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International Sociology

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William Li International Sociology 2011 26: 160 DOI: 10.1177/0268580910391001 The online version of this article can be found at: http://iss.sagepub.com/content/26/2/160

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uk/journalsPermissions. co. and even nowadays cadres of professional sociologists teaching and doing research in the universities are still made up of students trained overseas in foreign countries. Journal publications and books are analysed separately. Taiwan. Under each type of publication the author looks at the commercial sector and the university sector.com National Dong Hwa University. publications in Taiwan have improved in recent years along with the institutionalization of the discipline. Generally speaking. 2008. it is argued.nav DOI: 10. the author argues that both journal publishing and book production has been increasing in the discipline.com by Paul Lin on October 25.sagepub. This essay follows the example of this research to depict the development of sociological publications in Taiwan. Thus.Review essay Taiwanese academic publishing in sociology William Li International Sociology 26(2) 160–169 © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permission: sagepub. The essay first provides a brief overview of the development of sociology in Taiwan to show how the discipline is proceeding towards institutionalization in the country. 2012 . and this is closely related to a changing academic environment. National Dong Hwa University.com Downloaded from iss. 2003. which is closely related to the fact that it was imported from western countries. Hualien. Rodríguez Morató.li@gmail. there has been a great influence of the outside world on the local sociological community. sociology of science. Email: derheli. Keywords history of sociology.1177/0268580910391001 iss. The specific development of sociology has certainly been one of the important factors in shaping publications. mainly the US. Thus. This. Taiwan Abstract This essay examines the current state of academic publishing of sociology in Taiwan. sociology in Taiwan This review aims to analyse the situation of publications of sociology in Taiwan. 2006). 970. Antikainen. In a critical review of recent publication in journals and book publishing respectively. has been critical to the development of the discipline as well as to its publication activities.sagepub. publishing. Various studies on sociological communities have been conducted in other countries and regions (Abreu. Following this brief overview is a discussion of journal and book publications Corresponding author: William Li. this essay first provides a brief history of sociological development in Taiwan. Department of Sociology and Public Administration.

The first sociology department institutionalized in a university appeared in the mid-1950s. Sociology has not existed in Taiwan for long and there has been a reliance on training sociology professionals overseas.com by Paul Lin on October 25. For example. among those six departments founded at the early stage. only six universities offered sociology courses for a bachelor’s degree. in 1969. The development of sociology in Taiwan discloses the nature of its community. 80 percent of the total number of Taiwanese sociologists were educated abroad. built one of the first sociology departments in Taiwan in 1957. This reliance has characterized not only the teaching of sociology in Taiwan but also its publications. as the nature of the discipline has been a reflection of social conditions. In 1945. Actually. Taiwan was ruled by a one-party dictatorship. As noted. the development of Taiwanese sociology has been closely linked to the wider social and political context of East Asia. Four years later. the ROC government retreated to Taiwan when it was defeated in the Chinese civil war by the Chinese Communists. there are still some limitations which can be attributed to weaknesses in the sociological community in Taiwan. mainly in US universities. Taiwan was subsequently ruled by Japan (1894–1945) following the Sino-Japanese War. the ruling government of China at that time. Downloaded from iss. Of those who studied abroad. By the early 1970s. By the early 1980s. this does not include the 41 sociologists in the Sociology Institute and other institutes within Academia Sinica. during which martial law prevailed. As part of China during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). only three offered courses for the master’s degree and courses of study for a PhD were instituted only later in the 1980s. Tunghai University.sagepub. 2012 . This discussion shows that although publications in the discipline have improved. sociology teaching has been dominated by sociologists trained overseas. the Republic of China (ROC). Because the size of the community is not as large as those in western countries. thus.Li 161 separately. the sociology department of the National Taiwan University (NTU) was set up with financial help from the Asia Foundation of the US government in 1960 (Tsai. There are currently 292 sociologists in 60 of the 150 universities in Taiwan. the textbook market is larger than that of research monographs. From then on until the mid-1980s (1948– 87). It was not until the 1990s that the new sociology departments were set up. The sociological community in Taiwan Historically. After the Second World War. translated versions of western classical texts are often used in university sociology courses (see later). the discipline has tended to rely more on the sociology established in the West. acquired Taiwan from Japan. a sociology department was established in the Fu Jen Catholic University. 2006) and the US missionary sponsored university. the control by martial law until the mid-1980s has certainly had an influence on the development of sociological publications. after the Second World War. over 60 percent (140 sociologists) received their PhD degrees from US universities. sociology was one of newly established disciplines in Taiwan. Furthermore. the Kuomintang (KMT). Even now. Later. Sociology without a society seems to be a suitable term to describe the development of sociological publication before the 1980s.

journal publications in general have flourished in recent years. the sociology department at NTU has published the following journals since the early 1960s: the National Taiwan University Journal of Sociology. In addition. The NCCU Journal of Sociology was founded in 1967 at the National Chengchi University.com by Paul Lin on October 25. The universities in Taiwan have played an important role in publishing sociological journals edited in the sociology departments. The professional sociology association in Taiwan. From examining the content of the articles Downloaded from iss. this review is limited to sociology and sociology-related journals. the E-Soc Journal. For example.. in 2001. In 2001. For example. According to the types of journal publishers. Taiwanese Sociology. Although these journals are less well known and less circulated among the sociologists outside the department. 2012 . Since sociological research has many publication channels. with its focus on education. which has been edited by the Department of Agricultural Extension in NTU (renamed the Department of Bio-Industry. the Soochow Journal of Sociology (1992–2007) was published by the sociology department of Soochow University. Compared with other journal publishing sectors. Another new development (insofar as sociology department journals are concerned) is that sociologists in one department have started to collaborate with other sociology professional groups to establish nationwide journals. The E-Soc Journal. the journal on rural society launched in 2003. 1998). Academia Sinica to create a new journal. the Taiwanese Sociological Association. the sector has expanded along with new sociology departments set up since 1990. Communication and Development in 2008). is now being co-edited with the Taiwanese Rural Sociology Association. These two journals are managed by the new sociology department in Nan-Hua University. has become a significant forum and is making an important contribution to sociology in Taiwan. the long-standing sociology department journal. Until the 1990s. Another type of journal publishing is that conducted by the professional institutions. as elsewhere. the Taiwanese Sociological Review and Social Telesis. Their contributors are mainly faculty members and students within these departments. Sociology journals with special foci appeared along with these new departments. These university sociology journals are edited by members of their respective sociology departments and are published annually. they have served as an important channel for the publication of sociologists’ research. The Taiwanese Journal of Rural Studies.162 International Sociology Review of Books 26(2) Publication of journals In Taiwan. Most important. sociological journals can be classified in three sectors: those related to universities. it was called the Chinese Journal of Sociology (1971–94). the Taiwanese Journal of Sociology. published monthly. Formosan Education and Society appeared.sagepub. has its official journal. edited by the sociology department of NTU merged with the journal published by the Institute of Sociology. The journal Social Research was founded by the sociology department at National Chung Hsing University in 1961. to professional institutions and to the commercial sector. has also been edited by the department in Nan-Hua University since 1999. university department journals have outnumbered and dominated sociology journals (Chang et al. the National Taiwan University Journal of Sociology (1963–2001). especially before 1970 when there were no nationwide sociology journals. Recently. the Journal of Cyber Culture and Information Society appeared with a focus on information sociology and in 2000. the first online sociology journal.

On demography. along with a new focus on economic sociology. social movements and especially gender issues. This was followed by more sociological discussion in the form of special issues since the late 1970s. Since 2000.sagepub. labour. In the 1970s. The centre also edits journals on gender issues. Social science journals need to be evaluated on an annual basis in order to be included in the list based on the citation index. social change. the main areas referred to by the articles in the journals continued to include development. social issues relating to social change on modernization. Gender. historical reviews of the sociological development and social reform were the main items of interest in the articles.com by Paul Lin on October 25. Besides. Research centres and other professional academic associations also have their own journals. Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies was launched in 1988. A peer review system has also been set up. are ranked more highly and are run by a well-organized editorial board formed by nationally recognized scholars from various universities. sociological articles have frequently appeared in Thought and Words. Those journals that are edited by professional associations are more researchoriented. during this period. The Taiwan Association for the Sociology of Education has its journal. along with social theory were the main interests and it was these issues that also attracted much research interest in the 1990s. the Taiwanese Journal of Sociology (edited by the Taiwanese Sociological Downloaded from iss. social stratification. Of a total of over 30 special issues published between 1989 and 2004. the Journal of Community Development has been edited by a governmental agency. In community research. the Journal of Women’s and Gender Studies and the Forum on Women’s and Gender Studies.Li 163 in these journals. a total of four journals in sociology have been indexed and these are: Taiwanese Sociology (edited by NTU and Academia Sinica). In the 1980s. When the prestigious Institute of Sociology was established in Academia Sinica. Another type of sociology journal is produced by the commercial sector. namely. the Taiwanese Sociological Review (1998–2000) was managed by the Institute. especially change related to development. In the 1970s. it can clearly be seen that research interests have changed over the last four decades. before its merger with the National Taiwan University Journal of Sociology in 2001. Since its initial appearance in the 1960s. 2012 . as well as urban and political sociology have also been the topics of special issues. which had built a reputation for publishing sociological works. the family and demography. social stratification and social reform were also salient issues. migration and urban development were often addressed in the journal. the Department of Social Affairs under the Ministry of the Interior of the Taiwanese government since 1977. In the late 1990s. the Taiwan Journal of the Sociology of Education. over one-third have focused on social (economic) change especially in reference to global capitalism as related to the local Taiwanese context. or TJSE. Thought and Words and Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies are two major forums for sociologists. Recent developments with regard to academic journals in sociology have included state support for the development of scientific journals. it was more related to political. social and cultural issues in the Taiwanese context and has attracted many contributions from sociologists. the governmental agency the National Science Council set up the Taiwan Social Sciences Citation Index (TSSCI) to improve the quality of publishing. In the 2000s. the Population Centre (now the Population and Gender Studies Centre) founded in 1972 at NTU has been editing the Journal of Population Studies since 1977 in cooperation with the Population Association of Taiwan.

This is certainly an inherent weakness for a small community. On the other hand. and about 50 percent of the references were produced in the Englishspeaking world. the Journal of Population Studies (edited by the Population and Gender Studies Centre. commercial publishers and research institutions. there are more textbooks produced in the market Downloaded from iss. On average. and has certainly become the main publishing channel for the community. The external dependency of the community is clearly revealed through the TSSCI journal output. For those Chinese references cited by the TSSCI articles. Two sectors have been involved in publishing sociological books. Since the early 1960s.com by Paul Lin on October 25. empiricist sociology books with a problem-solving perspective were better tolerated. only about 5 percent of the current work of these sociologists is cited in the journal articles.164 International Sociology Review of Books 26(2) Association). textbook publication first appeared in the commercial sector in response to sociology teaching demand at the university level. During those times. It is also the case that one of the limitations of the peer review system when applied to a small community is that double blind reviews seem almost impossible. labour and social welfare from the problemsolving perspective were the other main type of book publication during the 1960s (e. On the one hand. Private commercial publishers have played a critical part in book publishing. The Taiwanese version (TSSCI) of the Social Science Citation Index has had a great impact on the sociological community. Lung. books have not been taken into account for academic status review and promotion. With the exception of introductory sociology. textbooks written by local sociologists have mainly been general introductions to sociology with a large number of materials based on processes in western societies. 1966). Social issues of demography. only 30 percent were works in Chinese. the book market is relatively small and publishers are not keen on publishing research monographs. there is a tendency to avoid debating with those with similar research interests. due to the lack of a review system. However. the period of martial law. This has promoted a new wave of western social theory publishing. NTU and the Population Association of Taiwan) and Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies (edited by the journal’s board). It has become a major index in evaluating academic progress for academic reviews. This shows that community publications are still mainly based on external influences where there is little discussion of those interests in common in TSSCI articles. Publication of books Generally speaking. 1964. Su (2004) has found that among the references cited by journal articles. This finding of external reliance was also observed in the 1980s by Hsiao (1982). new ideas and a variety of sociological perspectives have been brought into the country. in contrast to about 28 percent and 22 percent of the references being books and journals published in English. it still has its weaknesses. which are related to the small size of the community. as in Spain.sagepub. 2006). promotions and grant applications.g. book publication in Taiwan has been less developed than the publication of journals. Along with western trained sociologists who have returned from overseas since the 1970s. As in Spain (Rodríguez Morató. which would help establish a better route for publishing. far fewer references were from works published by Taiwanese authors. 2012 .

Giddens. Nevertheless. This support includes funding for publication and funding for book peer review before publication. Ritzer and Goodman (2004).g. Giddens and Pierson. Indeed. The first Chinese version of Weber’s Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism was translated in 1960. specializing in sociology. Karl Mannheim. Coser (1964). 1999). 1963. 1976. recent developments in book publishing seem to be promising. As noted. it was not until the late 1990s that textbooks written from the standpoint of the local social context started to appear (Chiu and Chang. For instance. The works of Giddens became popular in the 1990s (e. 1973. especially for research-oriented publications. migrant labour. Nevertheless. Socio Publishing. More than 30 western sociologists’ works have been translated. social movements and the mass media. Since Downloaded from iss. 2012 . Wang and Chiu. Homans (1961) and. the editorial board of Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies started to edit and publish various readers on gender. Bottomore (1984). the commercial sector of book publication channels has recently expanded further. most recently. translating western sociology books blossomed. a collection of more than 40 books covered most of the sociology courses.. However. Pusey (1987). Other classical works. urban theory and globalization. in 1953 the Chinese version of Sorokin’s Social Philosophies of an Age of Crisis (1951) was published in Taipei. there are fewer translations of works from European sociology. Merton (1976) and Peter Berger (Berger. as Chiu (1998) has observed. founded by a group of sociologists. Second. 2005. Berger and Luckman. since the 1990s. development. especially work on politics. the government agency the National Science Council of Taiwan set up a system of support in 2000. in order to promote book publication. Ralf Dahrendorf and Talcott Parsons were edited and rewritten by local sociologists in the early 1980s. among them works by Turner (1982. Among them were works by Inkeles (1964). Until the 1980s. like Bogardus’s (1922) A History of Social Thought. a series of sociology textbooks written by local sociologists has been published by the San Min Book Publisher since the 1970s. Translating western sociology classics has had a long history in Taiwan since the early 1950s. Due to the lack of incentive. they were introduced to Taiwan in the 1980s. For example. labour.com by Paul Lin on October 25. Another main contribution in translated book publication since the 1980s was by the Laureate Book Publisher. Toffler (1971). 1994). there was still a demand for textbooks for teaching with specific references to the Taiwanese social context. sociologists receive much less credit for writing a book than for producing a journal article in Taiwan. The board has also been publishing books based on the work of local sociologists. as were Emile Durkheim’s The Division of Labor in Society and Les Règles de la methode sociologique and printed in Taipei. Classic works by Durkheim.Li 165 dedicated to different sociology specialties. 1999). Smelser (1991). several sociology books have been published since 2000. From the 1970s. David Riesman et al.sagepub. 1967. began to publish books which are based on the knowledge produced by local sociologists. (1953). appeared on the scene. 1974). based on the accumulated journal articles for the last 20 years. This trend of translating western classics relates to the nature of the society as mentioned earlier. Berger et al. First. In 2000 a new book publisher. were also translated and published. The translation of western classical texts during this period has flourished.

several books have been published in the area of economic sociology (Chan. cultural and social services. social and public affairs. among others. in which 109 sociologists. as is true of other countries. labour affairs. Most of them (420) are from NTU. 2008). Audience Along with the expansion of higher education in Taiwan. future society studies. law and government. Several points can be concluded from the discussion presented in this essay. national development. adult education. nine from National Chengchi University and 52 from the Dong Hai University. Generally speaking. there are eight universities with sociology departments with graduate institutes. They are widely located in various departments. Downloaded from iss. although book publishing has suffered many weaknesses in a small community. mass media and culture studies. Most of them are lecturing in the framework of disciplines related to sociology and in related graduate institutes such as those of social welfare. sport and health and business management have also offered courses in sociology. there are more channels for journal publishing and the quality has improved along with recent government support to promote journal quality. On the one hand. There are over 400 (422 in 2009) students each year taking sociology degree courses in these eight sociology departments. As in Spain. sociology is one of the exam courses for government and education employees and for staff in many fields such as public. The remaining 63 percent of sociology teaching staff are distributed in 55 universities.166 International Sociology Review of Books 26(2) 2000. Readers are not restricted to those students in the university sociology departments and other sociology affiliated courses. There have been 88 PhD degrees offered by the universities in Taiwan: 27 from NTU. award degrees in sociology. As has been shown. Concluding remarks We have to examine sociological publications in Taiwan in terms of journal and book publishing. The audience for sociology publications is even broader. Especially in journal publication. social work. Book publication has also grown from textbook writing with little reference to the local social context to the publication of more research works in various fields of sociology in the Taiwanese context. social psychology. sociological thought and political and cultural studies. the sociological community and the audience for sociological work have also grown. 37 percent of the total community.com by Paul Lin on October 25. gender studies. Dong Hai University (266) and Soochow University (309). 2003). This has shown the maturing of the community in contributing to knowledge about contemporary Taiwanese society. Over 1400 students had received master’s degrees from these departments up to 2009. politics. sociology of science (Yeh.sagepub. Other departments and graduate institutes such as those of urban planning. ethnicity (Wang. National Chengchi University (224). 2012 . criminology. we have seen that both journal and book publications have grown in numbers and in quality. 2005). out of the total 150 universities in Taiwan. ethnology. there has been a great improvement in sociological publishing in Taiwan along with the institutionalization of the discipline during the last 50 years. social development.

social welfare. Taipei: National Science Council. National Social Science Research Report. for his kind advice. Berger B and Hansfried K (1974) Homeless Mind: Modernization and Consciousness. NSC95 . NSC94 . Durkheim and Max Weber.Li Acknowledgements 167 I would like to thank Devorah Kalekin-Fishman for her comments in writing this article.) Chang Y-H (2000c) Evaluation report of the development of sociology.003 B9414 . Chan T-S (2008) Making it Integrated: Organizational Networks in Taiwan’s Integrated-circuit Industry. Taiwanese Journal of Sociology 23: 103–139. (Text in Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and Social Work in Taiwan. Taiwanese Journal of Sociology 21: 1–20. commercial. New York: Anchor Books. London: Macmillan. New York: Anchor Books. Stanford.2. Giddens A (1973) Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx. Berger PL and Luckmann T (1967) The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Free Press. (Text in Chinese. (Text in Chinese. Los Angeles: JR Miller. Bottomore TB (1984) Sociology and Socialism. (Text in Chinese.) Coser L (1964) The Functions of Social Conflict.) Chang L-Y (2006) Report on Current Developing Research Issues in Sociology. Bogardus ES (1928) A History of Social Thought. Taipei: National Science Council.012 .) Chang HC (1974) Initial research on the aboriginals immigrants’ life adjustment in the Taipei area. Wen-hui. Professor Emeritus.) Chang Y-H (2000b) Ranking of journals related to sociology. (Text in Chinese. Taipei: Chu-liu Publisher. Taipei: Socio Publishing.H001 . New York: Vintage Books. Taiwan: Humanities and Social Sciences Newsletter Quarterly 3(1): 20–30. evaluation and academic development in the sociological community of sociology: A sociologist’s participant observation. or not-for-profit sectors.2. Berger P (1976) Pyramids of Sacrifice: Political Ethics and Social Change.) Chiu H-Y (1998) Contents of sociology curriculum and Taiwan society research. and social work in Taiwan. Social Welfare. Thought and Words 11(6) and 12(1).) Chang Y-H. Special thanks are extended to Tsai. (Text in Chinese. Bibliography Abreu AR de P (2003) A (strong?) voice from the South: Latin American sociology today.B9414 . Lu P-C and Hwang Y-J (1998) Ranking of Professional Journals in Sociology. New York: Anchor Books.com by Paul Lin on October 25. Taiwanese Journal of Sociology 23: 1–23. (Text in Chinese. International Sociology 23(5): 649–664.242 . Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public.) Chang Y-H (2000a) Publication.) Chiu H-Y and Chang L-Y (eds) (2005) Taiwan’s Social Problems. London: Palgrave Macmillan.sagepub. (Text in Chinese. Giddens A and Pierson C (1999) Conversations with Anthony Giddens Making Sense of Modernity.H001 . Durkheim E (1966) The Rules of Sociological Method. co-authored. Antikainen A (2008) Finnish academic publishing in sociology: A critical review. Berger P. 2012 . Downloaded from iss. (Text in Chinese. CA: Stanford University Press.242 . Berger P (1963) Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Free Press. Durkheim E (1933) The Division of Labor in Society. Current Sociology 51(1): 51–72.

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(Text in Chinese. est critique pour le développement de la discipline de même que pour ses activités de publication. Se analizan separadamente.) Résumé Cet article examine l’état actuel des publications universitaires en sociologie au Taiwan.) Wang J-H and Chiu H-Y (eds) (1999) Sociology and Taiwan.sagepub. (Text in Chinese.com by Paul Lin on October 25. (Text in Chinese. publicaciones de revistas y libros. National Dong Hwa University.Li 169 Wang F-C (2003) Ethnic Imagination in Contemporary Taiwan. argumento que la publicación de revistas así cómo la producción de libros ha aumentado dentro de la disciplina. Resumen Este artículo examina el estado actual de la publicación académica de sociología en Taiwán. Taipei: Socio Publishing. a-t-on argué. En una revisión crítica de reciente publicación en revistas y en libros publicados respectivamente. He is the author of Housing in Taiwan: Agency and Structure? (Ashgate. Esto.) Yeh C-C (2005) The Babel Tower of Ideas: Myths of Contemporary Sociology. es crítico para el desarrollo de la disciplina así como sus publicaciones. y esto se relaciona estrechamente a un ambiente académico cambiante. L’article passe d’abord brièvement en revue le développement de la sociologie au Taiwan. Taipei: Chu-liu Publisher. j’étudie le secteur commercial et le secteur universitaire. Biographical note William DH Li is Associate Professor and head of the Sociology and Public Administration. (Text in Chinese.) Weber M (1920) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Dans un compte-rendu critique des publications récentes respectivement dans des revues et dans des livres. je soutiens que les publications dans la presse aussi bien que dans l’édition de livres a augmenté et que cela est étroitement lié a un environnement universitaire en évolution. En cada tipo de publicación se revisa el sector comercial y el sector universitario. se ha argumentado. El artículo. Taipei: Shel Chi. Les publications dans des revues et dans des livres sont analysées séparément. 1998). Chinese translation Chan H-Y 1960. Pour chaque type de publication. Taipei: Socio Publishing. 2012 . Ce phénomène. ante todo. afin de montrer comment cette discipline progresse vers son institutionnalisation dans le pays. Downloaded from iss. proporciona una breve mirada del desarrollo de la sociología en Taiwán para mostrar cómo la disciplina está procediendo hacia la institucionalización en el país.