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Summary of electrostatic equations

in uniform field
2011년도 2 학기

서광석
신소재공학부
suhkwang@korea.ac.kr
Application of voltage ? Subjected to an E field ?

Charge, electric field, Coulombic forces

Charge in conducting spheres ?

Behavior of charge at electrodes and dielectrics under E field ?

Real charge vs. imaginary (compensation) charge

Measured currents vs. charge motion

Charge vs. breakdown
Breakdown ?

materials have max. charge density
ex) air: breakdown strength: ~ 3.0 X 10
6
V/m ~ 2.64 X 10
-5
C/m
2

materials cannot possess higher charge density than max. charge density
excess charge should be dissipated

rate of charge dissipation:
fast, sodden dissipation : breakdown
slow dissipation : no problems (no breakdown)

electron avalanche (전자사태)
Summary of electrostatic equations in uniform field
uniform Field
non-uniform field
by assuming that electric field & charge density are uniform,
equations of electrostatics become very simple
1. Coulomb Law
two charges, q, q’, distance d in the
medium of relative dielectric const.
r
c
dielectric constant c
F = force btw charges,
2
4
'
d
qq
F
r o
·
=
c tc
Found experimentally
2. Electric field
Electric force due to a charge q’
qE F =
2
4
'
d
q
E
r o
c tc
=
d V E ÷ =
direction
3. Capacitance
① capacitance : ability to store charge
C q V
V
q
C / , = =
q : charge, V : voltage, C : capacitance
** If a charge “feels” a(n electric) force,
the charge is said to be in an electric field
+q
E
r
+q
② energy stored in a capacitance
C q qV CV U
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
= = =
③ slab,
: relative dielectric constant
r
c
area = A
d
d
A
C
r o
c c
=
④ isolated conducting sphere
r
r
c
r o
C c tc 4 =
⑤ parallel combination
1
C
3
C
2
C
3 2 1
C C C C
T
+ + =
use many layer to increase
film capacitor
T
C
⑥ series combination
1
C
2
C
3
C
3 2 1
1 1 1 1
C C C C
T
+ + =
4. Resistance

Conductor :
I V R =
Insulator :
= R
) (V f R =
constant
② resistivity
A
d R
= µ
③ conductivity
µ
o
1
=
④ series combination
1
R
2
R
3
R
3 2 1
R R R R + + =
⑤ parallel combination
1
R
2
R
3
R
3 2 1
1 1 1 1
R R R R
+ + =
5. time constant for charge decay
- time that charge will take to decay away
37%
time
charge
initially fast
later slow
t
: time constant ( = RC )
time taken for the charge to reach
approximately 37% of its initial value
t
µ c c t
o r
=
resistivity of materials
Example
two charges of 1 coulomb, 1 m apart
Force =
2
4 ' d qq
o
tc
N
9 12
10 04 . 9 ) 10 8 . 8 4 ( 1 × = × ×
÷
t =
gravitational force on the
object weighing 10
9
kg
eq. says 1 coulomb can lift 10
9
kg unrealistic
so charge which can be built up in practice much less than 1 C.
practically possible
Lift a 5 mm diameter, PS sphere, 100 mg, 500 kV/m
mg qE =
charge density on surface :
2 5
10 5 . 2 ~ m C
÷
×
charge
~
C
9
10 2
÷
×
) 10 6 . 1 1 (
19
C e
÷ ÷
× ÷
Therefore,
atomic density
Charges on the surface monolayer of atoms
only 8 atoms/million atoms.
very low value electrostatic phenomena 가 왜
unpredictable 한지 설명함
14
10 6 . 1 × extra electrons/m
2

19
10 2 ~ ×
atoms/m
2

1 surface atoms in 125000 atoms is charged, then
surface contamination levels of few ppm can significantly
change the charge on a surface
Gauss Law
If an imaginary surface of area S is drawn round an uniform density of
charge, the component of the electric field at the surface which is
perpendicular to the surface is proportional to the total charge enclosed
mathematically
¿ = E
r o
S q c c
q
S
: charge (surface)
: area
s
Q
S
q
=
: surface charge density
sphere, w/ surface charge density (C/m
2
)
in air
S
Q
total charge enclosed S Q q
S
× = ¿
from Gauss law
o S o S
Q S S Q E c c = × × = ) ( ) (
breakdown strength of air = (V/m) :
6
10 3×
max. E
so max. charge density
2 5 12 6
max
10 64 . 2 10 8 . 8 10 3 m C Q
÷ ÷
× = × × × =
a few surface atoms
per million atoms
above this, breakdown of air occurs
when charges dissipate fast
this is the max. charge density in air
1 mm 간격, air, 1 eV 에너지를 갖기 위한 전압은?
diameter 1 cm
2
area =
2 3
) 10 5 )( (
÷
× t
=
2 5
10 85 . 7 m
÷
×
air
d = 1 mm
air gap = 1 mm =
m
3
10 1
÷
×
C = capacitance =
d
A
o
cc
=
F
13
10 95 . 6
÷
×
1 = c
m F / 10 85 . 8
12
0
÷
× = c
2 5
10 85 . 7 m A × =
m d
3
10 1
÷
× =
Energy W
( )( )
18 13 2
10 242 . 6 10 95 . 6
2
1
) (
2
1
× ×
|
.
|

\
|
= =
÷
Joule CV W
eV J
18
10 242 . 6 1 × =
2169095 =
2
V
7 2
10 61 . 4
2169095
1
÷
× = = V
4 7
10 79 . 6 10 61 . 4
÷ ÷
× = × = Volt
V
∴ 1eV 의 에너지를 갖기 위해서 정도가 필요함
4
10 79 . 6
÷
×
V
Internal charge vs. surface charge