You are on page 1of 10

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 24, NO.

2, APRIL 2009

787

Optimal Cost-Benefit for the Location of Capacitors in Radial Distribution Systems
H. M. Khodr, Member, IEEE, Zita A. Vale, Member, IEEE, and Carlos Ramos, Member, IEEE
Abstract—This paper proposes a computationally efficient methodology for the optimal location and sizing of static and switched shunt capacitors in radial distribution systems. The problem is formulated as the maximization of the savings produced by the reduction in energy losses and the avoided costs due to investment deferral in the expansion of the network. The proposed method selects the nodes to be compensated, as well as the optimal capacitor ratings and their operational characteristics, i.e., fixed or switched. After an appropriate linearization, the optimization problem was formulated as a mixed-integer linear problem, suitable for being solved by means of a widespread commercial package. Results of the proposed optimizing method are compared with another recent methodology reported in the literature using two test cases: a 15-bus and a 33-bus distribution network. For both cases tested, the proposed methodology delivers better solutions indicated by higher losses savings, which are achieved with lower amounts of capacitive compensation. To calculate exactly the energy savings and the deferral investment cost, a power flow for radial distribution networks is executed before and after the compensation. The proposed method has also been applied for compensating an actual radial distribution network served by AES-Venezuela in the metropolitan area of Caracas. A convergence time of about 4 s after 22 298 iterations demonstrates the ability of the proposed methodology for efficiently handling compensation problems. Index Terms—Capacitor placement, cost-benefit, distribution systems, mixed-integer linear programming.

Capacitor Investment Cost [$/kvar]. CRF Capital Recovery Factor. Loss Factor. Current magnitude that circulates through the line [A]. Active current component [A]. Reactive current component [A]. Investment in year 0 (Initial Investment). Cost coefficient for losses and released capacity [$/kW/year]. Longitude between node and node . Project study period [year]. NPV PV Net Present Value of a cash flow. Present Value of a stream of payments/savings. Electrical power losses due to Joule effect (kW). Reactive power [kvar]. Reactive power before compensation, obtained by means of load flow [kvar]. Reactive power that circulates from node to node before compensation [kvar]. Reactive power installed in node because of the compensation [kvar]. Reactive power that circulates from node to node , after compensation [kvar]. Reactive power flow through the lines by over dimensioning the capacitors banks [kvar]. Reactive power installed in node because of the compensation. This variable changes in function [kvar]. of the bank capacity Minimum reactive power obtained from the load curve [kvar]. Maximum reactive power obtained from the load curve [kvar]. Line resistance per km [ /km]. Line resistance .

NOMENCLATURE Present value of the cumulated benefits over the project’s lifetime. Annual benefits obtained in year . Loss Costs. Loss Costs before compensating. Loss Costs after compensating. Loss Costs in the branch between node and node . Power Capacity Charge [$/kVA/month]. Energy Charge [$/kWh].
Manuscript received February 15, 2008; revised June 23, 2008. Current version published March 25, 2009. This work was supported in part by FCT, FEDER, POCTI, POSI, POCI, POSC, and PTDC. Paper no. TPWRD-00123-2008. The authors are with the GECAD-Knowledge Engineering and DecisionSupport Research Center, Electrical Engineering Institute of Porto-Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP/IPP), Porto 4200-072, Portugal (e-mail: hmk@isep. ipp.pt; zav@isep.ipp.pt; csr@isep.ipp.pt). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.2005391

Apparent power [kVA]. Nominal voltage (kV).

0885-8977/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 29, 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

and simulated annealing [27] have been proposed for optimally placing capacitive compensation in distribution networks. discrete capacitor sizes. and the constraints of selecting for each node only one among the various proposed capacitors banks sizes and types (fixed or switched).g. optimization methodologies based on artificial intelligence.). I. The proposed algorithm allows the evaluation of a higher number of constraints inherent to the large-scale optimization problems faced by actual utilities. [13]. voltage limits. the reactive power balance in each node of the network. 24. switched capacitors and switching times. NO. The second group represents the decision of installing or not a bank of capacitors in a specific point. For a comprehensive review of the abundant literature on the subject the reader is further referred to the literature surveys conducted in [29]–[31]. subject to the whole constraint set of the optimal reactive power flow. network operational constraints (e. as well as the economical value of released feeder capacity due to compensation. e. genetic algorithms [18]. Basically.. A myriad of algorithms of very different nature and degree of sophistication addressing this topic are available in the published literature. artificial neural networks [22]. In order to cope with the problem size and overcome the inherent complexity of programming methods. network operational constraints (e.e. Due to computing power increase. However. Two types of variables take part in the formulation: the first group of variables represents physical magnitudes such as power flow through the network. The delivery of power from sources to the consumer points is always accompanied of power losses. switched capacitors and switching times. 2. operation and maintenance costs of the installed compensation.788 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. evolutionary programming [19]. Number of capacitor bank size considered. As a consequence of the deregulation process. [14] have been applied to solve the optimal capacitor allocation and sizing problem. Nevertheless. voltage. The optimization problem has been formulated as the maximization of the total savings produced by the reduction in energy losses and the avoided costs due to investment deferral in the expansion of the network over a considered period. Most of them analyze the localization and sizing of static and switched capacitors in radial distribution systems. few of these methodologies take into account the total costs linked to reactive power compensation.1) to install a bank node . such as a uniform load distribution along the feeder. Early efforts relied on analytical approaches that delivered simple closed-form solutions to the optimization problem [7]–[10]. radial feeder with laterals. In general. Impedance angle. they are real variables. quadratic programming [12]. load flow limits. Thus. operation and maintenance costs. Dynamic programming [11]. [23] fuzzy sets and fuzzy dynamic programming [24]. The optimal reconfiguration model responds to changes in the network topology by switching the automatic breakers installed in the grid. besides including the basic constraints of the electricity laws. nonlinear capacitor costs. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. [25].. some heuristic methods have been devised [15]–[17]. discrete capacitor sizes. uniform feeder size and radial feeder with no laterals.g. Restrictions apply. VOL. the proposed analytical methods required seemingly unrealistic assumptions. More recently. as well as the costs of energy losses and released capacity due to decreasing peak power losses associated to the reactive component of branch currents. The problem of optimal capacitor allocation and sizing for maximizing cost savings has called the attention of researchers for several decades. radial feeder with laterals. the distribution business has remained as a regulated monopoly. installation.). Downloaded on July 29. Some other proposals combine heuristic/metaheuristic techniques with programming methods [28]. capacity Discount rate [%/year]. Such nonnegligible amount of losses has a direct impact on the financial results and the overall efficiency of distribution utilities.. distribution utilities are currently facing increased pressures from shareholders and regulatory authorities to improve investment and operational efficiency. The methodology was developed only for radial networks because most of systems are deployed in a radial basis due to their simple operation and low investment costs. The costs formulation includes investment. the optimization problem was formulated in a more sophisticated manner and solved by numerical programming techniques. Some studies have determined that power losses occurred in distribution networks due to Joule effect can account for as much as 13% of the generated energy. the model is flexible enough for including Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Number of nodes in the network. Losses can be further reduced by connecting capacitors in series or parallel (shunt) to locally supply a considerable portion of the reactive power demanded by the consumers and thereby reducing the reactive component of branch currents [4]–[6]. . [20] tabu search [21]. This paper proposes a computationally very efficient methodology for an optimal location and sizing of static and switched shunt capacitors in radial distribution networks. Therefore. etc. APRIL 2009 Binary decision variable (0. etc. which under some premises are linearized and solved through mixed-integer linear programming. load flow limits. i. The installation of shunt capacitors provides supplementary benefits. such as improvement of the voltage profile. they are binary variables. and nonlinear mixed-integer programming [4]. the power factor and the stability of the distribution system [1]. The proposed model has been refined in order to consider varying loads. The mathematical formulation of the optimization problem starts with the electrical variables of the circuit under study and its topology. INTRODUCTION A FTER deregulation of the power industry. Number of lines in the network. active losses in distribution systems can be reduced by optimal reconfigurations of the network [1]–[3]. sophisticated algorithms consider in their formulations one or more of the following modeling refinements: varying loads.g. expert systems [26].. methods for loss reductions that optimally allocate scarce financial resources and maximize firm value are essential for achieving the financial goals of distribution companies.

II.KHODR et al. the global cost equation can be obtained (13) Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. the power losses linearized as a function of the reactive power or apparent power are expressed by the following functions: (9) (10) (11) The expected savings by placing capacitor banks are modthat includes eled by means of an annual cost coefficient. In Section V. power losses can be rewritten as follows [1]: (3) The active current component depends only on the circuit load.0 p. regulations requirements and subject to penalizations. and hence. Theoretical Basis for the Model Formulation The following expression determines the electric power losses because of the Joule effect in a line: (1) The magnitude of the circulating current is given as (2) By replacing (2) in (1). operational restrictions preventing the installation of capacitors in some nodes of the network. by multiplying (12) and (9). This requirement can be fulfilled according to the following procedure. In order to apply mixed-integer linear programming. economic assessments of the solutions provided by the algorithm are analyzed.: OPTIMAL COST-BENEFIT FOR THE LOCATION OF CAPACITORS IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 789 other constraints. it could be modified by injecting capacitive reactive power through the installation of capacitor banks. Equation (4) can be decomposed as follows: (5) where (6) One of the components lowing equation: can be represented by the fol- (7) . B. • The nodes allowed to be compensated are known according to the all constrains as well as the type of bank capacity that would be installed. Model Assumptions The optimal location and sizing of shunt capacitors in the electric distribution network is a nonlinear problem. only the reactive component that generates technical losses [1] will be further considered (4) depends on the inductive reactive The reactive current power demanded by the system. The article is concluded in Section VI. the main assumptions to be considered are as follows. a suitable linearization of the technical losses in (4) is necessary. • Three-phase balanced systems. Restrictions apply. After substituting the expressions (7) and (8) in (5). the optimization problem and constraints are mathematically formulated. as it will be seen next. The in $/kWh. such as proprietary company rules or standards. However. It must be delivered to the customer to cover their consumption. cost of losses is related to the energy cost Finally. CAPACITOR PLACEMENT A. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. and it could be modified by other methodologies distinct from compensation. Section IV presents numerical results of the comparison with other recently proposed methodology as well as for a compensation problem. can be obtained by running an optimal power flow. This value can be modified by placing banks of capacitors. Downloaded on July 29. The other component of the current is replaced by the following expression: (8) where stands for the actual reactive power flow circulating in the branches of the network. This paper is organized as follows: Section II provides the theoretical basis and main assumptions for building a model of optimal capacitor placement. In Section III.. two parts: costs associated with annual savings due to released capacity and costs associated with annual energy losses (12) Released capacity factor is assessed though a capacity charge in $/kVA/month related to the fixed cost of the network. • The phase shift between the system bus voltage angles is close to zero. this problem can be (under certain approximations) linearized and solved by using mixed-integer linear programming. . or a simply approximate power flow for radial distribution systems in the actual state of the distribution circuit. etc. The purpose is to locate these capacitors in the points where they can improve best the technical and economic circuit performance. • The bus voltage magnitudes are set equal to 1. Before starting with the development of the mathematical framework. which are beyond the scope of this work. the initial reactive power flow. Therefore. in the first iteration of the power flow.u.

Reactive power injections at node j . NPV of the compensation investment project.790 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. (22) subject to the following constraints. costs before compensating that initially flows through the netThe reactive power work. The compensation project will be profitable when the Present Value (PV) of the benefits associated with the loss reduction. i. NO. which is equivalent to the maximization of the project prof. which cannot be modified. 1. . The objective function will finally be rewritten as follows: (18) The first term of (18) corresponds to the initial power losses. the savings are the difference between the and the costs after compensating. 2). 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. 2. In this way. the initial objective function to be minimized will be stated as follows: III. it can be rewritten as C. The annual project benefits are obtained itability from the savings produced by the reduction in energy losses and the avoided costs due to investment deferral in the expansion of the network that can be verified as a reduction in the maximum power metered during the entire year. the Net Present Value (NPV) is positive (see Fig.e. transporting and installing all capacitor banks selected by the algorithm according to their capacity . the project lifetime and the discount factor (which should adequately reflect the firm opportunity cost of capital) have to be defined according to the company’s financial policy. 1). and [33]. will be affected when compensation in bus ..e. Under these conditions. Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. VOL. PROBLEM FORMULATION The objective is to minimize the total cost of the project. [32]. Restrictions apply. For the economic assessment of the investment project. multiplied by a binary deciassociated with the placing decision sion variable (21) stands for the total investment cost of the capacitors per unit of kvar. Investment Appraisal The economic evaluation of the project must take into account the necessary investments for the installation of capacitors and the benefits obtained in each period from lower losses. Downloaded on July 29. 2. Fig. as follows: (14) (19) where (15) The equation of the project profitability (14) can be rewritten as follows: (16) (20) The investment cost is the aggregate cost of purchasing. APRIL 2009 Fig. 24. calculated by means of the methodologies such as those proposed in [2]. over the considered project lifetime is greater than the initial investment in the capacitors banks.. In other words. Therefore. is included. we could say that the benefits to be obtained annually might be computed by the following expression: (17) By replacing (17) in (16). The present value of losses savings can be computed by means of the capital recovery factor (CRF) assuming uniform benefits (annuities) along the periods. the inequality holds (see Fig. i.

The optimizing algorithm attains a losses reduction of 28. reactive power balance conditions must be fulfilled according to the following expression (see Fig.7 kW is obtained with the installation of 1193 kvar in nodes 3 and 6. respectively. If the capacitor bank to be installed is fixed: (26) If the capacitor bank to be installed is switched TABLE I 15-BUS TEST NETWORK: INITIAL CONDITIONS AND RESULTS OF [1] TABLE II 15-BUS TEST NETWORK: FINAL SIMULATION CONDITIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY TABLE III 15-BUS TEST NETWORK: FINAL CONDITIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY system in the metropolitan area of Caracas served by AES Corporation in Venezuela. The data of the system are obtained from [34]. 4. The conditions of the networks after installing the capacitors are presented in Table III. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. from the load curve of the circuit. Single-line diagram of the 15-bus distribution network. The initial condition of the network (before compensating) is shown in Table I. Reactive power balance at node j . In the simulation done in [1]. the following expression needs to be satisfied: (24) Constraint 3: Power Control in Lines: In order to avoid any inverse reactive power flow through the lines by over dimensioning the capacitors banks.58 kW with the installation of 900 kvar in nodes 3.KHODR et al. 3. 15-Bus Test Network (27) and are minimal and maximal reactive power where obtained. the algorithm has been implemented for the compensation problem of a radial distribution The single-line diagram of the 11 kV. hence. the condition of installing only one capacitor bank per node is imposed. 4.: OPTIMAL COST-BENEFIT FOR THE LOCATION OF CAPACITORS IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 791 Fig. The nodes where the capacitors were finally located and their compensating capacities are shown in Table IV. iterations and convergence time are presented in Table II. 6. Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Restrictions apply. System data are obtained from the same source described in [1]. and 11. The comparison between the proposed methodology and the results provided by [1] are shown below. IV. 3): Fig. In addition. Constraint 1: Reactive Power Balance (Kirchhoff’s Law): For each node . the following constraint should be added: (25) Constraint 4: Determination of the Type of Capacitors (Fixed or Switched): From the representative load curve the minimum and maximum reactive power can be computed with the aim of determining if the capacitors being installed at a specific bus are fixed or controlled according to the following conditions. (23) Constraint 2: Selection of a Unique Bank Per Node: On the other hand. 4. . Downloaded on July 29. A. a reduction of 27. The results are compared with the solutions obtained with the methodology presented in [1]. 15-bus distribution system is shown in Fig. RESULTS The proposed methodology has been initially applied to a 15-bus and 33-bus distribution test networks. The number of variables.

. and 600 kvar. 5. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. 13.66 kV. Downloaded on July 29. The capacities and sizes of the capacitors that were considered in the optimization problem are the existing in stock in the warehouse of the AES Electric Company. This network includes all equipment of sectioning. Table XVI presents the network data. 8. Restrictions apply. The large measurement campaign was promoted by the AES Electrical Company. The final conditions of the network are shown in Table VII. The selected nodes where the capacitors were finally located and their respective capacities are shown in Table VIII. By applying the proposed algorithm a losses reduction of 88. a reduction of 79. Fig. NO. their connectivity and the numbering of the nodes. In order to accelerate the calculations. 24. Table IX provides the numerical values of the parameters for which the network has been simulated. 7. 6 depicts the representative daily load pattern served by this system. and 30. 300. 33-bus system is illustrated in Fig. 2. transformation and switching of the lateral. Single-line diagram of the 33-bus test system. These capacitors sizes are of 150.91 kW is achieved with the installation of 1350 kvar in nodes 6. 29. iterations and convergence time are presented in Table VI. C. 23.792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 33-Bus Test Network The single-line diagram of the 12. 5. The number of variables. The initial conditions of the network before compensating are presented in Table X. The single-line diagram of the network is provided in Fig. 27. The comparison between the proposed methodology and the results obtained in [1] are shown below. The initial conditions of the network are shown in Table V. The most representative measurements of the distribution circuit and each network node have been requested to the electrical utility to carry out the optimal capacitors location study into distribution network. The load profiles were obtained by a number of measurements and statistical evaluation Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. APRIL 2009 TABLE IV 15-BUS TEST NETWORK: LOCATION AND CAPACITY TABLE VII 33-BUS TEST NETWORK: FINAL CONDITIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY TABLE VIII 33-BUS TEST NETWORK: LOCATION AND CAPACITY Fig. this network has been reduced to 141 nodes by eliminating the sectioning devices. The data of the system are obtained from [2]. TABLE IX 141-BUS TEST NETWORK: SYSTEM DATA TABLE V 33-BUS TEST NETWORK: INITIAL CONDITIONS AND RESULTS OF [1] TABLE VI 33-BUS TEST NETWORK: FINAL SIMULATION CONDITIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY TABLE X 141-BUS NETWORK: STATE OF THE CIRCUIT BEFORE REACTIVE COMPENSATION B. VOL. In the simulations done in [1].5 kW is obtained with the installation of 1400 kvar in nodes 12 and 29. Real Test Case The developed method was applied to a real network of 231 nodes that covers a zone of the metropolitan area of Caracas.

The results on the 15-bus and 33-bus test cases were compared with the results computed with a recent methodology reported in [1]. ECONOMIC EVALUATION The proposed method was tested on three distribution systems consisting of 15. thus contributing to ensure the robustness of the whole methodology. it is important to stress that the results do not depend on the modeling language (CPLEX) and in fact they would be the same using other optimization platform. Downloaded on July 29. The methodology has also applied to a real case of 141 buses corresponding to a circuit that feeds a zone of the metropolitan area of Caracas Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. The load growth could be considered by means of an adequate demand forecast method if the network was not saturated. These models were solved using the commercial package CPLEX [35]. The nodes where capacitors were finally located and their respective capacities are included in Table XIII. Load curve of the circuit. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. All the cases are executed in a computer equipped with Windows XP Operation System with an Intel Core 2 Duo T7200 Processor and 2 GB of RAM. CAPACITY AND TYPE OF INSTALLED CAPACITORS TABLE XIV COMPARISON OF THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE FOR THE 33-BUS TEST CASE Fig. It was found that the results of this methodology are considerably better than the results provided in the aforementioned references. In any case. where the nodes are saturated respect to load growth.: OPTIMAL COST-BENEFIT FOR THE LOCATION OF CAPACITORS IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 793 TABLE XIII 141-BUS NETWORK: LOCATION. In any case. TABLE XI 141-BUS TEST NETWORK: FINAL CONDITION OF THE SIMULATION TABLE XV ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE 141-BUS TEST CASE TABLE XII 141-BUS TEST NETWORK: STATE OF THE CIRCUIT AFTER REACTIVE COMPENSATION to determine a daily load curve for each node and each distribution feeder circuit leaving the substation. A losses reduction of 70. 6. Table XII presents the final condition of the network after compensating with the developed optimization model. and 141 buses. re- spectively. Restrictions apply. reducing the energy losses and optimizing the investments in reactive power compensation. V. and 94. 55. A new study could be carried out every two or three years to locate new capacitors in the network. 79. 50. The number of intervening variables. because these days introduce noise in the daily load pattern.74 kW is accomplished with the installation of 1500 kvar fixed and 300 controlled distributed in the nodes 23. it should be referred that the developed formulation can be easily adapted to other commercial packages available in the market. is widely known and well established.KHODR et al. All days of the week were considered excepted the Saturday and Sunday days. It is also important to refer that the adopted optimization technique. . iterations and convergence time is included in Table XI. 64. CPLEX [35]. 33. The study was carried out in the distribution circuit belonging of the metropolitan area of Caracas.

In both cases. NO. 24. Single-line diagram of a real distribution network in the metropolitan area of Caracas. 2. TABLE XVI NETWORK AND CONNECTIVITY DATA attended by AES-Venezuela.794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. . the results are compared with the results of [1]. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. APRIL 2009 Fig. VOL. A short convergence time of about 4 s after 22 988 iterations shows the effectiveness of the proposed mathematical model for solving the optimal compensation problem in a framework of high dimensionality. Downloaded on July 29. In the 33-bus case. 7. the execution of a load flow Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. An economic evaluation of results is performed for two of the cases presented previously: the 33-bus and the 141-bus distribution systems. Restrictions apply.

“Optimal shunt capacitor allocation by fuzzy dynamic programming. Salama and A. pp. 2000. 50–959. no. F. D. Jan. 1968. no. Syst. 11. 13. Jul. 1995. VI. location.” IEEE Trans. [21] C. Syst. no.” IEEE Trans. Wang. no. 1994. Portugal. evolutionary strategy. vol. F. In the case of the 33-bus test system. Lee. 2. size. Abdel-Salam. Restrictions apply. Elect. R. F. P.. no. A. “Network reconfiguration in distribution systems for loss reduction and load balancing.” Elect. “Optimal selection of capacitors for radial distribution systems using a genetic algorithm. [4] M.” IEEE Trans. [28] A. pp. pp. Augugliaro. Electrical and Computer Engineering. 9. pp. NAISO Symp. A. 5.. Sorrentino. [11] H.” in Proc.KHODR et al. Power Syst. E. 1994. E. Least-cost measures for reducing power losses can notably contribute to maximize firm value. Ertem. Syst. Power Del. 1. pp. [24] H. Then. Inst. 1978. 2.” IEEE Trans. 1997. [3] H. Power App.. 1956. Aug. Pissarra. 9. Part 1: System configuration. Oct.. Lyra. 29th Southeastern Symp. Sep. Oct. 1989. Res. M. Salama. control type and control setting of shunt capacitors on radial distribution feeders.7%/year and 7. Santoso and O. pp. Baldick and F... Carlisle. 27–31. “A review of capacitors placement techniques for loss reduction in primary feeders on distribution systems. 3. vol. vol. Jan.. Kaplan. Y. “Optimal capacitor placements in distributions systems: Part 1 and 2. 2189–2195. 1989. 1. pp.” Elect. Salama. vol. 3.” Proc. Downloaded on July 29. “A hybrid genetic algorithm for optimal reactive power planning based upon successive linear programming. 80. 1499–1507. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. vol. A..” Proc. May 1997. pp. no. pp. 5. Haque. 1232–1238. D. pp.. 9. 1998. 1995.. Neagle and D. pp. vol. pp./Aug. CONCLUSION This paper proposes an efficient method for the optimal location and sizing of static and switched shunt capacitors in radial distribution systems. A. 1292–1298. REFERENCES [1] M. Jul. Cook. no. J. J. vol. Power Symp. N. 1961. and C. 501–505. 5. I. [22] N. 3. Power Del. [12] S. G. E. Y. 1. Loss reduction and deferral investments in the network could be reverted as a benefit to consumers under a suitable tariff policy. 9. 1. Jean-Jemeau. D. A. pp. 9. Boyd. M. O. S. Wu. and R. no. H. Wu. C. no. Power Syst. 1. Cockings. and A. PAS-91.. System Theory. A. Power Del. A. ..” IEEE Trans. location. no. 225–230. F. Power Syst. Nolan. “Optimal network reconfiguration in distribution systems—Part 2: Solution algorithms and numerical results. vol. vol. Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Rao. França. Sep. pp. C. A. Wu. 684–687. 725–734. Tables XIV and XV summarize the results of the economic assessment and the computed profitability indicators of the compensation projects for the 33-bus and 141-bus cases respectively. Shin. Apr. Antunes. E. vol. pp. 1992. Power Del. 1990. 4. vol.” presented at the EIS2002—3rd Int. M. Chikhani. [29] G. Can. [7] N. “Neural networks for combined control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators in distribution systems..” IEEE Trans. Hackam. Chikhani. Power App.2%/year and 11. Eng. Nov. [2] M. “Capacitor placement in radial distribution systems for loss reduction. Jul. Spain. Ng.” IEEE Trans.” in Proc. 2. “Optimal reactive power planning using evolutionary algorithms: A comparative study for evolutionary programming.” AIEE Trans. Hackam. 144.33 months) proves the efficacy of the proposed method in handling problems. “An expert system for reactive power control of a distribution systems. Power Syst. [16] T. [8] R. 2001. only the investment cost in capacitors is considered. For the present calculations. A dynamic programming approach. 2. [19] K. no. “A tabu search multiobjective approach to capacitor allocation in radial distribution systems. L. MIC 2001—4th Metaheuristics Int. Gu and D. R. M. “Efficient integer optimization algorithms for optimal coordination of capacitors and regulators. Power Syst. no. 1996. 169–174. vol. Mangione. pp. “Optimal capacitor placement on radial distribution systems. 101–108. The problem has been formulated as the maximization of the NPV of the compensation project. vol. Power Syst. C. Diaz. Tan. 1990. 18. Aug. Cavelucci. vol.” Elect. 1996.” in Proc. Conf. Apr. 2. 262–269. Chin. Inst. T. Bae. S. F. 5. vol. vol. M.. respectively). Dusonchet. pp. “Optimal shunt capacitor sizing for reduced line loading. G. 1990. no. voltage improvement and loss reduction of distribution feeders. “Capacitor allocation by approximate reasoning: Fuzzy capacitor placement. 1769–1774. The high profitability and very short payback period of the compensation project in the system served by AES Venezuela (106. vol. 266–272.. no. [13] R.” IEEE Trans. and H. Rao. O. Chiang. pp. [30] J.” in Proc. “Optimum number. [15] M. M.. [5] H.. and R. 15. Henriques and C. [25] H. pp. “Loss reduction from capacitors installed on primary feeders. Power App. Gomez. 146. Chikhani. “An evolutionary a Approach for capacitor placement in distribution networks. Bortignon and M. [23] Z. El-Keib. 1568–1574. [26] M.” IEEE Trans. Sep. vol.. “Optimization of number.. 1999. 2659–2665. and K. “A new technique for loss reduction using compensating capacitors applied to distribution systems with varying load condition. vol. Power Del. Abdel-Salam. 4. C. “Generalized equations on loss reduction with shunt capacitors. 4. the proposed methodology was applied with the aim at locating and at quantifying the optimal capacity of the capacitors banks and their best location nodes. Chis. [9] N. “Analytical method of capacitor allocation on distribution primary feeders. Power Energy Syst. T.8%/year) and shorter payback period (6. pp. pp. “Optimizing the application of shunt capacitors for reactive-voltampere control and loss reduction. H. the optimization problem was formulated as a mixed-integer linear problem and successfully solved by using a widespread commercial package. [14] A... pp.” IEEE Trans. Baran and F. C. Rizy. Y. Y. vol.” IEEE Trans. 4. no.Intelligent Systems. [17] M. [18] S. After a suitable linearization.. Elect. and S. Mendes. no. 819–827. A. 430–444.. Jayaram. “Knowledge-based expert system for optimal reactive power control in distribution system. Málaga. 819–827. Syst.95 months. Power Del. Ananthapadmanabha. [27] T. Apr.. Sundhararajan and A. [20] A. and S. 1990. North Amer. 1999. J. 359–365. vol. no. “Optimal capacitive compensation on radial distribution systems using nonlinear programming. D. no. 2. Chang. 1989. Jul. El-Hawary. 7. Chikhani. 87. 1984. 1972. 11. Sep. Kulkarni. 35. pp. Power Del. Samson. Res. Baran and F. vol. 1921–1928. 393–398. vol. Power Syst.” IEEE Trans. genetic algorithm and linear programming. The objective is to maximize the global savings obtained from loss reduction and capacity release in the expansion of the network. [6] T. 97. 5. and size of shunt capacitors in radial distribution feeders. L. S. PAS-103. Apr. 14. 5. 21st Annu. Chiang and R. Power losses are a source of economic inefficiency and thus impact negatively in the business results of distribution companies. pp. Pahwa. no.” IEEE Trans. D.. Urdaneta. 1994. Conf. pp. vol. 2. Aug. The power losses and released capacity savings are computed in monetary terms for the scenarios with and without reactive compensation. 133–139. vol. “Capacitor placement in distribution systems using heuristic search strategies.: OPTIMAL COST-BENEFIT FOR THE LOCATION OF CAPACITORS IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 795 for radial distribution systems is carried out with the objective of quantifying the losses before compensation. and R. Power App.” IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans.” AIEE Trans. 634–649. pp. 805–812. Mar. Porto. E. “Neural-net based real-time control of capacitors installed on distribution systems.88 months) than those achieved by using the method presented in [1] (142. Y.. pp. Feb. pp. 1401–1407. Sep. Flores. Power Del. no. [10] Y. the proposed methodology delivers compensations solutions with a higher internal rate of return (168.” IEEE Trans. “A new technique for loss reduction using compensating capacitors applied to distribution systems with varying load condition. A. pp. 75. Apr. 129–135. “A review of capacitor placement techniques on distribution feeders. Eng.. 1990. no. 2.” IEEE Trans. no. Duran.. Eng. 940–945.” IEEE Trans. Jan. 2002. and K. Power Del.

His current research activities are planning. D. M. 1. 17. vol.. Restrictions apply. and distributed generation. Ng. H. 1. He was an Associate Professor of electrical engineering at Universidad Simón Bolívar. Eng. [34] D.” Proc. P. 33–38. M. respectively. APRIL 2009 [31] H. Vale (M’93) received the diploma in electrical engineering and the Ph. and A. Power Del. vol. Portugal.. “Efficient load flow method for distribution systems with radial or mesh configuration. Das. France.D. 1995.D. Elect. Jan. He has participated in a number of projects performed for the local industries. S. no. Elect. pp. and M. He is a Coordinator Professor of Computer Engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of Porto/Institute of Engineering. power quality. Portugal. 335–346. “Simple and efficient method for load flow solution of radial distribution networks. 1994.” Proc.D. respectively. Kothari. Jul. no. pp. Her main research interests concern artificial intelligence (AI) applications to power system operation and control. vol. Porto. She is involved in several R&D projects concerning the application of AI and decision-support techniques to engineering problems. Currently. P. 2009 at 09:53 from IEEE Xplore. in 1986 and 1993. and A. 24. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Porto. Inst.Sc. Carlos Ramos (M’93) received the diploma and the Ph. She is a Coordinator Professor of Power Systems at the Engineering Institute—Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP/IPP). Haque. [35] ILOG AMPL CPLEX System User’s Guide. 15. Power Energy Syst. 2. Eng. . Chikhani. A. Authorized licensed use limited to: MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. respectively. 5. 143.” Elect. operation. [32] D. VOL. pp. 4. Das./Eng.. Kothari. Portugal. pp. Y. His main R&D interests are artificial intelligence and decision support systems. H. Khodr (M’99) received the Ph. grounding systems.” IEEE Trans. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Porto. electricity markets. Kalam. H. he is a Researcher at GECAD—Knowledge Engineering and Decision-Support Research Group of the Electrical Engineering Institute of Porto—Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP/IPP). Salama. Inst. 1996. 8. 141..0 Ed. vol. Cuba. Zita A. degrees in electrical engineering from the José Antonio Echeverría Higher Polytechnic Institute (ISPJAE). 387–392. Jan.796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. He was a Researcher at INESC Porto. and optimization. no. Downloaded on July 29. in 1986 and 1993. Nagi. “Classification of capacitor allocation techniques. 2002. Porto. “Novel method for solving radial distribution networks. 2000. no. and D. [33] M. and economics of electrical distribution and industrial power systems. Havana. N. NO.. ILOG. M. in 1997 and 1993. Venezuela. 291–298.