Bicycle Space Frame

Space Frame Example
| Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.7.1 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure:

1. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model').

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Bicycle Space Frame

In the Utility menu bar:

select: File > Change Title The following window will appear.

This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. Click 'OK' when done. 2. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which simply specify various principal coordinates to define the body. For this simple example, these keypoints are the ends of the beam.

We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 0 0 0 2 500 0 0 (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure):


From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

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Bicycle Space Frame

The following window will then appear:


To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0, y = 0 and z = 0, Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box, and enter the x,y,z coordinates: 0, 0, 0 in their appropriate boxes. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. You may now see a small point in the 'Graphics window' showing the location of this keypoint.


Enter the second keypoint by typing 2 and the coordinates 500, 0, 0 in the their appropriate boxes. Note: When entering the final data point, click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. If you first press 'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint, you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point, simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box.

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Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. Select: Lines > Straight Line. Left click and a permanent line will appear.e. This will return you to the 'Create menu'. When you're done. elements. 3. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. lines. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure.Bicycle Space Frame Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. r First close the last menu that was used to create the keypoints. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has its complimentary 'Delete' menu for fixing things up.htm (4 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . It will now be marked by a small yellow box. r r r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. areas. The following window will then appear: r r Move this window to the right hand side of your screen so that you are able to select the keypoints to form the line. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. thus making any conversions where necessary. close the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. click on it). volumes.

' button. they have most likely NOT been deleted. This is called 'meshing'. However..Bicycle Space Frame Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. If this occurs at any time from the 'Utility Menu' select: Plot > Lines 4. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on these lines.htm (5 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . The following window will then appear: r Click on the 'Add. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu. The following window will appear: file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.

r 5. The following window will appear: r r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom).htm (6 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . This gives us extra force and moment output. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. Click on the 'Options. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu.. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu.Bicycle Space Frame r For this example..' button.

Click on 'OK'..Bicycle Space Frame r Click Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. The following window will appear: r Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected).htm (7 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Click on 'OK'..

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models.Bicycle Space Frame 6.33 r r Set these properties and click on 'OK'.. Close the 'Material Props' menu. r Double click on the box to the left of Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. 7.. r We are going to give the properties of Aluminum.htm (8 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] .

r From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'.. we have simply defined the element sizes.. r In the Preprocessor menu select (-Meshing-) Size Cntrls > (-Lines-) All Lines (IN ANSYS 6. For an element length of 2cm. However. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. node numbers. enter the desired element length. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. therefore.1 select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines) r In the size 'SIZE' field. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. (Alternatively. keypoint numbers. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Plot Numbering To show the line numbers. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry.. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions])..htm (9 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. 8. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.Bicycle Space Frame deal with one method for now. enter '20' (i. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.

It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you.htm (10 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . select 'New Analysis'. 1. Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). You have now defined your model. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. To do this.Bicycle Space Frame Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. Select the name and location where you want to save your file... you will at least be able to come back to this point.. Define Analysis Type First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. so if you make some mistakes later on.

pinned and roller-type connections. the left end of the rod is fixed. i. these constraints will typically be fixed. r 2. In mechanical structures.ROT on file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.Bicycle Space Frame r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. select (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) Displacement > On Keypoints r Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. you are going to do a static analysis on the frame as opposed to a dynamic analysis.htm (11 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . As shown above. r In the Solution menu. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. Click 'OK'. for example.e.

r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. 3. Close the 'Force/Moment' menu and the 'Apply' menu. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Apply menu. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Therefore. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram.htm (12 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . as well as some orange double triangles indicating the rotational constraints. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. r r Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY.Bicycle Space Frame KPs' window.

r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. The following window will appear. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu under the '-Solve-' title. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS). Close the /STATUS Command Window. r From the above window ensure that your solution options are the same.Bicycle Space Frame 4.htm (13 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . select 'Current LS'.

r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. 2. Click 'Close' and close the 'Solution' menu. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress).Bicycle Space Frame r In the above window click 'OK' Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . r 1. Hand Calculations Now.htm (14 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . In this menu you will find a variety of options. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. The following window will appear.2mm as shown above. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64.we need to calculate what we should find.

htm (15 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] .Bicycle Space Frame r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. The following window will appear. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution. r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.

htm (16 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] .Bicycle Space Frame r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. r Looking at the scale. you may want to use more useful intervals. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'. r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'.

. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.Bicycle Space Frame You should obtain the following..htm (17 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example.

spars. the right end of the rod. If you wanted to save these results to a file. strains).Bicycle Space Frame r Are these results what you expected? Again. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. r Close the 'List Results' menu if it is still open. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2..htm (18 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] ...' r r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.. Click on 'Add. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.

Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.Bicycle Space Frame r As shown above. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. in the 'Item..Comp' boxes in the above window. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.htm (19 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .

The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. First. Click 'Add. as shown in the following image.. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes...Bicycle Space Frame Again. I and J. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. the Element Table must be used. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. r Element Table > Define Table. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. . First. a bending moment diagram can be created.htm (20 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . To obtain the bending moment for this element..'.

Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element.6 in the second Comp box E.Bicycle Space Frame r In the window. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' .12 in the second Comp box E. A. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. Click 'OK' Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. For step D..again. Select Plot Results > Line Elem Res. Enter SMISC. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. Click 'OK'. r r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. r Again.. this will give a name to the data B. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element..htm (21 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C. click 'Add. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . Same as above D. Same as above C. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. enter SMISC.this will give a name to the data B.. A.

r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. PIPE16 Item.the Member moment for node I. r Before the explanation of the above steps. file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. you can double check these solutions analytically. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. Sequence Numbers. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types. Table 1. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC e 1 2 3 4 5 6 Definition Member forces at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .Bicycle Space Frame Now.htm (22 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below).

0. Young's Modulus. 1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. Outside Diameter.ALL FK.33 0. y. K. Material 1. y.htm (23 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and ! Real Constant. ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.0.0.25. Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. Material 1.-100 /STATUS. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.ALL.1.0. then hit enter.1 moment output !* R.PIPE16 KEYOPT. x. .6. 2.FY. all of the lines.Bicycle Space Frame The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS.20 LMESH. Note that the text following the "!" are comments. Material 1.1.0. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.1. z Keypoint.70000 MP.33 !* LESIZE.1. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties. /PREP7 K.0.1.0. Major Poisson's Ratio.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint. Copy the following code into the command line.1.0 !* DK.0. L.2 !* ET.2. !* MP.500.2. .2.EX.PRXY. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.1.1. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. x.

The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example.Bicycle Space Frame 1. these keypoints are the frame vertices. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New 2.htm (24 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Notice that by using variables like this. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 0 0 y y1 y2 z 0 0 0 0 x1 y2 x1 0 file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.

z = 0. This was simply used for convenience. for example. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. simply re-enter the code. Reference number for the keypoint. X. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as follows: K.2.Bicycle Space Frame 5 6 x2 x2 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Changing Orientation of the Plot file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. NPT. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE. Z where.1. ie . #. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out.# where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered. 5.0. z=0 r Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. Alternatively. To define keypoint #1. First. In this example. type help k into the command line For example.htm (25 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. However. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. y = 325. Y.y2.for the second keypoint you might type: K.0 ! keypoint. to enter the first keypoint type: K. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. x=0. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. you may need to add comments. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation.y1.0 into the command line followed by Enter.0. As with any programming language. y=y2.

Zoom. you have many controls.1. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. P2 Line.Bicycle Space Frame r To get a better view of our view of our model.2 ' 4 5 5 6 6 Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. translating and rotating it on all three axes.htm (26 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. Rotate. To get an isometric view. The command format to create a straight line looks like: r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. to obtain the first line. we will use the command line to create the lines. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). Try experimenting with them. Keypoint at the end of line Again. I would write: ' L.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). L. s 6. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. P1. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: keypoint line 1st 2nd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 For example. Zoom.. You can either leave the 'Pan.. Keypoint at the beginning of the line.

(ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . Material Reference Number.EX. type: ' MP.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. As in the verification model. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r 7.PRXY. C0 Material Property. define the type of element (pipe16). LAB.0.33 ' r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. (This can be obtained from the list of lines).if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. MAT.Valid material property label.1.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio.htm (27 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] .Bicycle Space Frame r Again. 8.1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. value r 25 2 To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. we will again use the command line. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. type ' MP.

UX is not constrained. Lab5. KPOI. Mesh Size As in the verification model. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints.0.UX. Lab2.0.. Lab4.. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. value2. 1. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . Lab.. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions.htm (28 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. > Static 2. VALUE.UY and UZ)... Define Analysis Type Solution > (-Analysis Type-) New Analysis. value. For example. Expansion key. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5.Bicycle Space Frame 10. K #. Again. DK. Lab3. Apply Constraints Once again. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0.UY.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. UZ. to pin the first keypoint enter: DK. KEXPND. DOF label. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint..UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. Lab6 Displacement on K.1. UY. we will use the command line. VALUE2.UY. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.5. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.1 select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines) 11... the command line code is: DK. set the element length to 20 mm ('Preprocessor' > 'Size Cntrls'> 'All Lines') (IN ANSYS 6.

4.Bicycle Space Frame If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.FY. Lab.3.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). KPOI.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). value2 (if req'd) To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. If you need to delete one of the forces.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.htm (29 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . value2 Force loads at keypoints. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. Force Label directions (FX. K. Solving the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. the code should look like this: ' FK.1. K. value. K #. FK.3. FZ). FY. value1.

htm (30 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . 'Left'. Your screen should look like the plot below: file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.. 'Def + undef edge' r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.Bicycle Space Frame To begin Postprocessing. etc depend on how the object was first defined).. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. 'Back'. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

and turn on 'Node numbers'. so we know what node(s) we're after. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero.. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame.Bicycle Space Frame 2. Turn everything else off. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.htm (31 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] .... Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. Note the node numbers of interest. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.'). r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution.htm (32 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] ..Bicycle Space Frame r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. For each element in the model. Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. r r r r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . 3. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example.' from the 'List Results' menu.. 4... Close this list window when you are finished browsing. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. Click on 'OK'. Then close the 'List Results' menu.

the bending moment diagram can be produced. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.12) And. Plot Results > Line Elem Res... to define the table (remember SMISC. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.. to plot the data from the Element Table file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd.htm (33 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] .Bicycle Space Frame r Again.6 and SMISC. Select Element Table > Define Table..

file:///D|/Ansys%20Tutorials/Bicycle%20Space%20Frame%20bmd. To quit ANSYS.. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.. Open the file and save it to your computer. In the dialog box that appears... This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.' and select the file.Bicycle Space Frame The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.htm (34 of 34) [2/20/03 10:46:08 PM] . Now go to 'File > Read input from.'.

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