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**Brutal Force 2003
**

Po-Shen Loh June 29, 2003

brutal (adj.) 1. Extremely ruthless or cruel. 2. Crude or unfeeling in manner or speech. 3. Harsh; unrelenting. 4. Disagreeably precise or penetrating. force (n.) 1. The capacity to do work or cause physical change; energy, strength, or active power. 2. Power made operative against resistance; exertion. 3. A vector quantity that tends to produce an acceleration of a body in the direction of its application. 4. A unit of a nation’s military personnel, especially one deployed into combat.

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Warm-Ups

1. Do 20 pushups on your knuckles. 2. (Russia98/14). A circle S centered at O meets another circle S at A and B. Let C be a point on the arc of S contained in S . Let E, D be the second intersections of S with AC, BC, respectively. Show that DE ⊥ OC. Solution: Clearly true for symmetric case; for perturbation, angles ﬂow around as usual. 3. (UK96/3). Let ABC be an acute triangle and O its circumcenter. Let S denote the circle through A, B, O. The lines CA and CB meet S again at P and Q, respectively. Prove that the lines CO and P Q are perpendicular. 4. (Rookie Contests 1998, 1999, 2002 / Po’s “Star” Theorem). Given two congruent circles, ω1 and ω2 . Let them intersect at B and C. Select a point A on ω1 . Let AB and AC intersect ω2 at A1 and A2 . Let X be the midpoint of BC. Let A1 X and A2 X intersect ω1 at P1 and P2 . Prove that AP1 = AP2 . Solution: True for symmetric case; perturb A by θ. Then A1 and A2 move by θ (vertical angles), and P1 and P2 also move by θ (symmetry through X). Therefore done.

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(Mostly) Brutalizable Problems

You can’t use Brutal Force on everything. To let you practice the art of ﬁguring out whether a problem is brutalizable, here’s a mixed list of problems: some yield to Brutal Force, but some do not. Figure out which ones do, and dish out the PWNage! 1. (IMOshortlist90/12). Let ABC be a triangle with angle bisectors AD and BF . The lines AD, BF meet the line through C parallel to AB at E and G respectively, and F G = DE. Show that CA = CB. Solution: See sheet 2. (Steiner-Lehmus). Prove that any triangle with two equal-length angle bisectors is isosceles. 3. (APMO00/3). Let ABC be a triangle. The angle bisector at A meets the side BC at X. The perpendicular to AX at X meets AB at Y . The perpendicular to AB at Y meets the ray AX at R. XY meets the median from A at S. Prove that RS is perpendicular to BC. Solution: See sheet

1

Point K is the intersection of lines M O and AB. For i = 1. EF is the chord which is the perpendicular bisector of AO. Construct an arbitrary line through D such that it passes through the interior of triangle ABC. 3. F are the points where its incircle touches sides BC. and let S be the circle that passes through the circumcenter O and vertices B. respectively. From L perpendiculars are drawn to AB and AC. let Ci be the smaller circle through I tangent to Ai Ai+1 and Ai Ai+2 (indices being taken mod 3) and let Bi be the second intersection of Ci+1 and Ci+2 . L are concyclic. CA. (Lemming). (MOP98/4/5). where the interior bisector of angle A meets BC at L and meets the circumcircle of ABC again at N . A2 B2 I. Solution: See sheet 7. E. The line through O parallel to AD meets AC at J. What is the locus of BE ∩ CF ? 11. AC. Let N be a point on AC. (Russia98/10). Solution: See sheet 9. (MOP97/10/4). B. DE. 6. (MOP97/2/5). D is the midpoint of the minor arc AB. Prove that the circumcenters of the triangles A1 B1 I. (Russia02/3). with feet K and M respectively. and let D. Point M lies on segment BO. Let P be a point on the angle bisector AD of ∠A. and point M is the reﬂection of M across the midpoint of side AB. Let ABC be a triangle with ∠A = 120◦ . Let AC be the longest of the three sides in triangle ABC. Given a triangle ABC. Find the angle ∠F AD. Solution: See sheet 13. O. Let O be the circumcenter of acute triangle ABC with AB = BC. Prove that the circumcenter of triangle ABC lies on the circumcircle of triangle KBM . Show that J is the incenter of triangle CEF . The parallel through E to AB intersects DF in Q. Solution: In symmetric case. What is the locus of BF ∩ CE? 10. Solution: See sheet 2 . (Lemma). respectively. AB. and D on the extension of ray BC past C. Let BC be a diameter of a circle centered at O. Solution: MOP97/2/5 12. Let E = ∩ AB and F = ∩ AC. Construct an arbitrary line through D such that it passes through the interior of triangle ABC. ∠OKD = ∠OKE = ∠OCE = ∠OCA since OA = OC. ABC is a triangle and D. Show that O. C. QT are concurrent. Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. K. E be the second intersections of S with AB. Let the perpendicular bisector of AN intersect line AB at K. (Russia01/28). Solution: MOP98/4/5 8. A. A is any point on the circle with ∠AOC > 60◦ . Let E = ∩ AB and F = ∩ AC. Prove that CF. Let ABC be an acute triangle. 2. and let the perpendicular bisector of CN intersect line BC at M . then D and E also move by θ and we are done. and the parallel through D to AB intersects EF in T . Point L lies on side BC such that ∠CLO = ∠BLM . But perturb A by θ. Solution: See sheet 5. (IMO87/2). and A3 B3 I are collinear. Given a triangle ABC.4. K collinear. and D on the extension of ray BC past C. (IMO02/2). Show that ADKE is a parallelogram. and let E be the intersection of CP with AB and F the intersection of ED with BP . Let OK be a diameter of S. Prove that the quadrilateral AKN M and the triangle ABC have equal areas. Suppose A1 A2 A3 is a nonisosceles triangle with incenter I. Therefore.

therefore. Let circles S1 . meet at A and B. S2 intersect at A and B. and let Q be the second intersection of ω with BX. 15. (MOP98/9/5). 3 . centered at O1 . G be the feet of the perpendiculars from D. ABC is a triangle. centered at O2 . Now we have S1 and ω with common tangents AP and BP . Assume that Q lies outside S2 . Let ω be teh circumcircle of O1 O2 B. and let D. Solution: MOP98/IMO3/3 Hint: brutalizable problems Let you know who they are. Let circle ω1 . Prove that the length of XQ equals the diameter of ω. Let X be the intersection of the tangent to ω1 at Y and the tangent to ω2 at Z. Prove that the line QP goes through the midpoint of CD. perturb Q by θ and observe that the midpoint M orbits a circle ω centered at O2 (center of S2 ) by θ. E be the second intersections of the circle with diameter BC with the lines AB. respectively. respectively. and let M = DG ∩ EF .14. The lines QA and QB meet S2 at C and D. to BC. (StP97/19). we see that the tangents AP and BP are also tangent to ω. and circle ω2 . while the tangents to S1 at A and B meet at P . Prove that AM is perpendicular to BC. Solution: MOP98/9/5 16. by limiting argument as Q approaches A or B. by homothety we are done. Let F . AC. Solution: Clearly true for symmetric case. Furthermore. E. (MOP98/IMO3/3). and that C and D lie outside S1 . Let Q be a point on S1 . respectively. Let be a line through A meeting ω1 at Y and meeting ω2 again at Z.

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