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Personality

Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual Personality" can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, emotions,interpersonal orientations motivations, and behaviors in various situations. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character. Personality may also refer to the patterns of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited by an individual over time that strongly influence our expectations, self-perceptions, values and attitudes, and predicts our reactions to people, problems and stress.[1][2] In a phrase, personality is not just who we are, Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the nomothetic and the idiographic. Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization, or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual.

Freud's Personality Theory
The three structures of personality in Freud's theory is described in this article.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed his ideas about psychoanalytic theory from work with mental patients. He was a medical doctor who specialized in neurology. He spent most of his years in Vienna, though he moved to London near the end of his career because of the Nazis' anti-Semitism. Freud believed that personality has three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the Freudian structure of personality that consists of instincts, which are an individual's reservoir of psychic energy. In Freud's view, the id is totally unconscious; it has no contact with reality . As children experience the demands and constraints of reality, a new structure of personality emerges- the ego, the Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality. The ego is called the executive branch of personality because it uses reasoning to make

decisions. The id and the ego have no morality. They do not take into account whether something is right or wrong . The superego is the Freudian structure of personality that is the moral branch of personality. The superego takes into account whether something is right or wrong. Think of the superego as what we often refer to as our "conscience." You probably are beginning to sense that both the id and the superego make life rough for the ego. Your ego might say, "I will have sex only occasionally and be sure to take the proper precautions because I don't want the intrusion of a child in the development of my career." However, your id is saying, "I want to be satisfied; sex is pleasurable." Your superego is at work, too: "I feel guilty about having sex before I'm married." Remember that Freud considered personality to be like an iceberg; most of personality exists below our level of awareness, just as the massive part of an iceberg is beneath the surface of the water. Freud believed that most of the important personality processes occur below the level of conscious awareness. In examining people's conscious thoughts about their behaviors, we can see some reflections of the ego and the superego. Whereas the ego and superego are partly conscious and partly unconscious, the primitive id is the unconscious, the totally submerged part of the iceberg.

How does the ego resolve the conflict among its demands for reality, the wishes of the id, and constraints of the superego? Through defense mechanisms, the psychoanalytic term for unconscious methods the ego uses to distort reality, thereby protecting it from anxiety. In Freud's view, the conflicting demands of the personality structures produce anxiety. For example, when the ego blocks the pleasurable pursuits of the id, inner anxiety is felt. This diffuse, distressed state develops when the ego senses that the id is going to cause harm to the individual. The anxiety alerts the ego to resolve the conflict by means of defense mechanisms. Repression is the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism, according to Freud; it works to push unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into the unconscious mind. Repression is the foundation from which all other defense mechanisms work; the goal of every defense mechanism is to repress, or push threatening impulses out of awareness. Freud said that our early childhood experiences, many of which he believed are sexually laden, are too threatening and stressful for us to deal with consciously. We reduce the anxiety of this conflict through the defense mechanism of repression.

Trait Theory of Personality
The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas in the study of personality. The trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. Consider how you would describe the personality of a close friend. Chances are that you would list a number of traits, such as outgoing, kind and even-tempered. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways.

Unlike many other theories of personality, such as psychoanalytic or humanistic theories, the trait approach to personality is focused on differences between individuals. The combination and interaction of various traits forms a personality that is unique to each individual. Trait theory is focused on identifying and measuring these individual personality characteristics.

Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory

In 1936, psychologist Gordon Allport found that one English-language dictionary alone contained more than 4,000 words describing different personality traits.1 He categorized these traits into three levels:

Cardinal Traits: Traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities. Consider the origin and meaning of the following descriptive terms: Freudian, Machiavellian, narcissism, Don Juan, Christlike, etc. Allport suggested that cardinal traits are rare and tend to develop later in life. 2

Central Traits: These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. These central traits, while not as dominating as cardinal traits, are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits.

Secondary Traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line.

Motivation, Mood, and Involvement

Consumer Motivation Motivation is an inner drive that reflects goal-directed arousal. In a consumer behavior context, the results is a desire for a product, service, or experience. Motivation It is the drive to satisfy needs and wants, both physiological and psychological, through the purchase and use of products and services Five stages of the motivation process: Latent need Drive Want or desire Goal Behavior Behavioral Models of Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Motivation as a means of satisfying human needs Five types of needs:
   

Physiological: food, water, sleep, exercise, sex Safety: security, shelter, normalcy in daily life Love and belonging: affection and acceptance as part of a family or group Esteem or status: self-respect and the respect of others; the need to feel competent, confident, important, and appreciated Self-actualization: the need to realize one’s own potential, to achieve dreams and ambitions

Attitude
Definition : Attitude is defined as a mental, emotional or rational predisposition with regard to a fact, state, person or an object. In the context of consumer behaviour we are studying the attitude of buyers towards all the relevant attributes of a product or services as well as the marketer and markets. The study includes the following major areas. Characteristics of Attitude – The attitudes that have significant influence on an individual’s behaviour & personality have certain characteristics. Attitude is formed on the basis of learning, knowledge, information,

education, upbringing, thinking, lifestyle, experience, predisposition, belief, faith, outlook, communication, observation, etc. It can be good or bad, optimistic or pessimistic, positive or negative, broad or narrow friendly or unfriendly & so on. It may be consistent, may change with several external factors like time or environment, may be influenced or even can influence another attitude. Functional Theory of Attitude – From the marketing point of view this is based on the need fulfilment of a buying behaviour.

The functions that attitudes perform are : 1. Utilitarian – Consumers buy products to fulfil their need, enjoy some benefit, get some extra features & receive after-sales service. If they get it as per their expectations, they develop a positive attitude towards that product. If not then a negative attitude is developed. Marketers usually stress & highlight the positive aspects of their products to form a positive attitude. 2. Value-expressive – The importance of values in our life can’t be over emphasised. We learn it thro’ our upbringing & training. This value system prevents or encourages the buyers to buy certain products related to smoking, drugs, environment, health, ethics, wildlife, etc. 3. Ego-defensive – We are all concerned about our self-esteem & ego and always try to safe guard those. Products related to boosting the ego or self esteem are the target of such a kind of attitude. 4. Knowledge function – Man is ever inquisitive, curious, seeking knowledge. He gets new information and understanding about products and services which help in creating, modifying & changing the attitude towards it. 5. Combination function – More often individuals develop attitudes towards a product, which are a combined effect of all these functions. Formation of Attitude –

People are not born with an attitude. But they develop it over the growing & learning period. There are several ways the attitude can be formed : 1. Classical conditioning – Attitudes about the products are formed over the years by continuous tutoring & exposing the consumers to product’s attributes. Thus slowly the consumer’s attitude is reinforced. 2. Instrumental conditioning – Sometimes this attitude is formed out of an incidence. This is not intentional, but due to some reason if the consumer tries some new product & develops a favourable or unfavourable attitude, which lays the foundation of future strengthening of attitude. 3. Cognitive learning theory – This is similar to classical conditioning, with a difference that it is associated with learning thro’ mental processing & evaluation, experience of using the products over a period of time. Theories of Attitude Development (Theory of Cognitive Dissonance) – Usually behaviour is the result of attitude. But there are certain theories which suggest that behaviour precedes attitude. They also suggest that on the basis of behaviour & experience, a person modifies his attitude. -This is the theory of cognitive dissonance. Dissonance is a state of disagreement cord where one experiences between one’s own behaviour & attitude. Even if a person doesn’t like certain things(attitude) he compels himself to do that(behaviour). Thus the attitude is said to be in conflict with the behaviour. The theory further states that in the case of such a conflict, the person changes any of them to match the other. This is very important to the marketer, because, in this process a buying decision is involved which may be favourable or unfavourable to it. This theory is supported by the following : 1. Self perception theory – According to this theory, the consumer has an opinion about his taste, attitude personality & these are reflected in his buying decision / action, and he justifies his action. 2. Social judgement theory – According to this theory, the consumer will evaluate any new information regarding a product in the light of the opinion already has about the product. In other words, they will accept all info about the product they already like, & it’s difficult to change that attitude. 3. Balance theory – According to this theory, the consumer tries to balance three things – (1) his own perception about the product, (2) other’s perception about the product, and (3) what the marketer or product itself communicates. After balancing if he finds all three

favourable, then he decides buying the product. In case of a conflict between any two of them, the consumer tries to find out another product which balances the three factors favourably. Attitude change – Attitudes can be formed, and so also they can be changed. Forming & changing both may slow or fast and may be easy or difficult. This phenomenon is very important & a big opportunity for the marketers to try to make the consumers’ attitude favourable to them & their product. The following are the best possible ways : 1. By changing functional utility – Here the functional theory of the attitude is utilised and the marketers try to change these functions of the products by adding or improving them. Such a move can bring about change in attitude to a particular product. 2. By associating with a famous personality – Marketers often try to change or influence attitude by associating themselves or their products to a famous personality or an established & reputed firm. This changes the attitude of the consumer who like to be such associated. 3. By changing the features & presenting the product in a new light – Marketers sometimes break the monotony & present the products in a new light as if they are newly launched by adding some extra features & outlook. This may change the attitude of consumers who are looking for new / fresh looks / features. 4. By changing the belief of consumer about a product – Consumers have some belief & notion about a product. Marketers try to change & enhance that belief by giving additional facts & figures about the product’s enhanced image. 5. By changing the perception of consumer about a competitor’s product – Most consumers have some belief & perception about the competitor’s products. Marketers try to change that perception in such a way that their product would look more advantageous. They don’t directly say the competitors’ products are bad but they do devise certain methods to tell the consumers so that they can compare & test themselves & see the difference. Involvement –