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[1]) in Hinduism and Buddhism is religious Bhakti (also spelled Bhakthi - Sanskrit: भि त, Sinhala: භ devotion in the form of active involvement of a devotee in worship of the divine. Within monotheistic Hinduism, it is the love felt by the worshipper towards the personal God, a concept expressed in Hindu theology as Iṣṭadevatā (also as Svayam Bhagavan in Gaudiya Vaishnavism).

Bhakthi can be used of either tradition of Hindu monotheism, Shaivaism or Vaishnavism.[2] While bhakti as designating a religious path is already a central concept in the Bhagavad Gita,[3] it rises to importance in the medieval history of Hinduism, where the Bhakti movement saw a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in Southern India with the Vaisnava Alvars (6th-9th century CE) and Saiva Nayanars (5th-10th century CE), who spread bhakti poetry and devotion throughout India by the 12th-18th century CE.[4][5] The Bhagavata Purana is text associated with the Bhakti movement which elaborates the concept of bhakti as found in the Bhagavad Gita.[6] The Bhakti movement reached North India in the Delhi Sultanate and throughout the Mughal era contributed significantly to the characteristics of Hinduism as the religion of the general population under the rule of a Muslim elite. After their encounter with the expanding Islam religion, Bhakti proponents, who were traditionally called "saints," "elaborated egalitarian doctrine that transcended the caste system and encouraged individuals to seek personal union with the divine."[7] Its influence also spread to other religions during this period,[8][9][10][11] and became an integral aspect of Hindu culture and society in the modern era.[5]

1 Terminology 2 History 3 Bhakti Yoga 4 Types and classifications 4.1 Bhavas 5 Name 6 Notable proponents 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

The Sanskrit and old Hindi noun bhakti is derived from the verb root bhaj, whose meanings include "to share in", "to belong to", and "to worship".[12] It also occurs in compounds where it means "being a part of" and "that which belongs to or is contained in anything else."[13] Bhajan, or devotional singing to God, is also derived from the same root.[14] "Devotion" as an English translation for bhakti doesn't fully convey two important aspects of bhakti—the sense of participation that is central to the relationship between the devotee and God, and the intense feeling that is more typically associated with the word "love".[12] An advaitic interpretation of bhakti goes beyond "devotion" to the realization of union with the essential nature of reality as ananda, or divine bliss.[13] Bhakti is sometimes used in the broader sense of reverence toward a deity or teacher. Bhaktimarga is
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The Classical Sanskrit term bhakti has a general meaning of "attachment. friend-friend. devotion to" etc. defined differently by various sects and schools. have led many scholars to give it South Indian origins.[24] History Main article: Bhakti movement Scholarly consensus sees bhakti as a post-Vedic movement that developed primarily during the era of Indian epic poetry. In this sense it parallels the early 20th century movement of Pentecostalism in Christian history. which became an influential scripture for the Vaishnavas. Another significant thing was that the Alwars and Naynmars came from various background and castes including that of the Sudras (working class).[29] Other scholars question this interpretation.[27] The Bhagavata Purana develops the idea more elaborately. parent-child. where direct personal experience of God was also emphasized over liturgy or ritual. a compilation of hymns by sixty-three Nayanar poets. They established temple sites (Srirangam is one) and converted many people to Vaishnavism. along with its emphasis on a more emotional bhakti. The poets' itinerant lifestyle helped create temple and pilgrimage sites and spread devotion to Shiva.[18] while bhakti as a spiritual path is referred to as bhakti marga. were compiled into the Tevaram. devotion.[30][31] The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in Tamil Nadu in Southern India with the Saiva Nayanars (4th-10th century CE)[5] and the Vaisnava Alvars (3rd-9th century CE) who spread bhakti poetry and devotion throughout India by the 12th-18th century CE.[15] The sage Narada defines Bhakti as "intense love" for God. also in terms of human relationships. The Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. or the bhakti way.[21][22] to a personal form of God.[6] while the Shvetashvatara Upanishad evidences a fully developed Shivabhakti (devotion to Shiva)[19] and signs of guru-bhakti. fondness for.[23] or to divinity without form (nirguna).[28] An early sutra by Pāṇini (c. For the first time. The Bhagavata Purana's references to the South Indian Alvar saints.[25][26] The Bhagavad Gita is the first text to explicitly use the word "bhakti" to designate a religious path.[34] Early Tamil-Siva bhakti poets quoted the Black ÉåK á éÉÇá ç ê L á L Ü~âíá ï âá ~K Ö ï âá_ OT L .[19][20] Bhakti is an important component of many branches of Hinduism. 5th century BCE) is considered by some scholars as the first appearance of the concept of bhakti.O LOO N MN L MO _ Ü~âíáJ= á éÉÇá íÜÉ=ê ÉåÅóÅä éÉÇá = t âá ~I= ÑÉÉ= ç ~ usually used to describe a bhakti path with complete dedication to one form of God. Their poems were collected in the 10th century as the Four Thousand Divine Compositions also referred to as Dravida Veda or Alwar Arulicheyalgal or Divya Prabhandham. Appar (7th century CE). Hymns by three of the most prominent poets.[4][5] The Alvars ("those immersed in God") were Vaishnava poet-saints who wandered from temple to temple singing the praises of Vishnu. most often as beloved-lover.[32][33] Like the Alvars the Saiva Nayanar poets softened the distinctions of caste and gender.[17] One who practices bhakti is called a bhakta. The Tirumurai. though there is no definitive evidence of this. Bagwan or God reached the masses and the masses were able to associate themselves with the religion.[6] It may refer to devotion to a spiritual teacher (Guru) as guru-bhakti.[12] Bhakti emphasises religious devotion and sentiment above ritual and orthopraxy. where the word "vun" may refer to bhakti toward "Vasudevarjunabhya" (with implied reference to Krishna Vasudeva).[12] A more literal translation of bhakti would be "participation". the first volumes of the Tirumurai. Campantar (7th century) and Cuntarar (9th century). using it as a term for one of three possible religious approaches. is still of great importance in South India.[16] Similarly Sage Shandilya defines Bhakti as "intense attraction" for God. and masterservant.

To find no fault with anyone and to be contented with one's lot is the eighth mode of bhakti. and (9) ātma-nivedana (selfsurrender).[36] It extended its influence to Sufism. The second is to develop a taste for hearing my nectar-like stories. emphasize its importance and superiority.[5] Prominent bhakti poets such as Ravidas. 7.. and became an integral part of Indian society. anyone who practices one of these nine modes of my bhakti pleases me most and reaches me without fail. Bhakti poetry and attitudes began to color many aspects of Hindu culture. as explained by Prahlada:[49] (1) śravaṇa ("listening" to the scriptural stories of Kṛṣṇa and his companions). First is satsang or association with loveintoxicated devotees. (4) pāda-sevana (rendering service). (7) dāsya (servitude). usually refers to ecstatic group singing). thus having made thy heart steadfast in Me. Unreserved surrender with total faith in my strength is the ninth and highest stage. (5) arcana (worshiping an image). (from Bhagata Purana. sacrifice unto Me. religious and secular.) Japa or repetition of my Holy name and chanting my bhajans are the fifth expression (.[35] By the 12th to 18th centuries. bow down to Me. (8) sākhya (friendship). (6) vandana (paying homage).[9] Christianity. eknath and Kabir wrote against the hierarchy of caste.34)[44] Shandilya and Narada produced two important Bhakti texts. Rama describes the path as ninefold (nava-vidha bhakti): Such pure devotion is expressed in nine ways. the bhakti movement had spread to all regions and languages of India. taking Me as the Supreme Goal.5. Fill thy mind with Me. the Shandilya Bhakti Sutra and Narada Bhakti Sutra.. be My devotee. and classify its forms. he says. at any time. (2) kīrtana ("praising".[47] Types and classifications In Valmiki's Ramayana. these are expressions of the sixth mode of bhakti. thou shalt come to Me.[10] and Jainism. The third is service to the guru (. nobility of character and selfless service.) To follow scriptural injunctions always.. anywhere.[11] Bhakti offered the possibility of religious experience by anyone. (B-Gita 9.[39][40] while the Bhagavata Purana expands on bhakti yoga.23-24) Bhavas ÉåK á éÉÇá ç ê L á L Ü~âíá ï âá ~K Ö ï âá_ PL T . . Seeing me manifested everywhere in this world and worshipping my saints more than myself is the seventh mode of bhakti.[38] Bhakti Yoga is described by Swami Vivekananda as "the path of systematized devotion for the attainment of union with the Absolute". to practice control of the senses.) Fourth is to sing my kirtan (communal chorus) (. offering nine specific activities for the bhakti yogi.[45][46] They define devotion.[43] In the ninth chapter.O LOO N MN L MO _ Ü~âíáJ= á éÉÇá íÜÉ=ê ÉåÅóÅä éÉÇá = t âá ~I= ÑÉÉ= ç ~ Yajurveda specifically. (3) smaraṇa ("remembering" or fixing the mind on Viṣṇu).[48] The Bhagavata Purana teaches nine similar facets of bhakti.[42] In the twelfth chapter of the Gita Krishna describes bhakti yoga as a path to the highest spiritual attainments..[41] Bhakti in the Bhagavad Gita offered an alternative to two dominant practices of religion at the time: the isolation of the sannyasin and the practice of religious ritual.[38] Bhakti Yoga Main article: Bhakti yoga The Bhagavad Gita introduces bhakti yoga in combination with karma yoga and jnana yoga. Shabari.[37] Sikhism...

O LOO N MN L MO _ Ü~âíáJ= á éÉÇá íÜÉ=ê ÉåÅóÅä éÉÇá = t âá ~I= ÑÉÉ= ç ~ Traditional Hinduism speaks of five different bhāvas or "affective essences". Bhakthi is a unisex name. Sringara is the relationship of the intimate love. The nineteenth century mystic. vatsalya. dāsya. the attitude of a friend.[50] In this sense. who looked after Krishna during his childhood is regarded as vatsalya bhava.[52][54] The attitude of Radha towards Krishna is regarded as madhura bhava. Ramakrishna is said to have practiced these five bhavas.[51] The different bhāvas are: śānta. vātsalya.[52] The attitude of Hanuman towards lord Rama is considered to be of dasya bhava.1680 CE Tyāgarāja died 1847 CE Ramakrishna Paramahamsa 1836 CE to 1886 CE Shirdi Sai Baba 19th Century CE Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada 1896 CE to 1977 CE Pandurang Shastri Athavale 1920 CE to 2003 CE Jagadguru Kripalu Maharaj 1922 CE Notes ÉåK á éÉÇá ç ê L á L Ü~âíá ï âá ~K Ö ï âá_ QT L . the attitude of a servant. placid love for God. sakhya. sakhya. Name As a name.[55] Caitanya-caritamrta mentions that Mahaprabhu came to distribute the four spiritual sentiments of Vraja loka: dasya. the attitude of a woman towards her lover. and sringara.[51] Several saints are known to have practiced these bhavas.[53] The attitude of Arjuna and the shepherd boys of Vrindavan towards Krishna is regarded as sakhya bhava.[52] The attitude of Yashoda. and madhura. Notable proponents Krishna Narada Nayanars 3rd to 10th century CE Alvars approx. the attitude of a mother towards her child. It's in use by both males and females. bhāvas are different attitudes that a devotee takes according to his individual temperament to express his devotion towards God in some form. 6th to 9th century CE Adi Shankara 788 CE to 820 CE Ramanuja 1017 CE 1137 CE Madhvacharya 1238 CE to 1317 CE Dnyaneshwar 1275 CE to 1296 CE Jayadeva 12th century CE Nimbarka 13th century CE Kabīr 1398 CE to 1518 CE Annamacharya 1408 CE to 1503 CE Srimanta Sankardeva 1449 CE to 1568 CE Vallabha Acharya 1479 CE to 1531 CE Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 1486 CE to 1533 CE Eknath 1533 CE to 1599 CE Tulsidas 1497 CE to 1623 CE Poonthanam 16th century CE Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri 1559 CE to 1632 CE Kancherla Gopanna 1620 CE .

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^ Georg Feuerstein.htm) 45. 34. Motilal "Vasudeva Worship: Pāṇini's Evidence" (http://books. Theory And Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Rutgers University Allan (1996). Ken Wilber (2002). Stephen N Hay (1988). 185. Columbia. 42. 17-18. Sources of Indian Tradition. ISBN 978-81-208-0545-3. http://books. id=qrtYYTjYFY8C. 5. p. (Editor).com/?id=-Als5jyAf24) . (2003). 37. 124. ^ Bryant. Oxford University Press ^ id=PqzFZNF2RxgC&pg=PA330) 38. "Hinduism" (http://books. p. Hindu Spirituality (http://books. ^ 43.S Shashi. 48. Ramayana at a Glance. ^ Glucklich. OCLC 152275976 (//www. Orient The Yoga Tradition ( hl=en&lr=&q=author%3ASingh+intitle%3ABhakti+and+philosophy&as_publication=&as_ylo=2006&as_yhi=2006&btnG=Searc h) ).com/?id=HVDqCkW1WpUC&pg=PA17. Gavin id=3XIatVGyjmQC&printsec=frontcover#PPA124) . "The Archaism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa" (http://books. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-514891-6. 28. 40. Bhakti and philosophy (http://books. http://books. ISBN 0- 7391-1424-7. http://books. ISBN id=KtLScrjrWiAC&pg=PA104. 257. "Bhakti Yoga" (http://books. http://books. http://books. Nagendra Kr (1997). 23. The Advaitic Theism of the Bhagavata Purana (http://books. ^ van id=Ku2DGm20WWUC&pg=PA3. 104. http://books. http://books. ISBN 978-817488-168-7. ISBN 978-81-208-1923-8. p. ^ a b Prentiss. Ariel (2008).com/hin/sbg/ ^ Rinehart. ISBN id=qSfneQ0YYY8C&pg=PA185) . Motilal Banarsidass. LTD. Lexington Books. 212. The many colors of Hinduism: a thematic-historical introduction (http://books. 46. 28. id=HVDqCkW1WpUC&pg=PA17) . Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavadgita (http://books. p. In S. Daniel (1986). Sadguru Sant (1988).com/? id=xp35-8gTRDkC&pg=PA23. 117. 351. 2462. ^ Swami Vivekananda (2006).org/oclc/152275976) . pp.worldcat. pp. The Strides of Vishnu ( ^ Keshavadas. William Theodore ISBN 978-0-88706-297-1. Anmol . p. ISBN id=Yy5s2EHXFwAC&pg=PA55) Bithika Mukerji (2003). Knut p. Robert Neil (1986). ISBN 81-208-0179-2. ^ Olson. The Blackwell companion to Hinduism (http://books. ISBN 90-04-14757-8. pp. R. Anmol Publications PVT. http://books. ^ Sundararajan. J. 32. ^ Bryant.O LOO N MN L MO _ Ü~âíáJ= á éÉÇá íÜÉ=ê ÉåÅóÅä éÉÇá = t âá ~I= ÑÉÉ= ç ~ Clarendon. ^ id=dbXDocmylYgC&pg=PA2462) .com/? id=qrtYYTjYFY8C) . http://books. ÉåK á éÉÇá ç ê L á L Ü~âíá ï âá ~K Ö ï âá_ SL T . pp. ISBN ^ Swarupananda. http://books. Mo: South Asia . SUNY Press. 55. 47. Encyclopaedia of Hinduism. Motilal Banarsidass. Gerald James (Editor) (2005). ^ Bary. K. B (1996). . Encyclopedia Indica. ^ Prentiss. Oxford University id=Ku2DGm20WWUC&pg=PA3) . pp. 3. Larson. 28– . 29. Brill Academic Publishers. 44. Carl (2007). ^ Jacobsen. In Amiya P ^ Minor. ^ Flood. pp. 17 fn. 30. Megasthenes and Indian Religion (http://books. Edwin Francis (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook (http://books. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7. http://books. The indispensable Vivekananda. ISBN 978-0-631-21535-6. A. 35. p. ^ Motilal Banarsidass. Motilal . ^ id=LO0DpWElIRIC&pg=PA306) . http://books. ISBN 978-81-2080467-8. pp. http://books. "Aranya Kanda" ( ISBN 978-0-19-531405-2. p. Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita (http://www. pp. Raj (2006) (– Scholar search (

com/?id=Ua-E20uyH9IC&pg=RA1-PA133.php?title=Bhakti&oldid=528776528" Categories: Hindu philosophical concepts Bhakti movement Sanskrit words and phrases Meditation Religious behaviour and experience Yoga styles Yoga Navigation menu This page was last modified on 19 December 2012 at 09:20. 133–134. ISBN . ^ Haberman. 2008) External links Bhakti Poets: A History of Bhakti by Doris Jakobsh (http://chnm. Hindu Psychology. Bhaktivedanta College's online study of bhakti books (http://www. 52. G.. Sri Ramakrishna Math.php) Bhakti Live Channel ( English Translation of Narada Bhakti Sutra (http://www. Bhakti Schools of Vedanta. Essence of Hinduism. ^ a b Allport. Madras. The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.php?s=0) The full text of the Bhagavata Purana (Srimad-Bhagavatam) (http://srimadbhagavatam. Vedanta Press. Gordon W. See Terms of Use for details. (2001).google. http://books.BhaktiLive. 1970 Swami Tapasyananda. ^ Spivak. additional terms may .com/?id=UaE20uyH9IC&pg=RA1-PA133) .google. Gayatri Chakravorty (December 28. p. pp. Swami Akhilananda (1999). 54. Teaching of Yoga.K. ^ Sharma.C. Love Divine – Narada Bhakti Sutra. Inc. Pustak Mahal. 111–112 (http://books.2004 Steven J. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Christopher (1980). 95–96 (http://books. Chinmaya Publications Retrieved from "http://en. Other Asias. ^ Devanand. 53. 2007). Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Routledge. p.sankaracharya. ^ a b c Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-81-223-0439-8..O LOO N MN L MO _ Ü~âíáJ= á éÉÇá íÜÉ=ê ÉåÅóÅä éÉÇá = t âá ~I= ÑÉÉ= ç ~ 49. ÉåK á éÉÇá ç ê L á L Ü~âíá ï âá ~K Ö ï âá_ TL T . David .. ^ Sarma. Further reading Swami Chinmayananda. Srimad Bhagavatam (12 Cantos). Acting as a Way of Salvation (http://books. APH Madras. Hari Dutt (1999).google.wikipedia. 180 (http://books. 50. p. p. 55.bhakti-sastri. Rosen. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. The Yoga of Kirtan: conversations on the Sacred Art of Chanting (New York: FOLK Books.gmu. 51. 1990 A. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 197. ISBN 978-0-87481-037-0. a non-profit organization. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. 74 (http://books. Ramakrishna and his disciples.. "Its meaning for the West". Subrahmanya (1971).google. Glory of Spiritual id=L3mBLHWxgPsC&pg=PA74) .