectoral approach and private sector, churches, communities, religions need to collaborate to implement strategies to prevent violence committed against women & girls. It also requires a high political commitment on behalf of our governments. Participants observed that implementation is of paramount importance and therefore it is vital that these instruments be translated into policy at national level. It was also noted that political will and advocacy are necessary to ensure success at implementation level. They were also cautioned to consider the value of some of these instruments in the cultural context.

Gad Runezerwa

Participants

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Country Experiences

The participants shared the progress their respective countries have made in fighting GBV in order to learn from one another.

Botswana Police Service

The Botswana government has also supported the development of two major bills on GBV – Abolition of Marital Power Bill (2004) and Domestic Violence Bill (2007), including efforts to raise the awareness of MPs and Chiefs in relation to this policy development. Progress in dealing with GBV survivors was further influenced by the advocacy groups’ appeal to Police in 1997. As a result of these appeals, private consultation rooms were established for reporting such cases and female officers were assigned to handle the cases. The penalty for rape was increased to 15 years and perpetrators who were aware of their HIV positive status receive 20 years or life imprisonment. The Botswana Police Service Women’s Network Forum promotes women empowerment and understanding women issues as law enforcement officials – peace support operations issues. It accentuates police involvement in GBV issues and advocates for the increase of Women Police Officers. In addition, training of police officers on GBV has increased. There are still challenges however which include the Police capacity to address the emotional and psychological aspect of GBV while there is no standardized protocol to integrate the services, disinterest and insensitivity of police officers is another. After care of survivors is unavailable since it is not considered a Police role and social service organizations do not work fulltime. Funding for gender activities is also a challenge.

Botswana Delegates Botswana Police Service’s key role is to protect life and property and prevent and detect crime. It provides professional policing service in partnership with the community upon realizing that they cannot do anything successfully in the community without involving the community members. GBV is an offence punishable under the penal code and the most common forms of GBV in Botswana are rape, defilement, physical assault and murder. Police is considered the first point of contact for GBV although some cases are reported by NGOs and some from the hospitals. In the past there was no evidence of GBV because of the limited cases reported. Apart from ratifying international instruments like CEDAW, Botswana has developed a National Gender Programme Framework, Short Term Plan of Action, and a National Policy on Gender and Development (which include sections on GBV), and setting the goal of eliminating GBV by the year 2016 (Vision 2016). The challenge that remains is developing protocols to guide progress to meet this target. They have also conducted studies on the SocioEconomic Implications of Violence against Women and one on laws affecting the status of women in Botswana.

“Botswana has developed a National Gender Programme Framework, Short Term Plan of Action, and a National Policy on Gender and Development”

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“... to sensitize the men, community leaders, religious leaders and the private sector have been involved. This is expected to improve community policing and change attitudes and impact reporting of GBV cases.

Democratic Republic of Congo

Burundi

DRC Delegates GBV is handled under the National Police and the Judiciary which has many units. These are both responsible to implement the penal code. Unfortunately there is no coordination between the two units. GBV cases are reported to social services in the Ministry of Gender and the Ministry can sue on behalf of the survivor which presents a challenge since the Ministry does not have the resources to provide survivors with shelter, support them or follow up the case. Traditional culture in DRC has also demeaned women and there is need to change the attitude and establish laws that protect women and girls from discrimination and disrespect. The presenter reported that after the International Conference held in October in Kigali; an effort was made to sensitize local leaders on the need to protect women and girls. DRC is making all efforts to learn from other countries to be able to tackle the problem of GBV.

Burundi Delegates Burundi has ratified international instruments promoting the fight against GBV and in April 2009 the Constitution of Burundi Article 21 Penal Code was amended to include rape, conjugal rape and female genital mutilation. Women were previously punished for adultery but this was changed to ensure that both men and women are penalized. In 2005 mechanisms and structures were put in place for the Police to deal with GBV. There is however a challenge of very few female officers in both the Police and the army in Burundi. Traditional culture promotes silence and so women do not report acts of GBV. Music and dance continue to depict women as inferior beings thus promoting gender inequality. In order to sensitize the men, community leaders, religious leaders and the private sector have been involved. This is expected to improve community policing and change attitudes and impact reporting of GBV cases. In addition, GBV has been included in Police training in order to equip officers with the skills required to better handle GBV cases. Families are being sensitized to allow their daughters to join the forces so that there are more female officers in Police.

Ethiopia Federal Police Commission

Ethiopia Delegates As a result of the poverty in Ethiopia and the discriminatory traditional culture, women are overburdened. Rape, early marriages,

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female genital mutilation and domestic violence are the main forms of GBV experienced by these women who lack access to and control of resources. The government of Ethiopia is engaged in the fight against GBV; in addition to ratifying international instruments, the constitution and national policies have been put in place to promote gender balance and protecting women and girls. The Women’s Affairs Division is one of the five sectors of the Ethiopia Federal Police Commission responsible for: • Addressing and protecting the needs and rights of women police and civil staff Coordinating the gender mainstreaming program of the commission Building the capacity of the police force on preventing and responding to various forms of GBV.

The Ministry of Women and Children Affairs is at the policy level while the Social Welfare department conducts and prepares social enquiry reports on cases before courts in family cases and for the juvenile courts and provides shelter for survivors of GBV. The National Commission on Civic Education is responsible for educating the community on human rights and protection and prevention of abuse and GBV. The Police have a unit known as the Domestic Violence and Victim Support Unit (DOVVSU) which protects vulnerable groups and has the powers to arrest, detain and prosecute offenders. The target is to open DOVVSU units in all Police divisions and districts of the country. Officers posted to this unit are trained in GBV Issues and are able to collaborate with other stakeholders and carry out sensitization programmes in the community. The unit also collaborates with other partners who meet the survivors’ needs such as medical treatment, counseling and legal aid. In relation to women in peacekeeping, the presenter reported that 31% of the Police officers in peace keeping from Ghana are women. This is a significant percentage and efforts are being made to increase the number of women participating in missions.

The Police have registered some success in gender mainstreaming and empowering of women in the Police and capacity building in order to support prevention and response to GBV through community policing and along with other partners. There is still a need to change the attitudes that discriminate against women and resources to gather data and support and follow up cases of GBV. There is, however political will supporting these plans and it is hoped that with the frameworks already in place, progress in the fight against GBV is forthcoming.

Kenya

Ghana

Kenyan Delegate Kenya has taken GBV seriously and as a result of training and awareness creation, reporting of cases has increased. In addition more progress is expected with the new constitution which is more gender sensitive. Through coordination of the police units, GBV cases are reported to police headquarters. At the Police Station the survivor is escorted to hospital. Police works closely with other influential members of the community in creating awareness and preventing GBV. Cultural practices still pose a challenge and the number of child protection units need to be increased as well as a need to involve the army in prevention and response to GBV cases.

Ghana Delegates Past studies in Ghana report that 3 out of every 5 women suffer some form of abuse. The highest percentage of GBV cases in Ghana are defilement cases. In order to counteract GBV, some interventions have been put in place and these include international and regional instruments as well as national policies for the prevention and response to GBV.

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Nigeria

Participants had an opportunity to visit the Isange One Stop Centre which is the Rwanda National Police centre for prevention and response to gender based violence as one of the best practices in the region. Before the visit, the One Stop Centre Coordinator IP Goretti MWENZANGU gave a brief presentation highlighting the issue of violence against women as a human rights, health and development issue. She explained that the Isange One Stop Centre is a holistic approach to dealing with the issue. IP MWENZANGU enlisted the legal and policy frameworks Rwanda has put in place for gender promotion including the 2003 Constitution of Rwanda and Vision 2020. In order to prevent and respond to GBV, Rwanda National Police has established Gender Desks and the One Stop Centre to ensure coordinated service delivery. She added that 19% of Rwanda’s Police is now composed of women, the target being 30%. Female officers have also been involved in peace keeping missions. She shared that RNP has employed community policing as a very important security tool including prevention of GBV. This ensures that the community takes part in its own security and works hand in hand with the Police to prevent such crimes as GBV. RNP established a gender desk in 2005 and started involving the community and other stakeholders in the fight against GBV. In 2010 the Isange One Stop Centre was established and now has a toll free helpline and crime investigation van. A crime is investigated after reporting and is then submitted to prosecution. The centre seeks to meet the needs of survivors: a social worker receives the survivor and records all the necessary information; the survivor also receives medical attention and prophylaxis treatment. The centre also provides a safe room for survivors and follows up after treatment. The role of community involvement is seen further when the survivor returns to their family. IP MWENZANGU presented data that has been collected by the RNP since 2006 and illustrated the importance of gender disaggregated data in dealing with such crimes. Among the challenges still faced by the centre, IP MWENZANGU mentioned; • • • • • • Gender stereo typing, Culture of silence on sexual related issues as private affairs, Limited legal awareness by both men and women, Cultural Resistance to promotion of women, Low economic status of women, Lack of the necessary resources (e.g. Forensics and DNA testing),

Nigerian Delegates Presently, there is no federal law supporting prosecution of GBV criminals. The existing laws deal with rape, assault and child abuse. However, UNWomen in partnership with Nigeria Police have developed a Gender Policy which is awaiting the signature of the Inspector-General of Police and the Second in command before it is presented to the National Assembly. In addition to this, GBV will be included in the Police training curriculum to build the capacity of Police officers to deal with GBV cases. The Human Rights activists dealing with related cases are also supportive of police officers receiving training in GBV so that they are better able to handle these cases. With regard to women in peacekeeping, Nigeria has realized the impact women have on fellow women where they are deployed on missions. A conscious effort is being made to increase the numbers of females both in peacekeeping and in decision making positions in government.

Rwanda

Rwandese Delegates

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“the need for more women Police officers was a result of the observation that survivors wanted to deal with female officers rather than male officers when reporting GBV. “

Limited numbers of women in decision-making positions in security organs, Limited research capacities, Lack of Rehabilitation program for GBV and child abuse inmates to avoid recidivism, and Lack of sufficient trained personnel to offer legal, medical and psycho-social services to the survivors of SGBV.

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Participants also visited the Genocide Memorial Centre. They were grieved at the magnitude of destruction of lives caused by the genocide and were challenged as security personnel responsible for the protection of lives and property.

Tanzania

In order to mitigate these challenges, the following strategies are being considered: • • • • Attract more women to join the Rwandan National Police, Establish centers at the district level, Carry out capacity building for women officers, and Increase number of women officers in decision making positions.

Tanzania Delegate In Tanzania GBV cases are divided into two - those of criminal nature and those of civil nature. The Police deals with those considered criminal. The Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children was established to address issues to do with women and children. Tanzania is also taking a multi-sectoral approach to fighting GBV and various stakeholders are working with the security organs. Community policing is emphasized and village councils handle cases in their community and refer the more complex ones to the Police. Capacity building of women in the Police has enabled Tanzanian women to quality to serve in peacekeeping missions. Political and community will is necessary to increase efforts to fight GBV and achieve gender balance in Tanzania.

The presentation generated considerable debate from participants who were eager to know how the centre was set up and were looking forward to visiting it to learn how they could implement similar initiatives in their countries. The Coordinator of the Isange One Stop Centre also stressed the importance of identifying different stakeholders and working with partners. GBV is not for Police alone, she said. She also stressed the importance of continually imparting skills through training and creating awareness. She explained that the need for more women Police officers was a result of the observation that survivors wanted to deal with female officers rather than male officers when reporting GBV.

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Uganda

have been added to the Police training curriculum. In addition efforts are being made to create gender balance in the Police Force as well by recruiting more female officers and being considered in placement as well.

Zambia

Uganda Representative Uganda People’s Defense Forces - Military The presenter expressed the confidence that by virtual of their roles in countries, the Army and the Police have handled far more complex situations and will no doubt decisively deal with GBV if they focus on it. The 1995 Constitution was gender sensitive and provided for gender mainstreaming in all sectors. In dealing with GBV, UPDF started with the protection of families of soldiers. Focal offices were established to monitor human rights abuses in the army and spouses’ desks were set up to connect spouses of army officers to service providers and capacity building initiatives. These were important in facilitating the officers’ spouses to start income generating projects and avoid abuse as a result of lack of access to resources. Female officers are also considered. Challenges remain in the form of lack of data and lack of capacity for monitoring and evaluation. Uganda Police Force Uganda is a signatory to a number of international and regional human rights instruments that provide for legal redress for victims of all forms of discrimination and violence against women including violence by intimate partners. A study (2006) revealed that 68% of women in the reproductive age bracket with spouses being the greatest offenders. In Uganda too, defilement is the greatest sex related crime. Under the Uganda Police Force, a department in charge of child and family protection enforces the law against GBV. The mandate of this department is to create an environment in which women’s rights are recognized, respected and protected. The Department provides elementary counseling and guidance to victims and offenders arbitration in families and refers the more serious cases. Awareness targets primary and secondary schools, community meetings, the media and Police barracks. The Police are also working together with other stakeholders and with the support of UN Women, women and child issues

Zambia Delegates

GBV is one of the greatest causes of injury to women and as in other countries, defilement accounts for most cases of GBV but also least reported. Awareness is necessary for attitude change. Presently, GBV cases are handled by the Police under the Victim Support Unit. Community Policing is also emphasized both as a means of creating awareness and of apprehending criminals. Previously, cases of spouse abuse were perceived as domestic issues, but today they are being seen as violation of human rights and personal freedoms that undermine the rule of good governance. In addition, a law against GBV was passed in April 2011 which defines acts amounting to gender based violence, duties to assist or inform complainant of rights, police assistance after receipt of complaint and application for protection order in respect of a victim of GBV.

“... a law against GBV was passed in April 2011 which defines acts amounting to gender based violence, duties to assist or inform complainant of rights, police assistance after receipt of complaint and application for protection order in respect of a victim of GBV. “

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Gender Mainstreaming in Peacekeeping Operations
Isobel ANDERSON – Pearson Peacekeeping Centre Ms. ANDERSON explained the Women, Peace and Security Framework (WPS) which provides the basis for advocacy, education, reform and capacity building on gender equality and women’s rights, as they relate to peace operations. It is comprised of 5 Resolutions: 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009) and 1960 (2010). The presenter focused on UNSRs 1325 and 1820 which she explained are the main resolutions with the others reinforcing them. She explained that UNSCR 1325 was the first resolution on Women. Peace and Security adopted in 2000. UNSCR 1325 recognised the different ways in which women, men, boys and girls experience conflict and post-conflict, and of the important role that women play in the prevention, management, and resolution of conflicts. The Resolution requested that all peacekeeping personnel – military, police and civilian – receive training on the “protection, rights and the particular needs of women as well as on the importance of involving women in all peacekeeping and peace building measures”. She went on to explain that UNSCR 1820 was adopted by the UN Security Council in 2008 which specifically addresses the issue of sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict. This resolution recognizes that sexual violence can exacerbate armed conflict, and urges concrete measures to protect women from sexual violence during armed conflict. The resolution specifically notes that training should focus on preventing, recognizing and responding to incidences of sexual violence and encourages Member States to deploy a higher percentage of women military and police peacekeepers. She explained how efforts have been made to increase the number of female officers in Peacekeeping missions and to address sexual violence especially in conflict situations which includes the training given to peace keepers before deployment. She stressed that Peacekeepers go on mission to help communities and should not take advantage of them because they are in a better position or have access to resources.

Isobel Anderson, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre

“UNSCR 1820 was adopted by the UN Security Council in 2008 which specifically addresses the issue of sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict.“

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Capacity building for security organs Developing a Training Manual

Group Discussion Participants were divided into 8 groups according to sector (Police, Army, Correctional Services and Civil Society) and language (French and English) and were given instructions to guide discussions to provide a foundation for the training manual that will be developed to build security organs’ capacity to deal with GBV. Each group was instructed to make a list of subjects they would like the training manual to cover and indicate for each: • • • Principle training objective Preferred methodology(ies) Preferred source(s): a country/security organ example, a UN source, civil society source, etc. Subjects: 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Concepts of GBV Difference on gender and sex Terminology, definitions, and concepts of GBV Types and forms of GBV Causes and effect of GBV Extent and impact of GBV 5.1. Impact to development and health 6. 7. Benefits of eliminating GBV Coaching and mentoring others on GBV.

After the discussion, the groups were asked to report to the plenary and the following is a summary of issues discussed:

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2.

International, regional, and domestic instruments and Legal Frameworks on GBV 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Background on the United Nations (UN) History, vision International and regional instruments on GBV GBV is a violation of human rights Political will at the international level on gender and human rights in peacekeeping missions Domestic laws and policies on GBV Government ministries responsible for gender and children Public institutions responsible for women and children.

6. 7. 8.

Sensitization and awareness-raising Collaboration and coordination mechanisms Data capturing and analysis.

Military 1. Domestic laws and policies on GBV that apply to the military United Nations (UN) policies and documents on gender as they apply to military Role of the military in addressing GBV Changing perceptions within the military on GBV Mechanisms for mainstreaming gender in the defence sector (locally and internationally) Putting into practice UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820 Successes and challenges on prevention and response to GBV from the military sector Military’s role in GBV before, during, and after conflict situations domestically and abroad Monitoring and evaluation mechanisms of GBV, within the military

6. 7.

2.

3. 4. 5.

8.

3. 1.

Approaches Addressing the needs of the survivor (standardized approach) Multi-sectoral approach to address GBV (economic, medical, legal, psycho-social, and protection) Monitoring and follow-up systems To develop indicators Education (rights of the survivor and economic empowerment)

6. 7.

2.

8.

3. 4. 5.

9.

10. Counselling for survivors, family, and children of survivors for the military

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11. Referral system for the military (prioritization of cases, follow-up mechanism) 12. Code of conduct, accountability, and penalties for the military 13. Informing perpetrators about their rights and applicable laws, as they relate to the military 14. Professional rehabilitation for military (to prevent burn out) 15. Psycho-social support 16. Mentoring 17. Referral system

7. 8. 9.

Report writing & note taking (statements) Crime scene management Community policing

10. GBV intelligence gathering and management (collecting, collating, analyzing, and sharing GBV-related information) 11. Re-education of perpetrators 12. Increasing communication channels with corrections 13. GBV vis-à-vis persons with special needs (people living with disabilities, orphans, ethnic minorities, elderly persons, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and people living with HIV/AIDS) 14. Effects and consequences of GBV in the spread of HIV/ AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and reproductive health.

Police 1. 2. Role of the police in addressing GBV Domestic laws and policies on GBV, as they apply to the police Intervention skills Investigative techniques for GBV cases Interviewing methods for GBV Effective communication skills during investigations (including public relations)

15. Counselling for survivors, family, and children of survivors, for the police 16. Referral system for the police (prioritization of cases, follow-up mechanism) 17. Code of conduct, accountability, and penalties for the police 18. Informing perpetrators about their rights and applicable laws, as they relate to the police

3. 4. 5. 6.

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19. Professional rehabilitation for police (to prevent burn out) 20. Psycho-social support 21. Mentoring 22. Referral system.

10. Education on GBV within correctional facilities 11. Rehabilitation, education, and psycho-social approach 12. Referral system for corrections (prioritization of cases, follow-up mechanism) 13. Peace building for inmates (become advocates against GBV within prison and after release) 14. Civic education on GBV 15. Professional rehabilitation for corrections (to prevent burn out) 16. Psycho-social support 17. Mentoring 18. Referral system

Correctional Services 1. 2. Role of correctional services in addressing GBV Education, rehabilitation, reforming, reintegration to society Training target group: Correctional staff, in-mates, exmates. Domestic laws and policies on GBV, as they apply to correctional services Code of conduct, accountability, and penalties for corrections Informing perpetrators about their rights and applicable laws, as they relate to corrections Prisons management (for correctional staff) Psycho-social counselling focusing on GBV offenders. Reporting system (progress of inmate to prison administrative staff and community leader for follow-up on release.

3.

4.

5.

4. Methodologies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Organize seminars/training at the senior officer level Practical exercises PowerPoint Presentations Exercises Case studies Resource personnel Participatory approach

6.

7. 8. 9.

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8. 9.

Documentaries, videos Inviting community leaders

10. Presentations and discussion 11. Benchmarking 12. Site tours 13. Testimonials 14. Field visits 15. Interviews 16. Role plays

Sources • UN organizations: Department of Peacekeeping Operations African Union Government ministries ISS National civil and international societies Pearson Peacekeeping Centre (PPC) Peace Support Centres in Africa Individual experts

• • • • • • •

• • • • •

Life experiences Statistics Laws Clinical psychologists Best practices.

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Action Plan

Prof. Shirley RANDELL and Dr. Venera ZAKIROVA Participants were given the handout with the Wheel of Power and Control which shows the cycle of GBV. Intimidation is followed by emotional abuse and progresses through isolation, minimizing, denying and blaming, using children, using male privilege, using economic abuse, using coercion and threats ends in sexual and physical violence. The emphasis was that prevention efforts need to realize these developments in human relationships in order to stop the cycle before it gets to violence. The participants discussed the case study – My Story of Domestic Violence which helped them identify the different types of abuse in practical terms. The facilitators pointed out that this is helpful to security personnel since it helps them identify and not minimize any form of abuse and also helps them to assist people to realize when they are being abused. Identifying all types of abuse helps in the preventing GBV earlier in the chain before it culminates into physical and sexual violence. The groups then discussed their ideas of what they would like to put in the action plan according to the framework (Annex). Prof. RANDELL and Dr. ZAKIROVA informed the participants that they had been tasked with the responsibility to put a regional action plan together considering the ideas that would come from this workshop.

The following is a summary of what the groups came up with for the Regional Action Plan Content: 1. Where are we now? A. GBV Issues a. B. The current status of GBV

Intervention in place a. b. c. Existing policies and legal frameworks Practical interventions Projects targeting prevention, provision of services and promotion of justice and impunity.

C.

Challenges a. b. Lack of coordinated/standardized laws Policies and training across African countries

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c.

Lack of research and credible data (especially gender disaggregated) Decision making and programming pertaining to VAWG Commitment from reaffirming countries to resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888, 1889 pertaining to VAW and role of women in peace building.

3.

How are we going to get there? A. What should be done/ required actions and inputs a. Realistic goals with clear targets, timelines, indicators and budget Harmonize and standardize legal framework – draft a regional constitution addressing VAWG by end of 2012 Standardize comprehensive training (based on international instruments incorporating contextrelevant local best practices) – create training manual by September 2011 (before October meeting) Mobilize additional resources, better utilize existing resources (through gender responsive planning and budgeting) – mapping existing resources to determine gaps by each individual country led by secretariat holding country by December 2011 Improve evidence based prosecution – 1 ) develop trainers ( from training manual) 2) Plan training dates – short term and long term; beginning June 2012 Recruit and promote more women officers – coordinate workshop to plan strategy by March 2012 (e.g. PPC) Increase accountability of security organs throughout Africa (improve image, professionalism and foster multi-sectoral partnerships) – develop regional campaign Awareness raising and training – regional campaign

d.

e.

b.

2.

Where do we want to go? A. Expected results and outcomes a. Ending violence against women and girls and all forms of gender based impunity Better targeting and cohesion Harmonization of all initiatives Better targeting of GBV in general, and VAWG in particular Accelerate legislation and policy formulation Implementation of best practices (Prevention, Provision and Promotion).

c.

d.

b. c. d.

e.

e.

f.

f.

g.

h.

“Intimidation is followed by emotional abuse and progresses through isolation, minimizing, denying and blaming, using children, using male privilege, using economic abuse, using coercion and threats ends in sexual and physical violence.”

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i.

Increase support to survivors (including children born out of SEA) map processes used by benchmark practices (e.g. One Stop Center) by December 2011 Prosecution of perpetrators – research on current practices and establishing the gaps and means to address them (regional research) using local universities, research centers by March 2012 Establish secretariat in Kigali (done, but decide which country will host next) Develop evaluation process/tool for training to monitor progress of overall goal (simultaneous to developing manual) – same time as training

j.

k.

l.

m. Develop a fund mobilization strategy – by January 2012.

4.

How will we know when we arrive? A. How do we know when the challenges are addressed? a. Updates at annual meetings of all signatories

5.

Who is in charge? A. Potential partners a. b. c. d. e. National and regional level Governments of contributing countries UN NGOs Other gender-related institutions.

6.

By when? 2015 – Global Campaign UNiTE to End Violence Against Women.

“Develop evaluation process/tool for training to monitor progress of overall goal (simultaneous to developing manual) – same time as training

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Participants’ Recommendations

Following their deliberations and training, the participants came up with the following recommendations for Security Organs in the region: 1. 2. To adopt a multi-sectoral approach in addressing GBV To strengthen the system of managing sex disaggregated data as a tool of more evidenced based advocacy, M&E of GBV cases. That the process of developing the training manual be fast tracked so that by Oct 2011 it is adopted and that training should commence in March 2012. Ensuring that special efforts are invested in addressing GBV within the respective institutions as a way of inculcating a zero tolerance culture within the Security Institutions. The formulation of the strategic plan that will act as a strategic road map to guiding actions and initiatives will be a fundamental mile stone in the effective implementation of the Kigali Declaration. That Tanzania signs the MOU of the Kigali Declaration before the next Annual General Meeting (AGM). After the AGM meeting of security organs the principle of rotation should be followed by the clear criteria of following the alphabetical order or volunteer or subjected to voting. The principle of rotation of Annual Meetings should be upheld and the Secretariat of this initiative should remain stationed in Kigali-this is in the interest of sustainability and subject to approval by the AGM. That the 2011 AGM of Security Organs be held in Nairobi Kenya subject to satisfying the conditions of Kigali Declaration before hosting the Annual gathering.

“To strengthen the system of managing sex disaggregatged data as a tool of more evidenced based adovacy, M&E of GBV cases”

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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Closing Ceremony

The Guest of Honor at the closing ceremony was the Minister of Gender and Family Promotion Hon. Aloisea INYUMBA. The ceremony was attended by the Inspector General of Police CGP E.K. GASANA, the Presidential Defence and Security Advisor Brig Gen. R. RUTATINA, the Commissioner General of Rwanda Correctional Services (RCS) DCGP Mary GAHONZIRE, the Rwanda UN Resident Coordinator Mr. Aurelien AGBENONCI and other high ranking government officers.

Guest of Honor – Hon. Aloisea INYUMBA Minister of Gender and Family Promotion
The workshop was closed by the Minister of Gender and Family Promotion Hon. Aloisea INYUMBA. She praised the Security Organs for leading in the fight against violence against women and girls. Hon. INYUMBA said the security organs in Rwanda are the most gender sensitive institutions and her ministry considers them true partners in the fight against gender based violence. The Guest of Honor expressed her Ministry’s and the Government’s commitment to implementing UN Resolution 1325 in fighting GBV and contributing forces to peacekeeping initiatives. She thanked the Rwanda Security Organs for contributing to peacekeeping missions throughout the world. She also thanked guest participants from the Military, Police and Correctional Services for representing their countries and commended the countries represented for their commitment to gender equality and the fight against gender based violence.

Commissioner General Correctional Services – Rwanda DCGP Mary GAHONZIRE
The Commissioner General RCS, DCGP Mary GAHONZIRE commended the One UN Rwanda, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Gender Monitoring Office and the Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion for supporting Rwandan Security Organs in hosting the workshop.

UN Resident Coordinator Mr. Aurelien AGBENONCI
The UN Resident Coordinator, Mr. Aurelien AGBENONCI in his statement said the UN was proud to partner with Security Organs in the fight against GBV. He reiterated that it is not possible to be silent when mothers, daughters and sisters were not living in complete freedom from gender based violence and sexual abuse. He therefore called upon all men to rally behind the campaign against sexual and gender based violence. He congratulated the Rwandan Security Organs for hosting this workshop and praised the Security Organs represented for their participation in the fight against GBV. The UN Resident Coordinator expressed One UN’s commitment to supporting this campaign to ensure that GBV is a thing of the past and that women continue taking part in peacekeeping missions. He also thanked Rwanda for its contribution to the UN Peacekeeping missions in Darfur.

“the security organs in Rwanda are the most gender sensitive institutions and her ministry considers them true partners in the fight against gender based violence.”

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“...it is not possible to be silent when mothers, daughters and sisters were not living in complete freedom from gender based violence and sexual abuse.
— Mr. Aurelien AGBENONCI UN Resident Coordinator

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Kigali International Conference Secretariat P. O. Box 6304 Kigali, Rwanda Web: http://www.kicgenderconference.org

Report written and designed by Clarity Communications

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