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CONFLICT IN EQUATIONS: COMPUTING FUTURE GROWTH OF INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

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DHARAVI

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URBAN FOOTPRINT

GREEN FOOTPRINT

SLUMS FOOTPRINT

FOOTPRINTS IN MUMBAI

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causing in this case the diversity of size of building clusters. a.
City of ofSlums: self-organization across scales City ofofSlums: self-organization across scales City Slums: self-organization across scales City Slums: self-organization across scales

b.

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residential areas within high-income zones, and vice-versa, what isisiscaused bybythethe residential areas within high-income zones, and vice-versa, what iscaused by the residential areas within high-income zones, and vice-versa, what residential areas within high-income zones, and vice-versa, what caused by the caused Figure discontinuous ofprocessconsolidation threshold parameters, time 2000. Figure2. Variations ofstep and ofconsolidation threshold parameters, time 2000. Figure 2.Variations step and ofdevelopment. acceleratedFigurediscontinuousstep andandconsolidationthresholdparameters,time2 ====2000. acceleratedFigure2.Variationsofofprocessconsolidationthreshold parameters, time =2000. acceleratedand2.discontinuousstepandofTdevelopment. acceleratedand2.Variationsof process consolidation threshold parameters, time 2000. and discontinuous process 500 development. and Variations step of development. T300 T T100 Figure 2. 2.Variationsofstep andandconsolidationthresholdparameters,time ==2000. T1 Figure 2.Variations ofofstepandconsolidation threshold parameters, time =2000. Figure 2.Variations ofofstepandconsolidation threshold parameters, time ==2000. Figure 2.Variations step andconsolidation threshold parameters, time 2000. Figure Variations step consolidation threshold parameters, time 2000. ItItis isimportant totomention that ininthis kind ofofmodel thethe ‘time’can only bebemeasured ItItis important to to mentionthat in in thiskind of of modelthe ‘time’ can only bebe measured It is important tomention that inthis kind ofmodel the ‘time’ can only bemeasured is important important mention that this kind model the ‘time’ can only mention that this kind model ‘time’ can only measured measured Figure 1. (a) Sequence of Favela outputs, with attractive boundaries at the bottom and right hand side ItItis isimportantnumberof iterationsin ofthisagentsofwithinthethemodel.Thisconditionbeopensup up ItItis important totomention developmentthisagents of modelthemodel.Thiscan onlybe opens up It is the number mention that inthe agents within is importantonly; of iterations to mention that this kind kind model model ‘time’ Thisonly ‘time’ Acera.only ‘time’ measured through thenumber mention that of thisprocess within themodel. This only be measured throughimportantto toof of(b) that inofofthekind ofofmodelthesettlement incanconditionmeasured throughimportant mention that of inthekind of Ashaiman the‘time’This only bebemeasured throughthethenumber ofiterations inthisthe kind ofmodelthe model. can condition opens up throughthe numberand, iterations the agents within the ‘time’can condition measured iterations agents within model. can conditionopens up opens throughpossibilitiesofofof iterationsofmodelagentswithinthat, model.same number ofofiterations through thethenumberanalysisofthethethetheconsidering thethe atthesame number of opens up through the number analysis of ofthemodel agents within the at thetheThis condition iterations through the number of iterations of modelconsidering the atmodel.samecondition opens up throughthe number analysis number iterations iterations the agents within the atthe This condition opens up the agents withinthat, the This number iterations This condition opens new possibilities new possibilities of analysis ofofthemodelagents withinthat, atmodel.samecondition iterations up new possibilities of ofofofiterationsofofthe considering that,model. same number ofofiterations new possibilities of analysis the of modelconsidering that,model.This number opens up new considering new thethespatial developmentofofofthethesystem will presentatatvariationsnumberofofiterations new possibilities ofofanalysis ofthethemodelconsideringthat, at variationsnumber of iterationsthe newpossibilities development ofthemodelsystemwill present atthesame dependingiterations newpossibilities development analysis considering presentthesame depending on the consideringthat, variations number iterations same depending on the (t), thespatial development spatial analysis thesystem (t),newpossibilitiesofanalysis ofofofofmodel consideringpresentatthevariationsdependingiterations (t), thepossibilities developmentthemodelsystemwill present variationsnumber ofof on onthe (t), the spatial of ofanalysis the themodelconsideringthat, the same number (t), spatial the system will that, will that, thesame depending on the 1.4.2. spatial development (t),(t),the spatialThiscanbeobserved ofthethefigure will2,wherethevariation ofofparametersatonthe = (t), thethespatial development of inthesystem 2,2, presentthevariationsofofparameters att=the (t), the Peripherisationbeobserved ininthesystem2,willpresent variations depending on the= (t), thespatial can be observed in thefigure will where variation depending on = present variation parameters present variations depending parameters.This can parameters. spatialdevelopment ofofthethesystem will wherethethevariationsdepending onatthe= parameters. This development of thethesystem will present variations ofdepending on tatthe parameters. This can bebeproject in system 2,where the variation parameters at t t t parameters.This development can observed observed figure where figure figure variation parameters parameters.tested. can modelobservedinathefigure2,2,wherethethevariationofofparametersatof== = parameters. tested. can bebeobserved inin thefigure2,where growth, which of parameters at tat= parameters. This can observed parameters.tested. parameters.This figure variation parameters parameters 2000were This 2000 were tested. can bebeobservedin thespecific modewherethevariationofofcharacteristic att t t= 2000 were This canbeobserved in the figure 2, 2,wherethevariation is parameters at t 2000 peripherisation 2000 were This The were tested. simulates the figure where the variation of 2000 were tested. 2000 were tested. 2000 were tested. 2000 were tested. more specifically of Latin American cities. Peripherisation can be 2000 World cities, Third were tested. defined as a kind of growth process characterised by the expansion of borders of the city Figure 2.2.Variationsofofstepand settlements, which are,parameters,time 2000. Figure Variations step andandconsolidation threshold parameters,time low-income Figure Variations step consolidation threshold in most time 2000. throughFigure 2. 2.Variationsperipheral consolidation threshold parameters, time ====2000. the formation of of ofstep andconsolidation threshold parameters, cases, 2000. residential areas. to mention thatarein this kind ofof model the‘time’a can only bemeasured the ItItisisimportant to toThese areas in in thiskind ofof modelthethe ‘time’long-termbebe measured It is important tomention that inthis kind model city ‘time’ can only process of It is important mention that incorporated tomodel the by important mention that this kind ‘time’ can only be measured can only measured expansion in number iterations low-income within themodel. This conditionopens up which through thethenumberofofiterationsofoftheagentswithin thethemodel.Thisconditionthe opensup through thenumber ofofiterationsofoftheagents areas arethemodel. This conditionopens upup through thenumber some of the thetheagents within recontextualised within through iterations agents within model. This condition urban opens system and occupied by a higher economic group while new low-income settlements keep new possibilities ofofanalysis ofofthemodel considering that, atthethesamenumber ofofiterations new possibilities ofofanalysis ofthe model considering that, atthe same number ofiterations new possibilities analysis of thethe model considering that, atthe same number iterations new possibilities analysis model considering that, at same number of iterations emerging on the periphery (Barros, 2002). (t),(t),the spatial development ofof the system will present variations depending onon the (t), thethespatial development ofof the system will present variations depending on thethe (t), the spatial development thethe system will present variations depending on the spatial development system will present variations depending The model reproduces the process of expulsion and expansion by simulating the parameters. This can bebeobservedin inthefigure 2, 2,wherethethevariationofofparametersattatt= = parameters. This can beobserved inthethefigure2,where thevariation ofofparametersat att=t= parameters. This can beobserved inthefigure 2,where thevariation parameters parameters. This can observed figure where variation parameters locational process of different economic groups in an attempt to reproduce the residential 2000 were tested. 2000 were tested. 2000 were tested. 2000 were tested. patterns of these cities. In the model, the population is divided in three distinct economic groups according to the pyramidal model of distribution of income in these countries. The

Different initial conditions were also tested, an attempt explore what extend path Different initial conditions were also tested, inin anattempt toto exploretoto whatextend path Different initial conditions were also tested, in anan attempt to explore to what extend path Different initial conditions were also tested, inin anattempt totoexplore totowhat extend path Different initial conditions were also tested, attempt explore what extend path ALGORITHMIC GROWTHtested, The figure presents to what extend the MODELS Different initialinfluencesthewere alsobehaviour.Theanfigure3topresents two what extendofpath Different initial conditions model’salsobehaviour.The attempt33explore totwosequencesofpath Different initial conditions model’s behaviour.ininThefigure totoexploretwo what extend ofpath Different influences the model’s tested, in an attempt explore to sequences Different influences conditions model’s tested, were attempt explore explore what extend the dependenceinfluences the were behaviour. dependence initial conditionswere also behaviour.ananfigure 3topresents twotosequencesofpaththe dependence influences thethewere alsotested, inin anattempt 3presents twowhat extend ofpath dependenceinitialconditionsmodel’salsotested, The attempt topresentsto sequences the dependence figure sequences the dependence influences withdifferentinitialconditions. figureititcanpresentstwosequencesbeginning dependence influences thedifferentinitial conditions. figurecanpresents two sequences ofofthe dependence model with different initial conditions.figure33presents two atsequences the dependence influences different initial conditions.figure presents twosequencesof the dependence influences different behaviour. The it model’s behaviour. The city slums model withthemodel’sbehaviour. The As 3 bebeobserved, atthebeginning city ofofslumsmodel withthe model’s behaviour. The Asfigurecanpresentstwoat atthebeginningthe city of slums influences the model’s initialconditions.AsAscan33 beobserved, sequences of ofthe city ofofslumsmodel withthemodel’s behaviour. The Asitit canbebeobserved, atthethebeginning city slums model observed, the beginning observed, citybothslums model with differentbrown conditions. (consolidatedobserved, atsettlements) inin citybothslums modelwith differentinitial conditions. As Asititcanbespontaneousatthebeginning in cityofbothslumsmodelwith are no noinitial conditions.As ititcan bespontaneous settlements) in initial patches can spontaneous settlements) observed, beginning of bothslums modelwith are no initial conditions.Asit can beobserved, the beginning simulations with are no brown conditions.As can ofcityofslums model there differentbrown patches (consolidatedbespontaneousatthethebeginning of cityof simulations there areareno brown patches (consolidated spontaneous at settlements) in ofofof ofsimulations there differentbrown patches (consolidated beobserved, atthebeginning both simulations there differentinitial patches (consolidated observed, settlements) simulations there

SOBRERIA AND GOMES “SELF-ORGANIZATION withdifferentinitialconditions,polycentric (A)(A)andcolonialgrid(B)(B) SLUMS” ALGORITHM Figure 3.Experience withdifferent initial conditions, polycentric colonial grid Figure 3. 3.Experiencewithdifferent initial conditions, polycentric (A)andandcolonialgrid(B) Figure 3.Experience withOF differentinitialconditions, polycentric (A)andcolonial grid (B) Figure 3.Experience withdifferent initial conditions, polycentric (A)andcolonial grid (B) Figure Experience colonial grid Figure 3. 3.Experiencewithdifferent initial conditions, polycentric (A)(A)andcolonialgrid(B)(B) Figure 3.Experience with different initial conditions, polycentric (A)andandcolonialgrid(B) Figure 3.Experience with different initial conditions, polycentric (A)andcolonial grid (B) Figure 3.Experience with different initial conditions, polycentric (A)andcolonial grid (B) Figure Experience with different initial conditions, polycentric

MEHROTRA AND BERGER SLUM GROWTH
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BOMBAY 1930

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RIOTS 1960S

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FREQUENT DEMOLITIONS

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ROOF CHEAP CEMENT SACK TARP

CONNECTIONS

WALLS

DUCT TAPE

SHEET / TARP

BAMBOO ROPE BAMBOO BUNDLES

CORROGATED METAL

CORRUGATED METAL

PLYWOOD BRICKS

MORTAR

STONE CONCRETE CERAMIC TILES

SHINGLES EXPENSIVE

SCREWS

INDEX OF MATERIALS

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CORNER DETAIL OF BAMBOO HUT

OVERLAPPING OF ALUMINUM

BUILDING STRATEGIES

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RULES: RESOURCES START WITH BLANK LOT ROAD OUTPUTS

LET EVERYONE GO ONE TURN, AND TIE THEIR STRING TO RESOURCE POINT

AFTER ONE TURN, DRAW ROADS

FREE FOR ALL--BUILD AS MANY HUTS AS POSSIBLE UNTIL STRING RUNS OUT

SIMULATION GAME RULES

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SIMULATION GAME RESULTS

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VINYL =

$

SHINGLES + TIN + VINYL = $$$$$

SHINGLES + TIN = $$$

ROOF MAINTENANCE AND RENOVATION

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SHEET VINYL TARP TIN / ALUMINUM SHINGLES # LESS SUPERIOR # MORE SUPERIOR 8 0 PERCEIVED SUPERIOR

# LESS SUPERIOR PERCEIVED SUPERIOR # MORE SUPERIOR

2 0 EQUAL

EQUAL

# LESS SUPERIOR PERCEIVED INFERIOR # MORE SUPERIOR

1 7 PERCEIVED INFERIOR
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ROOF COMPOSITION ADJACENCY ALGORITHM RULES

SHEET VINYL TARP TIN / ALUMINUM SHINGLES

PERCEIVED SUPERIOR

EQUAL

PERCEIVED INFERIOR

ROOF COMPOSITION ADJACENCY ALGORITHM RULES

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EXISTING

ROOF SAMPLING ADJACENCY ALGORITHM

PERCEIVED SUPERIOTIY

PERCEIVED SUPERIORITY ON URBAN SCALE

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PAY TOILETS

FREE TOILETS PAY TOILETS

PERCEIVED SUPERIOR

EQUAL

PERCEIVED INFERIOR

FUNCTIONAL TOILET LOCATIONS

FREE TOILETS

DISTANCE TO TOILETS

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UNIVERSAL

SLUM-RELATED

DISLIKE NEIGHBOR CAUSES OF CONFLICTS

WAITING FOR TOILET

MISUNDERSTANDING

WAITING FOR TAP

DISHONESTY

FLOODING

CRANKINESS

CRUMBLING WALLS

POLITICAL OPPRESSION

ROOF / WALL LEAKS

CONFLICT IN INFRASTRUCTURE

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Store Hidden Cooridor

Food

Convenient Store Tea Stall Residential Store Residential Grocery Grocery Residential Residential Thomas Enterpraises Residential Grocery Grocery Residential Convenient Store Pottery Restaurant Grocery Residential Music and Food Shop Residential Food Convenient Store Residential Closed Pottery Food Closed Convenient Store Under Construction Food Textile

A Walk Through Nehru Nagar Slums in Mumbai: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIaq_5GNI1I

WALKING THROUGH A SLUM

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ALGORITHM FORMATION METHOD: PICK INFRASTRUCTURE

LAY OUT REQUIREMENTS DETERMINE FITNESS
YES

EX: DRAINAGE WATER RETENTION

CHOOSE HUT COMPONENT TO ADJUST
NO

TEST / ITERATE

DOES IT WORK?

EX: ROOF

EXPERIMENT 1: GROUND-UP INFRASTRUCTURE

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GALAPAGOS ROOF VARIATIONS

EXISTING ROOFSCAPE

“OPTIMIZED” ROOFSCAPE

EXPERIMENT 1: RESULTS

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PICK INFRASTRUCTURE

GROUND-UP INFRASTRUCTURE LAY OUT REQUIREMENTS DETERMINE FITNESS

YES

CHOOSE HUT COMPONENT TO ADJUST
NO

NEGOTIATE “OPTIMAL” WITH EXISTING TEST / ITERATE
DOES IT WORK?

SPRING 2013

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Related Interests