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# Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4

th
edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 1

Problem Solutions

1.1
(a) fcc: 8 corner atoms 1 8 / 1 = × atom
6 face atoms 3 2 / 1 = × atoms
Total of 4 atoms per unit cell
(b) bcc: 8 corner atoms 1 8 / 1 = × atom
1 enclosed atom =1 atom
Total of 2 atoms per unit cell
(c) Diamond: 8 corner atoms 1 8 / 1 = × atom
6 face atoms 3 2 / 1 = × atoms
4 enclosed atoms = 4 atoms
Total of 8 atoms per unit cell
_______________________________________

1.2
(a) Simple cubic lattice: r a 2 =
Unit cell vol ( )
3 3 3
8 2 r r a = = =
1 atom per cell, so atom vol ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
4
1
3
r t

Then
Ratio % 4 . 52 % 100
8
3
4
3
3
= ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
r t

(b) Face-centered cubic lattice
r
d
a a r d · = = ¬ = = 2 2
2
2 4
Unit cell vol ( )
3
3
3
2 16 2 2 r r a · = · = =
4 atoms per cell, so atom vol ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
4
4
3
r t

Then
Ratio
( )
% 74 % 100
2 16
3
4
4
3
3
= ×
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
r t

(c) Body-centered cubic lattice
r a a r d · = ¬ = =
3
4
3 4
Unit cell vol
3
3
3
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
· = = r a
2 atoms per cell, so atom vol ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
4
2
3
r t

Then
Ratio
( )
% 68 % 100
3
4
3
4
2
3
3
= ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
r t

(d) Diamond lattice
Body diagonal r a a r d · = ¬ = = =
3
8
3 8
Unit cell vol
3
3
3
8
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
r
a
8 atoms per cell, so atom vol ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
4
8
3
r t

Then
Ratio
( )
% 34 % 100
3
8
3
4
8
3
3
= ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
r t

_______________________________________

1.3
(a)
o
A a 43 . 5 = ; From Problem 1.2d,
r a · =
3
8

Then
( )
o
A
a
r 176 . 1
8
3 43 . 5
8
3
= = =
Center of one silicon atom to center of
nearest neighbor
o
A r 35 . 2 2 = =
(b) Number density
( )
22
3
8
10 5
10 43 . 5
8
× =
×
=
÷
cm
3 ÷

(c) Mass density

( ) ( )( )
23
22
10 02 . 6
09 . 28 10 5 . .
×
×
= = =
A
N
Wt At N
µ
33 . 2 = ¬ µ grams/cm
3

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1.4
(a) 4 Ga atoms per unit cell
Number density
( )
3
8
10 65 . 5
4
÷
×
=
¬Density of Ga atoms
22
10 22 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

4 As atoms per unit cell
¬Density of As atoms
22
10 22 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

(b) 8 Ge atoms per unit cell
Number density
( )
3
8
10 65 . 5
8
÷
×
=
¬Density of Ge atoms
22
10 44 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

1.5
From Figure 1.15
(a) ( )a
a
d 4330 . 0
2
3
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= ( )( )
o
A d 447 . 2 65 . 5 4330 . 0 = ¬
(b) ( )a
a
d 7071 . 0 2
2
= |
.
|

\
|
=
( )( )
o
A d 995 . 3 65 . 5 7071 . 0 = ¬ =
_______________________________________

1.6
° = ¬ = = |
.
|

\
|
74 . 54
2 3
2
3
2
2
2
2
sin
u u
a
a

° = ¬ 5 . 109 u
_______________________________________

1.7
(a) Simple cubic:
o
A r a 9 . 3 2 = =
(b) fcc:
o
A
r
a 515 . 5
2
4
= =
(c) bcc:
o
A
r
a 503 . 4
3
4
= =
(d) diamond:
( )
o
A
r
a 007 . 9
3
4 2
= =
_______________________________________

1.8
(a) ( ) ( )
B
r 2 035 . 1 2 2 035 . 1 2 + =

o
B
A r 4287 . 0 =

(b) ( )
o
A a 07 . 2 035 . 1 2 = =
(c) A-atoms: # of atoms 1
8
1
8 = × =
Density
( )
3
8
10 07 . 2
1
÷
×
=

23
10 13 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

B-atoms: # of atoms 3
2
1
6 = × =
Density
( )
3
8
10 07 . 2
3
÷
×
=

23
10 38 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

1.9
(a)
o
A r a 5 . 4 2 = =
# of atoms 1
8
1
8 = × =
Number density
( )
3
8
10 5 . 4
1
÷
×
=

22
10 097 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

Mass density
( )
A
N
Wt At N . .
= = µ

( )( )
23
22
10 02 . 6
5 . 12 10 0974 . 1
×
×
=
= 228 . 0 gm/cm
3

(b)
o
A
r
a 196 . 5
3
4
= =
# of atoms 2 1
8
1
8 = + ×
Number density
( )
3
8
10 196 . 5
2
÷
×
=

22
10 4257 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

Mass density
( )( )
23
22
10 02 . 6
5 . 12 10 4257 . 1
×
×
= = µ
296 . 0 = gm/cm
3

_______________________________________

1.10
From Problem 1.2, percent volume of fcc
atoms is 74%; Therefore after coffee is
ground,
Volume = 0.74 cm
3

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1.11
(b)
o
A a 8 . 2 0 . 1 8 . 1 = + =
(c) Na: Density
( )
( )
3
8
10 8 . 2
2 / 1
÷
×
=

22
10 28 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

Cl: Density
22
10 28 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

(d) Na: At. Wt. = 22.99
Cl: At. Wt. = 35.45
So, mass per unit cell

( ) ( )
23
23
10 85 . 4
10 02 . 6
45 . 35
2
1
99 . 22
2
1
÷
× =
×
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
Then mass density

( )
21 . 2
10 8 . 2
10 85 . 4
3
8
23
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
µ grams/cm
3

_______________________________________

1.12
(a) ( ) ( )
o
A a 8 8 . 1 2 2 . 2 2 3 = + =
Then
o
A a 62 . 4 =
Density of A:

( )
22
3
8
10 01 . 1
10 62 . 4
1
× =
×
=
÷
cm
3 ÷

Density of B:

( )
22
3
8
10 01 . 1
10 62 . 4
1
× =
×
=
÷
cm
3 ÷

(b) Same as (a)
(c) Same material
_______________________________________

1.13

( ) ( )
o
A a 619 . 4
3
8 . 1 2 2 . 2 2
=
+
=
(a) For 1.12(a), A-atoms
Surface density
( )
2
8
2
10 619 . 4
1 1
÷
×
= =
a

14
10 687 . 4 × = cm
2 ÷

For 1.12(b), B-atoms:
o
A a 619 . 4 =
Surface density
14
2
10 687 . 4
1
× = =
a
cm
2 ÷

For 1.12(a) and (b), Same material

(b) For 1.12(a), A-atoms;
o
A a 619 . 4 =
Surface density

2
1
2
a
=
14
10 315 . 3 × = cm
2 ÷

B-atoms;
Surface density

14
2
10 315 . 3
2
1
× = =
a
cm
2 ÷

For 1.12(b), A-atoms;
o
A a 619 . 4 =
Surface density

2
1
2
a
=
14
10 315 . 3 × = cm
2 ÷

B-atoms;
Surface density

14
2
10 315 . 3
2
1
× = =
a
cm
2 ÷

For 1.12(a) and (b), Same material
_______________________________________

1.14
(a) Vol. Density
3
1
o
a
=
Surface Density
2
1
2
o
a
=
(b) Same as (a)
_______________________________________

1.15
(i) (110) plane
(see Figure 1.10(b))

(ii) (111) plane
(see Figure 1.10(c))

(iii) (220) plane ¬ ( ) 0 , 1 , 1 ,
2
1
,
2
1
¬ |
.
|

\
|
·
Same as (110) plane and [110] direction
(iv) (321) plane ( ) 6 , 3 , 2
1
1
,
2
1
,
3
1
¬ |
.
|

\
|
¬
Intercepts of plane at
6 , 3 , 2 = = = s q p
[321] direction is perpendicular to
(321) plane

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1.16
(a)
( ) 313
1
1
,
3
1
,
1
1
¬ |
.
|

\
|

(b)
( ) 121
4
1
,
2
1
,
4
1
¬ |
.
|

\
|

_______________________________________

1.17
Intercepts: 2, 4, 3 ¬ |
.
|

\
|
¬
3
1
,
4
1
,
2
1

(634) plane
_______________________________________

1.18
(a)
o
A a d 28 . 5 = =
(b)
o
A
a
d 734 . 3
2
2
= =
(c)
o
A
a
d 048 . 3
3
3
= =
_______________________________________

1.19
(a) Simple cubic
(i) (100) plane:
Surface density
( )
2
8
2
10 73 . 4
1 1
÷
×
= =
a

14
10 47 . 4 × = cm
2 ÷

(ii) (110) plane:
Surface density
2
1
2
a
=

14
10 16 . 3 × = cm
2 ÷

(iii) (111) plane:
Area of plane bh
2
1
=
where
o
A a b 689 . 6 2 = =
Now
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
4
3
2
2
2 a
a
a h =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
So ( )
o
A h 793 . 5 73 . 4
2
6
= =

Area of plane
( )( )
8 8
10 79304 . 5 10 68923 . 6
2
1
÷ ÷
× × =

16
10 3755 . 19
÷
× = cm
2

Surface density
16
10 3755 . 19
6
1
3
÷
×
×
=

14
10 58 . 2 × = cm
2 ÷

(b) bcc
(i) (100) plane:
Surface density
14
2
10 47 . 4
1
× = =
a
cm
2 ÷

(ii) (110) plane:
Surface density
2
2
2
a
=

14
10 32 . 6 × = cm
2 ÷

(iii) (111) plane:
Surface density
16
10 3755 . 19
6
1
3
÷
×
×
=

14
10 58 . 2 × = cm
2 ÷

(c) fcc
(i) (100) plane:
Surface density
14
2
10 94 . 8
2
× = =
a
cm
2 ÷

(ii) (110) plane:
Surface density
2
2
2
a
=

14
10 32 . 6 × = cm
2 ÷

(iii) (111) plane:
Surface density
16
10 3755 . 19
2
1
3
6
1
3
÷
×
× + ×
=

15
10 03 . 1 × = cm
2 ÷

_______________________________________

1.20
(a) (100) plane: - similar to a fcc:
Surface density
( )
2
8
10 43 . 5
2
÷
×
=

14
10 78 . 6 × = cm
2 ÷

(b) (110) plane:
Surface density
( )
2
8
10 43 . 5 2
4
÷
×
=

14
10 59 . 9 × = cm
2 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(c) (111) plane:
Surface density
( )( )
2
8
10 43 . 5 2 3
2
÷
×
=

14
10 83 . 7 × = cm
2 ÷

_______________________________________

1.21

( )
o
A
r
a 703 . 6
2
37 . 2 4
2
4
= = =
(a) #/cm
3
( )
3
8
3
10 703 . 6
4
2
1
6
8
1
8
÷
×
=
× + ×
=
a

22
10 328 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

(b) #/cm
2
2
2
1
2
4
1
4
2
a
× + ×
=

( ) 2 10 703 . 6
2
2
8 ÷
×
=

14
10 148 . 3 × = cm
2 ÷

(c)
( )
o
A
a
d 74 . 4
2
2 703 . 6
2
2
= = =
(d) # of atoms 2
2
1
3
6
1
3 = × + × =
Area of plane: (see Problem 1.19)

o
A a b 4786 . 9 2 = =

o
A
a
h 2099 . 8
2
6
= =
Area
( )( )
8 8
10 2099 . 8 10 4786 . 9
2
1
2
1
÷ ÷
× × = = bh

15
10 8909 . 3
÷
× = cm
2

#/cm
2
15
10 8909 . 3
2
÷
×
=
=
14
10 14 . 5 × cm
2 ÷

( )
o
A
a
d 87 . 3
3
3 703 . 6
3
3
= = =
_______________________________________

1.22
Density of silicon atoms
22
10 5× = cm
3 ÷
and
4 valence electrons per atom, so
Density of valence electrons
23
10 2× = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

1.23
Density of GaAs atoms

( )
22
3
8
10 44 . 4
10 65 . 5
8
× =
×
=
÷
cm
3 ÷

An average of 4 valence electrons per atom,
So
Density of valence electrons

23
10 77 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

1.24
(a) % 10 % 100
10 5
10 5
3
22
17
÷
= ×
×
×

(b) % 10 4 % 100
10 5
10 2
6
22
15
÷
× = ×
×
×

_______________________________________

1.25
(a) Fraction by weight

( )( )
( )( )
7
22
16
10 542 . 1
06 . 28 10 5
82 . 10 10 2
÷
× =
×
×
~
(b) Fraction by weight

( )( )
( )( )
5
22
18
10 208 . 2
06 . 28 10 5
98 . 30 10
÷
× =
×
~
_______________________________________

1.26
Volume density
16
3
10 2
1
× = =
d
cm
3 ÷

So
6
10 684 . 3
÷
× = d cm
o
A d 4 . 368 = ¬
We have
o
o
A a 43 . 5 =
Then 85 . 67
43 . 5
4 . 368
= =
o
a
d

_______________________________________

1.27
Volume density
15
3
10 4
1
× = =
d
cm
3 ÷

So
6
10 30 . 6
÷
× = d cm
o
A d 630 = ¬
We have
o
o
A a 43 . 5 =
Then 116
43 . 5
630
= =
o
a
d

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 2

2.1
Sketch
_______________________________________

2.2
Sketch
_______________________________________

2.3
Sketch
_______________________________________

2.4
From Problem 2.2, phase t
x
e
ì
t
÷ =
2

= constant
Then
|
.
|

\
|
+ = = ¬ = ÷ ·
t
ì
e u e
ì
t
2
, 0
2
p
dt
dx
dt
dx

From Problem 2.3, phase t
x
e
ì
t
+ =
2

= constant
Then
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = = ¬ = + ·
t
ì
e u e
ì
t
2
, 0
2
p
dt
dx
dt
dx

_______________________________________

2.5

E
hc hc
h E = ¬ = = ì
ì
v
Gold: 90 . 4 = E eV ( )( )
19
10 6 . 1 90 . 4
÷
× = J
So,

( )( )
( )( )
5
19
10 34
10 54 . 2
10 6 . 1 90 . 4
10 3 10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
× ×
= ì cm
or
µ ì 254 . 0 = m
Cesium: 90 . 1 = E eV ( )( )
19
10 6 . 1 90 . 1
÷
× = J
So,

( )( )
( )( )
5
19
10 34
10 54 . 6
10 6 . 1 90 . 1
10 3 10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
× ×
= ì cm
or
µ ì 654 . 0 = m
_______________________________________

2.6
(a)
9
34
10 550
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
×
×
= =
ì
h
p

27
10 205 . 1
÷
× = kg-m/s

3
31
27
10 32 . 1
10 11 . 9
10 2045 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
÷
÷
m
p
u m/s
or
5
10 32 . 1 × = u cm/s
(b)
9
34
10 440
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
×
×
= =
ì
h
p

27
10 506 . 1
÷
× = kg-m/s

3
31
27
10 65 . 1
10 11 . 9
10 5057 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
÷
÷
m
p
u m/s
or
5
10 65 . 1 × = u cm/s
(c) Yes
_______________________________________

2.7
(a) (i)
( )( )( )
19 31
10 6 . 1 2 . 1 10 11 . 9 2 2
÷ ÷
× × = = mE p

25
10 915 . 5
÷
× = kg-m/s

9
25
34
10 12 . 1
10 915 . 5
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= =
p
h
ì m
or
o
A 2 . 11 = ì
(ii) ( )( )( )
19 31
10 6 . 1 12 10 11 . 9 2
÷ ÷
× × = p

24
10 87 . 1
÷
× = kg-m/s

10
24
34
10 54 . 3
10 8704 . 1
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= ì m
or
o
A 54 . 3 = ì
(iii) ( )( )( )
19 31
10 6 . 1 120 10 11 . 9 2
÷ ÷
× × = p

24
10 915 . 5
÷
× = kg-m/s

10
24
34
10 12 . 1
10 915 . 5
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= ì m
or
o
A 12 . 1 = ì

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b)
( )( )( )
19 27
10 6 . 1 2 . 1 10 67 . 1 2
÷ ÷
× × = p

23
10 532 . 2
÷
× = kg-m/s

11
23
34
10 62 . 2
10 532 . 2
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= ì m
or
o
A 262 . 0 = ì
_______________________________________

2.8
( ) 03885 . 0 0259 . 0
2
3
2
3
= |
.
|

\
|
= = kT E
avg
eV
Now

avg avg
mE p 2 =
( )( )( )
19 31
10 6 . 1 03885 . 0 10 11 . 9 2
÷ ÷
× × =
or

25
10 064 . 1
÷
× =
avg
p kg-m/s
Now

9
25
34
10 225 . 6
10 064 . 1
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= =
p
h
ì m
or

o
A 25 . 62 = ì
_______________________________________

2.9

p
p p
hc
h E
ì
v = =
Now

m
p
E
e
e
2
2
= and
2
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬ =
e
e
e
e
h
m
E
h
p
ì ì

Set
e p
E E = and
e p
ì ì 10 =
Then

2
2
10
2
1
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p e p
h
m
h
m
hc
ì ì ì

which yields

mc
h
p
2
100
= ì

100
2
2
100
2
mc
mc
h
hc hc
E E
p
p
= · = = =
ì

( )( )
100
10 3 10 11 . 9 2
2
8 31
× ×
=
÷

15
10 64 . 1
÷
× = J 25 . 10 = keV
_______________________________________

2.10
(a)
10
34
10 85
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
×
×
= =
ì
h
p

26
10 794 . 7
÷
× = kg-m/s

4
31
26
10 56 . 8
10 11 . 9
10 794 . 7
× =
×
×
= =
÷
÷
m
p
u m/s
or
6
10 56 . 8 × = u cm/s
( )( )
2
4 31 2
10 56 . 8 10 11 . 9
2
1
2
1
× × = =
÷
u m E

21
10 33 . 3
÷
× = J
or
2
19
21
10 08 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 334 . 3
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= E eV
(b) ( )( )
2
3 31
10 8 10 11 . 9
2
1
× × =
÷
E

23
10 915 . 2
÷
× = J
or
4
19
23
10 82 . 1
10 6 . 1
10 915 . 2
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= E eV
( )( )
3 31
10 8 10 11 . 9 × × = =
÷
u m p

27
10 288 . 7
÷
× = kg-m/s

8
27
35
10 09 . 9
10 288 . 7
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× ÷
×
×
= =
p
h
ì m
or
o
A 909 = ì
_______________________________________

2.11
(a)
( )( )
10
8 34
10 1
10 3 10 625 . 6
÷
÷
×
× ×
= = =
ì
v
hc
h E

15
10 99 . 1
÷
× = J
Now

19
15
10 6 . 1
10 99 . 1
÷
÷
×
×
= = ¬ · =
e
E
V V e E

4
10 24 . 1 × = V V 4 . 12 = kV
(b) ( )( )
15 31
10 99 . 1 10 11 . 9 2 2
÷ ÷
× × = = mE p

23
10 02 . 6
÷
× = kg-m/s
Then

11
23
34
10 10 . 1
10 02 . 6
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= =
p
h
ì m
or

o
A 11 . 0 = ì
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2.12

6
34
10
10 054 . 1
÷
÷
×
=
A
= A
x
p

28
10 054 . 1
÷
× = kg-m/s
_______________________________________

2.13
(a) (i)  = A A x p

26
10
34
10 783 . 8
10 12
10 054 . 1
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= Ap kg-m/s
(ii) p
m
p
dp
d
p
dp
dE
E A ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A · = A
2
2

m
p p
p
m
p A
= A · =
2
2

Now mE p 2 =
( )( )( )
19 31
10 6 . 1 16 10 9 2
÷ ÷
× × =

24
10 147 . 2
÷
× = kg-m/s
so
( )( )
31
26 24
10 9
10 783 . 8 10 1466 . 2
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
= AE

19
10 095 . 2
÷
× = J
or 31 . 1
10 6 . 1
10 095 . 2
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
(b) (i)
26
10 783 . 8
÷
× = Ap kg-m/s
(ii) ( )( )( )
19 28
10 6 . 1 16 10 5 2
÷ ÷
× × = p

23
10 06 . 5
÷
× = kg-m/s

( )( )
28
26 23
10 5
10 783 . 8 10 06 . 5
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
= AE

21
10 888 . 8
÷
× = J
or
2
19
21
10 55 . 5
10 6 . 1
10 888 . 8
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= AE eV
_______________________________________

2.14

32
2
34
10 054 . 1
10
10 054 . 1
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
=
A
= A
x
p

kg-m/s

1500
10 054 . 1
32 ÷
×
=
A
= A ¬ =
m
p
m p u u

36
10 7
÷
× = Au m/s
_______________________________________

2.15
(a)  = A A t E

( )( )
16
19
34
10 23 . 8
10 6 . 1 8 . 0
10 054 . 1
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= At s
(b)
10
34
10 5 . 1
10 054 . 1
÷
÷
×
×
=
A
= A
x
p

25
10 03 . 7
÷
× = kg-m/s
_______________________________________

2.16
(a) If ( ) t x,
1
+ and ( ) t x,
2
+ are solutions to
Schrodinger's wave equation, then

( )
( ) ( )
( )
t
t x
j t x x V
x
t x
m c
+ c
= + +
c
+ c
·
÷ ,
,
,
2
1
1
2
1
2 2

and

( )
( ) ( )
( )
t
t x
j t x x V
x
t x
m c
+ c
= + +
c
+ c
·
÷ ,
,
,
2
2
2
2
2
2 2

Adding the two equations, we obtain
( ) ( ) | | t x t x
x m
, ,
2
2 1
2
2 2
+ + +
c
c
·
÷

( ) ( ) ( ) | | t x t x x V , ,
2 1
+ + + +
( ) ( ) | | t x t x
t
j , ,
2 1
+ + +
c
c
= 
which is Schrodinger's wave equation. So
( ) ( ) t x t x , ,
2 1
+ + + is also a solution.

(b) If ( ) ( ) t x t x , ,
2 1
+ · + were a solution to
Schrodinger's wave equation, then we
could write
| | ( )| |
2 1 2 1
2
2 2
2
+ · + + + · +
c
c
·
÷
x V
x m

| |
2 1
+ · +
c
c
=
t
j
which can be written as

(
¸
(

¸

c
+ c
·
c
+ c
+
c
+ c
+ +
c
+ c
+
÷
x x x x m
2 1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2

( )| |
(
¸
(

¸

c
+ c
+ +
c
+ c
+ = + · + +
t t
j x V
1
2
2
1 2 1

Dividing by
2 1
+ · + , we find
(
¸
(

¸

c
+ c
c
+ c
+ +
+
c
+ c
·
+
+
c
+ c
·
+
÷
x x x x m
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2 1 1
2

( )
(
¸
(

¸

c
+ c
+
+
c
+ c
+
= +
t t
j x V
1
1
2
2
1 1

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Since
1
+ is a solution, then
( )
t
j x V
x m c
+ c
·
+
· = +
c
+ c
·
+
·
÷
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2

Subtracting these last two equations, we have

(
¸
(

¸

c
+ c
c
+ c
+ +
+
c
+ c
·
+
÷
x x x m
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
2

t
j
c
+ c
·
+
· =
2
2
1

Since
2
+ is also a solution, we have
( )
t
j x V
x m c
+ c
·
+
· = +
c
+ c
·
+
·
÷
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
2

Subtracting these last two equations, we obtain
( ) 0
2
2
2 1
2 1
2
= ÷
c
+ c
·
c
+ c
·
+ +
·
÷
x V
x x m

This equation is not necessarily valid, which
means that
2 1
+ + is, in general, not a solution
to Schrodinger's wave equation.
_______________________________________

2.17
1
2
cos
2
3
1
2
= |
.
|

\
|
}
+
÷
dx
x
A
t

( )
1
2
sin
2
3
1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
÷ t
tx x
A
1
2
1
2
3
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ A
so
2
1
2
= A
or
2
1
= A
_______________________________________

2.18
( ) 1 cos
2
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
=
}
+
÷
dx x n A t

( )
1
4
2 sin
2
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
÷ t
t
n
x n x
A
|
.
|

\
|
= =
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
2
1
1
4
1
4
1
2 2
A A
or 2 = A
_______________________________________

2.19
Note that 1
0
*
= + · +
}
·
dx
Function has been normalized.
(a) Now
dx
a
x
a
P
o
a
o o
2
4
0
exp
2
}
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
dx
a
x
a
o
a
o o
} |
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
4
0
2
exp
2

4
0
2
exp
2
2
o
a
o
o
o
a
x a
a
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
or
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
2
1
exp 1 1
4
2
exp 1
o
o
a
a
P
which yields
393 . 0 = P
(b)
dx
a
x
a
P
o
o
a
a
o o
2
2
4
exp
2
}
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
dx
a
x
a
o
o
a
a
o o
} |
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
2
4
2
exp
2

2
4
2
exp
2
2
o
o
a
a
o
o
o
a
x a
a
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
or
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ =
2
1
exp 1 exp 1 P
which yields
239 . 0 = P
(c)
dx
a
x
a
P
o
a
o o
2
0
exp
2
}
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
dx
a
x
a
o
a
o o
} |
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0
2
exp
2

o
a
o
o
o
a
x a
a 0
2
exp
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
( ) ( ) | | 1 2 exp 1 ÷ ÷ ÷ =
which yields
865 . 0 = P
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2.20
( ) dx x P
2
}
= ¢
(a) dx
x
a
a
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
}
2
cos
2
2
4 /
0
t

4 /
0
4
2
sin
2
2
a
a
a
x
x
a
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
t
t

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
a
a t
t
4
2
sin
2
4 2

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ |
.
|

\
|
=
t 4
1
8
2 a a
a

or 409 . 0 = P
(b) dx
a
x
a
P
a
a
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
t
2 /
4 /
2
cos
2

2 /
4 /
4
2
sin
2
2
a
a
a
a
x
x
a
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
t
t

( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
a
a
a
a
a t
t
t
t
4
2
sin
8 4
sin
4
2

(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ + =
t 4
1
8
1
0
4
1
2
or 0908 . 0 = P
(c) dx
a
x
a
P
a
a
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
+
÷
t
2
2 /
2 /
cos
2

2 /
2 /
4
2
sin
2
2
a
a
a
a
x
x
a
+
÷ (
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
t
t

( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
a
a
a
a
a t
t
t
t
4
sin
4 4
sin
4
2

or 1 = P
_______________________________________

2.21
(a) dx
a
x
a
P
a
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
t 2
sin
2
2
4 /
0

4 /
0
2
4
4
sin
2
2
a
a
a
x
x
a
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
t
t

( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
a
a
a t
t
8
sin
8
2

or 25 . 0 = P
(b) dx
a
x
a
P
a
a
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
t 2
sin
2
2
2 /
4 /

2 /
4 /
2
4
4
sin
2
2
a
a
a
a
x
x
a
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
t
t

( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
a
a
a
a
a t
t
t
t
8
sin
8 8
2 sin
4
2

or 25 . 0 = P
(c) dx
a
x
a
P
a
a
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
+
÷
t 2
sin
2
2
2 /
2 /

2 /
2 /
2
4
4
sin
2
2
a
a
a
a
x
x
a
+
÷
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
t
t

( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
a
a
a
a
a t
t
t
t
8
2 sin
4 8
2 sin
4
2

or 1 = P
_______________________________________

2.22
(a) (i)
4
8
12
10
10 8
10 8
=
×
×
= =
k
p
e
u m/s
or
6
10 =
p
u cm/s

9
8
10 854 . 7
10 8
2 2
÷
× =
×
= =
t t
ì
k
m
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

or
o
A 54 . 78 = ì
(ii) ( )( )
4 31
10 10 11 . 9
÷
× = = u m p

27
10 11 . 9
÷
× = kg-m/s
( )( )
2
4 31 2
10 10 11 . 9
2
1
2
1
÷
× = = u m E

23
10 555 . 4
÷
× = J
or
4
19
23
10 85 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 555 . 4
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= E eV
(b) (i)
4
9
13
10
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1
÷ =
× ÷
×
= =
k
p
e
u m/s
or
6
10 ÷ =
p
u cm/s

9
9
10 19 . 4
10 5 . 1
2 2
÷
× =
×
= =
t t
ì
k
m
or
o
A 9 . 41 = ì
(ii)
27
10 11 . 9
÷
× ÷ = p kg-m/s

4
10 85 . 2
÷
× = E eV
_______________________________________

2.23
(a) ( )
( ) t kx j
Ae t x
e + ÷
= + ,
(b) ( )( )
2 19
2
1
10 6 . 1 025 . 0 u m E = × =
÷

( )
2 31
10 11 . 9
2
1
u
÷
× =
so
4
10 37 . 9 × = u m/s
6
10 37 . 9 × = cm/s
For electron traveling in x ÷ direction,

6
10 37 . 9 × ÷ = u cm/s
( )( )
4 31
10 37 . 9 10 11 . 9 × ÷ × = =
÷
u m p

26
10 537 . 8
÷
× ÷ = kg-m/s

9
26
34
10 76 . 7
10 537 . 8
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= =
p
h
ì m

8
9
10 097 . 8
10 76 . 7
2 2
× =
×
= =
÷
t
ì
t
k m
1 ÷

( )( )
4 8
10 37 . 9 10 097 . 8 × × = · = u e k
or
13
10 586 . 7 × = e rad/s
_______________________________________

2.24
(a) ( )( )
4 31
10 5 10 11 . 9 × × = =
÷
u m p

26
10 555 . 4
÷
× = kg-m/s

8
26
34
10 454 . 1
10 555 . 4
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= =
p
h
ì m

8
8
10 32 . 4
10 454 . 1
2 2
× =
×
= =
÷
t
ì
t
k m
1 ÷

( )( )
4 8
10 5 10 32 . 4 × × = = u e k

13
10 16 . 2 × = rad/s
(b) ( )( )
6 31
10 10 11 . 9
÷
× = p

25
10 11 . 9
÷
× = kg-m/s

10
25
34
10 27 . 7
10 11 . 9
10 625 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= ì m

9
10
10 64 . 8
10 272 . 7
2
× =
×
=
÷
t
k m
1 ÷

( )( )
15 6 9
10 64 . 8 10 10 64 . 8 × = × = e rad/s
_______________________________________

2.25

( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
2
34 2
2
2 2 2
10 75 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
= =
t t n
ma
n
E
n

( )
21 2
10 0698 . 1
÷
× = n E
n
J
or

( )
19
21 2
10 6 . 1
10 0698 . 1
÷
÷
×
×
=
n
E
n

or ( )
3 2
10 686 . 6
÷
× = n E
n
eV
Then

3
1
10 69 . 6
÷
× = E eV

2
2
10 67 . 2
÷
× = E eV

2
3
10 02 . 6
÷
× = E eV
_______________________________________

2.26
(a)
( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
2
34 2
2
2 2 2
10 10 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
= =
t t n
ma
n
E
n

( )
20 2
10 018 . 6
÷
× = n J
or
( )
( ) 3761 . 0
10 6 . 1
10 018 . 6
2
19
20 2
n
n
E
n
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
eV
Then
376 . 0
1
= E eV
504 . 1
2
= E eV
385 . 3
3
= E eV
(b)
E
hc
A
= ì
( )( )
19
10 6 . 1 504 . 1 385 . 3
÷
× ÷ = AE

19
10 01 . 3
÷
× = J

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )( )
19
8 34
10 01 . 3
10 3 10 625 . 6
÷
÷
×
× ×
= ì

7
10 604 . 6
÷
× = m
or 4 . 660 = ì nm
_______________________________________

2.27
(a)
2
2 2 2
2ma
n
E
n
t 
=

( )
( )( )
2
2 3
2
2
34 2
3
10 2 . 1 10 15 2
10 054 . 1
10 15
÷ ÷
÷
÷
× ×
×
= ×
t n

( )
62 2 3
10 538 . 2 10 15
÷ ÷
× = × n
or
29
10 688 . 7 × = n
(b) 15
1
~
+ n
E mJ
(c) No
_______________________________________

2.28
For a neutron and 1 = n :

( )
( )( )
2
14 27
2
2
34
2
2 2
1
10 10 66 . 1 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷ ÷
÷
×
×
= =
t t
ma
E

13
10 3025 . 3
÷
× = J
or

6
19
13
1
10 06 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 3025 . 3
× =
×
×
=
÷
÷
E eV
For an electron in the same potential well:

( )
( )( )
2
14 31
2
2
34
1
10 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
×
×
=
t
E

10
10 0177 . 6
÷
× = J
or

9
19
10
1
10 76 . 3
10 6 . 1
10 0177 . 6
× =
×
×
=
÷
÷
E eV
_______________________________________

2.29
Schrodinger's time-independent wave
equation

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
2
2 2
2
= ÷ +
c
c
x x V E
m
x
x
¢
¢

We know that
( ) 0 = x ¢ for
2
a
x > and
2
a
x
÷
s
We have
( ) 0 = x V for
2 2
a
x
a +
< <
÷

so in this region

( )
( ) 0
2
2 2
2
= +
c
c
x
mE
x
x
¢
¢

The solution is of the form
( ) kx B kx A x sin cos + = ¢
where

2
2

mE
k =
Boundary conditions:
( ) 0 = x ¢ at
2
,
2
a
x
a
x
+
=
÷
=
First mode solution:
( ) x k A x
1 1 1
cos = ¢
where

2
2 2
1 1
2ma
E
a
k
 t t
= ¬ =
Second mode solution:
( ) x k B x
2 2 2
sin = ¢
where

2
2 2
2 2
2
4 2
ma
E
a
k
 t t
= ¬ =
Third mode solution:
( ) x k A x
3 3 3
cos = ¢
where

2
2 2
3 3
2
9 3
ma
E
a
k
 t t
= ¬ =
Fourth mode solution:
( ) x k B x
4 4 4
sin = ¢
where

2
2 2
4 4
2
16 4
ma
E
a
k
 t t
= ¬ =
_______________________________________

2.30
The 3-D time-independent wave equation in
cartesian coordinates for ( ) 0 , , = z y x V is:

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
, , , , , ,
z
z y x
y
z y x
x
z y x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c ¢ ¢ ¢

( ) 0 , ,
2
2
= + z y x
mE
¢

Use separation of variables, so let
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z Z y Y x X z y x = , , ¢
Substituting into the wave equation, we
obtain

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2
2
2
2
2
2
z
Z
XY
y
Y
XZ
x
X
YZ
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

0
2
2
= + XYZ
mE

Dividing by XYZ and letting
2
2
2

mE
k = , we
find
(1) 0
1 1 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= +
c
c
· +
c
c
· +
c
c
· k
z
Z
Z y
Y
Y x
X
X

We may set
0
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
= +
c
c
¬ ÷ =
c
c
· X k
x
X
k
x
X
X
x x

Solution is of the form
( ) ( ) ( ) x k B x k A x X
x x
cos sin + =
Boundary conditions: ( ) 0 0 0 = ¬ = B X
and ( )
a
n
k a x X
x
x
t
= ¬ = = 0
where .... 3 , 2 , 1 =
x
n
Similarly, let

2
2
2
1
y
k
y
Y
Y
÷ =
c
c
· and
2
2
2
1
z
k
z
Z
Z
÷ =
c
c
·
Applying the boundary conditions, we find

a
n
k
y
y
t
= , .... 3 , 2 , 1 =
y
n

a
n
k
z
z
t
= , ... 3 , 2 , 1 =
z
n
From Equation (1) above, we have
0
2 2 2 2
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ k k k k
z y x

or

2
2 2 2 2
2

mE
k k k k
z y x
= = + +
so that
( )
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
z y x n n n
n n n
ma
E E
z y x
+ + = ÷
t 

_______________________________________

2.31
(a)
( ) ( )
( ) 0 ,
2 , ,
2 2
2
2
2
= · +
c
c
+
c
c
y x
mE
y
y x
x
y x
¢
¢ ¢

Solution is of the form:
( ) y k x k A y x
y x
sin sin , · = ¢
We find

( )
y k x k Ak
x
y x
y x x
sin cos
,
· =
c

( )
y k x k Ak
x
y x
y x x
sin sin
,
2
2
2
· ÷ =
c
c ¢

( )
y k x k Ak
y
y x
y x y
cos sin
,
· =
c

( )
y k x k Ak
y
y x
y x y
sin sin
,
2
2
2
· ÷ =
c
c ¢

Substituting into the original equation, we
find:
(1) 0
2
2
2 2
= + ÷ ÷

mE
k k
y x

From the boundary conditions,
0 sin = a k A
x
, where
o
A a 40 =
So
a
n
k
x
x
t
= , ... , 3 , 2 , 1 =
x
n
Also 0 sin = b k A
y
, where
o
A b 20 =
So
b
n
k
y
y
t
= , ... , 3 , 2 , 1 =
y
n
Substituting into Eq. (1) above

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
2 b
n
a
n
m
E
y
x
n n
y x
t
t 

(b)Energy is quantized - similar to 1-D result.
There can be more than one quantum state
per given energy - different than 1-D result.
_______________________________________

2.32
(a) Derivation of energy levels exactly the
same as in the text
(b) ( )
2
1
2
2
2
2 2
2
n n
ma
E ÷ = A
t 

For 1 , 2
1 2
= = n n
Then

2
2 2
2
3
ma
E
t 
= A
(i) For
o
A a 4 =

( )
( )( )
2
10 27
2
2
34
10 4 10 67 . 1 2
10 054 . 1 3
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
= A
t
E

22
10 155 . 6
÷
× = J
or
3
19
22
10 85 . 3
10 6 . 1
10 155 . 6
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= AE eV

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(ii) For 5 . 0 = a cm

( )
( )( )
2
2 27
2
2
34
10 5 . 0 10 67 . 1 2
10 054 . 1 3
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
= A
t
E

36
10 939 . 3
÷
× = J
or

17
19
36
10 46 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 939 . 3
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
= AE eV
_______________________________________

2.33
(a) For region II, 0 > x

( )
( ) ( ) 0
2
2
2 2
2
2
= ÷ +
c
c
x V E
m
x
x
O
¢
¢

General form of the solution is
( ) ( ) ( ) x jk B x jk A x
2 2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
where
( )
O
V E
m
k ÷ =
2
2
2

Term with
2
B represents incident wave and
term with
2
A represents reflected wave.
Region I, 0 < x

( )
( ) 0
2
1
2 2
1
2
= +
c
c
x
mE
x
x
¢
¢

General form of the solution is
( ) ( ) ( ) x jk B x jk A x
1 1 1 1 1
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
where

2
1
2

mE
k =
Term involving
1
B represents the
transmitted wave and the term involving
1
A
represents reflected wave: but if a particle is
transmitted into region I, it will not be
reflected so that 0
1
= A .
Then
( ) ( ) x jk B x
1 1 1
exp ÷ = ¢
( ) ( ) ( ) x jk B x jk A x
2 2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
(b)
Boundary conditions:
(1) ( ) ( ) 0 0
2 1
= = = x x ¢ ¢
(2)
0
2
0
1
= = c
c
=
c
c
x x x x
¢ ¢

Applying the boundary conditions to the
solutions, we find

2 2 1
B A B + =

1 1 2 2 2 2
B k B k A k ÷ = ÷

Combining these two equations, we find

2
1 2
1 2
2
B
k k
k k
A ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=

2
1 2
2
1
2
B
k k
k
B ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
The reflection coefficient is

2
1 2
1 2
*
2 2
*
2 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
= =
k k
k k
B B
A A
R
The transmission coefficient is

( )
2
2 1
2 1
4
1
k k
k k
T R T
+
= ¬ ÷ =
_______________________________________

2.34
( ) ( ) x k A x
2 2 2
exp ÷ = ¢

( )
( ) x k
A A
x
P
2
*
2 2
2
2 exp ÷ = =
¢

where
( )
2
2
2

E V m
k
o
÷
=

( )( )( )
34
19 31
10 054 . 1
10 6 . 1 8 . 2 5 . 3 10 11 . 9 2
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ÷ ×
=

9
2
10 286 . 4 × = k m
1 ÷

(a) For
10
10 5 5
÷
× = =
o
A x m
( ) x k P
2
2 exp ÷ =
( )( ) | |
10 9
10 5 10 2859 . 4 2 exp
÷
× × ÷ =
0138 . 0 =
(b) For
10
10 15 15
÷
× = =
o
A x m
( )( ) | |
10 9
10 15 10 2859 . 4 2 exp
÷
× × ÷ = P

6
10 61 . 2
÷
× =
(c) For
10
10 40 40
÷
× = =
o
A x m
( )( ) | |
10 9
10 40 10 2859 . 4 2 exp
÷
× × ÷ = P

15
10 29 . 1
÷
× =
_______________________________________

2.35
( ) a k
V
E
V
E
T
o o
2
2 exp 1 16 ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
where
( )
2
2
2

E V m
k
o
÷
=

( )( )( )
34
19 31
10 054 . 1
10 6 . 1 1 . 0 0 . 1 10 11 . 9 2
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ÷ ×
=
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

or
2
k
9
10 860 . 4 × = m
1 ÷

(a) For
10
10 4
÷
× = a m
( )( ) | |
10 9
10 4 10 85976 . 4 2 exp
0 . 1
1 . 0
1
0 . 1
1 . 0
16
÷
× × ÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
~ T
0295 . 0 =
(b) For
10
10 12
÷
× = a m
( )( ) | |
10 9
10 12 10 85976 . 4 2 exp
0 . 1
1 . 0
1
0 . 1
1 . 0
16
÷
× × ÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
~ T

5
10 24 . 1
÷
× =
(c) u e N J
t
= , where
t
N is the density of
transmitted electrons.
1 . 0 = E eV
20
10 6 . 1
÷
× = J
( )
2 31 2
10 11 . 9
2
1
2
1
u u
÷
× = = m

5
10 874 . 1 × = ¬u m/s
7
10 874 . 1 × = cm/s
( )( )
7 19 3
10 874 . 1 10 6 . 1 10 2 . 1 × × = ×
÷ ÷
t
N

8
10 002 . 4 × =
t
N electrons/cm
3

Density of incident electrons,

10
8
10 357 . 1
0295 . 0
10 002 . 4
× =
×
=
i
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

2.36
( ) a k
V
E
V
E
T
O O
2
2 exp 1 16 ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
(a) For ( )
o
m m 067 . 0 =

( )
2
2
2

E V m
k
O
÷
=
( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
2
34
19 31
10 054 . 1
10 6 . 1 2 . 0 8 . 0 10 11 . 9 067 . 0 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
×
× ÷ ×
=
÷
÷ ÷

or

9
2
10 027 . 1 × = k m
1 ÷

Then
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
8 . 0
2 . 0
1
8 . 0
2 . 0
16 T
( )( ) | |
10 9
10 15 10 027 . 1 2 exp
÷
× × ÷ ×
or
138 . 0 = T
(b) For ( )
o
m m 08 . 1 =

2
k =

( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
2
34
19 31
10 054 . 1
10 6 . 1 2 . 0 8 . 0 10 11 . 9 08 . 1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
×
× ÷ ×
÷
÷ ÷

or

9
2
10 124 . 4 × = k m
1 ÷

Then
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
8 . 0
2 . 0
1
8 . 0
2 . 0
16 T
( )( ) | |
10 9
10 15 10 124 . 4 2 exp
÷
× × ÷ ×
or

5
10 27 . 1
÷
× = T
_______________________________________

2.37
( ) a k
V
E
V
E
T
o o
2
2 exp 1 16 ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
where
( )
2
2
2

E V m
k
o
÷
=

( )( ) ( )
34
19 6 27
10 054 . 1
10 6 . 1 10 1 12 10 67 . 1 2
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × × ÷ ×
=

14
10 274 . 7 × = m
1 ÷

(a)
( )( ) | |
14 14
10 10 274 . 7 2 exp
12
1
1
12
1
16
÷
× ÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
~ T
| | 548 . 14 exp 222 . 1 ÷ =

7
10 875 . 5
÷
× =
(b)
( )( )
7
10 875 . 5 10
÷
× = T
( ) | | a
14
10 274 . 7 2 exp 222 . 1 × ÷ =
( ) |
.
|

\
|
×
= ×
÷6
14
10 875 . 5
222 . 1
ln 10 274 . 7 2 a
or
14
10 842 . 0
÷
× = a m
_______________________________________

2.38
Region I ( ) 0 < x , 0 = V ;
Region II ( ) a x < < 0 ,
O
V V =
Region III ( ) a x > , 0 = V
(a) Region I:
( ) ( ) ( ) x jk B x jk A x
1 1 1 1 1
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
(incident) (reflected)

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

where

2
1
2

mE
k =
Region II:
( ) ( ) ( ) x k B x k A x
2 2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
where

( )
2
2
2

E V m
k
O
÷
=
Region III:
( ) ( ) ( ) x jk B x jk A x
1 3 1 3 3
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
(b)
In Region III, the
3
B term represents a
reflected wave. However, once a particle
is transmitted into Region III, there will
not be a reflected wave so that 0
3
= B .
(c) Boundary conditions:
At 0 = x : ¬ =
2 1
¢ ¢

2 2 1 1
B A B A + = +
¬ =
dx
d
dx
d
2 1
¢ ¢

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
B k A k B jk A jk ÷ = ÷
At a x = : ¬ =
3 2
¢ ¢
( ) ( ) a k B a k A
2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ +
( ) a jk A
1 3
exp =
¬ =
dx
d
dx
d
3 2
¢ ¢

( ) ( ) a k B k a k A k
2 2 2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ ÷
( ) a jk A jk
1 3 1
exp =
The transmission coefficient is defined as

*
1 1
*
3 3
A A
A A
T =
so from the boundary conditions, we want
to solve for
3
A in terms of
1
A . Solving
for
1
A in terms of
3
A , we find
( ) { ( ) ( ) | | a k a k k k
k k
jA
A
2 2
2
1
2
2
2 1
3
1
exp exp
4
÷ ÷ ÷
+
=
( ) ( ) | |} a k a k k jk
2 2 2 1
exp exp 2 ÷ + ÷
( ) a jk
1
exp ×
We then find

( )
( ) { ( ) | a k k k
k k
A A
A A
2
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
*
3 3 *
1 1
exp
4
÷ =
( )|
2
2
exp a k ÷ ÷
( ) ( ) | | }
2
2 2
2
2
2
1
exp exp 4 a k a k k k ÷ + +
We have

( )
2
2
2

E V m
k
O
÷
=
If we assume that E V
O
>> , then a k
2
will
be large so that
( ) ( ) a k a k
2 2
exp exp ÷ >>
We can then write

( )
( ) { ( ) | |
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
*
3 3 *
1 1
exp
4
a k k k
k k
A A
A A ÷ =
( ) | | }
2
2
2
2
2
1
exp 4 a k k k +
which becomes

( )
( ) ( ) a k k k
k k
A A
A A
2
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
*
3 3 *
1 1
2 exp
4
+ =
Substituting the expressions for
1
k and

2
k , we find

2
2
2
2
1
2

O
mV
k k = +
and

( )
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
2 2
2
2
2
1
2 2
 
mE E V m
k k
O

( )( ) E E V
m
O
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
2

( ) ( ) E
V
E
V
m
O
O
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
= 1
2
2
2

Then

( )
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
E
V
E
V
m
a k
mV
A A
A A
O
O
O
1
2
16
2 exp
2
2
2
2
2
2
*
3 3
*
1 1

( ) a k
V
E
V
E
A A
O O
2
*
3 3
2 exp 1 16 ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Finally,
( ) a k
V
E
V
E
A A
A A
T
O O
2
*
1 1
*
3 3
2 exp 1 16 ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
_____________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2.39
Region I: 0 = V

( )
( ) ¬ = +
c
c
0
2
1
2 2
1
2
x
mE
x
x
¢
¢

( ) ( ) ( ) x jk B x jk A x
1 1 1 1 1
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
incident reflected
where

2
1
2

mE
k =
Region II:
1
V V =

( ) ( )
( ) ¬ =
÷
+
c
c
0
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
x
V E m
x
x
¢
¢

( ) ( ) ( ) x jk B x jk A x
2 2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ + = ¢
transmitted reflected
where

( )
2
1
2
2

V E m
k
÷
=
Region III:
2
V V =

( ) ( )
( ) ¬ =
÷
+
c
c
0
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
x
V E m
x
x
¢
¢

( ) ( ) x jk A x
3 3 3
exp = ¢
transmitted
where

( )
2
2
3
2

V E m
k
÷
=
There is no reflected wave in Region III.
The transmission coefficient is defined as:

*
1 1
*
3 3
1
3
*
1 1
*
3 3
1
3
A A
A A
k
k
A A
A A
T · = · =
u
u

From the boundary conditions, solve for
3
A
in terms of
1
A . The boundary conditions are:
At 0 = x : ¬ =
2 1
¢ ¢

2 2 1 1
B A B A + = +
¬
c
c
=
c
c
x x
2 1
¢ ¢

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
B k A k B k A k ÷ = ÷
At a x = : ¬ =
3 2
¢ ¢
( ) ( ) a jk B a jk A
2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ +
( ) a jk A
3 3
exp =

¬
c
c
=
c
c
x x
3 2
¢ ¢

( ) ( ) a jk B k a jk A k
2 2 2 2 2 2
exp exp ÷ ÷
( ) a jk A k
3 3 3
exp =
But ¬ = t n a k 2
2

( ) ( ) 1 exp exp
2 2
= ÷ = a jk a jk
Then, eliminating
1
B ,
2
A ,
2
B from the
boundary condition equations, we find

( ) ( )
2
3 1
3 1
2
3 1
2
1
1
3
4 4
k k
k k
k k
k
k
k
T
+
=
+
· =
_______________________________________

2.40
(a) Region I: Since E V
O
> , we can write

( ) ( )
( ) 0
2
1
2 2
1
2
=
÷
÷
c
c
x
E V m
x
x
O
¢
¢

Region II: 0 = V , so

( )
( ) 0
2
2
2 2
2
2
= +
c
c
x
mE
x
x
¢
¢

Region III: 0
3
= ¬ · ÷ ¢ V
The general solutions can be written,
keeping in mind that
1
¢ must remain
finite for 0 < x , as
( ) ( ) x k B x
1 1 1
exp = ¢
( ) ( ) ( ) x k B x k A x
2 2 2 2 2
cos sin + = ¢
( ) 0
3
= x ¢
where

( )
2
1
2

E V m
k
O
÷
= and
2
2
2

mE
k =
(b) Boundary conditions
At 0 = x : ¬ =
2 1
¢ ¢
2 1
B B =

2 2 1 1
2 1
A k B k
x x
= ¬
c
c
=
c
c ¢ ¢

At a x = : ¬ =
3 2
¢ ¢
( ) ( ) 0 cos sin
2 2 2 2
= + a k B a k A
or
( ) a k A B
2 2 2
tan ÷ =
(c)

1
2
1
2 2 2 1 1
B
k
k
A A k B k
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬ =
and since
2 1
B B = , then

2
2
1
2
B
k
k
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

From ( ) a k A B
2 2 2
tan ÷ = , we can write
( ) a k B
k
k
B
2 2
2
1
2
tan
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
or
( ) a k
k
k
2
2
1
tan 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
This equation can be written as

(
(
¸
(

¸

· ·
÷
÷ = a
mE
E
E V
O
2
2
tan 1

or

(
(
¸
(

¸

· ÷ =
÷
a
mE
E V
E
O
2
2
tan

This last equation is valid only for specific
values of the total energy E . The energy
levels are quantized.
_______________________________________

2.41

( )
2 2 2
4
2 4 n
e m
E
o
o
n
 e
÷
=
t
(J)

( )
2 2 2
3
2 4 n
e m
o
o
 e
÷
=
t
(eV)

( )( )
( ) | | ( )
2
2
34
2
12
3
19 31
10 054 . 1 2 10 85 . 8 4
10 6 . 1 10 11 . 9
n
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× ×
× × ÷
=
t

or

2
58 . 13
n
E
n
÷
= (eV)
58 . 13 1
1
÷ = ¬ = E n eV
395 . 3 2
2
÷ = ¬ = E n eV
51 . 1 3
3
÷ = ¬ = E n eV
849 . 0 4
4
÷ = ¬ = E n eV
_______________________________________

2.42
We have

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
o o
a
r
a
exp
1 1
2 / 3
100
t
¢
and

*
100 100
2
4 ¢ ¢ t r P =

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
· · =
o o
a
r
a
r
2
exp
1 1
4
3
2
t
t
or

( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
· =
o
o
a
r
r
a
P
2
exp
4
2
3

To find the maximum probability

( )
0 =
dr
r dP

( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
o o
o
a
r
r
a
a
2
exp
2 4
2
3

¦
)
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
o
a
r
r
2
exp 2
which gives

o
o
a r
a
r
= ¬ +
÷
= 1 0
or
o
a r = is the radius that gives the greatest
probability.
_______________________________________

2.43

100
¢ is independent of u and | , so the wave
equation in spherical coordinates reduces to
( ) ( ) 0
2 1
2
2
2
= ÷ + |
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
· ¢
¢
r V E
m
r
r
r r
o

where
( )
r a m r
e
r V
o o o
2 2
4
 ÷
=
e
÷
=
t

For

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
o o
a
r
a
exp
1 1
2 / 3
100
t
¢
Then

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
c
c
o o o
a
r
a a r
exp
1 1 1
2 / 3
100
t
¢

so

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
÷
=
c
c
o o
a
r
r
a r
r exp
1 1
2
2 / 5
100 2
t
¢

We then obtain

2 / 5
100 2
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
o
a r
r
r
t
¢

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
o o o
a
r
a
r
a
r
r exp exp 2
2

Substituting into the wave equation, we have

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
÷
o o o o
a
r
a
r
a
r
r
a
r
exp exp 2
1 1
2
2 / 5
2
t

(
¸
(

¸

+ +
r a m
E
m
o o
o
2
2
2 

0 exp
1 1
2 / 3
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
o o
a
r
a
t

where

( )
2
2
2 2
4
1
2 2 4
o o o
o
a m
e m
E E

÷
=
e
÷
= =
t

Then the above equation becomes

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
o o o o
a
r
r
a r a
r
a
2
2
2 / 3
2
1
exp
1 1
t

0
2
2
2 2
2
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
+
r a m a m
m
o o o o
o
 

or

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
o o
a
r
a
exp
1 1
2 / 3
t

0
2 1 1 2
2 2
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
+ +
÷
×
r a a a r a
o o o o

which gives 0 = 0 and shows that
100
¢ is
indeed a solution to the wave equation.
_______________________________________

2.44
All elements are from the Group I column of
the periodic table. All have one valence
electron in the outer shell.
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 3

3.1
If
o
a were to increase, the bandgap energy
would decrease and the material would begin
to behave less like a semiconductor and more
like a metal. If
o
a were to decrease, the
bandgap energy would increase and the
material would begin to behave more like an
insulator.
_______________________________________

3.2
Schrodinger's wave equation is:

( )
( ) ( ) t x x V
x
t x
m
,
,
2
2
2 2
+ · +
c
+ c ÷

( )
t
t x
j
c
+ c
=
,

Assume the solution is of the form:
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = + t
E
kx j x u t x

exp ,
Region I: ( ) 0 = x V . Substituting the
assumed solution into the wave equation, we
obtain:
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
¹
´
¦
c
c ÷
t
E
kx j x jku
x m 

exp
2
2

( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+ t
E
kx j
x
x u

exp
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ · |
.
|

\
| ÷
= t
E
kx j x u
jE
j
 
 exp
which becomes
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
¹
´
¦ ÷
t
E
kx j x u jk
m 

exp
2
2
2

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+ t
E
kx j
x
x u
jk

exp 2

( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+ t
E
kx j
x
x u

exp
2
2

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = t
E
kx j x Eu

exp
This equation may be written as
( )
( ) ( )
( ) 0
2
2
2 2
2
2
= +
c
c
+
c
c
+ ÷ x u
mE
x
x u
x
x u
jk x u k

Setting ( ) ( ) x u x u
1
= for region I, the equation
becomes:

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0 2
1
2 2 1
2
1
2
= ÷ ÷ + x u k
dx
x du
jk
dx
x u d
o
where

2
2
2

mE
= o Q.E.D.
In Region II, ( )
O
V x V = . Assume the same
form of the solution:
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = + t
E
kx j x u t x

exp ,
Substituting into Schrodinger's wave
equation, we find:
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
¹
´
¦ ÷
t
E
kx j x u jk
m 

exp
2
2
2

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+ t
E
kx j
x
x u
jk

exp 2

( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+ t
E
kx j
x
x u

exp
2
2

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + t
E
kx j x u V
O

exp
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = t
E
kx j x Eu

exp
This equation can be written as:
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
x
x u
x
x u
jk x u k
c
c
+
c
c
+ ÷
( ) ( ) 0
2 2
2 2
= + ÷ x u
mE
x u
mV
O
 

Setting ( ) ( ) x u x u
2
= for region II, this
equation becomes

( ) ( )
dx
x du
jk
dx
x u d
2
2
2
2
2 +
( ) 0
2
2
2
2 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷ x u
mV
k
O

o
where again

2
2
2

mE
= o Q.E.D.
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.3
We have

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0 2
1
2 2 1
2
1
2
= ÷ ÷ + x u k
dx
x du
jk
dx
x u d
o
Assume the solution is of the form:
( ) ( ) | | x k j A x u ÷ = o exp
1

( ) | | x k j B + ÷ + o exp
The first derivative is

( )
( ) ( ) | | x k j A k j
dx
x du
÷ ÷ = o o exp
1

( ) ( ) | | x k j B k j + ÷ + ÷ o o exp
and the second derivative becomes

( )
( ) | | ( ) | | x k j A k j
dx
x u d
÷ ÷ = o o exp
2
2
1
2

( ) | | ( ) | | x k j B k j + ÷ + + o o exp
2

Substituting these equations into the
differential equation, we find
( ) ( ) | | x k j A k ÷ ÷ ÷ o o exp
2

( ) ( ) | | x k j B k + ÷ + ÷ o o exp
2

( ) { ( ) | | x k j A k j jk ÷ ÷ + o o exp 2
( ) ( ) | |} x k j B k j + ÷ + ÷ o o exp
( ) ( ) | | { x k j A k ÷ ÷ ÷ o o exp
2 2

( ) | |} 0 exp = + ÷ + x k j B o
Combining terms, we obtain
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2 2 2 2
2 2 o o o o ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ k k k k k
( ) | | x k j A ÷ × o exp
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2 2 2 2
2 2 o o o o ÷ ÷ + + + + ÷ + k k k k k
( ) | | 0 exp = + ÷ × x k j B o
We find that
0 0 = Q.E.D.
For the differential equation in ( ) x u
2
and the
proposed solution, the procedure is exactly
the same as above.
_______________________________________

3.4
We have the solutions
( ) ( ) | | x k j A x u ÷ = o exp
1

( ) | | x k j B + ÷ + o exp
for a x < < 0 and
( ) ( ) | | x k j C x u ÷ = | exp
2

( ) | | x k j D + ÷ + | exp
for 0 < < ÷ x b .
The first boundary condition is
( ) ( ) 0 0
2 1
u u =

which yields
0 = ÷ ÷ + D C B A
The second boundary condition is

0
2
0
1
= =
=
x x dx
du
dx
du

which yields
( ) ( ) ( )C k B k A k ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ | o o
( ) 0 = + + D k |
The third boundary condition is
( ) ( ) b u a u ÷ =
2 1

which yields
( ) | | ( ) | | a k j B a k j A + ÷ + ÷ o o exp exp
( )( ) | | b k j C ÷ ÷ = | exp
( )( ) | | b k j D ÷ + ÷ + | exp
and can be written as
( ) | | ( ) | | a k j B a k j A + ÷ + ÷ o o exp exp
( ) | | b k j C ÷ ÷ ÷ | exp
( ) | | 0 exp = + ÷ b k j D |
The fourth boundary condition is

b x a x dx
du
dx
du
÷ = =
=
2 1

which yields
( ) ( ) | | a k j A k j ÷ ÷ o o exp
( ) ( ) | | a k j B k j + ÷ + ÷ o o exp
( ) ( )( ) | | b k j C k j ÷ ÷ ÷ = | | exp
( ) ( )( ) | | b k j D k j ÷ + ÷ + ÷ | | exp
and can be written as
( ) ( ) | | a k j A k ÷ ÷ o o exp
( ) ( ) | | a k j B k + ÷ + ÷ o o exp
( ) ( ) | | b k j C k ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | exp
( ) ( ) | | 0 exp = + + + b k j D k | |
_______________________________________

3.5
(b) (i) First point: t o = a
Second point: By trial and error,
t o 729 . 1 = a
(ii) First point: t o 2 = a
Second point: By trial and error,
t o 617 . 2 = a
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.6
(b) (i) First point: t o = a
Second point: By trial and error,
t o 515 . 1 = a
(ii) First point: t o 2 = a
Second point: By trial and error,
t o 375 . 2 = a
_______________________________________

3.7
ka a
a
a
P cos cos
sin
= + ' o
o
o

Let y ka = , x a = o
Then
y x
x
x
P cos cos
sin
= + '
Consider
dy
d
of this function.
( ) | | { } y x x x P
dy
d
sin cos sin
1
÷ = + · '
÷

We find
( )( ) ( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
· + · ÷ '
÷ ÷
dy
dx
x x
dy
dx
x x P cos sin 1
1 2

y
dy
dx
x sin sin ÷ = ÷
Then
y x
x
x
x
x
P
dy
dx
sin sin
cos
sin
1
2
÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
'
For t n ka y = = , ... , 2 , 1 , 0 = n 0 sin = ¬ y
So that, in general,

( )
( ) dk
d
ka d
a d
dy
dx o o
= = = 0
And

2
2

mE
= o
So

dk
dE m mE
dk
d
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
2
2 / 1
2
2 2
2
1
 
o

This implies that

dk
dE
dk
d
= = 0
o
for
a
n
k
t
=
_______________________________________

3.8
(a) t o = a
1

t = · a
E m
o
2
1
2

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
2
2 2
1
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
= =
t t
a m
E
o

19
10 4114 . 3
÷
× = J
From Problem 3.5
t o 729 . 1
2
= a
t 729 . 1
2
2
2
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
2
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 729 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 0198 . 1
÷
× = J

1 2
E E E ÷ = A

19 18
10 4114 . 3 10 0198 . 1
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

19
10 7868 . 6
÷
× = J
or 24 . 4
10 6 . 1
10 7868 . 6
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
(b) t o 2
3
= a
t 2
2
2
3
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
3
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 3646 . 1
÷
× = J
From Problem 3.5,
t o 617 . 2
4
= a
t 617 . 2
2
2
4
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
4
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 617 . 2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 3364 . 2
÷
× = J

3 4
E E E ÷ = A

18 18
10 3646 . 1 10 3364 . 2
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

19
10 718 . 9
÷
× = J
or 07 . 6
10 6 . 1
10 718 . 9
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.9
(a) At t = ka , t o = a
1

t = · a
E m
o
2
1
2

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
1
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

19
10 4114 . 3
÷
× = J
At 0 = ka , By trial and error,
t o 859 . 0 = a
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 859 . 0
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
o
E

19
10 5172 . 2
÷
× = J

o
E E E ÷ = A
1

19 19
10 5172 . 2 10 4114 . 3
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

20
10 942 . 8
÷
× = J
or 559 . 0
10 6 . 1
10 942 . 8
19
20
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
(b) At t 2 = ka , t o 2
3
= a
t 2
2
2
3
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
3
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 3646 . 1
÷
× = J
At t = ka . From Problem 3.5,
t o 729 . 1
2
= a
t 729 . 1
2
2
2
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
2
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 729 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 0198 . 1
÷
× = J

2 3
E E E ÷ = A

18 18
10 0198 . 1 10 3646 . 1
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

19
10 4474 . 3
÷
× = J
or 15 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 4474 . 3
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
_______________________________________

3.10
(a) t o = a
1

t = · a
E m
o
2
1
2

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
1
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

19
10 4114 . 3
÷
× = J
From Problem 3.6, t o 515 . 1
2
= a
t 515 . 1
2
2
2
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
2
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 515 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

19
10 830 . 7
÷
× = J

1 2
E E E ÷ = A

19 19
10 4114 . 3 10 830 . 7
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

19
10 4186 . 4
÷
× = J
or 76 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 4186 . 4
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
(b) t o 2
3
= a
t 2
2
2
3
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
3
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 3646 . 1
÷
× = J
From Problem 3.6, t o 375 . 2
4
= a
t 375 . 2
2
2
4
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
4
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 375 . 2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 9242 . 1
÷
× = J

3 4
E E E ÷ = A

18 18
10 3646 . 1 10 9242 . 1
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

19
10 597 . 5
÷
× = J
or 50 . 3
10 6 . 1
10 597 . 5
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
_____________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.11
(a) At t = ka , t o = a
1

t = · a
E m
o
2
1
2

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
1
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

19
10 4114 . 3
÷
× = J
At 0 = ka , By trial and error,
t o 727 . 0 = a
o

t 727 . 0
2
2
= · a
E m
o o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 727 . 0
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
o
E

19
10 8030 . 1
÷
× = J

o
E E E ÷ = A
1

19 19
10 8030 . 1 10 4114 . 3
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

19
10 6084 . 1
÷
× = J
or 005 . 1
10 6 . 1
10 6084 . 1
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
(b) At t 2 = ka , t o 2
3
= a
t 2
2
2
3
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2
34 2
3
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 2
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 3646 . 1
÷
× = J
At t = ka , From Problem 3.6,
t o 515 . 1
2
= a
t 515 . 1
2
2
2
= · a
E m
o

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 34
2
34 2
2
10 2 . 4 10 11 . 9 2
10 054 . 1 515 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

19
10 830 . 7
÷
× = J

2 3
E E E ÷ = A

19 18
10 830 . 7 10 3646 . 1
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

19
10 816 . 5
÷
× = J
or 635 . 3
10 6 . 1
10 816 . 5
19
19
=
×
×
= A
÷
÷
E eV
_______________________________________

3.12
For 100 = T K,

( )( )
¬
+
×
÷ =
÷
100 636
100 10 73 . 4
170 . 1
2 4
g
E
164 . 1 =
g
E eV
200 = T K, 147 . 1 =
g
E eV
300 = T K, 125 . 1 =
g
E eV
400 = T K, 097 . 1 =
g
E eV
500 = T K, 066 . 1 =
g
E eV
600 = T K, 032 . 1 =
g
E eV
_______________________________________

3.13
The effective mass is given by

1
2
2
2
*
1
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
dk
E d
m

We have
( ) ( ) B curve
dk
E d
A curve
dk
E d
2
2
2
2
>
so that ( ) ( ) B curve m A curve m
* *
<
_______________________________________

3.14
The effective mass for a hole is given by

1
2
2
2
*
1
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
dk
E d
m
p

We have that
( ) ( ) B curve
dk
E d
A curve
dk
E d
2
2
2
2
>
so that ( ) ( ) B curve m A curve m
p p
* *
<
_______________________________________

3.15
Points A,B: ¬ < 0
dk
dE
velocity in -x direction
Points C,D: ¬ > 0
dk
dE
velocity in +x direction
Points A,D: ¬ < 0
2
2
dk
E d

negative effective mass
Points B,C: ¬ > 0
2
2
dk
E d

positive effective mass
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.16
For A:
2
k C E
i
=
At
10
10 08 . 0
+
× = k m
1 ÷
, 05 . 0 = E eV
Or ( )( )
21 19
10 8 10 6 . 1 05 . 0
÷ ÷
× = × = E J
So ( )
2
10
1
21
10 08 . 0 10 8 × = ×
÷
C

38
1
10 25 . 1
÷
× = ¬ C
Now
( )
( )
38
2
34
1
2
10 25 . 1 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷
÷
-
×
×
= =
C
m

31
10 44 . 4
÷
× = kg
or
o
m m ·
×
×
=
÷
÷
-
31
31
10 11 . 9
10 4437 . 4

o
m m 488 . 0 =
-

For B:
2
k C E
i
=
At
10
10 08 . 0
+
× = k m
1 ÷
, 5 . 0 = E eV
Or ( )( )
20 19
10 8 10 6 . 1 5 . 0
÷ ÷
× = × = E J
So ( )
2
10
1
20
10 08 . 0 10 8 × = ×
÷
C

37
1
10 25 . 1
÷
× = ¬ C
Now
( )
( )
37
2
34
1
2
10 25 . 1 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷
÷
-
×
×
= =
C
m

32
10 44 . 4
÷
× = kg
or
o
m m ·
×
×
=
÷
÷
-
31
32
10 11 . 9
10 4437 . 4

o
m m 0488 . 0 =
-

_______________________________________

3.17
For A:
2
2
k C E E ÷ = ÷
u

( )( ) ( )
2
10
2
19
10 08 . 0 10 6 . 1 025 . 0 × ÷ = × ÷
÷
C

39
2
10 25 . 6
÷
× = ¬ C

( )
( )
39
2
34
2
2
10 25 . 6 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷
÷
-
×
× ÷
=
÷
=
C
m

31
10 8873 . 8
÷
× ÷ = kg
or
o
m m ·
×
× ÷
=
÷
÷
-
31
31
10 11 . 9
10 8873 . 8

o
m m 976 . 0 ÷ ÷ =
-

For B:
2
2
k C E E ÷ = ÷
u

( )( ) ( )
2
10
2
19
10 08 . 0 10 6 . 1 3 . 0 × ÷ = × ÷
÷
C

38
2
10 5 . 7
÷
× = ¬ C

( )
( )
38
2
34
2
2
10 5 . 7 2
10 054 . 1
2
÷
÷
-
×
× ÷
=
÷
=
C
m

32
10 406 . 7
÷
× ÷ = kg
or
o
m m ·
×
× ÷
=
÷
÷
-
31
32
10 11 . 9
10 406 . 7

o
m m 0813 . 0 ÷ =
-

_______________________________________

3.18
(a) (i) v h E =
or
( )( )
34
19
10 625 . 6
10 6 . 1 42 . 1
÷
÷
×
×
= =
h
E
v

14
10 429 . 3 × = Hz
(ii)
14
10
10 429 . 3
10 3
×
×
= = =
v
ì
c
E
hc

5
10 75 . 8
÷
× = cm 875 = nm
(b) (i)
( )( )
34
19
10 625 . 6
10 6 . 1 12 . 1
÷
÷
×
×
= =
h
E
v

14
10 705 . 2 × = Hz
(ii)
14
10
10 705 . 2
10 3
×
×
= =
v
ì
c

4
10 109 . 1
÷
× = cm 1109 = nm
_______________________________________

3.19
(c) Curve A: Effective mass is a constant
Curve B: Effective mass is positive
around 0 = k , and is negative
around
2
t
± = k .
_______________________________________

3.20
( ) | |
O O
k k E E E ÷ ÷ = o cos
1

Then
( )( ) ( ) | |
O
k k E
dk
dE
÷ ÷ ÷ = o o sin
1

( ) | |
O
k k E ÷ + = o o sin
1

and
( ) | |
O
k k E
dk
E d
÷ = o o cos
2
1
2
2

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then

2
2
1
2
2
2 *
1 1
 
o E
dk
E d
m
o
k k
= · =
=

or

2
1
2
*
o E
m

=
_______________________________________

3.21
(a) ( ) | |
3 / 1
2 3 / 2
4
l t dn
m m m =
-

( ) ( ) | |
3 / 1 2 3 / 2
64 . 1 082 . 0 4
o o
m m =

o dn
m m 56 . 0 =
-

(b)
o o l t cn
m m m m m 64 . 1
1
082 . 0
2 1 2 3
+ = + =
-

o o
m m
6098 . 0 39 . 24
+ =

o cn
m m 12 . 0 =
-

_______________________________________

3.22
(a) ( ) ( ) | |
3 / 2
2 / 3 2 / 3
lh hh dp
m m m + =
-

( ) ( ) | |
3 / 2
2 / 3 2 / 3
082 . 0 45 . 0
o o
m m + =
| |
o
m · + =
3 / 2
02348 . 0 30187 . 0

o dp
m m 473 . 0 =
-

(b)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 3 2 / 3
lh hh
lh hh
cp
m m
m m
m
+
+
=
-

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
o
m ·
+
+
=
2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 3 2 / 3
082 . 0 45 . 0
082 . 0 45 . 0

o cp
m m 34 . 0 =
-

_______________________________________

3.23
For the 3-dimensional infinite potential well,
( ) 0 = x V when a x < < 0 , a y < < 0 , and
a z < < 0 . In this region, the wave equation
is:

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
, , , , , ,
z
z y x
y
z y x
x
z y x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c ¢ ¢ ¢

( ) 0 , ,
2
2
= + z y x
mE
¢

Use separation of variables technique, so let
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z Z y Y x X z y x = , , ¢
Substituting into the wave equation, we have

2
2
2
2
2
2
z
Z
XY
y
Y
XZ
x
X
YZ
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

0
2
2
= · + XYZ
mE

Dividing by XYZ , we obtain
0
2 1 1 1
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
= +
c
c
· +
c
c
· +
c
c
·

mE
z
Z
Z y
Y
Y x
X
X

Let
0
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
= +
c
c
¬ ÷ =
c
c
· X k
x
X
k
x
X
X
x x

The solution is of the form:
( ) x k B x k A x X
x x
cos sin + =
Since ( ) 0 , , = z y x ¢ at 0 = x , then ( ) 0 0 = X
so that 0 = B .
Also, ( ) 0 , , = z y x ¢ at a x = , so that
( ) 0 = a X . Then t
x x
n a k = where
... , 3 , 2 , 1 =
x
n
Similarly, we have

2
2
2
1
y
k
y
Y
Y
÷ =
c
c
· and
2
2
2
1
z
k
z
Z
Z
÷ =
c
c
·
From the boundary conditions, we find
t
y y
n a k = and t
z z
n a k =
where
... , 3 , 2 , 1 =
y
n and ... , 3 , 2 , 1 =
z
n
From the wave equation, we can write
0
2
2
2 2 2
= + ÷ ÷ ÷

mE
k k k
z y x

The energy can be written as
( )
2
2 2 2
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = =
a
n n n
m
E E
z y x n n n
z y x
t 

_______________________________________

3.24
The total number of quantum states in the
3-dimensional potential well is given
(in k-space) by
( )
3
3
2
a
dk k
dk k g
T
· =
t
t

where

2
2
2

mE
k =
We can then write

mE
k
2
=
Taking the differential, we obtain

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

dE
E
m
dE
E
m dk · · = · · · · =
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
 

Substituting these expressions into the density
of states function, we have
( ) dE
E
m mE a
dE E g
T
· · · |
.
|

\
|
=
2
1 2
2 3
3
  t
t

Noting that

t 2
h
= 
this density of states function can be
simplified and written as
( ) ( ) dE E m
h
a
dE E g
T
· · =
2 / 3
3
3
2
4t

Dividing by
3
a will yield the density of
states so that
( )
( )
E
h
m
E g · =
3
2 / 3
2 4t

_______________________________________

3.25
For a one-dimensional infinite potential well,

2
2
2 2
2
2
k
a
n E m
n
= =
-
t

Distance between quantum states
( ) ( )
a a
n
a
n k k
n n
t t t
= |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
+ = ÷
+
1
1

Now
( )
|
.
|

\
|
·
=
a
dk
dk k g
T
t
2

Now
E m k
n
-
· = 2
1

dE
E
m
dk
n
· · · =
-
2
2
1 1

Then
( ) dE
E
m a
dE E g
n
T
· · · =
-
2
2
1 2
 t

Divide by the "volume" a, so
( )
E
m
E g
n
-
· =
2 1
t 

So
( )
( )( )
( )( )
E
E g
31
34
10 11 . 9 067 . 0 2
10 054 . 1
1
÷
÷
×
·
×
=
t
( )
E
E g
18
10 055 . 1 ×
= m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

_______________________________________

3.26
(a) Silicon,
o n
m m 08 . 1 =
-

( )
( )
c
n
c
E E
h
m
E g ÷ =
-
3
2 / 3
2 4t

( )
dE E E
h
m
g
kT E
E
c
n
c
c
c
· ÷ =
}
+
-
2
3
2 / 3
2 4t

( )
( )
kT E
E
c
n
c
c
E E
h
m
2
2 / 3
3
2 / 3
3
2 2 4
+
-
÷ · · =
t

( )
( )
2 / 3
3
2 / 3
2
3
2 2 4
kT
h
m
n
· · =
-
t

( )( ) | |
( )
( )
2 / 3
3
34
2 / 3
31
2
3
2
10 625 . 6
10 11 . 9 08 . 1 2 4
kT · ·
×
×
=
÷
÷
t

( )( )
2 / 3 55
2 10 953 . 7 kT × =
(i) At 300 = T K, 0259 . 0 = kT eV
( )( )
19
10 6 . 1 0259 . 0
÷
× =

21
10 144 . 4
÷
× = J
Then ( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 55
10 144 . 4 2 10 953 . 7
÷
× × =
c
g

25
10 0 . 6 × = m
3 ÷

or
19
10 0 . 6 × =
c
g cm
3 ÷

(ii) At 400 = T K, ( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
300
400
0259 . 0 kT
034533 . 0 = eV
( )( )
19
10 6 . 1 034533 . 0
÷
× =

21
10 5253 . 5
÷
× = J
Then
( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 55
10 5253 . 5 2 10 953 . 7
÷
× × =
c
g

25
10 239 . 9 × = m
3 ÷

or
19
10 24 . 9 × =
c
g cm
3 ÷

(b) GaAs,
o n
m m 067 . 0 =
-

( )( ) | |
( )
( )
2 / 3
3
34
2 / 3
31
2
3
2
10 625 . 6
10 11 . 9 067 . 0 2 4
kT g
c
· ·
×
×
=
÷
÷
t

( )( )
2 / 3 54
2 10 2288 . 1 kT × =

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(i) At 300 = T K,
21
10 144 . 4
÷
× = kT J
( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 54
10 144 . 4 2 10 2288 . 1
÷
× × =
c
g

23
10 272 . 9 × = m
3 ÷

or
17
10 27 . 9 × =
c
g cm
3 ÷

(ii) At 400 = T K,
21
10 5253 . 5
÷
× = kT J
( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 54
10 5253 . 5 2 10 2288 . 1
÷
× × =
c
g

24
10 427 . 1 × = m
3 ÷

18
10 43 . 1 × =
c
g cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

3.27
(a) Silicon,
o p
m m 56 . 0 =
-

( )
( )
E E
h
m
E g
p
÷ =
-
u u
t
3
2 / 3
2 4

( )
dE E E
h
m
g
E
kT E
p
· ÷ =
}
÷
- u
u
u u
t
3
3
2 / 3
2 4

( )
( )
u
u
u
t
E
kT E
p
E E
h
m
3
2 / 3
3
2 / 3
3
2
2 4
÷
-
÷ |
.
|

\
| ÷
=

( )
( ) | |
2 / 3
3
2 / 3
3
3
2
2 4
kT
h
m
p
÷ |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
-
t

( )( ) | |
( )
( )
2 / 3
3
34
2 / 3
31
3
3
2
10 625 . 6
10 11 . 9 56 . 0 2 4
kT |
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
t

( )( )
2 / 3 55
3 10 969 . 2 kT × =
(i)At 300 = T K,
21
10 144 . 4
÷
× = kT J
( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 55
10 144 . 4 3 10 969 . 2
÷
× × =
u
g

25
10 116 . 4 × = m
3 ÷

or
19
10 12 . 4 × =
u
g cm
3 ÷

(ii)At 400 = T K,
21
10 5253 . 5
÷
× = kT J
( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 55
10 5253 . 5 3 10 969 . 2
÷
× × =
u
g

25
10 337 . 6 × = m
3 ÷

or
19
10 34 . 6 × =
u
g cm
3 ÷

(b) GaAs,
o p
m m 48 . 0 =
-

( )( ) | |
( )
( )
2 / 3
3
34
2 / 3
31
3
3
2
10 625 . 6
10 11 . 9 48 . 0 2 4
kT g |
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
t
u

( )( )
2 / 3 55
3 10 3564 . 2 kT × =

(i)At 300 = T K,
21
10 144 . 4
÷
× = kT J
( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 55
10 144 . 4 3 10 3564 . 2
÷
× × =
u
g

25
10 266 . 3 × = m
3 ÷

or
19
10 27 . 3 × =
u
g cm
3 ÷

(ii)At 400 = T K,
21
10 5253 . 5
÷
× = kT J
( ) ( ) | |
2 / 3
21 55
10 5253 . 5 3 10 3564 . 2
÷
× × =
u
g

25
10 029 . 5 × = m
3 ÷

or
19
10 03 . 5 × =
u
g cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

3.28
(a) ( )
( )
c
n
c
E E
h
m
E g ÷ =
-
3
2 / 3
2 4t

( )( ) | |
( )
c
E E ÷
×
×
=
÷
÷
3
34
2 / 3
31
10 625 . 6
10 11 . 9 08 . 1 2 4t

c
E E ÷ × =
56
10 1929 . 1
For
c
E E = ; 0 =
c
g
1 . 0 + =
c
E E eV;
46
10 509 . 1 × =
c
g m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

2 . 0 + =
c
E E eV;
46
10 134 . 2 × = m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

3 . 0 + =
c
E E eV;
46
10 614 . 2 × = m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

4 . 0 + =
c
E E eV;
46
10 018 . 3 × = m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

(b)
( )
E E
h
m
g
p
÷ =
-
u u
t
3
2 / 3
2 4

( )( ) | |
( )
E E ÷
×
×
=
÷
÷
u
t
3
34
2 / 3
31
10 625 . 6
10 11 . 9 56 . 0 2 4

E E ÷ × =
u
55
10 4541 . 4
For
u
E E = ; 0 =
u
g
1 . 0 ÷ =
u
E E eV;
45
10 634 . 5 × =
u
g m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

2 . 0 ÷ =
u
E E eV;
45
10 968 . 7 × = m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

3 . 0 ÷ =
u
E E eV;
45
10 758 . 9 × = m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

4 . 0 ÷ =
u
E E eV;
46
10 127 . 1 × = m
3 ÷
J
1 ÷

_______________________________________

3.29
(a)
( )
( )
68 . 2
56 . 0
08 . 1
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
= |
.
|

\
|
= =
-
-
p
n c
m
m
g
g
u

(b)
( )
( )
0521 . 0
48 . 0
067 . 0
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
= |
.
|

\
|
= =
-
-
p
n c
m
m
g
g
u

_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.30
Plot
_______________________________________

3.31
(a)
( ) ( )( )! 7 10 ! 7
! 10
! !
!
÷
=
÷
=
i i i
i
i
N g N
g
W

( )( )( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
120
1 2 3
8 9 10
! 3 ! 7
! 7 8 9 10
= = =
(b) (i)
( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( ) 1 2 ! 10
! 10 11 12
! 10 12 ! 10
! 12
=
÷
=
i
W
66 =
(ii)
( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
( )( )( )( )( ) 1 2 3 4 ! 8
! 8 9 10 11 12
! 8 12 ! 8
! 12
=
÷
=
i
W
495 =
_______________________________________

3.32
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
kT
E E
E f
F
exp 1
1

(a) kT E E
F
= ÷ , ( )
( )
¬
+
=
1 exp 1
1
E f
( ) 269 . 0 = E f
(b) kT E E
F
5 = ÷ , ( )
( )
¬
+
=
5 exp 1
1
E f
( )
3
10 69 . 6
÷
× = E f
(c) kT E E
F
10 = ÷ , ( )
( )
¬
+
=
10 exp 1
1
E f
( )
5
10 54 . 4
÷
× = E f
_______________________________________

3.33
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷ = ÷
kT
E E
E f
F
exp 1
1
1 1
or
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
= ÷
kT
E E
E f
F
exp 1
1
1
(a) kT E E
F
= ÷ , ( ) 269 . 0 1 = ÷ E f
(b) kT E E
F
5 = ÷ , ( )
3
10 69 . 6 1
÷
× = ÷ E f
(c) kT E E
F
10 = ÷ , ( )
5
10 54 . 4 1
÷
× = ÷ E f
_______________________________________

3.34
(a)
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
~
kT
E E
f
F
F
exp
c
E E = ;
6
10 32 . 9
0259 . 0
30 . 0
exp
÷
× =
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
F
f
2
kT
E
c
+ ;
( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
=
0259 . 0
2 0259 . 0 30 . 0
exp
F
f

6
10 66 . 5
÷
× =
kT E
c
+ ;
( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
=
0259 . 0
0259 . 0 30 . 0
exp
F
f

6
10 43 . 3
÷
× =
2
3kT
E
c
+ ;
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
=
0259 . 0
2 0259 . 0 3 30 . 0
exp
F
f

6
10 08 . 2
÷
× =
kT E
c
2 + ;
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
=
0259 . 0
0259 . 0 2 30 . 0
exp
F
f

6
10 26 . 1
÷
× =
(b)
(
¸
(

¸
÷
+
÷ = ÷
kT
E E
f
F
F
exp 1
1
1 1

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
~
kT
E E
F
exp
u
E E = ;
(
¸
(

¸
÷
= ÷
0259 . 0
25 . 0
exp 1
F
f
5
10 43 . 6
÷
× =
2
kT
E ÷
u
;
( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
= ÷
0259 . 0
2 0259 . 0 25 . 0
exp 1
F
f

5
10 90 . 3
÷
× =
kT E ÷
u
;
( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
= ÷
0259 . 0
0259 . 0 25 . 0
exp 1
F
f

5
10 36 . 2
÷
× =

2
3kT
E ÷
u
;

( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
= ÷
0259 . 0
2 0259 . 0 3 25 . 0
exp 1
F
f

5
10 43 . 1
÷
× =
kT E 2 ÷
u
;

( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
= ÷
0259 . 0
0259 . 0 2 25 . 0
exp 1
F
f

6
10 70 . 8
÷
× =
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.35
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ + ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E kT E
kT
E E
f
F c F
F
exp exp
and

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
= ÷
kT
E E
f
F
F
exp 1

( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷ ÷
=
kT
kT E E
F u
exp
So
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ + ÷
kT
E kT E
F c
exp

( )
(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷ ÷
=
kT
kT E E
F u
exp
Then kT E E E kT E
F F c
+ ÷ = ÷ +
u

Or
midgap
c
F
E
E E
E =
+
=
2
u

_______________________________________

3.36

2
2 2 2
2ma
n
E
n
t 
=
For 6 = n , Filled state

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2 2
2
34
6
10 12 10 11 . 9 2
6 10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 5044 . 1
÷
× = J
or 40 . 9
10 6 . 1
10 5044 . 1
19
18
6
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
E eV
For 7 = n , Empty state

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2 2
2
34
7
10 12 10 11 . 9 2
7 10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
×
=
t
E

18
10 048 . 2
÷
× = J
or 8 . 12
10 6 . 1
10 048 . 2
19
18
7
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
E eV
Therefore 8 . 12 40 . 9 < <
F
E eV
_______________________________________

3.37
(a) For a 3-D infinite potential well
( )
2
2 2 2
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
a
n n n
mE
z y x
t

For 5 electrons, the 5
th
electron occupies
the quantum state 1 , 2 , 2 = = =
z y x
n n n ; so
( )
2
2 2 2
2
5
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
a
n n n
m
E
z y x
t 

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2 2 2 2
2
34
10 12 10 11 . 9 2
1 2 2 10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
+ + ×
=
t

19
10 761 . 3
÷
× = J
or 35 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 761 . 3
19
19
5
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
E eV
For the next quantum state, which is empty,
the quantum state is 2 , 2 , 1 = = =
z y x
n n n .
This quantum state is at the same energy, so
35 . 2 =
F
E eV
(b) For 13 electrons, the 13
th
electron
occupies the quantum state
3 , 2 , 3 = = =
z y x
n n n ; so

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
2
10 31
2 2 2 2
2
34
13
10 12 10 11 . 9 2
3 2 3 10 054 . 1
÷ ÷
÷
× ×
+ + ×
=
t
E

19
10 194 . 9
÷
× = J
or 746 . 5
10 6 . 1
10 194 . 9
19
19
13
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
E eV
The 14
th
electron would occupy the quantum
state 3 , 3 , 2 = = =
z y x
n n n . This state is at
the same energy, so
746 . 5 =
F
E eV
_______________________________________

3.38
The probability of a state at E E E
F
A + =
1

being occupied is
( )
|
.
|

\
| A
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
kT
E
kT
E E
E f
F
exp 1
1
exp 1
1
1
1 1

The probability of a state at E E E
F
A ÷ =
2

being empty is
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷ = ÷
kT
E E
E f
F 2
2 2
exp 1
1
1 1

|
.
|

\
| A ÷
+
|
.
|

\
| A ÷
=
|
.
|

\
| A ÷
+
÷ =
kT
E
kT
E
kT
E
exp 1
exp
exp 1
1
1
or
( )
|
.
|

\
| A
+
= ÷
kT
E
E f
exp 1
1
1
2 2

so ( ) ( )
2 2 1 1
1 E f E f ÷ = Q.E.D.
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.39
(a) At energy
1
E , we want
01 . 0
exp 1
1
exp 1
1
exp
1
1
1 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
kT
E E
kT
E E
kT
E E
F
F F

This expression can be written as
01 . 0 1
exp
exp 1
1
1
= ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
kT
E E
kT
E E
F
F

or
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
F 1
exp 01 . 0 1
Then
( ) 100 ln
1
kT E E
F
+ =
or
kT E E
F
6 . 4
1
+ =
(b)
At kT E E
F
6 . 4 + = ,
( )
( ) 6 . 4 exp 1
1
exp 1
1
1
1
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
kT
E E
E f
F

which yields
( ) 01 . 0 00990 . 0
1
~ = E f
_______________________________________

3.40
(a)

( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
0259 . 0
50 . 5 80 . 5
exp exp
kT
E E
f
F
F

6
10 32 . 9
÷
× =
(b) ( ) 060433 . 0
300
700
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV

3
10 98 . 6
060433 . 0
30 . 0
exp
÷
× =
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
F
f
(c)
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
~ ÷
kT
E E
f
F
F
exp 1

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
25 . 0
exp 02 . 0

or 50
02 . 0
1 25 . 0
exp = =
(
¸
(

¸
+
kT

( ) 50 ln
25 . 0
=
kT

or

( )
( ) |
.
|

\
|
= = =
300
0259 . 0 063906 . 0
50 ln
25 . 0 T
kT
which yields 740 = T K
_______________________________________

3.41
(a)
( ) 00304 . 0
0259 . 0
0 . 7 15 . 7
exp 1
1
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
= E f
or 0.304%
(b) At 1000 = T K, 08633 . 0 = kT eV
Then
( ) 1496 . 0
08633 . 0
0 . 7 15 . 7
exp 1
1
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
= E f
or 14.96%
(c) ( ) 997 . 0
0259 . 0
0 . 7 85 . 6
exp 1
1
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
= E f
or 99.7%
(d)
At
F
E E = , ( )
2
1
= E f for all temperatures
_______________________________________

3.42
(a) For
1
E E =
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
~
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
kT
E E
kT
E E
E f
F
F
1
1
exp
exp 1
1
Then
( )
6
1
10 32 . 9
0259 . 0
30 . 0
exp
÷
× = |
.
|

\
| ÷
= E f
For
2
E E = , 82 . 0 30 . 0 12 . 1
2
= ÷ = ÷ E E
F
eV
Then
( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷ = ÷
0259 . 0
82 . 0
exp 1
1
1 1 E f
or

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ ÷ ~ ÷
0259 . 0
82 . 0
exp 1 1 1 E f

14
10 78 . 1
0259 . 0
82 . 0
exp
÷
× = |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
(b) For 4 . 0
2
= ÷ E E
F
eV,
72 . 0
1
= ÷
F
E E eV
At
1
E E = ,
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
0259 . 0
72 . 0
exp exp
1
kT
E E
E f
F

or
( )
13
10 45 . 8
÷
× = E f
At
2
E E = ,
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
= ÷
kT
E E
E f
F 2
exp 1
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0259 . 0
4 . 0
exp
or
( )
7
10 96 . 1 1
÷
× = ÷ E f
_______________________________________

3.43
(a) At
1
E E =
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
0259 . 0
30 . 0
exp exp
1
kT
E E
E f
F

or
( )
6
10 32 . 9
÷
× = E f
At
2
E E = , 12 . 1 3 . 0 42 . 1
2
= ÷ = ÷ E E
F
eV
So
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
= ÷
kT
E E
E f
F 2
exp 1
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0259 . 0
12 . 1
exp
or
( )
19
10 66 . 1 1
÷
× = ÷ E f
(b) For 4 . 0
2
= ÷ E E
F
,
02 . 1
1
= ÷
F
E E eV
At
1
E E = ,
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
0259 . 0
02 . 1
exp exp
1
kT
E E
E f
F

or
( )
18
10 88 . 7
÷
× = E f
At
2
E E = ,

( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
= ÷
kT
E E
E f
F 2
exp 1
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0259 . 0
4 . 0
exp
or ( )
7
10 96 . 1 1
÷
× = ÷ E f
_______________________________________

3.44
( )
1
exp 1
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+ =
kT
E E
E f
F

so

( )
( )
2
exp 1 1
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+ ÷ =
kT
E E
dE
E df
F

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
|
×
kT
E E
kT
F
exp
1

or

( )
2
exp 1
exp
1
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
kT
E E
kT
dE
E df
F
F

(a) At 0 = T K, For
( ) 0 0 exp = ¬ = · ÷ ¬ <
dE
df
E E
F

( ) 0 exp = ¬ +· = · + ¬ >
dE
df
E E
F

At ÷· = ¬ =
dE
df
E E
F

(b) At 300 = T K, 0259 . 0 = kT eV
For
F
E E << , 0 =
dE
df

For
F
E E >> , 0 =
dE
df

At
F
E E = ,

( )
( )
65 . 9
1 1
1
0259 . 0
1
2
÷ =
+
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
dE
df
(eV)
1 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(c) At 500 = T K, 04317 . 0 = kT eV
For
F
E E << , 0 =
dE
df

For
F
E E >> , 0 =
dE
df

At
F
E E = ,

( )
( )
79 . 5
1 1
1
04317 . 0
1
2
÷ =
+
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
dE
df
(eV)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

3.45
(a) At
midgap
E E = ,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
kT
E
kT
E E
E f
g F
2
exp 1
1
exp 1
1

Si: 12 . 1 =
g
E eV,
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
0259 . 0 2
12 . 1
exp 1
1
E f
or
( )
10
10 07 . 4
÷
× = E f

Ge: 66 . 0 =
g
E eV
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
0259 . 0 2
66 . 0
exp 1
1
E f
or
( )
6
10 93 . 2
÷
× = E f
GaAs: 42 . 1 =
g
E eV
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
0259 . 0 2
42 . 1
exp 1
1
E f
or
( )
12
10 24 . 1
÷
× = E f
(b) Using the results of Problem 3.38, the
answers to part (b) are exactly the same as
those given in part (a).
_______________________________________

3.46
(a)
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
f
F
F
exp

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
÷
kT
60 . 0
exp 10
8

or ( )
8
10 ln
60 . 0
+
=
kT

( )
032572 . 0
10 ln
60 . 0
8
= = kT eV
( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
300
0259 . 0 032572 . 0
T

so 377 = T K
(b)
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
÷
kT
60 . 0
exp 10
6

( )
6
10 ln
60 . 0
+
=
kT

( )
043429 . 0
10 ln
60 . 0
6
= = kT
( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
300
0259 . 0 043429 . 0
T

or 503 = T K
_______________________________________

3.47
(a) At 200 = T K,
( ) 017267 . 0
300
200
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
= =
kT
E E
f
F
F
exp 1
1
05 . 0
19 1
05 . 0
1
exp = ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
kT
E E
F

( ) ( ) ( ) 19 ln 017267 . 0 19 ln = = ÷ kT E E
F

05084 . 0 = eV
By symmetry, for 95 . 0 =
F
f ,
05084 . 0 ÷ = ÷
F
E E eV
Then ( ) 1017 . 0 05084 . 0 2 = = AE eV
(b) 400 = T K, 034533 . 0 = kT eV
For 05 . 0 =
F
f , from part (a),
( ) ( ) ( ) 19 ln 034533 . 0 19 ln = = ÷ kT E E
F

10168 . 0 = eV
Then ( ) 2034 . 0 10168 . 0 2 = = AE eV
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 4

4.1

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E
N N n
g
c i
exp
2
u

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
E
T
N N
g
O cO
exp
300
3
u

where
cO
N and
O
N
u
are the values at 300 K.

(a) Silicon
T (K) kT (eV)
i
n (cm
3 ÷
)
200
400
600
01727 . 0
03453 . 0
0518 . 0
4
10 68 . 7 ×
12
10 38 . 2 ×
14
10 74 . 9 ×

(b) Germanium (c) GaAs
T (K)
i
n (cm
3 ÷
)
i
n (cm
3 ÷
)
200
400
600
10
10 16 . 2 ×
14
10 60 . 8 ×
16
10 82 . 3 ×
38 . 1
9
10 28 . 3 ×
12
10 72 . 5 ×

_______________________________________

4.2
Plot
_______________________________________

4.3
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E
N N n
g
c i
exp
2
u

( ) ( )( )
3
19 19
2
11
300
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 10 5 |
.
|

\
|
× × = ×
T

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
300 0259 . 0
12 . 1
exp
T

( )
3
38 23
300
10 912 . 2 10 5 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× = ×
T

( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
T 0259 . 0
300 12 . 1
exp
By trial and error, 5 . 367 ~ T K

(b)
( )
25
2
12 2
10 5 . 2 10 5 × = × =
i
n
( )
( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
× =
T
T
0259 . 0
300 12 . 1
exp
300
10 912 . 2
3
38

By trial and error, 5 . 417 ~ T K
_______________________________________

4.4
At 200 = T K, ( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
300
200
0259 . 0 kT
017267 . 0 = eV
At 400 = T K, ( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
300
400
0259 . 0 kT
034533 . 0 = eV

( )
( )
( )
( )
17
2
2
2
10
2
2
10 025 . 3
10 40 . 1
10 70 . 7
200
400
× =
×
×
=
i
i
n
n

(
¸
(

¸
÷
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
017267 . 0
exp
034533 . 0
exp
300
200
300
400
3
3
g
g
E
E

(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
034533 . 0 017267 . 0
exp 8
g g
E E

( ) | | 9578 . 28 9139 . 57 exp 8 10 025 . 3
17
÷ = ×
g
E
or
( ) 1714 . 38
8
10 025 . 3
ln 9561 . 28
17
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
g
E
or 318 . 1 =
g
E eV

Now
( )
3
2
10
300
400
10 70 . 7 |
.
|

\
|
= ×
o co
N N
u

|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
034533 . 0
318 . 1
exp
( )( )
17 21
10 658 . 2 370 . 2 10 929 . 5
÷
× = ×
o co
N N
u

so
37
10 41 . 9 × =
o co
N N
u
cm
6 ÷

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.5

( )
( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
kT
kT
A n
B n
i
i
20 . 0
exp
90 . 0
exp
10 . 1
exp

For 200 = T K, 017267 . 0 = kT eV
For 300 = T K, 0259 . 0 = kT eV
For 400 = T K, 034533 . 0 = kT eV

(a) For 200 = T K,

( )
( )
6
10 325 . 9
017267 . 0
20 . 0
exp
÷
× = |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
A n
B n
i
i

(b) For 300 = T K,

( )
( )
4
10 43 . 4
0259 . 0
20 . 0
exp
÷
× = |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
A n
B n
i
i

(c) For 400 = T K,

( )
( )
3
10 05 . 3
034533 . 0
20 . 0
exp
÷
× = |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
A n
B n
i
i

_______________________________________

4.6
(a)
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷ ·
kT
E E
E E f g
F
c F c
exp

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷ ·
kT
E E
E E
c
c
exp

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
×
kT
E E
F c
exp
Let x E E
c
= ÷
Then |
.
|

\
| ÷
·
kT
x
x f g
F c
exp
To find the maximum value:

( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
÷
kT
x
x
dx
f g d
F c
exp
2
1
2 / 1

0 exp
1
2 / 1
= |
.
|

\
| ÷
· ÷
kT
x
x
kT

which yields

2 2
1
2 / 1
2 / 1
kT
x
kT
x
x
= ¬ =
The maximum value occurs at

2
kT
E E
c
+ =

(b)
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷ · ÷
kT
E E
E E f g
F
F
exp 1
u u

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷ ·
kT
E E
E E
u
u
exp

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
×
kT
E E
F u
exp
Let x E E = ÷
u

Then ( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
· ÷
kT
x
x f g
F
exp 1
u

To find the maximum value

( ) | |
0 exp
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
÷
kT
x
x
dx
d
dx
f g d
F u

Same as part (a). Maximum occurs at

2
kT
x =
or

2
kT
E E ÷ =
u

_______________________________________

4.7

( )
( )
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷
=
kT
E E
E E
kT
E E
E E
E n
E n
c
c
c
c
2
2
1
1
2
1
exp
exp

where
kT E E
c
4
1
+ = and
2
2
kT
E E
c
+ =
Then

( )
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
kT
kT
E n
E n
2 1
2
1
exp
2
4

( ) 5 . 3 exp 2 2
2
1
4 exp 2 2 ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
or

( )
( )
0854 . 0
2
1
=
E n
E n

_______________________________________

4.8
Plot
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.9
Plot
_______________________________________

4.10

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
*
*
ln
4
3
n
p
midgap Fi
m
m
kT E E
Silicon:
o p
m m 56 . 0
*
= ,
o n
m m 08 . 1
*
=
0128 . 0 ÷ = ÷
midgap Fi
E E eV
Germanium:
o p
m m 37 . 0
*
= ,
o n
m m 55 . 0
*
=
0077 . 0 ÷ = ÷
midgap Fi
E E eV
Gallium Arsenide:
o p
m m 48 . 0
*
= ,

o n
m m 067 . 0
*
=
0382 . 0 + = ÷
midgap Fi
E E eV
_______________________________________

4.11
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
c
midgap Fi
N
N
kT E E
u
ln
2
1

( ) ( ) kT kT 4952 . 0
10 8 . 2
10 04 . 1
ln
2
1
19
19
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=

T (K) kT (eV) (
midgap Fi
E E ÷ )(eV)
200
400
600
01727 . 0
03453 . 0
0518 . 0
0086 . 0 ÷
0171 . 0 ÷
0257 . 0 ÷

_______________________________________

4.12
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
*
*
ln
4
3
n
p
midgap Fi
m
m
kT E E
( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
21 . 1
70 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
4
3

63 . 10 ÷ ¬ meV
(b) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
= ÷
080 . 0
75 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
4
3
midgap Fi
E E
47 . 43 + ¬ meV
_______________________________________

4.13
Let ( ) = = K E g
c
constant
Then
( ) ( )dE E f E g n
F
E
c o
c
}
·
=
dE
kT
E E
K
c
E
F
}
·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
exp 1
1

( )
dE
kT
E E
K
c
E
F
}
·
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
~ exp
Let

kT
E E
c
÷
= q so that q d kT dE · =
We can write
( ) ( )
c F c F
E E E E E E ÷ + ÷ = ÷
so that

( ) ( )
( ) q ÷ ·
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
exp exp exp
kT
E E
kT
E E
F c F

The integral can then be written as

( )
( ) q q d
kT
E E
kT K n
F c
o
}
·
÷
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
· · =
0
exp exp
which becomes

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
· · =
kT
E E
kT K n
F c
o
exp
_______________________________________

4.14
Let ( ) ( )
c c
E E C E g ÷ =
1
for
c
E E >
Then
( ) ( )dE E f E g n
F
E
c o
c
}
·
=

( )
dE
kT
E E
E E
C
c
E
F
c
}
·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷
=
exp 1
1

( )
( )
dE
kT
E E
E E C
F
E
C
c
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷ ~
}
·
exp
1

Let

kT
E E
c
÷
= q so that q d kT dE · =
We can write
( ) ( )
F c c F
E E E E E E ÷ + ÷ = ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
C n
F c
o
exp
1

( )
( )
dE
kT
E E
E E
c
E
c
c
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷ ×
}
·
exp
or

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
C n
F c
o
exp
1

( )( ) ( ) | |( ) q q q d kT kT ÷ ×
}
·
exp
0

We find that
( ) ( )( ) 1 1 exp exp
0
0
+ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
·
·
}
q q q q q d
So
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
kT C n
F c
o
exp
2
1

_______________________________________

4.15
We have
|
|
.
|

\
|
=e
*
1
m
m
a
r
o
r
o

For germanium, 16 = e
r
,
o
m m 55 . 0
*
=
Then
( ) ( )( ) 53 . 0 29
55 . 0
1
16
1
= |
.
|

\
|
=
o
a r
or

o
A r 4 . 15
1
=
The ionization energy can be written as
( ) 6 . 13
2
*
|
|
.
|

\
|
e
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
o
o
m
m
E eV

( )
( ) 029 . 0 6 . 13
16
55 . 0
2
= ¬ = E eV
_______________________________________

4.16
We have
|
|
.
|

\
|
=e
*
1
m
m
a
r
o
r
o

For gallium arsenide, 1 . 13 = e
r
,

o
m m 067 . 0
*
=
Then
( ) ( )
o
A r 104 53 . 0
067 . 0
1
1 . 13
1
= |
.
|

\
|
=

The ionization energy is
( )
( )
( ) 6 . 13
1 . 13
067 . 0
6 . 13
2
2
*
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
e
e
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
o
o
m
m
E
or
0053 . 0 = E eV
_______________________________________

4.17
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
c
F c
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
15
19
10 7
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
2148 . 0 = eV
(b) ( )
F c g F
E E E E E ÷ ÷ = ÷
u

90518 . 0 2148 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = eV
(c)
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
N p
F
o
u
u
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
90518 . 0
exp 10 04 . 1
19

3
10 90 . 6 × = cm
3 ÷

(d) Holes
(e)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
Fi F
n
n
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
15
10 5 . 1
10 7
ln 0259 . 0
338 . 0 = eV
_______________________________________

4.18
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
F
p
N
kT E E
u
u
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
16
19
10 2
10 04 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
162 . 0 = eV
(b) ( )
u
E E E E E
F g F c
÷ ÷ = ÷
958 . 0 162 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = eV
(c) ( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× =
0259 . 0
958 . 0
exp 10 8 . 2
19
o
n

3
10 41 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(d)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
16
10 5 . 1
10 2
ln 0259 . 0
365 . 0 = eV
_______________________________________

4.19
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
c
F c
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
5
19
10 2
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
8436 . 0 = eV
( )
F c g F
E E E E E ÷ ÷ = ÷
u

8436 . 0 12 . 1 ÷ =
2764 . 0 = ÷
u
E E
F
eV
(b) ( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× =
0259 . 0
27637 . 0
exp 10 04 . 1
19
o
p

14
10 414 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

(c) p-type
_______________________________________

4.20
(a) ( ) 032375 . 0
300
375
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
× =
032375 . 0
28 . 0
exp
300
375
10 7 . 4
2 / 3
17
o
n

14
10 15 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

( ) 28 . 0 42 . 1 ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
F c g F
E E E E E
u

14 . 1 = eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
× =
032375 . 0
14 . 1
exp
300
375
10 7
2 / 3
18
o
p

3
10 99 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

(b) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= ÷
14
17
10 15 . 1
10 7 . 4
ln 0259 . 0
F c
E E
2154 . 0 = eV
( ) 2154 . 0 42 . 1 ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
F c g F
E E E E E
u

2046 . 1 = eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
2046 . 1
exp 10 7
18
o
p

2
10 42 . 4
÷
× = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.21
(a) ( ) 032375 . 0
300
375
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
× =
032375 . 0
28 . 0
exp
300
375
10 8 . 2
2 / 3
19
o
n

15
10 86 . 6 × = cm
3 ÷

( ) 28 . 0 12 . 1 ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
F c g F
E E E E E
u

840 . 0 = eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
× =
032375 . 0
840 . 0
exp
300
375
10 04 . 1
2 / 3
19
o
p

7
10 84 . 7 × = cm
3 ÷

(b)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
c
F c
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
15
19
10 862 . 6
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
2153 . 0 = eV
9047 . 0 2153 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = ÷
u
E E
F
eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
904668 . 0
exp 10 04 . 1
19
o
p

3
10 04 . 7 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.22
(a) p-type
(b) 28 . 0
4
12 . 1
4
= = = ÷
g
F
E
E E
u
eV

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
N p
F
o
u
u
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
28 . 0
exp 10 04 . 1
19

14
10 10 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
u
E E E E E
F g F c
÷ ÷ = ÷
84 . 0 28 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = eV

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
N n
F c
c o
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
84 . 0
exp 10 8 . 2
19

5
10 30 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.23
(a)
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
E E
n n
Fi F
i o
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸

× =
0259 . 0
22 . 0
exp 10 5 . 1
10

13
10 33 . 7 × = cm
3 ÷

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
E E
n p
F Fi
i o
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
22 . 0
exp 10 5 . 1
10

6
10 07 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

(b)
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
E E
n n
Fi F
i o
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸

× =
0259 . 0
22 . 0
exp 10 8 . 1
6

9
10 80 . 8 × = cm
3 ÷

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
E E
n p
F Fi
i o
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
22 . 0
exp 10 8 . 1
6

2
10 68 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.24
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
F
p
N
kT E E
u
u
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
15
19
10 5
10 04 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
1979 . 0 = eV
(b) ( )
u
E E E E E
F g F c
÷ ÷ = ÷
92212 . 0 19788 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = eV
(c) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
92212 . 0
exp 10 8 . 2
19
o
n

3
10 66 . 9 × = cm
3 ÷

(d) Holes
(e)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
15
10 5 . 1
10 5
ln 0259 . 0
3294 . 0 = eV
_______________________________________

4.25
( ) 034533 . 0
300
400
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV
( )
2 / 3
19
300
400
10 04 . 1 |
.
|

\
|
× =
u
N

19
10 601 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
2 / 3
19
300
400
10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× =
c
N

19
10 3109 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

( )( )
19 19 2
10 601 . 1 10 3109 . 4 × × =
i
n

(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
034533 . 0
12 . 1
exp

24
10 6702 . 5 × =

12
10 381 . 2 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
F
p
N
kT E E
u
u
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
15
19
10 5
10 601 . 1
ln 034533 . 0
2787 . 0 = eV
(b) 84127 . 0 27873 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = ÷
F c
E E eV
(c) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
034533 . 0
84127 . 0
exp 10 3109 . 4
19
o
n

9
10 134 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

(d) Holes
(e)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
12
15
10 381 . 2
10 5
ln 034533 . 0
2642 . 0 = eV
_______________________________________

4.26
(a) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
25 . 0
exp 10 7
18
o
p

14
10 50 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

17 . 1 25 . 0 42 . 1 = ÷ = ÷
F c
E E eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
17 . 1
exp 10 7 . 4
17
o
n

2
10 13 . 1
÷
× = cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) 034533 . 0 = kT eV
( )
2 / 3
18
300
400
10 7 |
.
|

\
|
× =
u
N

19
10 078 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
2 / 3
17
300
400
10 7 . 4 |
.
|

\
|
× =
c
N

17
10 236 . 7 × = cm
3 ÷

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
F
p
N
kT E E
u
u
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
14
19
10 50 . 4
10 078 . 1
ln 034533 . 0
3482 . 0 = eV
072 . 1 3482 . 0 42 . 1 = ÷ = ÷
F c
E E eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
034533 . 0
07177 . 1
exp 10 236 . 7
17
o
n

4
10 40 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

_____________________________________

4.27
(a) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
25 . 0
exp 10 04 . 1
19
o
p

14
10 68 . 6 × = cm
3 ÷

870 . 0 25 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = ÷
F c
E E eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
870 . 0
exp 10 8 . 2
19
o
n

4
10 23 . 7 × =
o
n cm
3 ÷

(b) 034533 . 0 = kT eV
( )
2 / 3
19
300
400
10 04 . 1 |
.
|

\
|
× =
u
N

19
10 601 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
2 / 3
19
300
400
10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× =
c
N

19
10 311 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
F
p
N
kT E E
u
u
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
14
19
10 68 . 6
10 601 . 1
ln 034533 . 0
3482 . 0 = eV
7718 . 0 3482 . 0 12 . 1 = ÷ = ÷
F c
E E eV

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
034533 . 0
77175 . 0
exp 10 311 . 4
19
o
n

9
10 49 . 8 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.28
(a) ( )
F c o
F N n q
t
2 / 1
2
=
For 2 kT E E
c F
+ = ,
5 . 0
2
= =
÷
=
kT
kT
kT
E E
c F
F
q
Then ( ) 0 . 1
2 / 1
~
F
F q
( )( ) 0 . 1 10 8 . 2
2
19
× =
t
o
n

19
10 16 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

(b) ( )
F c o
F N n q
t
2 / 1
2
=
( )( ) 0 . 1 10 7 . 4
2
17
× =
t

17
10 30 . 5 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.29
( )
F o
F N p q
t
u
' =
2 / 1
2

( ) ( )
F
F q
t
' × = ×
2 / 1
19 19
10 04 . 1
2
10 5
So ( ) 26 . 4
2 / 1
= '
F
F q
We find
kT
E E
F
F
÷
= ~ '
u
q 0 . 3
( )( ) 0777 . 0 0259 . 0 0 . 3 = = ÷
F
E E
u
eV
_______________________________________

4.30
(a) 4
4
= =
÷
=
kT
kT
kT
E E
c F
F
q
Then ( ) 0 . 6
2 / 1
~
F
F q
( )
F c o
F N n q
t
2 / 1
2
=
( )( ) 0 . 6 10 8 . 2
2
19
× =
t

20
10 90 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) ( )( ) 0 . 6 10 7 . 4
2
17
× =
t
o
n

18
10 18 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.31
For the electron concentration
( ) ( ) ( ) E f E g E n
F c
=
The Boltzmann approximation applies, so
( )
( )
c
n
E E
h
m
E n ÷ =
3
2 / 3
*
2 4t

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
×
kT
E E
F
exp
or
( )
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
h
m
E n
F c n
exp
2 4
3
2 / 3
*
t

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷ ÷
×
kT
E E
kT
E E
kT
c c
exp
Define

kT
E E
x
c
÷
=
Then
( ) ( ) ( ) x x K x n E n ÷ = ÷ exp
To find maximum ( ) ( ) x n E n ÷ , set

( )
( ) x x K
dx
x dn
÷

¸

= =
÷
exp
2
1
0
2 / 1

+ ( ) ( )
(
¸
(
÷ ÷ x x exp 1
2 / 1

or
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ =
÷
x x Kx
2
1
exp 0
2 / 1

which yields
kT E E
kT
E E
x
c
c
2
1
2
1
+ = ¬
÷
= =
For the hole concentration
( ) ( ) ( ) | | E f E g E p
F
÷ = 1
u

Using the Boltzmann approximation
( )
( )
E E
h
m
E p
p
÷ =
u
t
3
2 / 3
*
2 4

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
×
kT
E E
F
exp
or

( )
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
h
m
E p
F
p
u
t
exp
2 4
3
2 / 3
*

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷ ÷
×
kT
E E
kT
E E
kT
u u
exp
Define

kT
E E
x
÷
= '
u

Then
( ) ( ) x x K x p ' ÷ ' ' = ' exp
To find maximum value of ( ) ( ) x p E p ' ÷ , set

( )
0 =
'
'
x d
x dp
Using the results from above,
we find the maximum at
kT E E
2
1
÷ =
u

_______________________________________

4.32
(a) Silicon: We have

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
N n
F c
c o
exp
We can write
( ) ( )
F d d c F c
E E E E E E ÷ + ÷ = ÷
For
045 . 0 = ÷
d c
E E eV and kT E E
F d
3 = ÷ eV
we can write
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
× = 3
0259 . 0
045 . 0
exp 10 8 . 2
19
o
n
( ) ( ) 737 . 4 exp 10 8 . 2
19
÷ × =
or

17
10 45 . 2 × =
o
n cm
3 ÷

We also have

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
N p
F
o
u
u
exp
Again, we can write
( ) ( )
u u
E E E E E E
a a F F
÷ + ÷ = ÷
For
kT E E
a F
3 = ÷ and 045 . 0 = ÷
u
E E
a
eV
Then
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ × =
0259 . 0
045 . 0
3 exp 10 04 . 1
19
o
p
( ) ( ) 737 . 4 exp 10 04 . 1
19
÷ × =
or

16
10 12 . 9 × =
o
p cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) GaAs: assume 0058 . 0 = ÷
d c
E E eV
Then
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
× = 3
0259 . 0
0058 . 0
exp 10 7 . 4
17
o
n
( ) ( ) 224 . 3 exp 10 7 . 4
17
÷ × =
or

16
10 87 . 1 × =
o
n cm
3 ÷

Assume 0345 . 0 = ÷
u
E E
a
eV
Then
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
× = 3
0259 . 0
0345 . 0
exp 10 7
18
o
p
( ) ( ) 332 . 4 exp 10 7
18
÷ × =
or

16
10 20 . 9 × =
o
p cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.33
Plot
_______________________________________

4.34
(a)
15 15
10 3 10 15 4 × = ÷ × =
o
p cm
3 ÷

( )
4
15
2
10
10 5 . 7
10 3
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
=
o
n cm
3 ÷

(b)
16
10 3× = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
3
16
2
10
10 5 . 7
10 3
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
=
o
p cm
3 ÷

(c)
10
10 5 . 1 × = = =
i o o
n p n cm
3 ÷

(d) ( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
375
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
375 0259 . 0
300 12 . 1
exp

11
10 334 . 7 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

15
10 4× = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

( )
8
15
2
11
10 34 . 1
10 4
10 334 . 7
× =
×
×
=
o
n cm
3 ÷

(e) ( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
450
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
450 0259 . 0
300 12 . 1
exp

13
10 722 . 1 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

( )
2
13
2
14 14
10 722 . 1
2
10
2
10
× +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o
n

14
10 029 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
12
14
2
13
10 88 . 2
10 029 . 1
10 722 . 1
× =
×
×
=
o
p cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.35
(a)
15 15
10 10 4 ÷ × = ÷ =
d a o
N N p

15
10 3× = cm
3 ÷

( )
3
15
2
6 2
10 08 . 1
10 3
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

(b)
16
10 3× = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
4
16
2
6
10 08 . 1
10 3
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
=
o
p cm
3 ÷

(c)
6
10 8 . 1 × = = =
i o o
n p n cm
3 ÷

(d) ( )( )
3
18 17 2
300
375
10 0 . 7 10 7 . 4 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
375 0259 . 0
300 42 . 1
exp

8
10 580 . 7 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

15
10 4× = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

( )
2
15
2
8
10 44 . 1
10 4
10 580 . 7
× =
×
×
=
o
n cm
3 ÷

(e) ( )( )
3
18 17 2
300
450
10 0 . 7 10 7 . 4 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
450 0259 . 0
300 42 . 1
exp

10
10 853 . 3 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

14
10 = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
7
14
2
10
10 48 . 1
10
10 853 . 3
× =
×
=
o
p cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.36
(a) Ge:
13
10 4 . 2 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

(i)
2
2
2 2
i
d d
o
n
N N
n +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
( )
2
13
2
15 15
10 4 . 2
2
10 2
2
10 2
× +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
+
×
=
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

or

15
10 2× = ~
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
15
2
13 2
10 2
10 4 . 2
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p

11
10 88 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

(ii)
15 16
10 7 10 × ÷ = ÷ ~
d a o
N N p

15
10 3× = cm
3 ÷

( )
15
2
13 2
10 3
10 4 . 2
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n

11
10 92 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

(b) GaAs:
6
10 8 . 1 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

(i)
15
10 2× = ~
d o
N n cm
( )
3
15
2
6
10 62 . 1
10 2
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
=
o
p cm
3 ÷

(ii)
15
10 3× = ÷ ~
d a o
N N p cm
3 ÷

( )
3
15
2
6
10 08 . 1
10 3
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
=
o
n cm
3 ÷

(c) The result implies that there is only one
minority carrier in a volume of
3
10 cm
3
.
_______________________________________

4.37
(a) For the donor level

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
kT
E E N
n
F d d
d
exp
2
1
1
1

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
0259 . 0
20 . 0
exp
2
1
1
1

or

4
10 85 . 8
÷
× =
d
d
N
n

(b) We have
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
=
kT
E E
E f
F
F
exp 1
1

Now
( ) ( )
F c c F
E E E E E E ÷ + ÷ = ÷
or
245 . 0 + = ÷ kT E E
F

Then
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
0259 . 0
245 . 0
1 exp 1
1
E f
F

or
( )
5
10 87 . 2
÷
× = E f
F

_______________________________________

4.38
(a) ¬ >
d a
N N p-type
(b) Silicon:

13 13
10 1 10 5 . 2 × ÷ × = ÷ =
d a o
N N p
or

13
10 5 . 1 × =
o
p cm
3 ÷

Then

( )
7
13
2
10 2
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

Germanium:

2
2
2 2
i
d a d a
o
n
N N N N
p +
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷
=
( )
2
13
2
13 13
10 4 . 2
2
10 5 . 1
2
10 5 . 1
× +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
or

13
10 26 . 3 × =
o
p cm
3 ÷

Then

( )
13
13
2
13 2
10 76 . 1
10 264 . 3
10 4 . 2
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

Gallium Arsenide:

13
10 5 . 1 × = ÷ =
d a o
N N p cm
3 ÷

and

( )
216 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 8 . 1
13
2
6 2
=
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.39
(a) ¬ >
a d
N N n-type
(b)
15 15
10 2 . 1 10 2 × ÷ × = ÷ ~
a d o
N N n

14
10 8× = cm
3 ÷

( )
5
14
2
10 2
10 81 . 2
10 8
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(c) ( )
d a a o
N N N p ÷ + ' ~

15 15 15
10 2 10 2 . 1 10 4 × ÷ × + ' = ×
a
N

15
10 8 . 4 × = ' ¬
a
N cm
3 ÷

( )
4
15
2
10
10 625 . 5
10 4
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
=
o
n cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.40

( )
15
5
2
10 2
10 125 . 1
10 2
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

¬ >
o o
p n n-type
_______________________________________

4.41
( )( )
3
18 19 2
300
250
10 0 . 6 10 04 . 1 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
300 250 0259 . 0
66 . 0
exp

24
10 8936 . 1 × =

12
10 376 . 1 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

2 2
2 2
4
1
4
i o
o
i
o
i
o
n n
n
n
p
n
n = ¬ = =

i o
n n
2
1
= ¬
So
11
10 88 . 6 × =
o
n cm
3 ÷
,
Then
12
10 75 . 2 × =
o
p cm
3 ÷

2
2
2 2
i
a a
o
n
N N
p +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

2
12
2
10 752 . 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ×
a
N

24
2
10 8936 . 1
2
× +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
N

( )
2
12 24
2
10 752 . 2 10 5735 . 7
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ × ÷ ×
a
a
N
N

24
2
10 8936 . 1
2
× +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
N

so that
12
10 064 . 2 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.42
Plot
_______________________________________

4.43
Plot
_______________________________________

4.44
Plot
_______________________________________

4.45

2
2
2 2
i
a d a d
o
n
N N N N
n +
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷
=

2
10 2 . 1 10 2
10 1 . 1
14 14
14
× ÷ ×
= ×

2
2
14 14
2
10 2 . 1 10 2
i
n +
|
|
.
|

\
| × ÷ ×
+
( ) ( )
2
2
13
2
13 14
10 4 10 4 10 1 . 1
i
n + × = × ÷ ×

2 27 27
10 6 . 1 10 9 . 4
i
n + × = ×
so
13
10 74 . 5 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

13
14
27 2
10 3
10 1 . 1
10 3 . 3
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.46
(a) ¬ >
d a
N N p-type
Majority carriers are holes

16 16
10 5 . 1 10 3 × ÷ × = ÷ =
d a o
N N p

16
10 5 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

Minority carriers are electrons

( )
4
16
2
10 2
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

(b) Boron atoms must be added

d a a o
N N N p ÷ + ' =

16 16 16
10 5 . 1 10 3 10 5 × ÷ × + ' = ×
a
N
So
16
10 5 . 3 × = '
a
N cm
3 ÷

( )
3
16
2
10
10 5 . 4
10 5
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
=
o
n cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.47
(a) ¬ <<
i o
n p n-type
(b)
o
i
o
o
i
o
p
n
n
n
n
p
2 2
= ¬ =

o
n
( )
16
4
2
10
10 125 . 1
10 2
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= cm
3 ÷

¬electrons are majority carriers

4
10 2× =
o
p cm
3 ÷

¬holes are minority carriers
(c)
a d o
N N n ÷ =

15 16
10 7 10 125 . 1 × ÷ = ×
d
N
so
16
10 825 . 1 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.48

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
For Germanium
T (K) kT (eV)
i
n (cm
3 ÷
)
200
400
600
01727 . 0
03453 . 0
0518 . 0
10
10 16 . 2 ×
14
10 60 . 8 ×
16
10 82 . 3 ×

2
2
2 2
i
a a
o
n
N N
p +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = and

15
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷

T (K)
o
p (cm
3 ÷
) ( )
F Fi
E E ÷ (eV)
200
400
600
15
10 0 . 1 ×
15
10 49 . 1 ×
16
10 87 . 3 ×
1855 . 0
01898 . 0
000674 . 0

_______________________________________

4.49
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
d
c
F c
N
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
d
N
19
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
For
14
10 cm
3 ÷
, 3249 . 0 = ÷
F c
E E eV

15
10 cm
3 ÷
, 2652 . 0 = ÷
F c
E E eV

16
10 cm
3 ÷
, 2056 . 0 = ÷
F c
E E eV

17
10 cm
3 ÷
, 1459 . 0 = ÷
F c
E E eV

(b)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
d
Fi F
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
10
10 5 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
d
N

For
14
10 cm
3 ÷
, 2280 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV

15
10 cm
3 ÷
, 2877 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV

16
10 cm
3 ÷
, 3473 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV

17
10 cm
3 ÷
, 4070 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV
_______________________________________

4.50
(a)
2
2
2 2
i
d d
o
n
N N
n +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

15
10 05 . 1 05 . 1 × = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
2
15 15
10 5 . 0 10 05 . 1 × ÷ ×
( )
2
2
15
10 5 . 0
i
n + × =
so
28 2
10 25 . 5 × =
i
n
Now
( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
T
n
i

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
300 0259 . 0
12 . 1
exp
T

( )
3
38 28
300
10 912 . 2 10 25 . 5 |
.
|

\
|
× = ×
T

(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
T
973 . 12972
exp
By trial and error, 5 . 536 = T K
(b) At 300 = T K,

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
c
F c
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
= ÷
15
19
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
F c
E E
2652 . 0 = eV
At 5 . 536 = T K,
( ) 046318 . 0
300
5 . 536
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV
( )
2 / 3
19
300
5 . 536
10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× =
c
N

19
10 696 . 6 × = cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
c
F c
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= ÷
15
19
10 05 . 1
10 696 . 6
ln 046318 . 0
F c
E E
5124 . 0 = eV
then ( ) 2472 . 0 = ÷ A
F c
E E eV
(c) Closer to the intrinsic energy level.
_______________________________________

4.51

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
At 200 = T K, 017267 . 0 = kT eV
400 = T K, 034533 . 0 = kT eV
600 = T K, 0518 . 0 = kT eV

At 200 = T K,
( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
200
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
017267 . 0
12 . 1
exp

4
10 638 . 7 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

At 400 = T K,
( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
400
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
034533 . 0
12 . 1
exp

12
10 381 . 2 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

At 600 = T K,
( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
600
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n

(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
0518 . 0
12 . 1
exp

14
10 740 . 9 × = ¬
i
n cm
3 ÷

At 200 = T K and 400 = T K,

15
10 3× = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

At 600 = T K,

2
2
2 2
i
a a
o
n
N N
p +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
( )
2
14
2
15 15
10 740 . 9
2
10 3
2
10 3
× +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
+
×
=

15
10 288 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

Then, 200 = T K, 4212 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
400 = T K, 2465 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
600 = T K, 0630 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
_______________________________________

4.52
(a)
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
6
10 8 . 1
ln 0259 . 0 ln
a
i
a
F Fi
N
n
N
kT E E
For
14
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 4619 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV

15
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 5215 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV

16
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 5811 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV

17
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 6408 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
(b)
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
a a
F
N N
N
kT E E
18
10 0 . 7
ln 0259 . 0 ln
u
u

For
14
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 2889 . 0 = ÷
u
E E
F
eV

15
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 2293 . 0 = ÷
u
E E
F
eV

16
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 1697 . 0 = ÷
u
E E
F
eV

17
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, 1100 . 0 = ÷
u
E E
F
eV
_______________________________________

4.53
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
*
*
ln
4
3
n
p
midgap Fi
m
m
kT E E
( ) ( ) 10 ln 0259 . 0
4
3
=
or
0447 . 0 + = ÷
midgap Fi
E E eV
(b) Impurity atoms to be added so
45 . 0 = ÷
F midgap
E E eV
(i) p-type, so add acceptor atoms
(ii) 4947 . 0 45 . 0 0447 . 0 = + = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
Then

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
n p
F Fi
i o
exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
0259 . 0
4947 . 0
exp 10
5

or

13
10 97 . 1 × = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.54

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
= ÷ =
kT
E E
N N N n
F c
c a d o
exp
so
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× + × =
0259 . 0
215 . 0
exp 10 8 . 2 10 5
19 15
d
N

15 15
10 95 . 6 10 5 × + × =
or

16
10 2 . 1 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.55
(a) Silicon
(i)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
d
c
F c
N
N
kT E E ln
( ) 2188 . 0
10 6
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
15
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= eV
(ii) 1929 . 0 0259 . 0 2188 . 0 = ÷ = ÷
F c
E E eV

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
N N
F c
c d
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
1929 . 0
exp 10 8 . 2
19

16
10 631 . 1 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷ 15
10 6× + ' =
d
N

16
10 031 . 1 × = ' ¬
d
N cm
3 ÷
donor atoms
(b) GaAs
(i) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
= ÷
15
17
10
10 7 . 4
ln 0259 . 0
F c
E E
15936 . 0 = eV
(ii) 13346 . 0 0259 . 0 15936 . 0 = ÷ = ÷
F c
E E eV
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
× =
0259 . 0
13346 . 0
exp 10 7 . 4
17
d
N

15
10 718 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷ 15
10 + ' =
d
N

15
10 718 . 1 × = ' ¬
d
N cm
3 ÷
donor atoms
_______________________________________

4.56
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
a
F Fi
N
N
kT E E
u
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
16
19
10 2
10 04 . 1
ln 0259 . 0 1620 . 0 = eV

(b)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
d
c
Fi F
N
N
kT E E ln
( ) 1876 . 0
10 2
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
16
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= eV
(c) For part (a);

16
10 2× =
o
p cm
3 ÷

( )
16
2
10 2
10 2
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n

4
10 125 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

For part (b):

16
10 2× =
o
n cm
3 ÷

( )
16
2
10 2
10 2
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p

4
10 125 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.57

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
E E
n n
Fi F
i o
exp
( )
(
¸
(

¸

× =
0259 . 0
55 . 0
exp 10 8 . 1
6

15
10 0 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

a d o
N N n ÷ =

a
N ÷ × = ×
15 15
10 7 10 3

15
10 4× = ¬
a
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

4.58
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
( ) 3161 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 3
ln 0259 . 0
10
15
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= eV
(b)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
Fi F
n
n
kT E E ln
( ) 3758 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 3
ln 0259 . 0
10
16
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= eV
(c)
Fi F
E E =

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(d)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
|
.
|

\
|
=
11
15
10 334 . 7
10 4
ln
300
375
0259 . 0
2786 . 0 = eV
(e)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
Fi F
n
n
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
|
.
|

\
|
=
13
14
10 722 . 1
10 029 . 1
ln
300
450
0259 . 0
06945 . 0 = eV
_______________________________________

4.59
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
o
F
p
N
kT E E
u
u
ln
( ) 2009 . 0
10 3
10 0 . 7
ln 0259 . 0
15
18
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= eV
(b) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= ÷
÷4
18
10 08 . 1
10 0 . 7
ln 0259 . 0
u
E E
F

360 . 1 = eV
(c) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= ÷
6
18
10 8 . 1
10 0 . 7
ln 0259 . 0
u
E E
F

7508 . 0 = eV
(d) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
= ÷
300
375
0259 . 0
u
E E
F

( )( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
×
15
2 / 3 18
10 4
300 375 10 0 . 7
ln
2526 . 0 = eV
(e) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
= ÷
300
450
0259 . 0
u
E E
F

( )( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
×
7
2 / 3 18
10 48 . 1
300 450 10 0 . 7
ln
068 . 1 = eV
_______________________________________

4.60
n-type

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
Fi F
n
n
kT E E ln
( ) 3504 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 125 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
10
16
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= eV
______________________________________

4.61

2
2
2 2
i
a a
o
n
N N
p +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

2
10 5
10 08 . 5
15
15
×
= ×

2
2
15
2
10 5
i
n +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
+
( )
2
15 15
10 5 . 2 10 08 . 5 × ÷ ×
( )
2
2
15
10 5 . 2
i
n + × =

2 30 30
10 25 . 6 10 6564 . 6
i
n + × = ×

29 2
10 064 . 4 × = ¬
i
n

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
E
N N n
g
c i
exp
2
u

( ) 030217 . 0
300
350
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV
( )
19
2
19
10 633 . 1
300
350
10 2 . 1 × = |
.
|

\
|
× =
c
N cm
3 ÷

( )
19
2
19
10 45 . 2
300
350
10 8 . 1 × = |
.
|

\
|
× =
u
N cm
3 ÷

Now
( )( )
19 19 29
10 45 . 2 10 633 . 1 10 064 . 4 × × = ×

(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
030217 . 0
exp
g
E

So
( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
29
19 19
10 064 . 4
10 45 . 2 10 633 . 1
ln 030217 . 0
g
E
6257 . 0 = ¬
g
E eV
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.62
(a) Replace Ga atoms ¬Silicon acts as a
donor
( )( )
14 15
10 5 . 3 10 7 05 . 0 × = × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

Replace As atoms ¬Silicon acts as an
acceptor
( )( )
15 15
10 65 . 6 10 7 95 . 0 × = × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

(b) ¬ >
d a
N N p-type
(c)
14 15
10 5 . 3 10 65 . 6 × ÷ × = ÷ =
d a o
N N p

15
10 3 . 6 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
4
15
2
6 2
10 14 . 5
10 3 . 6
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

(d)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
( ) 5692 . 0
10 8 . 1
10 3 . 6
ln 0259 . 0
6
15
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= eV
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 5

5.1
(a)
( )( )( )
15 19
10 1300 10 6 . 1
1 1
÷
×
= =
d n
N eµ
µ
O = 808 . 4 -cm
(b) 208 . 0
8077 . 4
1 1
= = =
µ
o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

5.2

a p
N eµ o =
or
( )( ) 380 10 6 . 1
80 . 1
19 ÷
×
= =
p
a
e
N
µ
o

16
10 96 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

5.3
(a)
d n
N eµ o =
( )
d n
N µ
19
10 6 . 1 10
÷
× =
From Figure 5.3, for
16
10 6× =
d
N cm
3 ÷
we
find 1050 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s which gives
( )( )( )
16 19
10 6 1050 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
08 . 10 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(b)
a p
N eµ
µ
1
=

( )
a p
N µ
19
10 6 . 1
1
20 . 0
÷
×
=
From Figure 5.3, for
17
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
we
find 320 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s which gives

( )( )( )
195 . 0
10 320 10 6 . 1
1
17 19
=
×
=
÷
µ O -cm
_______________________________________

5.4
(a)
a p
N eµ
µ
1
=

( )
a p
N µ
19
10 6 . 1
1
35 . 0
÷
×
=
From Figure 5.3, for
16
10 8× =
a
N cm
3 ÷
we
find 220 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s which gives

( )( )( )
16 19
10 8 220 10 6 . 1
1
× ×
=
÷
µ
355 . 0 = O -cm
(b)
d n
N eµ o =
( )
d n
N µ
19
10 6 . 1 120
÷
× =
From Figure 5.3, for
17
10 2× =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,
then 3800 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s which gives
( )( )( )
17 19
10 2 3800 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
6 . 121 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

5.5

( )A N e
L
A
L
A
L
R
d n
µ o
µ
= = =
or
( )RA eN
L
d
n
= µ

( )( )( )( ) 1 . 0 70 10 2 10 6 . 1
5 . 2
15 19
× ×
=
÷

1116 = cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________

5.6
(a)
16
10 = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

and

( )
4
16
2
6 2
10 24 . 3
10
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p cm
3 ÷

(b)
E =
o n
n e J µ
For GaAs doped at
16
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,
7500 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
Then
( )( )( )( ) 10 10 7500 10 6 . 1
16 19 ÷
× = J
or
120 = J A/cm
2

(b) (i)
16
10 = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

4
2
10 24 . 3
÷
× = =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

(ii) For GaAs doped at
16
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
,
310 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

E =
o p
p e J µ
( )( )( )( ) 10 10 310 10 6 . 1
16 19 ÷
× =
or
96 . 4 = J A/cm
2

_______________________________________

5.7
(a) ( )R IR V 1 . 0 10 = ¬ =
or
O =100 R
(b)

RA
L
A
L
R = ¬ = o
o

or

( )( )
01 . 0
10 100
10
3
3
= =
÷
÷
o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(c)
d n
N eµ o ~
or
( )( )
d
N 1350 10 6 . 1 01 . 0
19 ÷
× =
Then

13
10 63 . 4 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

(d)
o p
p eµ o ~
or
( )( )
o
p 480 10 6 . 1 01 . 0
19 ÷
× =
Then

14
10 30 . 1 × =
o
p cm
3 ÷
d a
N N ÷ =
So

15 15 14
10 13 . 1 10 10 30 . 1 × = + × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

Note: For the doping concentrations
obtained, the assumed mobility values are
valid.
_______________________________________

5.8
(a)
( )A N e
L
A
L
R
a p
µ o
= =
For
16
10 2× =
a
N cm
3 ÷
, then
400 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s

( )
( )( )( )( )
4 16 19
10 5 . 8 10 2 400 10 6 . 1
075 . 0
÷ ÷
× × ×
= R
O = 93 . 68
0290 . 0
93 . 68
2
= = =
R
V
I A
or 0 . 29 = I mA

(b) ( )( ) O = = ¬ · 79 . 206 3 93 . 68 R L R
00967 . 0
79 . 206
2
= = =
R
V
I A
or 67 . 9 = I mA
(c)
d o
ep J u =
For (a), 12 . 34
10 5 . 8
10 0 . 29
4
3
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
J A/cm
2

Then
( )( )
16 19
10 2 10 6 . 1
12 . 34
× ×
= =
÷
o
d
ep
J
u

4
10 066 . 1 × = cm/s
For (b), 38 . 11
10 5 . 8
10 67 . 9
4
3
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
J A/cm
2

( )( )
16 19
10 2 10 6 . 1
38 . 11
× ×
=
÷
d
u

3
10 55 . 3 × = cm/s
_______________________________________

5.9
(a) For
15
10 2× =
d
N cm
3 ÷
, then
8000 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
O =
×
= =
÷
200
10 25
5
3
I
V
R

( )A N e
L
R
d n
µ
=
or ( )RA N e L
d n
µ =
( )( )( )( )( )
5 15 19
10 5 200 10 2 8000 10 6 . 1
÷ ÷
× × × =
0256 . 0 = cm
(b)
d o
en
A
I
J u = =
or
( )
o
d
en A
I
= u

( )( )( )
15 19 5
3
10 2 10 6 . 1 10 5
10 25
× × ×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷

6
10 56 . 1 × = cm/s
(c) ( )A en I
d o
u =
( )( )( )( )
5 6 15 19
10 5 10 5 10 2 10 6 . 1
÷ ÷
× × × × =
080 . 0 = A
or 80 = I mA
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.10
(a) 3
1
3
= = = E
L
V
V/cm
¬ E =
n d
µ u
3
10
4
=
E
=
d
n
u
µ
or
3333 =
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
(b)
( )( ) 3 800 = E =
n d
µ u
or

3
10 4 . 2 × =
d
u cm/s
_______________________________________

5.11
(a) Silicon: For 1 = E kV/cm,

6
10 2 . 1 × =
d
u cm/s
Then

11
6
4
10 33 . 8
10 2 . 1
10
÷
÷
× =
×
= =
d
t
d
t
u
s
For GaAs:
6
10 5 . 7 × =
d
u cm/s
Then

11
6
4
10 33 . 1
10 5 . 7
10
÷
÷
× =
×
= =
d
t
d
t
u
s
(b) Silicon: For 50 = E kV/cm,

6
10 5 . 9 × =
d
u cm/s
Then

11
6
4
10 05 . 1
10 5 . 9
10
÷
÷
× =
×
=
t
t s
For GaAs:
6
10 7× =
d
u cm/s
Then

11
6
4
10 43 . 1
10 7
10
÷
÷
× =
×
=
t
t s
_______________________________________

5.12

( )
i p n o p o n
n e p e n e µ µ µ µ
µ
+
=
+
=
1 1

(a)
14
10 = =
d a
N N cm
3 ÷

1350 ~ ¬
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
480 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s

( )( )( )
10 19
10 5 . 1 480 1350 10 6 . 1
1
× + ×
=
÷
µ
O × =
5
10 28 . 2 -cm

(b)
16
10 = =
d a
N N cm
3 ÷

1250 ~ ¬
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
410 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s

( )( )( )
10 19
10 5 . 1 410 1250 10 6 . 1
1
× + ×
=
÷
µ
O × =
5
10 51 . 2 -cm
(c)
18
10 = =
d a
N N cm
3 ÷

290 ~ ¬
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
130 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s

( )( )( )
10 19
10 5 . 1 130 290 10 6 . 1
1
× + ×
=
÷
µ
O × =
5
10 92 . 9 -cm
_______________________________________

5.13
(a) GaAs:
( )
o p o p
p p e µ µ o
19
10 6 . 1 5
÷
× = ¬ ~
From Figure 5.3, and using trial and error, we
find

17
10 3 . 1 × ~
o
p cm
3 ÷
and
240 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s
Then

( )
5
17
2
6 2
10 49 . 2
10 3 . 1
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

(b) Silicon:

o n
n eµ
µ
o ~ =
1

or

( )( )( ) 1350 10 6 . 1 8
1 1
19 ÷
×
= =
n
o
e
n
µ µ

which gives

14
10 79 . 5 × =
o
n cm
3 ÷

and

( )
5
14
2
10 2
10 89 . 3
10 79 . 5
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p cm
3 ÷

Note: For the doping concentrations obtained
in part (b), the assumed mobility values are
valid.
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.14
( )
p n i i
en µ µ o + =
Then
( )( )
i
n 600 1000 10 6 . 1 10
19 6
+ × =
÷ ÷

or

i
n (300 K)
9
10 91 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

Now

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E
N N n
g
c i
exp
2
u

or

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
c
g
n
N N
kT E
u

( )
( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
9
2
19
10 91 . 3
10
ln 0259 . 0
which gives
122 . 1 =
g
E eV
Now

2
i
n (500K) ( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
300 500 0259 . 0
122 . 1
exp 10
2
19

26
10 15 . 5 × =
or

i
n (500 K)
13
10 27 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

Then
( )( )( ) 600 1000 10 27 . 2 10 6 . 1
13 19
+ × × =
÷
i
o
which gives

i
o (500 K)
3
10 81 . 5
÷
× = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

5.15
(a) (i) Silicon: ( )
p n i i
en µ µ o + =
( )( )( ) 480 1350 10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1
10 19
+ × × =
÷
i
o
or

6
10 39 . 4
÷
× =
i
o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(ii) Ge:
( )( )( ) 1900 3900 10 4 . 2 10 6 . 1
13 19
+ × × =
÷
i
o
or

2
10 23 . 2
÷
× =
i
o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(iii) GaAs:
( )( )( ) 400 8500 10 8 . 1 10 6 . 1
6 19
+ × × =
÷
i
o
or

9
10 56 . 2
÷
× =
i
o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(b)
A
L
R
o
=
(i) Si:

( )( )
O × =
× ×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷
9
8 6
4
10 36 . 5
10 85 10 39 . 4
10 200
R
(ii) Ge:

( )( )
O × =
× ×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷
6
8 2
4
10 06 . 1
10 85 10 23 . 2
10 200
R
(iii) GaAs:

( )( )
O × =
× ×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷
12
8 9
4
10 19 . 9
10 85 10 56 . 2
10 200
R
_______________________________________

5.16
(a)
d n
N eµ o =
( )
d n
N µ
19
10 6 . 1 25 . 0
÷
× =
From Figure 5.3, for
15
10 2 . 1 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,
then 1300 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
So ( )( )( )
15 19
10 2 . 1 1300 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
2496 . 0 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(b) Using Figure 5.2,
(i) For 250 = T K ( ° ÷23 C),
1800 ~ ¬
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
( )( )( )
15 19
10 2 . 1 1800 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
346 . 0 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(ii) For 400 = T K ( ° 127 C),
670 ~ ¬
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
( )( )( )
15 19
10 2 . 1 670 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
129 . 0 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

5.17
( )dx x
t
t
avg
}
=
0
1
o o dx
d
x
t
t
o
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
}
exp
1
0
o
( )
t
o
d
x
d
t 0
exp |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
o

(
¸
(

¸

÷ |
.
|

\
| ÷ ÷
= 1 exp
d
t
t
d
o
o

( )( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
3 . 0
5 . 1
exp 1
5 . 1
3 . 0 20

97 . 3 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.18
(a) 3 . 133
10 150
2
4
=
×
= = E
÷
L
V
V/cm
(b) ( ) ( ) x N e x
d n
µ o =
( ) dx
T
x
T
e
T
n avg
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × · =
}
111 . 1
1 10 2
1
0
16
µ o

( )
( )
T
n
T
x
x
T
e
0
2 16
111 . 1 2
10 2
(
¸
(

¸

÷
×
=
µ

( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
×
=
T
T
T
T
e
n
111 . 1 2
10 2
2 16
µ

( )( ) 55 . 0 10 2
16
× =
n

( )( )( )( ) 55 . 0 10 2 750 10 6 . 1
16 19
× × =
÷

32 . 1 =
avg
o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(c)
( )( )( )
2
10 150
10 10 5 . 7 32 . 1
4
4 4
·
×
×
= · =
÷
÷ ÷
V
L
A
I
avg
o

5
10 32 . 1
÷
× = A
or µ 2 . 13 = I A
(d) Top surface;
( )( )( )
16 19
10 2 750 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
4 . 2 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

( )( ) 320 3 . 133 4 . 2 = = E = o J A/cm
2

Bottom surface:
( )( )( )
15 19
10 2 750 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
24 . 0 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

( )( ) 32 3 . 133 24 . 0 = = E = o J A/cm
2

_______________________________________

5.19
Plot
_______________________________________

5.20
(a) 10 = E V/cm
so
( )( )
4
10 35 . 1 10 1350 × = = E =
n d
µ u cm/s
or

2
10 35 . 1 × =
d
u m/s
Then

2 *
2
1
d n
m T u =
( )( )( )
2
2 31
10 35 . 1 10 11 . 9 08 . 1
2
1
× × =
÷

or

27
10 97 . 8
÷
× = T J
8
10 60 . 5
÷
× ¬ eV

(b) 1 = E kV/cm
( )( )
6
10 35 . 1 1000 1350 × = =
d
u cm/s
or

4
10 35 . 1 × =
d
u m/s
Then
( )( )( )
2
4 31
10 35 . 1 10 11 . 9 08 . 1
2
1
× × =
÷
T
or

23
10 97 . 8
÷
× = T J
4
10 60 . 5
÷
× ¬ eV
_______________________________________

5.21
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E
N N n
g
c i
exp
2
u

( )( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× × =
0259 . 0
10 . 1
exp 10 1 10 2
19 19

19
10 18 . 7 × =
or

9
10 47 . 8 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

For
14
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
>>
14
10 = ¬
o i
n n cm
3 ÷

Then
E = o J E =
o n
n eµ
( )( )( )( ) 100 10 1000 10 6 . 1
14 19 ÷
× =
or
60 . 1 = J A/cm
2

(b) A 5% increase is due to a 5% increase in
electron concentration, so

2
2
14
2 2
10 05 . 1
i
d d
o
n
N N
n +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = × =
which becomes
( ) ( )
2
2
13
2
13 14
10 5 10 5 10 05 . 1
i
n + × = × ÷ ×
and yields

26 2
10 25 . 5 × =
i
n
( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
|
× × =
kT
E
T g
exp
300
10 1 10 2
3
19 19

or

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
= ×
÷
300 0259 . 0
10 . 1
exp
300
10 625 . 2
3
12
T
T

By trial and error, we find
456 = T K
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.22
(a)
o p o n
p e n e µ µ o + = and
o
i
o
p
n
n
2
=
Then

o p
o
i n
p e
p
n e
µ
µ
o + =
2

To find the minimum conductivity, set

( )
p
o
i n
o
e
p
n e
dp
d
µ
µ o
+
÷
= =
2
2
1
0
which yields

2 / 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
n
i o
n p
µ
µ
Substituting into the conductivity expression

( ) | |
2 / 1
2
min
p n i
i n
n
n e
µ µ
µ
o o = =
( ) | |
2 / 1
p n i p
n e µ µ µ +
which simplifies to

p n i
en µ µ o 2
min
=
The intrinsic conductivity is defined as
( )
p n
i
i p n i i
en en
µ µ
o
µ µ o
+
= ¬ + =
The minimum conductivity can then be
written as

p n
p n i
µ µ
µ µ o
o
+
=
2
min

_______________________________________

5.23
(a) n-type:
16
10 5× = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
16
2
10 2
10 5
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p

3
10 5 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

p-type:
16
10 2× = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

( )
4
16
2
10
10 125 . 1
10 2
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
=
o
n cm
3 ÷

compensated:
a d o
N N n ÷ =

16 16
10 2 10 5 × ÷ × =

16
10 3× = cm
3 ÷

( )
3
16
2
10
10 5 . 7
10 3
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
=
o
p cm
3 ÷

(b) From Figure 5.3,
n-type: 1100 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
p-type: 400 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s
compensated: 1000 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
(c) n-type:
o n
n eµ o =
( )( )( )
16 19
10 5 1100 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷

8 . 8 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

p-type:
o p
p eµ o =
( )( )( )
16 19
10 2 400 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷

28 . 1 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

compensated:
o n
n eµ o =
( )( )( )
16 19
10 3 1000 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷

8 . 4 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(d)
o
o
J
J = E ¬ E =
n-type: 6 . 13
8 . 8
120
= = E V/cm
p-type: 75 . 93
28 . 1
120
= = E V/cm
compensated: 25
8 . 4
120
= = E V/cm
_______________________________________

5.24

3 2 1
1 1 1 1
µ µ µ µ
+ + =

500
1
1500
1
2000
1
+ + =
0020 . 0 000667 . 0 00050 . 0 + + =
or
003167 . 0
1
=
µ

Then
316 = µ cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________

5.25
( ) ( )
2 / 3 2 / 3
300
1300
300
1300
+ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
T
T
n
µ
(a) At 200 = T K,
( ) 2388
200
300
1300
2 / 3
= |
.
|

\
|
=
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
(b) At 400 = T K, 844 =
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.26
006 . 0
500
1
250
1 1 1 1
2 1
= + = + =
µ µ µ

Then
167 = µ cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________

5.27
Plot
_______________________________________

5.28
Plot
_______________________________________

5.29

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ ×
= =
0 01 . 0
0 10 5
14
n
eD
dx
dn
eD J
n n n

( )( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷ ×
× =
÷
010 . 0
0 10 5
25 10 6 . 1 19 . 0
14
19
n

Then

( )( )
( )( )
( ) 0 10 5
25 10 6 . 1
010 . 0 19 . 0
14
19
n ÷ × =
×
÷

which yields
( )
14
10 25 . 0 0 × = n cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

5.30

x
n
eD
dx
dn
eD J
n n n
A
A
= =
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
× ÷ ×
× =
÷
012 . 0 0
10 5 10 2
27 10 6 . 1
15 16
19
n
J
4 . 5 ÷ =
n
J A/cm
2

_______________________________________

5.31
(a)
x
n
eD
dx
dn
eD J
n n n
A
A
= =
( )( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

× ÷
÷
× = ÷
÷
÷
4
1
15
19
10 20 0
10
30 10 6 . 1 2
x n

( )
1
18 3 3
10 8 . 4 10 8 . 4 10 4 x n
÷ ÷ ÷
× ÷ × = ×
which yields
( )
14
1
10 67 . 1 × = x n cm
3 ÷

(b) ( )( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

× ÷
÷
× = ÷
÷
÷
4
1
15
19
10 20 0
10
230 10 6 . 1 2
x n

( )
1
17 2 3
10 68 . 3 10 68 . 3 10 4 x n
÷ ÷ ÷
× ÷ × = ×
( )
14
1
10 91 . 8 × = x n cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

5.32

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ = ÷ =
2
16
1 10
L
x
dx
d
eD
dx
dp
eD J
p p p

|
.
|

\
|
+ · · ÷ =
L
x
L
eD
p
1 2
10
16

(a) For 0 = x ,

( )( )( )( )
4
16 19
10 12
2 10 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
×
× ÷
=
p
J
7 . 26 ÷ = A/cm
2

(b) For µ 6 ÷ = x m,

( )( )( )( )
4
16 19
10 12
12
6
1 2 10 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
×
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × ÷
=
p
J
3 . 13 ÷ = A/cm
2

(c) For µ 12 ÷ = x m,
0 =
p
J
_______________________________________

5.33
For electrons:
| |
n
L x
n n n
e
dx
d
eD
dx
dn
eD J
/ 15
10
÷
= =

( )
n
L x
n
L
e eD
n
/ 15
10
÷
÷
=
At 0 = x ,

( )( )( )
2
10 2
10 25 10 6 . 1
3
15 19
÷ =
×
× ÷
=
÷
÷
n
J A/cm
2

For holes:
| |
p
L x
p p p
e
dx
d
eD
dx
dp
eD J
/
15
10 5
+
× ÷ = ÷ =

( )
p
L x
p
L
e eD
p
/
15
10 5
+
× ÷
=
For 0 = x ,

( )( )( )
4
15 19
10 5
10 5 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
×
× × ÷
=
p
J 16 ÷ = A/cm
2

( ) ( ) 0 0 = + = = x J x J J
p n Total

( ) 18 16 2 ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = A/cm
2

_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.34
| |
p
L x
p p p
e
dx
d
eD
dx
dp
eD J
/
15
10 5
÷
× ÷ = ÷ =

( )
p
L x
p
L
e eD
p
/
15
10 5
÷
×
=
(a) (i)
( )( )( )
4
15 19
10 50
10 5 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
×
× ×
=
p
J
6 . 1 = A/cm
2

(ii)
( )( )( )
4
15 19
10 5 . 22
10 5 48 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
×
× ×
=
p
J
07 . 17 = A/cm
2

(b) (i)
( )( )( )
4
1 15 19
10 50
10 5 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
=
e
J
p

589 . 0 = A/cm
2

(ii)
( )( )( )
4
1 15 19
10 5 . 22
10 5 48 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
=
e
J
p

28 . 6 = A/cm
2

_______________________________________

5.35

dx
dn
eD n e J
n n n
+ E = µ
or
( )( ) E
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
× = ÷
÷
18
exp 10 960 10 6 . 1 40
16 19
x

( )( )( )
16 19
10 25 10 6 . 1
÷
× +
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
×
÷
18
exp
10 18
1
4
x

Then
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ E
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
= ÷
18
exp 22 . 22
18
exp 536 . 1 40
x x

We find

( )
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ |
.
|

\
| ÷
= E
18
exp 536 . 1
40
18
exp 22 . 22
x
x

or
( ) |
.
|

\
| +
÷ = E
18
exp 0 . 26 5 . 14
x

_______________________________________

5.36
(a) | |
L x
n n n
e
dx
d
eD
dx
dn
eD J
/ 15
10 2
÷
× = =

( )
L
e eD
L x
n
/ 15
10 2
÷
× ÷
=

( )( )( )
4
/ 15 19
10 15
10 2 27 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ÷
=
L x
e

L x
e
/
76 . 5
÷
÷ =
(b) ( )
L x
n Total p
e J J J
/
76 . 5 10
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
| | 10 76 . 5
/
÷ =
÷ L x
e A/cm
2

(c) We have ( )E = E =
o p p
p e J µ o
( )( )( )E × = ÷
÷ ÷ 16 19 /
10 420 10 6 . 1 10 76 . 5
L x
e
So | | 88 . 14 57 . 8
/
÷ = E
÷ L x
e V/cm
_______________________________________

5.37
(a) ( )
( )
dx
x dn
eD x n e J
n n
+ E = µ
We have 8000 =
n
µ cm
2
/V-s, so that
( )( ) 207 8000 0259 . 0 = =
n
D cm
2
/s
Then
( )( )( ) ( ) x n 12 8000 10 6 . 1 100
19 ÷
× =
( )( )
( )
dx
x dn
207 10 6 . 1
19 ÷
× +
which yields
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
dx
x dn
x n
17 14
10 312 . 3 10 536 . 1 100
÷ ÷
× + × =
Solution is of the form
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
+ =
d
x
B A x n exp
so that

( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷ ÷
=
d
x
d
B
dx
x dn
exp
Substituting into the differential equation, we
have
( )
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
+ × =
÷
d
x
B A exp 10 536 . 1 100
14

( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷ ×
÷
÷
d
x
B
d
exp
10 312 . 3
17

This equation is valid for all x, so
( )A
14
10 536 . 1 100
÷
× =
or

15
10 51 . 6 × = A

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Also
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
÷
d
x
Bexp 10 536 . 1
14

( )
0 exp
10 312 . 3
17
= |
.
|

\
| ÷ ×
÷
÷
d
x
B
d

which yields

3
10 156 . 2
÷
× = d cm
At 0 = x , ( ) 50 0 = E n e
n
µ
so that
( )( )( )( ) B A+ × =
÷
12 8000 10 6 . 1 50
19

which yields

15
10 255 . 3 × ÷ = B
Then
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× ÷ × =
d
x
x n exp 10 255 . 3 10 51 . 6
15 15
cm
3 ÷

(b)
At 0 = x , ( )
15 15
10 255 . 3 10 51 . 6 0 × ÷ × = n
Or
( )
15
10 26 . 3 0 × = n cm
3 ÷

At µ 50 = x m,
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× ÷ × =
56 . 21
50
exp 10 255 . 3 10 51 . 6 50
15 15
n
or
( )
15
10 19 . 6 50 × = n cm
3 ÷

(c)
At µ 50 = x m,
( )E = 50 n e J
n drf
µ
( )( )( )( ) 12 10 19 . 6 8000 10 6 . 1
15 19
× × =
÷

or
( ) 08 . 95 50 = = x J
drf
A/cm
2

Then
( ) 08 . 95 100 50 ÷ = = x J
diff

or
( ) 92 . 4 50 = = x J
diff
A/cm
2

_______________________________________

5.38

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
n n
Fi F
i
exp
(a) b ax E E
Fi F
+ = ÷ , 4 . 0 = b
( ) 4 . 0 10 15 . 0
3
+ =
÷
a
which yields

2
10 5 . 2 × ÷ = a

Then
x E E
Fi F
2
10 5 . 2 4 . 0 × ÷ = ÷
so

|
|
.
|

\
| × ÷
=
kT
x
n n
i
2
10 5 . 2 4 . 0
exp
(b)
dx
dn
eD J
n n
=

|
|
.
|

\
| × ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| × ÷
=
kT
x
kT
n eD
i n
2 2
10 5 . 2 4 . 0
exp
10 5 . 2

Assume 300 = T K, so 0259 . 0 = kT eV and

10
10 5 . 1 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

Then

( )( )( )( )
( ) 0259 . 0
10 5 . 2 10 5 . 1 25 10 6 . 1
2 10 19
× × × ÷
=
÷
n
J

|
|
.
|

\
| × ÷
×
0259 . 0
10 5 . 2 4 . 0
exp
2
x

or

|
|
.
|

\
| × ÷
× ÷ =
÷
0259 . 0
10 5 . 2 4 . 0
exp 10 79 . 5
2
4
x
J
n

(i) At 0 = x ,
3
10 95 . 2 × ÷ =
n
J A/cm
2

(ii) At µ 5 = x m, 7 . 23 ÷ =
n
J A/cm
2

_______________________________________

5.39
(a)
dx
dn
eD n e J
n n n
+ E = µ
( )( )( ) E |
.
|

\
|
÷ × = ÷
÷
L
x
1 10 1000 10 6 . 1 80
16 19

( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
× +
÷
L
16
19
10
9 . 25 10 6 . 1
where
3 4
10 10 10
÷ ÷
= × = L cm
We find
( ) ( ) 44 . 41
10
6 . 1 6 . 1 80
3
÷ E |
.
|

\
|
÷ E = ÷
÷
x

or
( ) 44 . 41 1 6 . 1 80 + E |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
L
x

Solving for the electric field, we find

|
.
|

\
|
÷
= E
1
1 . 24
L
x
V/cm

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) For 20 ÷ =
n
J A/cm
2

( ) 44 . 41 1 6 . 1 20 + E |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
L
x

Then

|
.
|

\
|
÷
= E
L
x
1
3 . 13
V/cm
_______________________________________

5.40
(a)
( )
( )
dx
x dN
x N e
kT
d
d
X
· · |
.
|

\
|
÷ = E
1

( )
| |
L x
do
L x
do
e N
dx
d
e N
/
/
0259 . 0
÷
÷
·
÷
=

( )
L x
do
L x
do
e N
L e N
/
/
1 0259 . 0
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
÷
=

4
10 10
0259 . 0 0259 . 0
÷
×
= =
L

or 9 . 25 = E
X
V/cm
(b) ( )( ) 0 9 . 25
0
÷ ÷ = E ÷ =
}
L dx
L
X
|
( )( ) 0259 . 0 10 10 9 . 25
4
÷ = × ÷ =
÷
V
or 9 . 25 ÷ = | mV
_______________________________________

5.41
From Example 5.6

( )( )
( )
( )( )
( ) x x
x
3
3
19 16
19
10 1
10 0259 . 0
10 10
10 0259 . 0
÷
=
÷
= E
dx V
x
}
÷
E ÷ =
4
10
0

( )( )
( )
}
÷
÷
÷ =
4
10
0
3
3
10 1
10 0259 . 0
x
dx

( )( ) | |
4
10
0
3
3
3
10 1 ln
10
1
10 0259 . 0
÷
÷ |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ = x
( ) ( ) ( ) | | 1 ln 1 . 0 1 ln 0259 . 0 ÷ ÷ =
or
73 . 2 ÷ = V mV
_______________________________________

5.42

( )
( )
dx
x dN
x N e
kT
d
d
x
· · |
.
|

\
|
÷ = E
1

For ( )
L x
do d
e N x N
/ ÷
=
So 500
0259 . 0
= = E
L
X
V/cm
Which yields
5
10 18 . 5
÷
× = L cm
_______________________________________

5.43
(a) We have

( )
dx
x dN
eD
dx
dn
eD J
d
n n diff
= =

( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
÷
=
L
x
N
L
eD
do
n
exp
We have
( )( ) 0259 . 0 6000 = |
.
|

\
|
=
e
kT
D
n n
µ
or
4 . 155 =
n
D cm
2
/s
Then

( )( )( )
( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
× × ÷
=
÷
÷
L
x
J
diff
exp
10 1 . 0
10 5 4 . 155 10 6 . 1
4
16 19

or
|
.
|

\
| ÷
× ÷ =
L
x
J
diff
exp 10 243 . 1
5
A/cm
2

(b)

diff drf
J J + = 0
Now
E = n e J
n drf
µ
( )( )( ) E
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
× × =
÷
L
x
exp 10 5 6000 10 6 . 1
16 19

or
( ) E
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
L
x
J
drf
exp 48
We have

diff drf
J J ÷ =
so
( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× = E
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
L
x
L
x
exp 10 243 . 1 exp 48
5

which yields

3
10 59 . 2 × = E V/cm
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.44
Plot
_______________________________________

5.45
(a) (i) ( )( ) 8 . 29 1150 0259 . 0 = =
n
D cm
2
/s
(ii) ( )( ) 6 . 160 6200 0259 . 0 = =
n
D cm
2
/s
(b) (i) 9 . 308
0259 . 0
8
= =
p
µ cm
2
/V-s
(ii) 1351
0259 . 0
35
= =
p
µ cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________

5.46

1
10
÷
= L cm,
2
10
÷
= W cm,
3
10
÷
= d cm
(a)

( )( )
( )( )( )
5 19 22
2 3
10 10 6 . 1 10 2
10 5 10 2 . 1
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× ×
× × ÷
=
÷
=
ned
B I
V
Z X
H

3
10 875 . 1
÷
× ÷ = V
or 875 . 1 ÷ =
H
V mV
(b)
1875 . 0
10
10 875 . 1
2
3
÷ =
× ÷
= = E
÷
÷
W
V
H
H
V/cm
_______________________________________

5.47
(a)
ned
B I
V
z x
H
÷
=

( )( )
( )( )( )
5 19 21
2 6
10 5 10 6 . 1 10 5
10 5 10 250
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× × ×
× × ÷
=
or
3125 . 0 ÷ =
H
V mV
(b)

2
3
10 2
10 3125 . 0
÷
÷
×
× ÷
= = E
W
V
H
H

or

2
10 56 . 1
÷
× ÷ = E
H
V/cm
(c)

Wd enV
L I
x
x
n
= µ

( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
5 4 21 19
3 6
10 5 10 2 1 . 0 10 5 10 6 . 1
10 10 250
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× × × ×
×
=

or
3125 . 0 =
n
µ m
2
/V-s 3125 = cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________

5.48
(a) ¬ < 0
H
V n-type
(b)
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 5 19
3
10 2 . 5 10 10 6 . 1
10 . 0 10 50 . 0
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
× ÷ ×
× ÷
=
÷
=
H
Z X
edV
B I
n

21
10 01 . 6 × = m
3 ÷

or
15
10 01 . 6 × = n cm
3 ÷

(c)
Wd enV
L I
X
X
n
= µ

( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
5 4 21 19
3 3
10 10 15 10 01 . 6 10 6 . 1
10 10 5 . 0
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× ×
×
=
03466 . 0 = m
2
/V-s
or 6 . 346 =
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________

5.49
(a) ( )( )
2 3
10 5 10 5 . 16
÷ ÷
× × ÷ = E = W V
H H

or
825 . 0 ÷ =
H
V mV
(b) =
H
V negative ¬n-type
(c)
H
z x
edV
B I
n
÷
=

( )( )
( )( )( )
3 5 19
2 3
10 825 . 0 10 5 10 6 . 1
10 5 . 6 10 5 . 0
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× ÷ × ×
× × ÷
=
or

21
10 924 . 4 × = n m
3 ÷ 15
10 924 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

(d)

Wd enV
L I
x
x
n
= µ
( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
5 4 21 19
2 3
10 5 10 5 25 . 1 10 924 . 4 10 6 . 1
10 5 . 0 10 5 . 0
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× × × ×
× ×
=
or
1015 . 0 =
n
µ m
2
/V-s 1015 = cm
2
/V-s
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.50
(a) =
H
V negative ¬n-type
(b)
H
z x
edV
B I
n
÷
=

( )( )
( )( )( )
3 2 19
2 3
10 5 . 4 10 01 . 0 10 6 . 1
10 5 . 2 10 5 . 2
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
× ÷ × ×
× × ÷
=
or

20
10 68 . 8 × = n m
3 ÷ 14
10 68 . 8 × = cm
3 ÷

(c)
Wd enV
L I
x
x
n
= µ

( )( )
( )( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
× ×
=
÷
÷ ÷
2 . 2 10 68 . 8 10 6 . 1
10 5 . 0 10 5 . 2
20 19
2 3

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
×
÷ ÷ 2 2
10 01 . 0 10 05 . 0
1

or
8182 . 0 =
n
µ m
2
/V-s 8182 = cm
2
/V-s
(d) n e
n
µ
µ
o = =
1

( )( )( )
14 19
10 68 . 8 8182 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷

or
88 . 0 = µ ( O -cm)
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 6

6.1

15
10 5× = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
4
15
2
10 2
10 5 . 4
10 5
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
d
i
o
N
n
p cm
3 ÷

(a) Minority carrier hole lifetime is a
constant.

7
0
10 2
÷
× = =
p pt
t t s

11
7
4
0
10 25 . 2
10 2
10 5 . 4
× =
×
×
= =
÷
p
o
po
p
R
t
cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

(b)
7
14 4
0
10 2
10 10 5 . 4
÷
×
+ ×
=
+
= '
p
o
po
p p
R
t
o

20
10 5× = cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

_______________________________________

6.2

16
10 2× = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

( )
4
16
2
6 2
10 62 . 1
10 2
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

(a)
21
7
14
0
10
10 5
10 5
=
×
×
= = '
÷
n
n
R
t
o
cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

(b)
0 n
o
nt
o
pt
o
p
n n p
R
t t t
= = =

( )
( )
( )
7
4
16
0
10 5
10 62 . 1
10 2
÷
÷
× ·
×
×
= · =
n
o
o
pt
n
p
t t

13
10 17 . 6 × = s
_______________________________________

6.3
(a) Recombination rates are equal

pO
o
nO
o
p n
t t
=

16
10 = =
d o
N n cm
3 ÷

( )
4
16
2
10 2
10 25 . 2
10
10 5 . 1
× =
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p cm
3 ÷

Then

6
4 16
10 20
10 25 . 2 10
÷
×
×
=
nO
t

which yields

6
10 89 . 8
+
× =
nO
t s

(b) Generation rate = recombination rate
Then

9
6
4
10 125 . 1
10 20
10 25 . 2
× =
×
×
=
÷
G cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

(c)

9
10 125 . 1 × = = G R cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

_______________________________________

6.4
(a)
( )( )
10
8 34
10 6300
10 3 10 625 . 6
÷
÷
×
× ×
= = =
ì
v
hc
h E
or

19
10 15 . 3
÷
× = E J; energy of one photon
Now
1 W = 1 J/s
18
10 17 . 3 × ¬ photons/s
Volume = (1)(0.1) = 0.1 cm
3

Then

1 . 0
10 17 . 3
18
×
= g

19
10 17 . 3 × = e-h pairs/cm
3
-s
(b)
( )( )
6 19
10 10 10 17 . 3
÷
× × = = = t o o g p n
or

14
10 17 . 3 × = = p n o o cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

6.5
We have

p
p p
p
g F
t
p
t
÷ + - ÷V =
c
c
+

and
p eD p e J
p p p
V ÷ E = µ
The hole particle current density is

( )
p D p
e
J
F
p p
p
p
V ÷ E =
+
=
+
µ
Now
( ) p D p F
p p p
V - V ÷ E - V = - V
+
µ
We can write
( ) E - V + V - E = E - V p p p
and
p p
2
V = V - V
so
( ) p D p p F
p p p
2
V ÷ E - V + V - E = - V
+
µ

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then
( ) E - V + V - E ÷ =
c
c
p p
t
p
p
µ

p
p p
p
g p D
t
÷ + V +
2

We can then write
( ) E - V + V - E ÷ V p p p D
p p
µ
2

t
p p
g
p
p
c
c
= ÷ +
t

_______________________________________

6.6
From Equation (6.18),

p
p p
p
g F
t
p
t
÷ + - ÷V =
c
c
+

c
c
t
p

Then

p p p
R g F ÷ + - ÷V =
+
0
For a one-dimensional case,

19 20
10 2 10 × ÷ = ÷ =
+
p p
p
R g
dx
dF

or

19
10 8× =
+
dx
dF
p
cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

_______________________________________

6.7
From Equation (6.18),

19
10 2 0 0 × ÷ + ÷ =
+
dx
dF
p

or

19
10 2× ÷ =
+
dx
dF
p
cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

_______________________________________

6.8
We have the continuity equations
(1) ( ) ( ) | | E - V + V - E ÷ V p p p D
p p
o µ o
2

( )
t
p p
g
p
p
c
c
= ÷ +
o
t

and
(2) ( ) ( ) | | E - V + V - E + V n n n D
n n
o µ o
2

( )
t
n n
g
n
n
c
c
= ÷ +
o
t

By charge neutrality,
( ) ( ) p n n p n o o o o o V = V ¬ ÷ =
and
( ) ( ) p n o o
2 2
V = V and
( ) ( )
t
p
t
n
c
c
=
c
c o o

Also
g g g
p n
÷ = , R
n p
n p
÷ =
t t

Then we have
(1) ( ) ( ) | | E - V + V - E ÷ V p n n D
p p
o µ o
2

( )
t
n
R g
c
c
= ÷ +
o

and
(2) ( ) ( ) | | E - V + V - E + V n n n D
n n
o µ o
2

( )
t
n
R g
c
c
= ÷ +
o

Multiply Equation (1) by n
n
µ and Equation
(2) by p
p
µ , and add the two equations.
We find
( ) ( ) n pD nD
n p p n
o µ µ
2
V +
( ) ( ) n n p
p n
o µ µ V - E ÷ +
( )( ) R g p n
p n
÷ + + µ µ
( )
( )
t
n
p n
p n
c
c
+ =
o
µ µ
Divide by ( ) p n
p n
µ µ + , then
( ) n
p n
pD nD
p n
n p p n
o
µ µ
µ µ
2
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

+
( )
( ) n
p n
n p
p n
p n
o
µ µ
µ µ
V - E
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷

( )
( )
t
n
R g
c
c
= ÷ +
o

Define

( )
p D n D
p n D D
p n
pD nD
D
p n
p n
p n
n p p n
+
+
=
+
+
= '
µ µ
µ µ

and

( )
p n
n p
p n
p n
µ µ
µ µ
µ
+
÷
= '
Then we have
( ) ( ) ( ) R g n n D ÷ + V - E ' + V ' o µ o
2
( )
t
n
c
c
=
o

Q.E.D.
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

6.9
p-type material;
minority carriers are electrons
(a)
n
µ µ = '
From Figure 5.3, 1300 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
(b) ( )( ) 1300 0259 . 0 = · |
.
|

\
|
= = '
n n
e
kT
D D µ
67 . 33 = cm
2
/s
(c)
7
0
10
÷
= =
n nt
t t s

15
10 7× = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

( )
15
2
10 2
10 7
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
a
i
o
N
n
n

4
10 21 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

pt
o
nt
o
p n
t t
=

pt
t
15
7
4
10 7
10
10 214 . 3 ×
=
×
÷

so
4
10 18 . 2 × =
pt
t s
_______________________________________

6.10
For Ge:
13
10 4 . 2 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

2
2
2 2
i
d d
o
n
N N
n +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
( )
2
13
2
13 13
10 4 . 2
2
10 4
2
10 4
× +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
+
×
=

13
10 124 . 5 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
13
13
2
13 2
10 124 . 1
10 124 . 5
10 4 . 2
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p cm
3 ÷

(a) We have:
3900 =
n
µ cm
2
/V-s, 101 =
n
D cm
2
/s
1900 =
p
µ cm
2
/V-s, 2 . 49 =
p
D cm
2
/s
For very, very low injection,

( )
p D n D
p n D D
D
p n
p n
+
+
= '

( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
13 13
13 13
10 124 . 1 2 . 49 10 124 . 5 101
10 124 . 1 10 124 . 5 2 . 49 101
× + ×
× + ×
=
2 . 54 = cm
2
/s
and

( )
p n
n p
p n
p n
µ µ
µ µ
µ
+
÷
= '
( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
13 13
13 13
10 124 . 1 1900 10 124 . 5 3900
10 124 . 5 10 124 . 1 1900 3900
× + ×
× ÷ ×
=
1340 ÷ = cm
2
/V-s
(b) For holes,
6
0
10 2
÷
× = =
p pt
t t s
For electrons,

0 p nt
p n
t t
=

6
13 13
10 2
10 124 . 1 10 124 . 5
÷
×
×
=
×
nt
t

6
10 12 . 9
÷
× = ¬
nt
t s
_______________________________________

6.11
p e n e
p n
µ µ o + =
With excess carriers
n n n
o
o + = and p p p
o
o + =
For an n-type semiconductor, we can write
p p n o o o ÷ =
Then
( ) ( ) p p e p n e
o p o n
o µ o µ o + + + =
or
( )( ) p e p e n e
p n o p o n
o µ µ µ µ o + + + =
so
( )( ) p e
p n
o µ µ o + = A
pO
g p t o ' =
So that
( )( )
pO p n
g e t µ µ o ' + = A
_______________________________________

6.12
(a)
16
10 = =
a o
N p cm
3 ÷

( )
4
16
2
10 2
10 25 . 2
10
10 5 . 1
× =
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

( ) ( ) p p e n n e
o p o n
o µ o µ o + + + =
( ) n e p e
p n o p
o µ µ µ + + ~
Now ( )
0
/
0
1
n
t
n
e g p n
t
t o o
÷
÷ ' = =
( )( )( )
0
/ 7 20
1 10 5 10 8
n
t
e
t ÷ ÷
÷ × × =
( )
0
/ 14
1 10 4
n
t
e
t ÷
÷ × = cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then o ( )( )( )
16 19
10 380 10 6 . 1
÷
× =
( )( ) 380 900 10 6 . 1
19
+ × +
÷

( )( )
0
/ 14
1 10 4
n
t
e
t ÷
÷ × ×
( )
0
/
1 0819 . 0 608 . 0
n
t
e
t
o
÷
÷ + = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(b) (i) ( ) 608 . 0 0 = o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

(ii) ( ) 690 . 0 = · o ( O -cm)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

6.13
(a) For
6
10 0
÷
s s t s,
( )
0
/
0
1
p
t
p
e g p n
t
t o o
÷
÷ ' = =
( )( )( )
0
/
8 21
1 10 5 10 4
p
t
e
t ÷
÷
÷ × × =
( )( )
0
/
14
1 10 2
p
t
e
t ÷
÷ × = cm
3 ÷

At
6
10
÷
= t s,
( ) ( )( )
8 6
10 5 / 10 14 6
1 10 2 10
÷ ÷
× ÷ ÷
÷ × = e p o

14
10 2× = cm
3 ÷

Then for
6
10
÷
> t s,
( )
( )
0
6
/ 10
14
10 2
p
t
e p
t
o
÷
÷ ÷
× = cm
3 ÷

(b)
15
10 5× =
o
n cm
3 ÷

( ) p e n e
p n o n
o µ µ µ o + + =
For
6
10 0
÷
s s t s,
( )( )( )
15 19
10 5 7500 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷
o
( )( ) 310 7500 10 6 . 1
19
+ × +
÷

( )( )
0
/
14
1 10 2
p
t
e
t ÷
÷ × ×
( )
0
/
1 250 . 0 0 . 6
p
t
e
t ÷
÷ + = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

For
6
10
÷
> t s,

( )
0
6
/ 10
250 . 0 0 . 6
p
t
e
t
o
÷
÷ ÷
+ = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

_______________________________________

6.14

R
V
I = ;
A
L
R
o
=
V
L
A
I · = ¬
o

For
15 15
10 2 10 8 × + × = + =
a d I
N N N

16
10 = cm
3 ÷

Then, 1300 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s
400 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s
( ) p e n e
p n o n
o µ µ µ o + + ~

where
0
/
0
p
t
p
e g p
t
t o
÷
' =
( )( )
0
/
7 20
10 5 10 8
p
t
e
t ÷
÷
× × =

0
/
14
10 4
p
t
e
t ÷
× = cm
3 ÷

( )( )( )
15 15 19
10 2 10 8 1300 10 6 . 1 × ÷ × × =
÷
o
( )( ) 400 1300 10 6 . 1
19
+ × +
÷

( )
0
/
14
10 4
p
t
e
t ÷
× ×

0
/
109 . 0 248 . 1
p
t
e
t
o
÷
+ =

| |( )( )
05 . 0
10 10 109 . 0 248 . 1
5
/
0 ÷
÷
+
=
p
t
e
I
t

0
/
4 3
10 18 . 2 10 496 . 2
p
t
e
t ÷
÷ ÷
× + × = A
or
0
/
218 . 0 496 . 2
p
t
e I
t ÷
+ = mA
_______________________________________

6.15

15 16
10 6 10 2 × ÷ × = ÷ =
d a o
N N p

16
10 4 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

(a)
0 n
g p n t o o ' = =

0
21 14
10 2 10 5
n
t × = ×

7
0
10 5 . 2
÷
× = ¬
n
t s
(b) ( )
0
/
0
1
n
t
n
e g p n
t
t o o
÷
÷ ' = =
( )
0
/ 14
1 10 5
n
t
e
t ÷
÷ × =
( )
0
/
7
14
0
1
10 5 . 2
10 5
n
t
n
e
n
R
t
t
o
÷
÷
÷
×
×
= = '
( )
no
t
e
t / 21
1 10 2
÷
÷ × = cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷

(c)
(i) ( ) ( )
0
/ 14 14
1 10 5 10 5
4
1
n
t
e
t ÷
÷ × = × |
.
|

\
|

( )
8
0
10 19 . 7 3333 . 1 ln
÷
× = =
n
t t s
(ii) ( ) ( )
0
/ 14 14
1 10 5 10 5
2
1
n
t
e
t ÷
÷ × = × |
.
|

\
|

( )
7
0
10 73 . 1 2 ln
÷
× = =
n
t t s
(iii) ( ) ( )
0
/ 14 14
1 10 5 10 5
4
3
n
t
e
t ÷
÷ × = × |
.
|

\
|

( )
7
0
10 47 . 3 4 ln
÷
× = =
n
t t s
(iv) ( )( ) ( )
0
/ 14 14
1 10 5 10 5 95 . 0
n
t
e
t ÷
÷ × = ×
( )
7
0
10 49 . 7 20 ln
÷
× = =
n
t t s
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
6.16

15 15
10 2 10 8 × ÷ × = ÷ =
a d o
N N n

15
10 6× = cm
3 ÷

( )
4
15
2
6 2
10 4 . 5
10 6
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
n
n
p cm
3 ÷

(a)
0
4
4
0
10 4 . 5
10 4
p p
o
o
p
R
t t
÷
×
= × ¬ =
so
8
0
10 35 . 1
÷
× =
p
t s
(b) ( )( )
8 21
0
10 35 . 1 10 2
÷
× × = ' =
p
g p t o

13
10 7 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

(c)
8
0
10 35 . 1
÷
× = =
p
t t s
_______________________________________

6.17
(a) (i)For
7
10 5 0
÷
× s s t s
( ) ( )
0
/
0
1
p
t
p
e g t p
t
t o
÷
÷ ' =
( )( )( )
0
/
7 20
1 10 5 10 5
p
t
e
t ÷
÷
÷ × × =
( )
0
/
14
1 10 5 . 2
p
t
e
t ÷
÷ × = cm
3 ÷

At
7
10 5
÷
× = t s,
( )
1 / 1 14
1 10 5 . 2
÷
÷ × = e p o

14
10 58 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

For
7
10 5
÷
× > t s
( )
( )
pO
t
e t p
t
o
/ 10 5
14
7
10 58 . 1
÷
× ÷ ÷
× = cm
3 ÷

(ii) ( )
14 7
10 58 . 1 10 5 × = ×
÷
p o cm
3 ÷

(b) (i) For
6
10 2 0
÷
× s s t s
( ) ( )
0
/
14
1 10 5 . 2
p
t
e t p
t
o
÷
÷ × = cm
3 ÷

At
6
10 2
÷
× = t s,

( ) ( )
( )
7 6
10 5 / 10 2 14
1 10 5 . 2
÷ ÷
× × ÷
÷ × = e p o

14
10 454 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

For
6
10 2
÷
× > t s,
( )
( )
pO
t
e t p
t
o
/ 10 2
14
6
10 454 . 2
÷
× ÷ ÷
× = cm
3 ÷

(ii) ( )
14 6
10 454 . 2 10 2 × = ×
÷
p o cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

6.18
(a) For
6
10 2 0
÷
× s s t s
( )
0
/
0
n
t
n
e g t n
t
t o
÷
' =
( )( )
0
/ 7 21
10 5 10
n
t
e
t ÷ ÷
× =

0
/ 14
10 5
n
t
e
t ÷
× = cm
3 ÷

At
6
10 2
÷
× = t s,

( ) ( )
7 6
10 5 / 10 2 14
1
10 5
÷ ÷
× × ÷
× = e n o

12
10 16 . 9 × = cm
3 ÷

For
6
10 2
÷
× > t s
( )( )
0
/ 12 14
1 10 16 . 9 10 5
n
t
e n
t
o
÷
÷ × ÷ × =

12
10 16 . 9 × +
( )
12 / 14
10 16 . 9 1 10 908 . 4
0
× + ÷ × =
÷
n
t
e
t
cm
3 ÷

(b) (i) ( )
14
10 5 0 × = n o cm
3 ÷

(ii) ( )
12 6
10 16 . 9 10 2 × = ×
÷
n o cm
3 ÷

(iii) ( )
14
10 5× = · n o cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

6.19
p-type; minority carriers - electrons
( )( ) 1200 0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
=
n n
e
kT
D µ
08 . 31 = cm
2
/s
( )( ) | |
2 / 1
6
0
10 08 . 31
÷
= =
n n n
D L t

3
10 575 . 5
÷
× = cm
(a) ( ) ( )
n
L x
e x p x n
/ 14
10 2
÷
× = = o o cm
3 ÷

(b)
( )
| |
n
L x
n n n
e
dx
d
eD
dx
n d
eD J
/ 14
10 2
÷
× = =
o

( )
n
L x
n
n
e
L
eD
/ 14
10 2
÷
×
÷
=

( )( )( )
( )
n
L x
e
/
3
14 19
10 575 . 5
10 2 08 . 31 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
÷
×
× × ÷
=

n
L x
n
e J
/
1784 . 0
÷
÷ = A/cm
2

Holes diffuse at same rate as minority carrier
electrons, so

n
L x
p
e J
/
1784 . 0
÷
+ = A/cm
2

_______________________________________

6.20
(a) p-type;
14
10 =
pO
p cm
3 ÷

and

( )
6
14
2
10 2
10 25 . 2
10
10 5 . 1
× =
×
= =
pO
i
pO
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

(b) Excess minority carrier concentration

pO p
n n n ÷ = o
At 0 = x , 0 =
p
n so that
( )
6
10 25 . 2 0 0 × ÷ = ÷ =
pO
n n o cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(c) For the one-dimensional case,

( )
0
2
2
= ÷
nO
n
n
dx
n d
D
t
o o

or

( )
0
2 2
2
= ÷
n
L
n
dx
n d o o
where
nO n n
D L t =
2

The general solution is of the form

|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
n n
L
x
B
L
x
A n exp exp o
For · ÷ x , n o remains finite, so 0 = B .
Then the solution is

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
n
pO
L
x
n n exp o
_______________________________________

6.21
( )
n
L x
e x n
/ 14
10 5
÷
× = o cm
3 ÷

where ( )( ) | |
2 / 1
6
0
10 25
÷
= =
n n n
D L t

3
10 5
÷
× = cm

( )
( ) | |
n
L x
n n n
e
dx
d
eD
dx
n d
eD J
/ 14
10 5
÷
× = =
o

( )
n
L x
n
n
e
L
eD
/ 14
10 5
÷
× ÷ =

( )( )( )
( )
n
L x
e
/
3
14 19
10 5
10 5 25 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
÷
×
× ×
÷ =

n
L x
n
e J
/
4 . 0
÷
÷ = A/cm
2

(a) For 0 = x ,
( )
14
10 5 0 × = n o cm
3 ÷

( ) 4 . 0 0 ÷ =
n
J A/cm
2

( ) 4 . 0 0 + =
p
J A/cm
2

(b) For
3
10 5
÷
× = =
n
L x cm,
( ) ( )
14 1 14
10 84 . 1 10 5 × = × =
÷
e L n
n
o cm
3 ÷

( ) 147 . 0 4 . 0
1
÷ = ÷ =
÷
e L J
n n
A/cm
2

( ) 147 . 0 4 . 0
1
+ = + =
÷
e L J
n p
A/cm
2

(c) For
3
10 15
÷
× = x cm
n
L 3 =
( ) ( )
13 3 14
10 49 . 2 10 5 3 × = × =
÷
e L n
n
o cm
3 ÷

( ) 020 . 0 4 . 0 3
3
÷ = ÷ =
÷
e L J
n n
A/cm
2

( ) 020 . 0 4 . 0 3
3
+ = + =
÷
e L J
n p
A/cm
2

_______________________________________

6.22
n-type, so we have

( ) ( )
0
2
= ÷ E ÷
pO
o p p
p
dx
p d
dx
p d
D
t
o o
µ
o

Assume the solution is of the form
( ) sx A p exp = o
Then

( )
( ) sx As
dx
p d
exp =
o
,
( )
( ) sx As
dx
p d
exp
2
2
2
=
o

Substituting into the differential equation
( ) ( ) sx As sx As D
o p p
exp exp
2
E ÷ µ

( )
0
exp
= ÷
pO
sx A
t

or
0
1
2
= ÷ E ÷
pO
o p p
s s D
t
µ
Dividing by
p
D , we have
0
1
2
2
= ÷
E
÷
p p
o p
L
s
D
s
µ

The solution for s is

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
E ± E =
2
2
4
2
1
p
o
p
p
o
p
p
L D D
s
µ µ

which can be rewritten as

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
| E
±
E
= 1
2 2
1
2
p
o p p
p
o p p
p
D
L
D
L
L
s
µ µ

Define

p
o p p
D
L
2
E
÷
µ
|
Then

(
¸
(

¸

+ ± =
2
1
1
| |
p
L
s
In order that p o 0 = as +· ÷ x , use the
minus sign for 0 > x and the plus sign for
0 < x . Then the solution is
( ) x s A p
÷
= exp o for 0 > x
( ) x s A p
+
= exp o for 0 < x
where

(
¸
(

¸

+ ± =
±
2
1
1
| |
p
L
s
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

6.23
Plot
_______________________________________

6.24
(a) From Equation (6.55)

( ) ( )
0
2
2
= ÷ E +
nO
o n n
n
dx
n d
dx
n d
D
t
o o
µ
o

or

( ) ( )
0
2 2
2
= ÷ E +
n
o
n
n
L
n
dx
n d
D dx
n d o o µ o

We have that
|
.
|

\
|
=
e
kT D
n
n
µ
so we can define

( ) L e kT D
o
o
n
n
'
÷
E
= E
1 µ

Then we can write

( ) ( )
0
1
2 2
2
= ÷ ·
'
+
n
L
n
dx
n d
L dx
n d o o o

The solution is of the form
( ) ( ) x n n o o o ÷ = exp 0 where 0 > o
Then

( )
( ) n
dx
n d
o o
o
÷ = and
( )
( ) n
dx
n d
o o
o
2
2
2
=
Substituting into the differential equation, we
find
( ) ( ) | | 0
1
2
2
= ÷ ÷
'
+
n
L
n
n
L
n
o
o o o o
or
0
1
2
2
= ÷
'
÷
n
L L
o
o
which yields

(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
+
'
= 1
2 2
1
2
L
L
L
L
L
n n
n
o
We may note that if 0 = E
o
, then · ÷ ' L
and
n
L
1
= o
(b)

nO n n
D L t = where |
.
|

\
|
=
e
kT
D
n n
µ
so
( )( ) 1 . 31 0259 . 0 1200 = =
n
D cm
2
/s
and
( )( )
4 7
10 4 . 39 10 5 1 . 31
÷ ÷
× = × =
n
L cm

or
µ 4 . 39 =
n
L m
For 12 = E
o
V/cm, then

( )
4
10 6 . 21
12
0259 . 0
÷
× = =
E
= '
o
e kT
L cm
and

2
10 75 . 5 × = o cm
1 ÷

(c) Force on the electrons due to the electric
field is in the negative x-direction. Therefore,
the effective diffusion of the electrons is
reduced and the concentration drops off faster
with the applied electric field.
_______________________________________

6.25
p-type so the minority carriers are electrons
and
( ) ( )
( )
t
n n
g n n D
nO
n n
c
c
= ÷ ' + V - E + V
o
t
o
o µ o
2

Uniform illumination means that
( ) ( ) 0
2
= V = V n n o o . For · =
nO
t , we are
left with

( )
g
dt
n d
' =
o
which gives
1
C t g n + ' = o
For 0 s t , 0 0
1
= ¬ = C n o
Then
t G n
o
' = o for T t s s 0
For T t > , 0 = ' g so that
( )
0 =
dt
n d o

And
T G n
o
' = o (no recombination)
_______________________________________

6.26
n-type, so minority carriers are holes and
( ) ( )
( )
t
p p
g p p D
pO
p p
c
c
= ÷ ' + V - E ÷ V
o
t
o
o µ o
2

We have · =
pO
t , 0 = E , and

( )
0 =
c
c
t
p o

( )
0
2
2
= ' + g
dx
p d
D
p
o
or
( )
p
D
g
dx
p d '
÷ =
2
2
o

For L x L + < < ÷ ,
o
G g ' = ' = constant. Then

( )
1
C x
D
G
dx
p d
p
o
+
'
÷ =
o

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

and

2 1
2
2
C x C x
D
G
p
p
o
+ +
'
÷ = o
For L x L 3 < < , 0 = ' g so we have

( )
0
2
2
=
dx
p d o
so that
( )
3
C
dx
p d
=
o
and

4 3
C x C p + = o
For L x L ÷ < < ÷3 , 0 = ' g so that

( )
0
2
2
=
dx
p d o
so that
( )
5
C
dx
p d
=
o
and

6 5
C x C p + = o
The boundary conditions are:
(1) 0 = p o at L x 3 + =
(2) 0 = p o at L x 3 ÷ =
(3) p o continuous at L x =
(4) p o continuous at L x ÷ =
(5)
( )
dx
p d o
continuous at L x =
(6)
( )
dx
p d o
continuous at L x ÷ =
Applying the boundary conditions, we find
( )
2 2
5
2
x L
D
G
p
p
o
÷
'
= o for L x L + < < ÷
( ) x L
D
L G
p
p
o
÷
'
= 3 o for L x L 3 < <
( ) x L
D
L G
p
p
o
+
'
= 3 o for L x L ÷ < < ÷3
_______________________________________

6.27
20
4 . 0
8
0
= = = E
L
V
V/cm

( )( )
6
0 0
10 32 20
25 . 0
÷
×
=
E
=
t
d
p
µ
6 . 390 = cm
2
/V-s

( ) ( )
0
2 2
0
16t
t
D
p
p
A E
=
µ

( )( ) | | ( )
( )
6
2
6 2
10 32 16
10 35 . 9 20 6 . 390
÷
÷
×
×
=
42 . 10 =
p
D cm
2
/s

We find
02668 . 0
6 . 390
42 . 10
= =
p
p
D
µ
V
This value is very close to 0.0259 for
300 = T K.
_______________________________________

6.28
(a)
Assume that ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
÷
Dt
x
Dt t x f
4
exp 4 ,
2
2 / 1
t
is the solution to the differential equation

t
f
x
f
D
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
2
2

To prove: we can write
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
c
c
÷
Dt
x
Dt
x
Dt
x
f
4
exp
4
2
4
2
2 / 1
t
and
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
c
c
÷
Dt
x
Dt
x
Dt
x
f
4
exp
4
2
4
2
2
2 / 1
2
2
t

(
(
¸
(
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
Dt
x
Dt 4
exp
4
2
2

Also
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
c
c
÷
Dt
x
t D
x
Dt
t
f
4
exp
1
4
4
2
2
2
2 / 1
t
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷ ÷
Dt
x
t D
4
exp
2
1
4
2
2 / 3 2 / 1
t
Substituting the expressions for
2
2
x
f
c
c
and

t
f
c
c
into the differential equation, we find
0 = 0.
Q.E.D.
(b)
Consider
dx
Dt
x
}

· ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
4
exp
2

Let
2
x u = , then dx x du · = 2 or

u
du
x
du
dx
2
2
= =
Let
Dt
a
4
1
=
Now

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

dx
Dt
x
dx
Dt
x
} }
· +·
· ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
0
2 2
4
exp 2
4
exp
( ) ( )du au
u
du au
u
÷ = ÷ =
} }
· ·
exp
1
exp
2
1
2
0 0

t D
a
t
t
4 = =
Then

t D
t D
dx
Dt
x
t D t
t
t 4
4
4
exp
4
1
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
}

· ÷
1 =
_______________________________________

6.29
Plot
_______________________________________

6.30
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
Fi F
n
n
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
16
10 5 . 1
10 4
ln 0259 . 0
383225 . 0 = eV
(b) ( )( )
7 21
0
10 5 10 2
÷
× × = ' = =
p
g p n t o o

15
10 = cm
3 ÷

|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fi Fn
n
n n
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
+ ×
=
10
15 16
10 5 . 1
10 10 4
ln 0259 . 0
383865 . 0 = eV

|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fp Fi
n
p p
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
~
10
15
10 5 . 1
10
ln 0259 . 0
28768 . 0 = eV
(c) 383225 . 0 383865 . 0 ÷ = ÷
F Fn
E E
000640 . 0 = eV
or 640 . 0 = meV
_______________________________________

6.31
(a) p-type

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
15
10 5 . 1
10 5
ln 0259 . 0
or
3294 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
(b)

14
10 5× = = p n o o cm
3 ÷

and

( )
4
15
2
10 2
10 5 . 4
10 5
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

Then

|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fi Fn
n
n n
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
× + ×
=
10
14 4
10 5 . 1
10 5 10 5 . 4
ln 0259 . 0
or
2697 . 0 = ÷
Fi Fn
E E eV
and

|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fp Fi
n
p p
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
× + ×
=
10
14 15
10 5 . 1
10 5 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
or
3318 . 0 = ÷
Fp Fi
E E eV
_______________________________________

6.32
(a) For n-type,
( ) ( )
Fi F Fi Fn F Fn
E E E E E E ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
i
o
i
o
n
n
kT
n
n n
kT ln ln
o

|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
o
o
n
n n
kT
o
ln
So ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
+ ×
=
15
15
10 5
10 5
ln 0259 . 0 00102 . 0
n o

|
.
|

\
|
× = + ×
0259 . 0
00102 . 0
exp 10 5 10 5
15 15
n o
Which yields
14
10 2× ~ n o cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b)
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fi Fn
n
n n
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
× + ×
=
10
14 15
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
33038 . 0 = eV
(c)
|
|
.
|

\
|
~ ÷
i
Fp Fi
n
p
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
14
10 5 . 1
10 2
ln 0259 . 0
2460 . 0 = eV
_______________________________________

6.33
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
~ ÷
i
Fi Fn
n
n
kT E E
o
ln
or
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
kT
E E
n n
Fi Fn
i
exp o
( )
(
¸
(

¸

× =
0259 . 0
270 . 0
exp 10 5 . 1
10

14
10 05 . 5 × = cm
3 ÷

(b)
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fp Fi
n
p p
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
× + ×
=
10
14 15
10 5 . 1
10 05 . 5 10 6
ln 0259 . 0
33618 . 0 = eV
(c) (i) ( ) ( )
F Fi Fp Fi Fp F
E E E E E E ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
i
o
i
o
n
p
kT
n
p p
kT ln ln
o

|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
o
o
p
p p
kT
o
ln
(ii)
Fp F
E E ÷
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
× + ×
=
15
14 15
10 6
10 05 . 5 10 6
ln 0259 . 0

3
10 093 . 2
÷
× = eV
or 093 . 2 = meV
_______________________________________

6.34
(a) (i)
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fi Fn
n
n n
kT E E ln
( )
( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
6
16
10 8 . 1
10 02 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
58166 . 0 = eV
(ii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
~ ÷
i
Fp Fi
n
p
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
6
16
10 8 . 1
10 02 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
47982 . 0 = eV
(b) (i) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= ÷
6
16
10 8 . 1
10 1 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
Fi Fn
E E
58361 . 0 = eV
(ii) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
= ÷
6
16
10 8 . 1
10 1 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
Fp Fi
E E
52151 . 0 = eV
_______________________________________

6.35
Quasi-Fermi level for minority carrier
electrons:

|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fi Fn
n
n n
kT E E
o
ln

( )
4
16
2
6 2
10 24 . 3
10
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
= =
o
i
o
p
n
n cm
3 ÷

We have
( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
50
10
14
x
n o
Then

( )
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ ×
= ÷
÷
6
14 4
10 8 . 1
50 10 10 24 . 3
ln
x
kT E E
Fi Fn

We find
x ( µ m) (
Fi Fn
E E ÷ ) (eV)
0
1
2
10
20
50
-0.581
+0.361
+0.379
+0.420
+0.438
+0.462

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Quasi-Fermi level for holes: we have

|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fp Fi
n
p p
kT E E
o
ln
We have
16
10 =
o
p cm
3 ÷
and p n o o = .
We find
x ( µ m) (
Fp Fi
E E ÷ ) (eV)
0
50
+0.58115
+0.58140
_______________________________________

6.36
(a) We can write

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
o
F Fi
n
p
kT E E ln
and

|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fp Fi
n
p p
kT E E
o
ln
so that
( ) ( )
Fp F F Fi Fp Fi
E E E E E E ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
i
o
i
o
n
p
kT
n
p p
kT ln ln
o

or
( )kT
p
p p
kT E E
o
o
Fp F
01 . 0 ln =
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
o

Then
( ) 010 . 1 01 . 0 exp = =
+
o
o
p
p p o

or
¬ = 010 . 0
o
p
p o
low injection, so that

12
10 5× = p o cm
3 ÷

(b)

|
|
.
|

\
|
~ ÷
i
Fi Fn
n
p
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
12
10 5 . 1
10 5
ln 0259 . 0
or
1505 . 0 = ÷
Fi Fn
E E eV
_______________________________________

6.37
Plot
_______________________________________

6.38
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
~ ÷
i
Fp Fi
n
p
kT E E
o
ln
( ) |
.
|

\
|
×
=
10
10 5 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
p o

11
10 = p o cm
3 ÷
, 04914 . 0 = ÷
Fp Fi
E E eV

12
10 10877 . 0

13
10 16841 . 0

14
10 0.22805

15
10 0.28768
(b)
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= ÷
i
o
Fi Fn
n
n n
kT E E
o
ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
+ ×
=
10
16
10 5 . 1
10 2
ln 0259 . 0
n o

11
10 = n o cm
3 ÷
, 365273 . 0 = ÷
Fi Fn
E E eV

12
10 0.365274

13
10 0.365286

14
10 0.365402

15
10 0.366536
_______________________________________

6.39
(a)

( )
( ) ( ) p p C n n C
n np N C C
R
p n
i t p n
' + + ' +
÷
=
2

( )
( ) ( ) p p n n
n np
nO pO
i
' + + ' +
÷
=
t t
2

Let
i
n p n = ' = ' . For 0 = = p n

nO pO
i
i nO i pO
i
n
n n
n
R
t t t t +
÷
=
+
÷
=
2

(b) We had defined the net generation rate as
( ) R R g g R g
o o
' + ÷ ' + = ÷
where
o o
R g = since these are the thermal
equilibrium generation and recombination
rates.
If 0 = ' g , then R R g ' ÷ = ÷ and

nO pO
i
n
R
t t +
÷
= '
so that
nO pO
i
n
R g
t t +
+ = ÷
Thus a negative recombination rate implies a
net positive generation rate.
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

6.40
We have that

( )
( ) ( ) p p C n n C
n np N C C
R
p n
i t p n
' + + ' +
÷
=
2

( )
( ) ( )
i nO i pO
i
n p n n
n np
+ + +
÷
=
t t
2

If n n n
o
o + = and n p p
o
o + = , then

( )( )
( ) ( )
i o nO i o pO
i o o
n n p n n n
n n p n n
R
+ + + + +
÷ + +
=
o t o t
o o
2

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
i o nO i o pO
i o o o o
n n p n n n
n n p n n p n
+ + + + +
÷ + + +
=
o t o t
o o
2 2

If
i
n n << o , we can neglect ( )
2
n o : also

2
i o o
n p n =
Then

( )
( ) ( )
i o nO i o pO
o o
n p n n
p n n
R
+ + +
+
=
t t
o

(a) For n-type;
O o
p n >> ,
i o
n n >>
Then

7
10
1
+
= =
pO
n
R
t o
s
1 ÷

(b) For intrinsic,
i o o
n p n = =
Then

( ) ( )
i nO i pO
i
n n
n
n
R
2 2
2
t t o +
=
or
¬
× +
=
+
=
÷ ÷ 7 7
10 5 10
1 1
nO pO
n
R
t t o

6
10 67 . 1
+
× =
n
R
o
s
1 ÷

(c) For p-type;
o o
n p >> ,
i o
n p >>
Then

6
7
10 2
10 5
1 1
+
÷
× =
×
= =
nO
n
R
t o
s
1 ÷

_______________________________________

6.41
(a) From Equation (6.56)

( )
0
2
2
= ÷ ' +
pO
p
p
g
dx
p d
D
t
o o

Solution is of the form

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ ' =
p p
pO
L
x
B
L
x
A g p exp exp t o

At +· = x ,
pO
g p t o ' = so that 0 = B ,
Then

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ ' =
p
pO
L
x
A g p exp t o
We have

( )
( )
0 0 = =
=
x x
p
p s
dx
p d
D o
o

We can write

( )
p
x L
A
dx
p d ÷
=
=0
o
and ( ) A g p
pO
x
+ ' =
=
t o
0

Then
( ) A g s
L
pO
p
p
+ ' =
÷
t
Solving for A , we find

s
L
D
g s
A
p
p
pO
+
' ÷
=
t

The excess concentration is then

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
·
+
÷ ' =
p p p
pO
L
x
s L D
s
g p exp 1 t o
where
( )( )
3 7
10 10 10
÷ ÷
= = =
pO p p
D L t cm
Now
( )( )
7 21
10 10
÷
= p o

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
·
+
÷ ×
÷
p
L
x
s
s
exp
10 10
1
3

or

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
·
+
÷ =
p
L
x
s
s
p exp
10
1 10
4
14
o
(i) For 0 = s ,

14
10 = p o cm
3 ÷

(ii) For 2000 = s cm/s,

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
p
L
x
p exp 167 . 0 1 10
14
o
(iii) For · = s ,

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
p
L
x
p exp 1 10
14
o

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b)
(i) For 0 = s ,
( )
14
10 0 = p o cm
3 ÷

(ii) For 2000 = s cm/s,
( )
14
10 833 . 0 0 × = p o cm
3 ÷

(iii) For · = s ,
( ) 0 0 = p o
_______________________________________

6.42
( )( )
7
10 5 25
÷
× = =
nO n n
D L t

4
10 4 . 35
÷
× = cm
(a) At 0 = x ,
( )( )
15 7 21
10 10 5 10 2 = × × = '
÷
nO
g t cm
3 ÷

or
( )
15
10 0 = ' =
nO
g n t o cm
3 ÷

For 0 > x

( ) ( )
0 0
2 2
2
2
2
= ÷ ¬ = ÷
n nO
n
L
n
dx
n d n
dx
n d
D
o o
t
o o

The solution is of the form

|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
n n
L
x
B
L
x
A n exp exp o
At 0 = x ,
( ) B A n n + = = 0 o o
At W x = ,

|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
= =
n n
L
W
B
L
W
A n exp exp 0 o
Solving these two equations, we find

( ) ( )
( )
n
n
L W
L W n
A
2 exp 1
2 exp 0
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
o

and

( )
( )
n
L W
n
B
2 exp 1
0
+ ÷
=
o

Substituting into the general solution, we find

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
n n
L
W
L
W
n
n
exp exp
0 o
o

( ) ( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸
÷ +
×
n n
L
x W
L
x W
exp exp
which can be written as

( )
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
n
n
L
W
L
x W
n
n
sinh
sinh 0 o
o
where
( )
15
10 0 = n o cm
3 ÷
and µ 4 . 35 =
n
L m
(b) If · =
nO
t , we have

( )
0
2
2
=
dx
n d o

so the solution is of the form
D Cx n + = o
Applying the boundary conditions, we find
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
W
x
n n 1 0 o o
_______________________________________

6.43
For · =
pO
t , we have

( )
0
2
2
=
dx
p d o

So the solution is of the form
B Ax p + = o
At W x =

( )
( )
W x W x
p
p s
dx
p d
D
= =
= ÷ o
o

or
( ) B AW s A D
p
+ = ÷
which yields
( ) sW D
s
A
B
p
+
÷
=
At 0 = x , the flux of excess holes is

( )
A D
dx
p d
D
p
x
p
÷ = ÷ =
=0
19
10
o

so that

18
19
10
10
10
÷ =
÷
= A cm
4 ÷

and
( ) |
.
|

\
|
+ = + = W
s
sW
s
B
10
10 10
10
18
18

The solution is now
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
s
x W p
10
10
18
o

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(a) For · = s ,
( ) x p ÷ × =
÷4 18
10 20 10 o cm
3 ÷

Then

( )
dx
p d
eD J
p p
o
÷ =
( )( )( )
18 19
10 10 10 6 . 1 ÷ × ÷ =
÷

or
6 . 1 =
p
J A/cm
2

(b) For
3
10 2× = s cm/s,
( ) x p ÷ × =
÷4 18
10 70 10 o cm
3 ÷

Also
6 . 1 =
p
J A/cm
2

_______________________________________

6.44
For 0 < < ÷ x W

( )
0
2
2
= ' +
o n
G
dx
n d
D
o

so that

( )
1
C x
D
G
dx
n d
n
o
+
'
÷ =
o

and

2 1
2
2
C x C x
D
G
n
n
o
+ +
'
÷ = o
For W x < < 0 ,

( )
0
2
2
=
dx
n d o

so that

4 3
C x C n + = o
The boundary conditions are
(1) 0 = s at W x ÷ = so that

( )
0 =
÷ = W x dx
n d o

(2) · = s at W x + = so that
( ) 0 = W n o
(3) n o continuous at 0 = x
(4)
( )
dx
n d o
continuous at 0 = x
Applying the boundary conditions, we find

n
o
D
W G
C C
'
÷ = =
3 1
and
n
o
D
W G
C C
2
4 2
'
+ = =

Then for 0 < < ÷ x W
( )
2 2
2 2
2
W Wx x
D
G
n
n
o
+ ÷ ÷
'
= o
and for W x + < < 0
( ) x W
D
W G
n
n
o
÷
'
= o
_______________________________________

6.45
Plot
_______________________________________

6.48
(a) GaAs:
O =
×
= =
÷
6
6
10
10 2
2
I
V
R

( )A
L
R
o A
= and ( ) p e
p n
o µ µ o + = A
( )( )
13 8 21
0
10 5 10 5 10 × = × = ' =
÷
p
g p t o cm
3 ÷

For
16
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
, from Figure 5.3,
7000 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s, 310 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s
( )( )( )
13 19
10 5 310 7000 10 6 . 1 × + × = A
÷
o
05848 . 0 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

Let µ 20 = W m
Then ( )( )
4 4
10 4 10 20
÷ ÷
× × = =Wd A

8
10 80
÷
× = cm
2

So
( )( )
8
6
10 80 05848 . 0
10
÷
×
= =
L
R
Which yields
2
10 68 . 4
÷
× = L cm
(b) Silicon:
O =
6
10 R ,
13
10 5× = p o cm
3 ÷

For
16
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
, from Figure 5.3,
1300 ~
n
µ cm
2
/V-s, 410 ~
p
µ cm
2
/V-s
( )( )( )
13 19
10 5 410 1300 10 6 . 1 × + × = A
÷
o
01368 . 0 = ( O -cm)
1 ÷

Let µ 20 = W m
Then ( )( )
4 4
10 4 10 20
÷ ÷
× × = =Wd A

8
10 80
÷
× = cm
2

So
( )( )
8
6
10 80 01368 . 0
10
÷
×
= =
L
R
Which yields
2
10 09 . 1
÷
× = L cm
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 7

7.1

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
(a)
(i) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 15
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
611 . 0 = V
(ii) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 15
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
671 . 0 = V
(iii) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
17 15
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
731 . 0 = V
(b)
(i) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 17
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
731 . 0 = V
(ii) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 17
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
790 . 0 = V
(iii) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
17 17
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
850 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

7.2
Si:
10
10 5 . 1 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

Ge:
13
10 4 . 2 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

GaAs:
6
10 8 . 1 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V and 0259 . 0 =
t
V V
(a)
14
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,
17
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
'
Then Si: 635 . 0 =
bi
V V
Ge: 253 . 0 =
bi
V V
GaAs: 10 . 1 =
bi
V V

(b)
16
10 5× =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,
16
10 5× =
a
N cm
3 ÷

Si: 778 . 0 =
bi
V V
Ge: 396 . 0 =
bi
V V
GaAs: 25 . 1 =
bi
V V
(c)
17
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,
17
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷

Si: 814 . 0 =
bi
V V
Ge: 432 . 0 =
bi
V V
GaAs: 28 . 1 =
bi
V V
_______________________________________

7.3
(a) Silicon ( 300 = T K)
( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
10
10 5 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
d a
bi
N N
V
For
14
10 = =
d a
N N cm
3 ÷
; 4561 . 0 =
bi
V V

15
10 = ; 5754 . 0 = V

16
10 = ; 6946 . 0 = V

17
10 = ; 8139 . 0 = V
(b) GaAs ( 300 = T K)
( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
6
10 8 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
d a
bi
N N
V
For
14
10 = =
d a
N N cm
3 ÷
; 9237 . 0 =
bi
V V

15
10 = ; 043 . 1 = V

16
10 = ; 162 . 1 = V

17
10 = ; 282 . 1 = V
(c) Silicon (400 K), 034533 . 0 = kT

12
10 38 . 2 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

For
14
10 = =
d a
N N cm
3 ÷
; 2582 . 0 =
bi
V V

15
10 = ; 4172 . 0 = V

16
10 = ; 5762 . 0 = V

17
10 = ; 7353 . 0 = V
GaAs(400 K),
9
10 29 . 3 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

For
14
10 = =
d a
N N cm
3 ÷
; 7129 . 0 =
bi
V V

15
10 = ; 8719 . 0 = V

16
10 = ; 031 . 1 = V

17
10 = ; 190 . 1 = V
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

7.4
(a) n-side

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
d
Fi F
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
15
10 5 . 1
10 5
ln 0259 . 0
or
3294 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV
p-side

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
a
F Fi
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
10
17
10 5 . 1
10
ln 0259 . 0
or
4070 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
(b)
4070 . 0 3294 . 0 + =
bi
V
or
7364 . 0 =
bi
V V
(c)

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
10
15 17
10 5 . 1
10 5 10
ln 0259 . 0
or
7363 . 0 =
bi
V V
(d)

2 / 1
1 2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| e
=
d a d
a bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V
x

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
736 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
15 17 15
17
10 5 10
1
10 5
10
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
or

4
10 426 . 0
÷
× =
n
x cm µ 426 . 0 = m
Now

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
736 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
p
x

2 / 1
15 17 17
15
10 5 10
1
10
10 5
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
×

or

4
10 0213 . 0
÷
× =
p
x cm µ 0213 . 0 = m
We have

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 15 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 426 . 0 10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
=
or

4
max
10 29 . 3 × = E V/cm
_______________________________________

7.5
(a) n-side

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
d
Fi F
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
16
10 5 . 1
10 2
ln 0259 . 0
or
3653 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV
p-side

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
a
F Fi
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
16
10 5 . 1
10 2
ln 0259 . 0
or
3653 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
(b)
3653 . 0 3653 . 0 + =
bi
V
or
7306 . 0 =
bi
V V
(c)

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 16
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
or
7305 . 0 =
bi
V V
(d)

2 / 1
1 2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| e
=
d a d
a bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V
x

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
7305 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
16 16 16
16
10 2 10 2
1
10 2
10 2
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
× + ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
×
or

4
10 154 . 0
÷
× =
n
x cm µ 154 . 0 = m
By symmetry

4
10 154 . 0
÷
× =
p
x cm µ 154 . 0 = m
Now

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 16 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 1537 . 0 10 2 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
=
or

4
max
10 75 . 4 × = E V/cm
_______________________________________

7.6
(b)
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
n N
Fi F
i d
exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
0259 . 0
365 . 0
exp 10 5 . 1
10

or
d
N
16
10 98 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
n N
F Fi
i a
exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
0259 . 0
330 . 0
exp 10 5 . 1
10

or
a
N
15
10 12 . 5 × = cm
3 ÷

(c)
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 15
10 5 . 1
10 98 . 1 10 12 . 5
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
695 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

7.7
200 K; 017267 . 0 = kT ; 38 . 1 =
i
n cm
3 ÷

300 K; 0259 . 0 = kT ;
6
10 8 . 1 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

400 K; 034533 . 0 = kT ;
9
10 28 . 3 × =
i
n cm
3 ÷

For 200 K;
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
=
2
16 15
38 . 1
10 4 10 2
ln 017267 . 0
bi
V
257 . 1 = V

For 300 K;
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
6
16 15
10 8 . 1
10 4 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
157 . 1 = V
For 400 K;
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
9
16 15
10 28 . 3
10 4 10 2
ln 034533 . 0
bi
V
023 . 1 = V
_______________________________________

7.8
( )
p n n
x x W x + = = 25 . 0 25 . 0

p n
x x 25 . 0 75 . 0 = 3 = ¬
n
p
x
x

a p d n
N x N x = 3 = = ¬
n
p
a
d
x
x
N
N

So
a d
N N 3 =
(a) ( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
10
10 5 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
d a
bi
N N
V
( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
10
2
10 5 . 1
3
ln 0259 . 0 710 . 0
a
N

or ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
0259 . 0
710 . 0
exp 10 5 . 1 3
2
10 2
a
N
which yields
15
10 766 . 7 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

16
10 33 . 2 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

2 / 1
1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| e
=
d a d
a bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V
x

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
710 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

( )
2 / 1
15
10 766 . 7 4
1
3
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
.
|

\
|
×

6
10 93 . 9
÷
× = ¬
n
x cm
or µ 0993 . 0 =
n
x m
( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
710 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
p
x

( )
2 / 1
15
10 766 . 7 4
1
1
3
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
.
|

\
|
×

5
10 979 . 2
÷
× = cm
or µ 2979 . 0 =
p
x m
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Now

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 16 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 0993 . 0 10 33 . 2 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
=

4
10 58 . 3 × = V/cm
(b) From part (a), we can write
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
0259 . 0
180 . 1
exp 10 8 . 1 3
2
6 2
a
N
which yields
15
10 127 . 8 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

16
10 438 . 2 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
180 . 1 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
n
x

( )
2 / 1
15
10 127 . 8 4
1
3
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
.
|

\
|
×

5
10 324 . 1
÷
× = cm
or µ 1324 . 0 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
180 . 1 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
p
x

( )
2 / 1
15
10 127 . 8 4
1
1
3
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

×
|
.
|

\
|
×

5
10 973 . 3
÷
× = cm
or µ 3973 . 0 =
p
x m

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 16 19
10 85 . 8 1 . 13
10 1324 . 0 10 438 . 2 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
=

4
10 45 . 4 × = V/cm
_______________________________________

7.9
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
10
15 16
10 5 . 1
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
or
635 . 0 =
bi
V V
(b)

2 / 1
1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| e
=
d a d
a bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V
x

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
6350 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
15 16 15
16
10 10
1
10
10
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
or

4
10 8644 . 0
÷
× =
n
x cm µ 8644 . 0 = m
Now

2 / 1
1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| e
=
d a a
d bi s
p
N N N
N
e
V
x

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
6350 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
15 16 16
15
10 10
1
10
10
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
or

4
10 08644 . 0
÷
× =
p
x cm µ 08644 . 0 = m
(c)

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 15 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 8644 . 0 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
=
or

4
max
10 34 . 1 × = E V/cm
_______________________________________

7.10
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 17
10 5 . 1
10 4 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
80813 . 0 = V
(b)
bi
V increases as temperature decreases
At 300 = T K, we can write
( )
2
10 2
10 5 . 1 × =
i
n
( )( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× × =
0259 . 0
12 . 1
exp 10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2
19 19
K
659 . 4 = ¬ K
At 287 = T K, 024778 . 0 = kT eV
( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
287
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × = K n
i

|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
024778 . 0
12 . 1
exp
( )( )( )
20 38
10 3404 . 2 10 5496 . 2 659 . 4
÷
× × =
So
19 2
10 780 . 2 × =
i
n
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then
( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
19
16 17
10 780 . 2
10 4 10 2
ln 024778 . 0
bi
V
82494 . 0 = V
We find

( ) ( )
( )
% 100
300
300 287
×
÷
bi
bi bi
V
V V

% 08 . 2 % 100
80813 . 0
80813 . 0 82494 . 0
= ×
÷
=
% 2 ~
_______________________________________

7.11

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
( )
( )( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
15 16
10 2 10 4
ln
300
0259 . 0 550 . 0
i
n
T

Using the procedure from Problem 7.10, we
can write, for 300 = T K,
( )
2
10 2
10 5 . 1 × =
i
n
( )( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× × =
0259 . 0
12 . 1
exp 10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2
19 19
K
659 . 4 = ¬ K
At 300 = T K,
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 16
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 4
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
68886 . 0 = V
For 550 . 0 =
bi
V V, 300 > ¬T K
At 380 = T K, 032807 . 0 = kT eV
Also
( )( )( )
3
19 19 2
300
380
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 659 . 4 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
i
n
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
032807 . 0
12 . 1
exp

24
10 112 . 4 × =
Then
( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
24
15 16
10 112 . 4
10 2 10 4
ln 032807 . 0
bi
V
5506 . 0 = V 550 . 0 ~ V
_______________________________________

7.12
(b) For
16
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
d
Fi F
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
10
16
10 5 . 1
10
ln 0259 . 0
or
3473 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV
For
15
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
= ÷
10
15
10 5 . 1
10
ln 0259 . 0
Fi F
E E
or
2877 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV
Then
28768 . 0 34732 . 0 ÷ =
bi
V
or
0596 . 0 =
bi
V V
_______________________________________

7.13
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
10
16 12
10 5 . 1
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
or
456 . 0 =
bi
V V
(b)

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
456 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
n
x

2 / 1
16 12 16
12
10 10
1
10
10
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
or

7
10 43 . 2
÷
× =
n
x cm
(c)

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
456 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
p
x

2 / 1
16 12 12
16
10 10
1
10
10
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
or

3
10 43 . 2
÷
× =
p
x cm

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(d)

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
7 16 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 43 . 2 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
=
or

2
max
10 75 . 3 × = E V/cm
_______________________________________

7.14
Assume silicon, so

2 / 1
2 |
|
.
|

\
|e
=
d
s
D
N e
kT
L

( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
2
19
19 14
10 6 . 1
10 6 . 1 0259 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
÷
÷ ÷
d
N

or

2 / 1
5
10 676 . 1
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
d
D
N
L
(a)
14
10 8× =
d
N cm
3 ÷
, µ 1447 . 0 =
D
L m
(b)
16
10 2 . 2 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷
, µ 02760 . 0 =
D
L m
(c)
17
10 8× =
d
N cm
3 ÷
, µ 004577 . 0 =
D
L m
Now
(a) 7427 . 0 =
bi
V V
(b) 8286 . 0 =
bi
V V
(c) 9216 . 0 =
bi
V V
Also

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
bi
n
V
x

2 / 1
17
17
10 8
1 10 8
(
(
¸
(
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ×
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
×
d d
N N

Then
(a) µ 096 . 1 =
n
x m
(b) µ 2178 . 0 =
n
x m
(c) µ 02730 . 0 =
n
x m
Now
(a) 1320 . 0 =
n
D
x
L

(b) 1267 . 0 =
n
D
x
L

(c) 1677 . 0 =
n
D
x
L

_______________________________________

7.15

2 / 1
max
2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ e
= E
d a
d a
s
bi
N N
N N eV

We find

( )
( )( )
7
14
19
10 0904 . 3
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 6 . 1 2 2
÷
÷
÷
× =
×
×
=
e
s
e

(a)
(i) For
17
10 =
a
N ,
14
10 =
d
N ; 6350 . 0 =
bi
V V
(ii)
15
10 = ; 6946 . 0 = V
(iii)
16
10 = ; 7543 . 0 = V
(iv)
17
10 = ; 8139 . 0 = V

(i) For
17
10 =
a
N ,

14
10 =
d
N ;
max
E
4
10 443 . 0 × = V/cm
(ii)
15
10 = ;
4
10 46 . 1 × = V/cm
(iii)
16
10 = ;
4
10 60 . 4 × = V/cm
(iv)
17
10 = ;
4
10 2 . 11 × = V/cm
(b)
(i) For
14
10 =
a
N ,
14
10 =
d
N ; 4561 . 0 =
bi
V V
(ii)
15
10 = ; 5157 . 0 = V
(iii)
16
10 = ; 5754 . 0 = V
(iv)
17
10 = ; 6350 . 0 = V

(i) For
14
10 =
a
N ,

14
10 =
d
N ;
4
max
10 265 . 0 × = E V/cm
(ii)
15
10 = ;
4
10 381 . 0 × = V/cm
(iii)
16
10 = ;
4
10 420 . 0 × = V/cm
(iv)
17
10 = ;
4
10 443 . 0 × = V/cm

(c)
max
E increases as the doping increases,
and the electric field extends further into
the low-doped side of the pn junction.
_______________________________________

7.16
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
10
15 16
10 5 . 1
10 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
6767 . 0 = V
(b)
( )
2 / 1
2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
| + + e
=
d a
d a R bi s
N N
N N
e
V V
W

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(i) For 0 =
R
V ,

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
6767 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
W

( )( )
2 / 1
15 16
15 16
10 10 5
10 10 5
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ ×
×

5
10 452 . 9
÷
× = cm
or µ 9452 . 0 = W m
(ii) For 5 =
R
V V,

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
5 6767 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
W

( )( )
2 / 1
15 16
15 16
10 10 5
10 10 5
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ ×
×

4
10 738 . 2
÷
× = cm
or µ 738 . 2 = W m
(c)
( )
W
V V
R bi
+
= E
2
max

(i)For 0 =
R
V ,

( )
4
4
max
10 43 . 1
10 9452 . 0
6767 . 0 2
× =
×
= E
÷
V/cm
(ii)For 5 =
R
V V,

( )
4
4
max
10 15 . 4
10 738 . 2
5 6767 . 0 2
× =
×
+
= E
÷
V/cm
_______________________________________

7.17
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 17
10 5 . 1
10 4 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
8081 . 0 = V
(b)

( )
2 / 1
1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| + e
=
d a d
a R bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V V
x

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
5 . 2 8081 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
16 17 16
17
10 4 10 2
1
10 4
10 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
× + ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
×

4
10 2987 . 0
÷
× = cm
or µ 2987 . 0 =
n
x m

( )
2 / 1
1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| + e
=
d a a
d R bi s
p
N N N
N
e
V V
x

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
5 . 2 8081 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
16 17 17
16
10 4 10 2
1
10 2
10 4
¦
)
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
× + ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
×

6
10 97 . 5
÷
× = cm
or µ 0597 . 0 =
p
x m

( )
2 / 1
2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
| + + e
=
d a
d a R bi s
N N
N N
e
V V
W

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
5 . 2 8081 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

( )( )
2 / 1
16 17
16 17
10 4 10 2
10 4 10 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
× + ×
×

4
10 3584 . 0
÷
× = cm
or µ 3584 . 0 = W m
Also µ 3584 . 0 = + =
p n
x x W m
(c)
( ) ( )
4
max
10 3584 . 0
5 . 2 8081 . 0 2 2
÷
×
+
=
+
= E
W
V V
R bi

5
10 85 . 1 × = V/cm
(d)
( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
=
d a R bi
d a s
N N V V
N N e
A C
( )
( )( )( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
× ×
× =
÷ ÷
÷
5 . 2 8081 . 0 2
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10 2
14 19
4

( )( )
2 / 1
16 17
16 17
10 4 10 2
10 4 10 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
× ×
×

12
10 78 . 5
÷
× = F
or 78 . 5 = C pF
_______________________________________

7.18
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
80
ln
i
d
t
n
N
V
We find

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
bi
i d
V
V
n N exp 80
2 2

( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
0259 . 0
740 . 0
exp 10 5 . 1
2
10

32
10 762 . 5 × =

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

15
10 684 . 2 × = ¬
d
N cm
3 ÷

17
10 147 . 2 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

(b)

( )
2 / 1
1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| + e
=
d a d
a R bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V V
x

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
10 740 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
15 17
10 684 . 2 10 147 . 2
1
1
80
)
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
× + ×
|
.
|

\
|
×

4
10 262 . 2
÷
× = cm
or µ 262 . 2 =
n
x m

( )
2 / 1
1 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| + e
=
d a a
d R bi s
p
N N N
N
e
V V
x

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
10 740 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
15 17
10 684 . 2 10 147 . 2
1
80
1
)
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
× + ×
|
.
|

\
|
×

6
10 83 . 2
÷
× = cm
or µ 0283 . 0 =
p
x m
(c)
( )
W
V V
R bi
+
= E
2
max

( )
( )
4
10 0283 . 0 262 . 2
10 740 . 0 2
÷
× +
+
=

4
10 38 . 9 × = V/cm
(d)
( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
= '
d a R bi
d a s
N N V V
N N e
C

( )( )( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
× ×
=
÷ ÷
10 740 . 0 2
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
14 19

( )( )
2 / 1
15 17
15 17
10 684 . 2 10 147 . 2
10 684 . 2 10 147 . 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
× ×
×

9
10 52 . 4
÷
× = ' C F/cm
2

_______________________________________

7.19
(a) ( ) ( )
a bi a bi
N V N V ÷ 3

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2 2
ln
3
ln
i
a d
t
i
a d
t
n
N N
V
n
N N
V
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
2 2
ln ln 3 ln
i
a d
t
i
a d
t
n
N N
V
n
N N
V

( ) ( ) ( ) 3 ln 0259 . 0 3 ln = =
t
V
02845 . 0 = V
(b)
( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
e
~ '
R bi
a s
V V
N e
C
So
( )
( )
732 . 1 3
3 3
2 / 1
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
'
'
a
a
a
a
N
N
N C
N C

(c) For a larger doping, the space charge
width narrows which results in a larger
capacitance.
_______________________________________

7.20
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
17 15
10 5 . 1
10 4 10 4
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
or
766 . 0 =
bi
V V
Now

( )
2 / 1
max
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ e
+
= E
d a
d a
s
R bi
N N
N N V V e

or
( )
( )( )
( )( )

¸

×
+ ×
= ×
÷
÷
14
19
2
5
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 6 . 1 2
10 3
R bi
V V

( )( )
(
¸
(
× + ×
× ×
×
17 15
17 15
10 4 10 4
10 4 10 4

or
( )
R bi
V V + × = ×
9 10
10 224 . 1 10 9
so that
( ) 53 . 73 = +
R bi
V V V
which yields
8 . 72 =
R
V V
(b) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
17 16
10 5 . 1
10 4 10 4
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
or
826 . 0 =
bi
V V
We have
( )
( )( )
( )( )

¸

×
+ ×
= ×
÷
÷
14
19
2
5
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 6 . 1 2
10 3
R bi
V V

( )( )
(
¸
(
× + ×
× ×
×
17 16
17 16
10 4 10 4
10 4 10 4

so that
( ) 008 . 8 = +
R bi
V V V

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

which yields
18 . 7 =
R
V V
(c) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
17 17
10 5 . 1
10 4 10 4
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
or
886 . 0 =
bi
V V
We have
( )
( )( )
( )( )

¸

×
+ ×
= ×
÷
÷
14
19
2
5
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 6 . 1 2
10 3
R bi
V V

( )( )
(
¸
(
× + ×
× ×
×
17 17
17 17
10 4 10 4
10 4 10 4

so that
( ) 456 . 1 = +
R bi
V V V
which yields
570 . 0 =
R
V V
_______________________________________

7.21
(a)

( )
( )
( )
( )
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| + + e
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| + + e
=
dB a
dB a R biB s
dA a
dA a R biA s
N N
N N
e
V V
N N
N N
e
V V
B W
A W

or

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 / 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
·
+
+
·
+
+
=
dA
dB
dB a
dA a
R biB
R biA
N
N
N N
N N
V V
V V
B W
A W

We find
( )
( )( )
( )
7543 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
2
10
15 18
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
biA
V V

( )
( )( )
( )
8139 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
2
10
16 18
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
biB
V V
We find

( )
( )

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
16 18
15 18
10 10
10 10
8139 . 5
7543 . 5
B W
A W

2 / 1
15
16
10
10
(
(
¸
(
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
or

( )
( )
13 . 3 =
B W
A W

(b)

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
R biB
R biA
R biB
R biA
V V
V V
A W
B W
B W
V V
A W
V V
B
A
+
+
· =
+
+
=
E
E
2
2

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
8139 . 5
7543 . 5
13 . 3
1

or

( )
( )
316 . 0 =
E
E
B
A

(c)

( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
2
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
e
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
e
=
'
'
dB a R biB
dB a s
dA a R biA
dA a s
j
j
N N V V
N N
N N V V
N N
B C
A C

2 / 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
dA a
dB a
R biA
R biB
dB
dA
N N
N N
V V
V V
N
N

2 / 1
15 18
16 18
16
15
10 10
10 10
7543 . 5
8139 . 5
10
10
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
or

( )
( )
319 . 0 =
'
'
B C
A C
j
j

_______________________________________

7.22
(a) We have

( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
2
10
0
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
e
(
¸
(

¸

+
e
=
'
'
d a R bi
d a s
d a bi
d a s
j
j
N N V V
N N
N N V
N N
C
C

or

( )
( )
2 / 1
13 . 3
10
0
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= =
'
'
bi
R bi
j
j
V
V V
C
C

For 10 =
R
V V, we find
( ) 10 13 . 3
2
+ =
bi bi
V V
or
137 . 1 =
bi
V V
(b)
( )
n p p
x x W x + = = 2 . 0 2 . 0

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then

a
d
n
p
N
N
x
x
= = 25 . 0
Now

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
so
( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
6
2
10 8 . 1
25 . 0
ln 0259 . 0 137 . 1
a
N

We can then write

( )
(
¸
(

¸
×
=
0259 . 0 2
137 . 1
exp
25 . 0
10 8 . 1
6
a
N
which yields

16
10 23 . 1 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

and

15
10 07 . 3 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

7.23
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
6
15 16
10 8 . 1
10 5 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
162 . 1 = V

R bi
V V
C
+
· '
1

So
( )
( )
1
2
2
1
R bi
R bi
R
R
V V
V V
V C
V C
+
+
=
'
'

5 . 0 162 . 1
162 . 1
50 . 1
2
+
+
=
R
V

( )
662 . 1
162 . 1
50 . 1
2 2 R
V +
=
which yields 58 . 2
2
=
R
V V
_______________________________________

7.24
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 15
10 5 . 1
10 4 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
6889 . 0 = V

( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
= ' =
d a R bi
d a s
N N V V
N N e
A C A C

( )
( )( )( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
× ×
× =
÷ ÷
÷
R
V 6889 . 0 2
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10 5
14 19
4

( )( )
( )
2 / 1
16 15
16 15
10 4 10 2
10 4 10 2
)
`
¹
× + ×
× ×
×

R
V
C
+
×
=
÷
6889 . 0
10 2806 . 6
12

(i) For 0 =
R
V ,
567 . 7 = C pF
(ii) For 5 =
R
V V,
633 . 2 = C pF
(b) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
6
16 15
10 8 . 1
10 4 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
157 . 1 = V

( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
= ' =
d a R bi
d a s
N N V V
N N e
A C A C
( )
( )( )( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
× ×
× =
÷ ÷
÷
R
V 157 . 1 2
10 85 . 8 1 . 13 10 6 . 1
10 5
14 19
4

( )( )
( )
2 / 1
16 15
16 15
10 4 10 2
10 4 10 2
)
`
¹
× + ×
× ×
×

R
V
C
+
×
=
÷
157 . 1
10 6457 . 6
12

(i) For 0 =
R
V ,
178 . 6 = C pF
(ii) For 5 =
R
V V,
678 . 2 = C pF
_______________________________________

7.25
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 17
10 5 . 1
10 5 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
7543 . 0 = V
(a)
( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
= ' =
d a R bi
d a s
N N V V
N N e
A C A C
( )
( )( )( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
× ×
× =
÷ ÷
÷
10 7543 . 0 2
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10 8
14 19
4

( )( )
( )
2 / 1
15 17
15 17
10 5 10 2
10 5 10 2
)
`
¹
× + ×
× ×
×

12
10 904 . 4
÷
× = C F

( )
2
2
1
2
1
f C
L
LC
f
t t
= ¬ =
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( ) ( ) | |
2
6 12
10 25 . 1 2 10 904 . 4
1
× ×
=
÷
t
L

3
10 306 . 3
÷
× = H 306 . 3 = mH
(b)
(i) For 1 =
R
V V, 14 . 12 = C pF

( )( ) | |
2 / 1
12 3
10 14 . 12 10 306 . 3 2
1
÷ ÷
× ×
=
t
f

5
10 94 . 7 × = Hz 794 . 0 = MHz
(ii) For 5 =
R
V V, 704 . 6 = C pF

( )( ) | |
2 / 1
12 3
10 704 . 6 10 306 . 3 2
1
÷ ÷
× ×
=
t
f

6
10 069 . 1 × = Hz 069 . 1 = MHz
_______________________________________

7.26

( )
2 / 1
max
2
(
¸
(

¸

e
+
~ E
s
d R bi
N V V e

Let 75 . 0 ~
bi
V V
(a) ( )
2
5
10 5 . 2 ×

( )( )
( )( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
14
19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 75 . 0 10 6 . 1 2
d
N

16
10 88 . 1 × = ¬
d
N cm
3 ÷

(b) ( )
2
5
10

( )( )
( )( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
14
19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 75 . 0 10 6 . 1 2
d
N

15
10 01 . 3 × = ¬
d
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

7.27
( ) ( )( )
p n p
x x W x + = = 20 . 0 20 . 0
( ) ( )
n p
x x 2 . 0 8 . 0 =

p n
x x 4 =
( )
p d n d p a
x N x N x N 4 = =

d a
N N 4 = ¬
(a)
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
2
6
2
10 8 . 1
4
ln 0259 . 0
d
N

( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
= ' =
d a R bi
d a s
N N V V
N N e
A C A C

( )
( )( )( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
× ×
=
÷ ÷
÷
2 2
10 85 . 8 1 . 13 10 6 . 1
10
14 19
4
bi
V

( )
( )
2 / 1
2
5
4
¦
)
¦
`
¹
×
d
d
N
N

2
10 724 . 2 10 6 . 0
20 12
+
× = ×
÷ ÷
bi
d
V
N

By trial and error,

15
10 504 . 1 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,

15
10 016 . 6 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷
,
10 . 1 =
bi
V V
(b) From part (a),

5
10 724 . 2 10 6 . 0
20 12
+
× = ×
÷ ÷
bi
d
V
N

By trial and error,

15
10 976 . 2 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,

16
10 19 . 1 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷
,
135 . 1 =
bi
V V
_______________________________________

7.28
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
10
14 15
10 5 . 1
10 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
or
5574 . 0 =
bi
V V
(b)

2 / 1
1 2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| e
=
d a a
d bi s
p
N N N
N
e
V
x

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
5574 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
15 14 15
14
10 5 10
1
10 5
10
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
or

6
10 32 . 5
÷
× =
p
x cm
Also

2 / 1
1 2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| e
=
d a d
a bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V
x

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )( )( )

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
5574 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

2 / 1
15 14 14
15
10 5 10
1
10
10 5
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
×
or

4
10 66 . 2
÷
× =
n
x cm
(c) For µ 30 =
n
x m, we have

( )( )( )

¸

×
+ ×
= ×
÷
÷
÷
19
14
4
10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
10 30
R bi
V V

2 / 1
15 14 14
15
10 5 10
1
10
10 5
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
×
which becomes
( )
R bi
V V + × = ×
÷ ÷ 7 6
10 269 . 1 10 9
We find
4 . 70 =
R
V V
_______________________________________

7.29
An p n
+
junction with
14
10 =
a
N cm
3 ÷
,
(a) A one-sided junction and assume

bi R
V V >> . Then

2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸
e
~
a
R s
p
eN
V
x
or
( )
( )( )
( )( )
14 19
14
2
4
10 10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
10 50
÷
÷
÷
×
×
= ×
R
V

which yields
193 =
R
V V
(b)

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬ =
d
a
p n
a
d
n
p
N
N
x x
N
N
x
x

so
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
16
14
4
10
10
10 50
n
x

4
10 50 . 0
÷
× = cm µ 50 . 0 = m
(c)

( )
4
max
10 5 . 50
15 . 193 2 2
÷
×
= ~ E
W
V
R

or

4
max
10 65 . 7 × = E V/cm
_______________________________________

7.30
(a) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 17
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
7305 . 0 = V
(b)
( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

+
e
· ~ ' =
R bi
d s
V V
N e
A C A C
= ( )
( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
×
÷
÷
R bi
V V 2
10 6 . 1
10
19
5

( )( )( )}
2 / 1
15 14
10 2 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 × × ×
÷

R bi
V V
C
+
×
=
÷13
10 287 . 1

(i) For 1 =
R
V V,
14
10 783 . 9
÷
× = C F
(ii) For 3 =
R
V V,
14
10 663 . 6
÷
× = C F
(iii) For 5 =
R
V V,
14
10 376 . 5
÷
× = C F
_______________________________________

7.31
(a) ( )
( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
6
16
10 8 . 1
10 8
ln 0259 . 0
d
bi
N
V 20 . 1 =
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× = ×
0259 . 0
20 . 1
exp 10 8 . 1 10 8
2
6 16
d
N

15
10 36 . 5 × = ¬
d
N cm
3 ÷

(b)
( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
= ' =
d a R bi
d a s
N N V V
N N e
A C A C

( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
×
= ×
÷
÷
0 . 1 20 . 1 2
10 6 . 1
10 10 . 1
19
12
A
( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
15 16
15 16 14
10 36 . 5 10 8
10 36 . 5 10 8 10 85 . 8 1 . 13
)
`
¹
× + ×
× × ×
×
÷

5
10 56 . 7
÷
× = ¬ A cm
2

(c) ( )
( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
×
× = ×
÷
÷ ÷
R bi
V V 2
10 6 . 1
10 56 . 7 10 80 . 0
19
5 12

( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
15 16
15 16 14
10 36 . 5 10 8
10 36 . 5 10 8 10 85 . 8 1 . 13
)
`
¹
× + ×
× × ×
×
÷

R bi
V V +
×
= ×
÷
÷
8
8
10 1585 . 2
10 0582 . 1

R R bi
V V V + = = + ¬ 20 . 1 161 . 4
96 . 2 =
R
V V
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

7.32
Plot
_______________________________________

7.33
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
dO aO
t bi
n
N N
V V
(c) p-region

( )
s
aO
s
eN x
dx
d
e
÷ =
e
=
E µ

or

1
C
x eN
s
aO
+
e
÷ = E
We have
0 = E at
s
p aO
p
x eN
C x x
e
÷ = ¬ ÷ =
1

Then for 0 < < ÷ x x
p

( )
p
s
aO
x x
eN
+
e
÷ = E
n-region,
O
x x < < 0

( )
s
dO
s
eN x
dx
d
e
=
e
=
E
2
1
µ

or

2 1
2
C
x eN
s
dO
+
e
= E
n-region,
n O
x x x < <

( )
s
dO
s
eN x
dx
d
e
=
e
=
E µ
2

or

3 2
C
x eN
s
dO
+
e
= E
We have 0
2
= E at
n
x x =

s
n dO
x eN
C
e
÷ = ¬
3

so that for
n O
x x x < < , we have
( ) x x
eN
n
s
dO
÷
e
÷ = E
2

We also have
1 2
E = E at
O
x x =
Then
( )
O n
s
dO
s
O dO
x x
eN
C
x eN
÷
e
÷ = +
e
2
2

which gives

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
e
÷ =
2
2
O
n
s
dO
x
x
eN
C

Then for
O
x x < < 0 we have

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
e
÷
e
= E
2 2
1
O
n
s
dO
s
dO
x
x
eN x eN

_______________________________________

7.34
(a)
( ) ( ) ( )
dx
x d x
dx
x d
s
E
÷ =
e
÷ =
µ |
2
2

For µ 1 2 ÷ < < ÷ x m, ( )
d
eN x + = µ
So

1
C
x eN eN
dx
d
s
d
s
d
+
e
= E ¬
e
=
E

At µ 2 ÷ = x m
O
x ÷ ÷ , 0 = E
So

s
O d
x eN
C
e
=
1

Then
( )
O
s
d
x x
eN
+
e
= E
At 0 = x , ( ) ( ) 1 0 ÷ = E = E x , so
( ) ( )
4
10 2 1 0
÷
× + ÷
e
= E
s
d
eN

( )( )
( )( )
( )
4
14
15 19
10 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
÷
×
×
× ×
=
or
( )
4
10 726 . 7 0 × = E V/cm
(c) Magnitude of potential difference is

}
E = dx | ( )dx x x
eN
O
s
d
}
+
e
=

2
2
2
C x x
x eN
O
s
d
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
· +
e
=
Let 0 = | at
O
x x ÷ = , then

s
O d
O
O
s
d
x eN
C C x
x eN
e
= ¬ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
e
=
2 2
0
2
2 2
2
2

Then we can write
( )
2
2
O
s
d
x x
eN
+
e
= |
At µ 1 ÷ = x m

( )( )
( )( )
( ) | |
2
4
14
15 19
1
10 2 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
÷
× + ÷
×
× ×
= |
or
863 . 3
1
= | V
Potential difference across the intrinsic region

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( ) ( )( )
4 4
2
10 2 10 726 . 7 0
÷
× × = · E = d |
or
45 . 15
2
= | V
By symmetry, the potential difference across
the p-region space-charge region is also
3.863 V. The total reverse-bias voltage is
then
( ) 2 . 23 45 . 15 863 . 3 2 = + =
R
V V
_______________________________________

7.35
(a)
B
crit s
B
eN
V
2
2
E e
=
or
( )( )( )
( )( ) 40 10 6 . 1 2
10 4 10 85 . 8 7 . 11
2
19
2
5 14 2
÷
÷
×
× ×
=
E e
=
B
crit s
B
eV
N
Then
16
10 294 . 1 × = =
a B
N N cm
3 ÷

(b)
( )( )( )
( )( ) 20 10 6 . 1 2
10 4 10 85 . 8 7 . 11
19
2
5 14
÷
÷
×
× ×
=
B
N
Or
16
10 59 . 2 × = =
a B
N N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

7.36

( )( )( )
( )( ) 80 10 6 . 1 2
10 4 10 85 . 8 7 . 11
2
19
2
5 14 2
÷
÷
×
× ×
=
E e
=
B
crit s
a
eV
N

15
10 47 . 6 × = cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

7.37
(a) For
16
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
, from Figure 7.15,
75 ~
B
V V
(b) For
15
10 =
d
N cm
3 ÷
,
450 ~
B
V V
_______________________________________

7.38
(a) From Equation (7.36),

( )
2 / 1
max
2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ e
+
= E
d a
d a
s
R bi
N N
N N V V e

Set
crit
E = E
max
and
B R
V V =
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 16
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 2
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
7305 . 0 = V

Then

( )( )
( )( ) ¦
¹
¦
´
¦
×
+ ×
= ×
÷
÷
14
19
5
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 6 . 1 2
10 4
R bi
V V

( )( )
2 / 1
16 16
16 16
10 2 10 2
10 2 10 2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
× ×
×
77 . 51 = + ¬
B bi
V V V
So 04 . 51 =
B
V V
(b)
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 15
10 5 . 1
10 5 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
6587 . 0 = V
Then

( )( )
( )( ) ¦
¹
¦
´
¦
×
+ ×
= ×
÷
÷
14
19
5
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 6 . 1 2
10 4
R bi
V V

( )( )
2 / 1
15 15
15 15
10 5 10 5
10 5 10 5
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
× ×
×
1 . 207 = + ¬
R bi
V V
So 206 ~
R
V V
_______________________________________

7.39
For a silicon n p
+
junction with

15
10 5× =
d
N cm
3 ÷
and 100 ~
B
V V, then,
neglecting
bi
V we have

2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸
e
~
d
B s
n
eN
V
x

( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
15 19
14
10 5 10 6 . 1
100 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
×
=
÷
÷

or
( )
4
10 09 . 5 min
÷
× =
n
x cm µ 09 . 5 = m
_______________________________________

7.40
We find
( )
( )( )
( )
933 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
2
10
18 18
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
bi
V V
Now

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

so

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )( )
( )( )
14
18 19
6
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 10 6 . 1
10
÷
÷
×
×
=
n
x

which yields

6
10 47 . 6
÷
× =
n
x cm
Now

( )
2 / 1
1 2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| + e
=
d a d
a R bi s
n
N N N
N
e
V V
x
Then
( )
( )( )

¸

×
×
= ×
÷
÷
÷
19
14
2
6
10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
10 47 . 6
( )
(
(
¸
(
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ×
18 18 18
18
10 10
1
10
10
R bi
V V
which yields
468 . 6 = +
R bi
V V V
or
54 . 5 =
R
V V
_______________________________________

7.41
Assume silicon: For an p n
+
junction

( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸
+ e
=
a
R bi s
p
eN
V V
x
Assume
R bi
V V <<
(a) For µ 75 =
p
x m
( )
( )( )
( )( )
15 19
14
2
4
10 10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
10 75
÷
÷
÷
×
×
= ×
R
V

which yields

3
10 35 . 4 × =
R
V V
(b) For µ 150 =
p
x m
( )
( )( )
( )( )
15 19
14
2
4
10 10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
10 150
÷
÷
÷
×
×
= ×
R
V

which yields

4
10 74 . 1 × =
R
V V
Note: From Figure 7.15, the breakdown
voltage is approximately 300 V. So, in each
case, breakdown is reached first.
_______________________________________

7.42

22
4
18
10
10 2
10 2
=
×
×
=
÷
a cm
4 ÷

From Figure 7.15, 15 ~
B
V V
_______________________________________

7.43
(a) For the linearly graded junction
( ) eax x = µ
Then

( )
s s
eax x
dx
d
e
=
e
=
E µ

Now

1
2
2
C
x ea
dx
eax
s s
+ ·
e
=
e
= E
}

At
O
x x + = and
O
x x ÷ = , 0 = E
So

|
|
.
|

\
|
e
÷ = ¬ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
e
=
2 2
0
2
1 1
2
O
s
O
s
x ea
C C
x ea

Then
( )
2 2
2
O
s
x x
ea
÷
e
= E
(b)
( )
2
2
3
3 2
C x x
x ea
dx x
O
s
+
(
¸
(

¸

· ÷
e
÷ = E ÷ =
}
|
Set 0 = | at
O
x x ÷ = , then

s
O
O
O
s
eax
C C x
x ea
e
= ¬ +
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
e
÷ =
3 3 2
0
3
2 2
3
3

Then
( )
s
O
O
s
eax
x x
x ea
x
e
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ÷
e
÷ =
3 3 2
3
2
3
|
_______________________________________

7.44
We have that

( )
3 / 1
2
12
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
e
= '
R bi
s
V V
ea
C
Then
( )
3
9
10 2 . 7
÷
×

( )( )( ) | |
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
× ×
=
÷ ÷
5 . 3 7 . 0 12
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
2
14 19
a

which yields

20
10 1 . 1 × = a cm
4 ÷

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

7.45
(a)
( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

+
e
· ~ ' =
R bi
a s
j
V V
N e
A C A C
Let
15
10 5× =
a
N cm
3 ÷
<<
d
N
Then ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 17
10 5 . 1
10 5 10 3
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
7648 . 0 = V
Now

( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
×
= × =
÷
÷
5 7648 . 0 2
10 6 . 1
10 45 . 0
19
12
A C
j

( )( )( )}
2 / 1
15 14
10 5 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 × × ×
÷

( )
9 12
10 476 . 8 10 45 . 0
÷ ÷
× = × A

5
10 31 . 5
÷
× = ¬ A cm
2

(b) ( )
( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
×
× =
÷
÷
R bi
j
V V
C
2
10 6 . 1
10 309 . 5
19
5

( )( )( )}
2 / 1
15 14
10 5 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 × × ×
÷

R bi
j
V V
C
+
×
=
÷12
10 0805 . 1

(i) For 5 . 2 =
R
V V, 598 . 0 =
j
C pF
(ii) For 0 =
R
V , 24 . 1 =
j
C pF
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 8
8.1
In forward bias
|
.
|

\
|
~
kT
eV
I I
S f
exp
Then
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 1
2
1
2
1
exp
exp
exp
V V
kT
e
kT
eV
I
kT
eV
I
I
I
S
S
f
f

or

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
2
1
2 1
ln
f
f
I
I
e
kT
V V
(a)
For 10
2
1
=
f
f
I
I
, then
( ) ( ) 10 ln 0259 . 0
2 1
= ÷V V
or
6 . 59
2 1
= ÷V V mV 60 ~ mV
(b)
For 100
2
1
=
f
f
I
I
, then
( ) ( ) 100 ln 0259 . 0
2 1
= ÷V V
or
3 . 119
2 1
= ÷V V mV 120 ~ mV
_______________________________________

8.2

( )
4
15
2
10 2
10 8125 . 2
10 8
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
a
i
po
N
n
n cm
3 ÷

( )
5
15
2
10 2
10 125 . 1
10 2
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
d
i
no
N
n
p cm
3 ÷

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
no n n
V
V
p x p exp
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
t
a
po p p
V
V
n x n exp
(a) 45 . 0 =
a
V V,
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
0259 . 0
45 . 0
exp 10 125 . 1
5
n n
x p

12
10 95 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× = ÷
0259 . 0
45 . 0
exp 10 8125 . 2
4
p p
x n
or
( )
11
10 88 . 9 × = ÷
p p
x n cm
3 ÷

(b) 55 . 0 =
a
V V,
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
0259 . 0
55 . 0
exp 10 125 . 1
5
n n
x p

14
10 88 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× = ÷
0259 . 0
55 . 0
exp 10 8125 . 2
4
p p
x n

13
10 69 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

(c) 55 . 0 ÷ =
a
V V
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× =
0259 . 0
55 . 0
exp 10 125 . 1
5
n n
x p
0 ~
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× = ÷
0259 . 0
55 . 0
exp 10 8125 . 2
4
p p
x n
0 ~
_______________________________________

8.3

( )
5
16
2
6 2
10 1 . 8
10 4
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
×
= =
a
i
po
N
n
n cm
3 ÷

( )
4
16
2
6 2
10 24 . 3
10
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
×
= =
d
i
no
N
n
p cm
3 ÷

(a) 90 . 0 =
a
V V,
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
90 . 0
exp 10 24 . 3
4
n n
x p

11
10 0 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× = ÷
÷
0259 . 0
90 . 0
exp 10 1 . 8
5
p p
x n

10
10 0 . 10 × = cm
3 ÷

(b) 10 . 1 =
a
V V
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
10 . 1
exp 10 24 . 3
4
n n
x p

14
10 03 . 9 × = cm
3 ÷

( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× = ÷
÷
0259 . 0
10 . 1
exp 10 1 . 8
5
p p
x n

14
10 26 . 2 × = cm
3 ÷

(c) ( ) 0 ~
n n
x p
( ) 0 ~ ÷
p p
x n
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.4
(a)
( )
16
2
10 2
10 5
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
a
i
po
N
n
n

3
10 5 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
15
2
10 2
10 5
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
d
i
no
N
n
p

4
10 5 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

(i) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
no n n
V
V
p x p exp
or
( )
(
¸
(

¸

=
no
n n
t a
p
x p
V V ln
( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
4
15
10 5 . 4
10 5 1 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
599 . 0 = V
(ii) n-region - lower doped side
(b)
( )
15
2
10 2
10 7
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
a
i
po
N
n
n

4
10 214 . 3 × = cm
3 ÷

( )
16
2
10 2
10 3
10 5 . 1
×
×
= =
d
i
no
N
n
p

3
10 5 . 7 × = cm
3 ÷

(i)
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
po
a
t a
n
N
V V
1 . 0
ln
( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
4
15
10 214 . 3
10 7 1 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
6165 . 0 = V
(ii) p-region - lower doped side
_______________________________________

8.5
(a) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
t
a
n
po n
p n
V
V
L
n eD
x J exp

|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
t
a
no
n
a
i
V
V D
N
en
exp
2
t

( )( )
8 16
2
6 19
10 5
205
10 5
10 8 . 1 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
× ×
× ×
=
|
.
|

\
|
×
0259 . 0
10 . 1
exp
849 . 1 = A/cm
2

( ) ( )( ) 849 . 1 10
3 ÷
= ÷ =
p n n
x AJ I A
or 85 . 1 =
n
I mA

(b) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
p
no p
n p
V
V
L
p eD
x J exp

|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
t
a
p
p
d
i
V
V
D
N
en
exp
0
2
t

( )( )
8 16
2
6 19
10
80 . 9
10
10 8 . 1 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
× ×
=
|
.
|

\
|
×
0259 . 0
10 . 1
exp
521 . 4 = A/cm
2

( ) ( )( ) 521 . 4 10
3 ÷
= =
n p p
x AJ I A
or 52 . 4 =
p
I mA
(c) 37 . 6 52 . 4 85 . 1 = + = + =
p n
I I I mA
_______________________________________

8.6
For an p n
+
silicon diode

nO
n
a
i S
D
N
Aen I
t
1
2
· =

( )( )( )
6 16
2
10 19 4
10
25
10
10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1 10
÷
÷ ÷
× ×
=
or

15
10 8 . 1
÷
× =
S
I A
(a) For 5 . 0 =
a
V V,

|
|
.
|

\
|
~
t
a
S D
V
V
I I exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
5 . 0
exp 10 8 . 1
15

or

7
10 36 . 4
÷
× =
D
I A
(b) For 5 . 0 ÷ =
a
V V,
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ |
.
|

\
| ÷
× =
÷
1
0259 . 0
5 . 0
exp 10 8 . 1
15
D
I
or

15
10 8 . 1
÷
× ÷ = ÷ ~
S D
I I A
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.7

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
0
2
1 1
p
p
d no
n
a
i s
D
N
D
N
en J
t t

( )( )
2
13 19
10 4 . 2 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷

(
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+
× ×
×
÷ ÷ 6 17 6 15
10 2
48
10 2
1
10 2
90
10 4
1

4
10 568 . 1
÷
× =
s
J A/cm
2

(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
s
V
V
AJ I exp
( )( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷ ÷
0259 . 0
25 . 0
exp 10 568 . 1 10
4 4

4
10 44 . 2
÷
× = A
or 244 . 0 = I mA
(b) ( )( )
4 4
10 568 . 1 10
÷ ÷
× ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
s s
AJ I I

8
10 568 . 1
÷
× ÷ = A
_______________________________________

8.8
(a)
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
0
2
1 1
p
p
d no
n
a
i s
D
N
D
N
en J
t t

( )( )
2
10 19
10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷

(
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+
×
×
÷ ÷ 8 15 7 17
10 8
10
10 8
1
10
25
10 5
1

11
10 145 . 5
÷
× =
s
J A/cm
2

( )( )
11 4
10 145 . 5 10 2
÷ ÷
× × = =
s s
AJ I

14
10 029 . 1
÷
× = A
(b)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
s
V
V
I I exp
(i) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
45 . 0
exp 10 029 . 1
14
I

7
10 61 . 3
÷
× = A
(ii) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
55 . 0
exp 10 029 . 1
14
I

5
10 72 . 1
÷
× = A
(iii) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
65 . 0
exp 10 029 . 1
14
I

4
10 16 . 8
÷
× = A
_______________________________________

8.9
We have

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp
t
S
V
V
I I
or we can write this as

|
|
.
|

\
|
= +
t S
V
V
I
I
exp 1
so that

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = 1 ln
S
t
I
I
V V
In reverse bias, I is negative, so at
90 . 0 ÷ =
S
I
I
, we have
( ) ( ) 90 . 0 1 ln 0259 . 0 ÷ = V
or
6 . 59 ÷ = V mV
_______________________________________

8.10
Case 1:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
s
V
V
I I exp
|
.
|

\
|
= ×
÷
0259 . 0
65 . 0
exp 10 50 . 0
3
s
I

15
10 305 . 6
÷
× = ¬
s
I A
12
10 305 . 6
÷
× = mA

4
12
10 2
10 305 . 6
÷
÷
×
×
= =
A
I
J
s
s

8
10 153 . 3
÷
× = mA/cm
2

Case 2:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
s
V
V
I I exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
70 . 0
exp 10 2
12

or 093 . 1 = I mA

3
12
10 1
10 2
÷
÷
×
×
= =
A
I
J
s
s

9
10 2
÷
× = mA/cm
2

Case 3:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
s
V
V
AJ I exp
So
(
¸
(

¸

=
s
t a
AJ
I
V V ln
( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

=
÷ ÷ 7 4
10 10
80 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
6502 . 0 =
a
V V

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then
( )( )
11 7 4
10 10 10
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
s s
AJ I mA
Case 4:
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0259 . 0
72 . 0
exp
20 . 1
exp
t
a
s
V
V
I
I

12
10 014 . 1
÷
× =
s
I mA

8
12
10 2
10 014 . 1
÷
÷
×
×
= =
s
s
J
I
A

5
10 07 . 5
÷
× = cm
2

_______________________________________

8.11
(a)
p
no p
n
po n
n
po n
p n
n
L
p eD
L
n eD
L
n eD
J J
J
+
=
+

d
i
po
p
a
i
no
n
a
i
no
n
N
n
D
N
n D
N
n D
2 2
2
· + ·
·
=
t t
t

|
|
.
|

\
|
· +
=
d
a
po n
no p
N
N
D
D
t
t
1
1
90 . 0
1
90 . 0
1
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
d
a
po n
no p
N
N
D
D
t
t

|
.
|

\
|
÷ = 1
90 . 0
1
no p
po n
d
a
D
D
N
N
t
t

( )( )
( )( )
( ) 1111 . 0
10 5 10
10 25
7
7
÷
÷
×
=
07857 . 0 =
d
a
N
N
or 73 . 12 =
a
d
N
N

(b) From part (a),
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = 1
20 . 0
1
no p
po n
d
a
D
D
N
N
t
t

( )( )
( )( )
( ) 4
10 5 10
10 25
7
7
÷
÷
×
=
828 . 2 =
d
a
N
N
or 354 . 0 =
a
d
N
N

_______________________________________

8.12
The cross-sectional area is

4
3
10 5
20
10 10
÷
÷
× =
×
= =
J
I
A cm
2

We have
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
0259 . 0
65 . 0
exp 20 exp
S
t
D
S
J
V
V
J J
which yields

10
10 522 . 2
÷
× =
S
J A/cm
2

We can write

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
pO
p
d nO
n
a
i S
D
N
D
N
en J
t t
1 1
2

We want
10 . 0
1 1
1
=
· + ·
·
pO
p
d nO
n
a
nO
n
a
D
N
D
N
D
N
t t
t

or

7 7
7
10 5
10 1
10 5
25 1
10 5
25 1
÷ ÷
÷
×
· +
×
×
·
d a
a
N N
N

=
( )
10 . 0
10 472 . 4 10 071 . 7
10 071 . 7
3 3
3
=
× + ×
×
d
a
N
N

which yields
23 . 14 =
d
a
N
N

Now
( )( )
2
10 19 10
10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1 10 522 . 2 × × = × =
÷ ÷
S
J

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
· +
×
· ×
÷ ÷ 7 7
10 5
10 1
10 5
25
23 . 14
1
d d
N N

We find

14
10 09 . 7 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

and

16
10 01 . 1 × =
a
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

8.13
Plot
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.14
(a)

p
no p
n
po n
n
po n
p n
n
L
p eD
L
n eD
L
n eD
J J
J
+
=
+

d
i
po
p
a
i
no
n
a
i
no
n
N
n
D
N
n D
N
n D
2 2
2
· + ·
·
=
t t
t

|
|
.
|

\
|
· +
=
d
a
po n
no p
N
N
D
D
t
t
1
1

We have

4 . 2
1
= =
n
p
n
p
D
D
µ
µ
and
1 . 0
1
=
po
no
t
t

so

|
|
.
|

\
|
· · +
=
+
d
a
p n
n
N
N
J J
J
1 . 0
1
4 . 2
1
1
1

or

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
d
a p n
n
N
N J J
J
04 . 2 1
1

(b) Using Einstein's relation, we can write

d
i
p
p
a
i
n
n
a
i
n
n
p n
n
N
n
L
e
N
n
L
e
N
n
L
e
J J
J
2 2
2
· + ·
·
=
+ µ
µ
µ

a p
p
n
d n
d n
N e
L
L
N e
N e
µ µ
µ
· +
=
We have

d n n
N eµ o = and
a p p
N eµ o =
Also
90 . 4
1 . 0
4 . 2
= = =
po p
no n
p
n
D
D
L
L
t
t

Then

( )
( ) 90 . 4 +
=
+
p n
p n
p n
n
J J
J
o o
o o

_______________________________________

8.15
(a) p-side;

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
a
F Fi
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
10
15
10 5 . 1
10 5
ln 0259 . 0
or
329 . 0 = ÷
F Fi
E E eV
Also on the n-side;

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
i
d
Fi F
n
N
kT E E ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
10
17
10 5 . 1
10
ln 0259 . 0
or
407 . 0 = ÷
Fi F
E E eV
(b) We can find
( )( ) 4 . 32 0259 . 0 1250 = =
n
D cm
2
/s
( )( ) 29 . 8 0259 . 0 320 = =
p
D cm
2
/s
Now

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
pO
p
d nO
n
a
i S
D
N
D
N
en J
t t
1 1
2

( )( )
2
10 19
10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1 × × =
÷

(
(
¸
(

¸

+
×
×
÷ ÷ 7 17 6 15
10
29 . 8
10
1
10
4 . 32
10 5
1

or

11
10 426 . 4
÷
× =
S
J A/cm
2

Then
( )( )
11 4
10 426 . 4 10
÷ ÷
× = =
S S
AJ I
or

15
10 426 . 4
÷
× =
S
I A
We find

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
D
S
V
V
I I exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
5 . 0
exp 10 426 . 4
15

or

6
10 07 . 1
÷
× = I A µ 07 . 1 = A
(c) The hole current is

|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
t
D
po
p
d
i p
V
V
D
N
A en I exp
1
2
t

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× × =
÷ ÷
17
4
2
10 19
10
1
10 10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1

|
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
t
D
V
V
exp
10
29 . 8
7

or

|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
t
D
p
V
V
I exp 10 278 . 3
16
(A)
Then
0741 . 0
10 426 . 4
10 278 . 3
15
16
=
×
×
= =
÷
÷
S
p p
J
J
I
I

_______________________________________

8.16
(a)
d
i
po
p
p
no p
sp
N
n
D
eA
L
p eD
A I
2
· =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t

( )( )
( )
16
2
10
8
4 19
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1
10 8
10
10 5 10 6 . 1
×
×
·
×
× × =
÷
÷ ÷

14
10 342 . 1
÷
× =
sp
I A
(b)
a
i
no
n
n
po n
sn
N
n D
eA
L
n eD
A I
2
· =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t

( )( )
( )
16
2
10
7
4 19
10 5
10 5 . 1
10 2
25
10 5 10 6 . 1
×
×
·
×
× × =
÷
÷ ÷

15
10 025 . 4
÷
× =
sn
I A
(c) ( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 16
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
746826 . 0 = V
( ) ( )( ) 59746 . 0 746826 . 0 8 . 0 8 . 0 = = =
bi a
V V V
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
d
i
t
a
no n n
V
V
N
n
V
V
p x p exp exp
2

( )
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
0259 . 0
59746 . 0
exp
10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1
16
2
10

14
10 56 . 1 × = cm
3 ÷

(d) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = ÷
t
a
sn n n p n
V
V
I x I x I exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
59746 . 0
exp 10 025 . 4
15

5
10 1981 . 4
÷
× = A

(e) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
sp n p
V
V
I x I exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
59746 . 0
exp 10 342 . 1
14

4
10 3997 . 1
÷
× = A

p n Total
I I I + =

4 5
10 3997 . 1 10 1981 . 4
÷ ÷
× + × =

4
10 820 . 1
÷
× = A
Now
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
= |
.
|

\
|
+
p
p
n p p n p
L
L
x I L x I
2 1
exp
2
1

( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
× =
÷
2
1
exp 10 3997 . 1
4

5
10 4896 . 8
÷
× = A
Then
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ = |
.
|

\
|
+
p n p Total p n n
L x I I L x I
2
1
2
1

5 4
10 4896 . 8 10 820 . 1
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =

5
10 710 . 9
÷
× = A
_______________________________________

8.17
(a) The excess hole concentration is given by

no n n
p p p ÷ = o

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
·
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p t
a
no
L
x
V
V
p exp 1 exp
We find

( )
4
16
2
10 2
10 25 . 2
10
10 5 . 1
× =
×
= =
d
i
no
N
n
p cm
3 ÷

and
( )( )
6
10 01 . 0 8
÷
× = =
pO p p
D L t

4
10 828 . 2
÷
× = cm µ 828 . 2 = m
Then
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ |
.
|

\
|
× = 1
0259 . 0
610 . 0
exp 10 25 . 2
4
n
p o
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
×
÷4
10 828 . 2
exp
x

or
( ) |
.
|

\
|
×
÷
× =
÷4
14
10 828 . 2
exp 10 81 . 3
x
p
n
o cm
3 ÷

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) We have

( )
dx
p d
eD J
n
p p
o
÷ =

( )
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
×
×
=
÷ ÷ 4 4
14
10 828 . 2
exp
10 828 . 2
10 808 . 3
x
eD
p

At
4
10 3
÷
× = x cm,
( )
( )( )( )
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
× ×
=
÷
÷
828 . 2
3
exp
10 828 . 2
10 808 . 3 8 10 6 . 1
3
4
14 19
p
J
or
( ) 5966 . 0 3 =
p
J A/cm
2

(c) We have

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
n
po n
no
V
V
L
n eD
J exp
We can determine that

3
10 5 . 4 × =
po
n cm
3 ÷
and µ 72 . 10 =
n
L m
Then

( )( )( )
4
3 19
10 72 . 10
10 5 . 4 23 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
×
× ×
=
no
J
|
.
|

\
|
×
0259 . 0
610 . 0
exp
or
2615 . 0 =
no
J A/cm
2

We can also find
724 . 1 =
po
J A/cm
2

Then at µ 3 = x m,
( ) ( ) 3 3
p po no n
J J J J ÷ + =
5966 . 0 724 . 1 2615 . 0 ÷ + =
or
( ) 39 . 1 3 =
n
J A/cm
2

_______________________________________

8.18
(a) Problem 8.7

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
po p
V
V
n n exp
or
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
a i
a
t
po
p
t a
N n
N
V
n
n
V V
2
1 . 0
ln ln

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
2
1 . 0
ln
i
a
t
n
N
V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
13
2
15
10 4 . 2
10 4 1 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
205 . 0 = V

(b) Problem 8.8

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
no n
V
V
p p exp
or
(
¸
(

¸

=
no
n
t a
p
p
V V ln
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
d i
d
t
N n
N
V
2
1 . 0
ln

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
2
1 . 0
ln
i
d
t
n
N
V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
10
2
15
10 5 . 1
10 8 1 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
623 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

8.19
The excess electron concentration is given by

po p p
n n n ÷ = o

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n t
a
po
L
x
V
V
n exp 1 exp
The total number of excess electrons is
dx n A N
p p
}
·
=
0
o
We may note that

n
n
n
n
L
L
x
L dx
L
x
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
·
}
0
0
exp exp
Then

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp
t
a
po n p
V
V
n AL N
We find that
25 =
n
D cm
2
/s and µ 0 . 50 =
n
L m
Also

( )
4
15
2
10 2
10 81 . 2
10 8
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
a
i
po
N
n
n cm
3 ÷

Then
( )( )( )
4 4 3
10 8125 . 2 10 0 . 50 10 × × =
÷ ÷
p
N

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
× 1 exp
t
a
V
V

or
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp 1406 . 0
t
a
p
V
V
N
Then, we find the total number of excess
electrons in the p-region to be:

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(a) 3 . 0 =
a
V V,
4
10 51 . 1 × =
p
N
(b) 4 . 0 =
a
V V,
5
10 17 . 7 × =
p
N
(c) 5 . 0 =
a
V V,
7
10 40 . 3 × =
p
N

Similarly, the total number of excess holes in
the n-region is found to be

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp
t
a
no p n
V
V
p AL P
We find that
0 . 10 =
p
D cm
2
/s and µ 0 . 10 =
p
L m
Also

( )
4
16
2
10 2
10 25 . 2
10
10 5 . 1
× =
×
= =
d
i
no
N
n
p cm
3 ÷

Then
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
1 exp 10 25 . 2
2
t
a
n
V
V
P
So
(a) 3 . 0 =
a
V V,
3
10 41 . 2 × =
n
P
(b) 4 . 0 =
a
V V,
5
10 15 . 1 × =
n
P
(c) 5 . 0 =
a
V V,
6
10 45 . 5 × =
n
P
_______________________________________

8.20

|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
kT
eV
kT
E
V
V
n I
a
g
t
a
i
exp exp exp
2

Then

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
kT
E eV
I
g a
exp
so

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E eV
kT
E eV
I
I
g a
g a
2 2
1 1
2
1
exp
exp

or

|
|
.
|

\
| + ÷ ÷
=
kT
E E eV eV
I
I
g g a a 2 1 2 1
2
1
exp
We then have

|
|
.
|

\
| + ÷ ÷
=
×
×
÷
÷
0259 . 0
525 . 0 32 . 0 255 . 0
exp
10 10
10 10 2
6
3
g
E

or

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0259 . 0
59 . 0
exp 10
2
3
g
E

Then
( ) ( )
3
2
10 ln 0259 . 0 59 . 0 + =
g
E
or
769 . 0
2
=
g
E eV
_______________________________________

8.21
(a) We have

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
pO
p
d nO
n
a
i S
D
N
D
N
Aen I
t t
1 1
2

which can be written in the form

2
i S
n C I ' =

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
|
' =
kT
E
T
N N C
g
O cO
exp
300
3
u

or

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E
CT I
g
S
exp
3

(b) Taking the ratio

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
exp
exp
kT
E
kT
E
T
T
I
I
g
g
S
S

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 1
3
1
2
1 1
exp
kT kT
E
T
T
g

For 300
1
= T K, 0259 . 0
1
= kT , 61 . 38
1
1
=
kT

For 400
2
= T K, 03453 . 0
2
= kT , 96 . 28
1
2
=
kT

(i) Germanium: 66 . 0 =
g
E eV
( )( ) | | 96 . 28 61 . 38 66 . 0 exp
300
400
3
1
2
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
S
S
I
I

or 1383
1
2
=
S
S
I
I

(ii) Silicon: 12 . 1 =
g
E eV
( )( ) | | 96 . 28 61 . 38 12 . 1 exp
300
400
3
1
2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
S
I
I

or
5
1
2
10 17 . 1 × =
S
S
I
I

_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.22
Plot
_______________________________________

8.23
First case:

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
s
f
V
V
I
I
exp
or
( )
05049 . 0
10 2 ln
50 . 0
ln
4
=
×
= =
s
f
a
t
I
I
V
V V
Now ( ) |
.
|

\
|
=
300
0259 . 0 05049 . 0
T

8 . 584 = ¬T K
Second case:

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
po
p
d no
n
a
i s
D
N
D
N
Aen I
t t
1 1
2

( )( )( )
2 19 4 6
10 6 . 1 10 5 10 2 . 1
i
n
÷ ÷ ÷
× × = ×

(
(
¸
(

¸

×
+
× ×
×
÷ ÷ 7 17 7 15
10
10
10 2
1
10 5
25
10 4
1

or
27 2
10 2519 . 8 × =
i
n
Now

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E
N N n
g
c i
exp
2
u

( ) ( )( )
3
19 19 27
300
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 10 2519 . 8 |
.
|

\
|
× × = ×
T

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
×
300 0259 . 0
12 . 1
exp
T

( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
= ×
÷
T
T
0259 . 0
300 12 . 1
exp
300
10 8337 . 2
3
11

By trial and error,
502 ~ T K
The reverse-bias current is limiting factor.
_______________________________________

8.24
( )( )
3 7
10 10 10
÷ ÷
= = =
po p p
D L t cm
or µ 10 =
p
L m;
p n
L W << ¬
(a) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
n
no p
n p
V
V
W
p eD
x J exp

(i) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
t
a
no d n n
V
V
p N x p exp 1 . 0

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
d
i
V
V
N
n
exp
2

or
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
2
1 . 0
ln
i
d
t a
n
N
V V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
10
2
15
10 5 . 1
10 2 1 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
5516 . 0 =
a
V V
(ii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
d
i
n
p
p
V
V
N
n
W
AeD
I exp
2

( )( )( )( )
( )( )
15 4
2
10 19 3
10 2 10 7 . 0
10 5 . 1 10 10 6 . 1 10
× ×
× ×
=
÷
÷ ÷

|
.
|

\
|
×
0259 . 0
5516 . 0
exp

3
10 565 . 4
÷
× =
p
I A

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
n
po n
n
V
V
L
n AeD
I exp

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
a
i
no
n
V
V
N
n D
Ae exp
2
t

( )( )
( )
17
2
10
7
19 3
10 2
10 5 . 1
10 5
25
10 6 . 1 10
×
×
·
×
× =
÷
÷ ÷

|
.
|

\
|
×
0259 . 0
5516 . 0
exp

6
10 26 . 2
÷
× =
n
I A

p n
I I I + =

3 6
10 565 . 4 10 26 . 2
÷ ÷
× + × =

3
10 567 . 4
÷
× = A
or 567 . 4 = I mA
(b) (i) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = ÷
t
a
po a p p
V
V
n N x n exp 1 . 0

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
a
i
V
V
N
n
exp
2

or
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
2
1 . 0
ln
i
a
t a
n
N
V V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
2
10
2
15
10 5 . 1
10 2 1 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
5516 . 0 =
a
V V
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(ii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
d
i
n
p
p
V
V
N
n
W
AeD
I exp
2

( )( )( )( )
( )( )
17 4
2
10 19 3
10 2 10 7 . 0
10 5 . 1 10 10 6 . 1 10
× ×
× ×
=
÷
÷ ÷

|
.
|

\
|
0259 . 0
5516 . 0
exp

5
10 565 . 4
÷
× =
p
I A

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
a
i
no
n
n
V
V
N
n D
Ae I exp
2
t

( )( )
( )
15
2
10
7
19 3
10 2
10 5 . 1
10 5
25
10 6 . 1 10
×
×
·
×
× =
÷
÷ ÷

|
.
|

\
|
×
0259 . 0
5516 . 0
exp

4
10 2597 . 2
÷
× =
n
I A

p n
I I I + =

5 4
10 565 . 4 10 2597 . 2
÷ ÷
× + × =

4
10 716 . 2
÷
× = A
or 2716 . 0 = I mA
_______________________________________

8.25
(a) We can write for the n-region

( )
0
2 2
2
= ÷
p
n n
L
p
dx
p d o o

The general solution is of the form

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
p p
n
L
x
B
L
x
A p exp exp o
The boundary condition at
n
x x = gives
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp
t
a
no n n
V
V
p x p o

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
p
n
p
n
L
x
B
L
x
A exp exp
and the boundary condition at
n n
W x x + =
gives
( ) 0 = +
n n n
W x p o

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
p
n n
p
n n
L
W x
B
L
W x
A exp exp
From this equation, we have

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
÷ =
p
n n
L
W x
B A
2
exp

Then, from the first boundary condition, we
obtain

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
1 exp
t
a
no
V
V
p

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
÷ =
p
n
p
n n
L
x
B
L
W x
B exp
2
exp

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
p
n
p
n
L
W
L
x
B
2
exp 1 exp
We then obtain

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
n
p
n
t
a
no
L
W
L
x
V
V
p
B
2
exp 1 exp
1 exp

which can be written as

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
·
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
n
p
n
p
n n
t
a
no
L
W
L
W
L
W x
V
V
p
B
exp exp
exp 1 exp

We can also find

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
·
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
p
n
p
n
p
n n
t
a
no
L
W
L
W
L
W x
V
V
p
A
exp exp
exp 1 exp

The solution can now be written as

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
n
t
a
no
n
L
W
V
V
p
p
sinh 2
1 exp
o

( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ +
×
p
n n
p
n n
L
x W x
L
x W x
exp exp
or finally

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
·
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
n
p
n n
t
a
no n
L
W
L
x W x
V
V
p p
sinh
sinh
1 exp o

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b)

( )
n
x x
n
p p
dx
p d
eD J
=
÷ =
o

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
p
n
t
a
no p
L
W
V
V
p eD
sinh
1 exp

n
x x
p
n n
p
L
x W x
L =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
× cosh
1

Then

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp coth
t
a
p
n
p
no p
p
V
V
L
W
L
p eD
J
_______________________________________

8.26

|
|
.
|

\
|
·
t
D
i D
V
V
n I exp
2

For the temperature range 320 300 s s T K,
neglect the change in
c
N and
u
N .
Then

|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
kT
eV
kT
E
I
D
g
D
exp exp

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
·
kT
eV E
D g
exp
Taking the ratio of currents, but maintaining

D
I a constant, we have

( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
2
2
1
1
exp
exp
1
kT
eV E
kT
eV E
D g
D g

We then have

2
2
1
1
kT
eV E
kT
eV E
D g D g
÷
=
÷

We have
300 = T K , 60 . 0
1
=
D
V V and
0259 . 0
1
= kT eV, 0259 . 0
1
=
e
kT
V
310 = T K ,
02676 . 0
2
= kT eV, 02676 . 0
2
=
e
kT
V
320 = T K ,
02763 . 0
3
= kT eV, 02763 . 0
3
=
e
kT
V

For 310 = T K ,

02676 . 0
12 . 1
0259 . 0
60 . 0 12 . 1
2 D
V ÷
=
÷

which yields
5827 . 0
2
=
D
V V
For 320 = T K ,

02763 . 0
12 . 1
0259 . 0
60 . 0 12 . 1
3 D
V ÷
=
÷

which yields
5653 . 0
3
=
D
V V
_______________________________________

8.27
(a) We can write

|
|
.
|

\
|
· · =
kT
eV
n C I
a
i D
exp
2

where C is a constant, independent of
temperature.
As a first approximation, neglect the
variation of
c
N and
u
N with temperature
over the range of interest. We can then write

|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
· =
t
a
g
D
V
V
kT
E
C I exp exp
1

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
· =
kT
eV E
C
a g
exp
1

where
1
C is another constant, independent of
temperature. We find

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
D
a g
I
C
kT
eV E
1
ln
or

|
|
.
|

\
|
· |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
D
g a
I
C
e
kT
E V
1
ln
_______________________________________

8.28
(a)
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
0 0
2
1 1
p
p
d n
n
a
i s
D
N
D
N
Aen I
t t

( )( )( )
2
10 19 4
10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1 10 × × =
÷ ÷

(
(
¸
(

¸

×
+
×
×
÷ ÷ 7 16 7 16
10
10
10 4
1
10
25
10 4
1

15
10 323 . 2
÷
× =
s
I A
(b)
0
2t
W Aen
I
i
gen
=
We find
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
16 16
10 5 . 1
10 4 10 4
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
7665 . 0 = V
and

( )
2 / 1
2
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
| + + e
=
d a
d a R bi s
N N
N N
e
V V
W

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
5 7665 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

( )( )
2 / 1
16 16
16 16
10 4 10 4
10 4 10 4
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
× + ×
×

5
10 109 . 6
÷
× = W cm
Then
( )( )( )( )
( )
7
5 10 19 4
10 2
10 109 . 6 10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1 10
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
× × ×
=
gen
I

11
10 331 . 7
÷
× = A
(c)
4
15
11
10 16 . 3
10 323 . 2
10 331 . 7
× =
×
×
=
÷
÷
s
gen
I
I

_______________________________________

8.29
(a) Set
gen S
I I = ,

0 0 0
2
2
1 1
t t t
W Aen
D
N
D
N
Aen
i
p
p
d n
n
a
i
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

+

(
(
¸
(

¸

×
+
×
÷ ÷ 7 16 7 16
10
10
10 4
1
10
25
10 4
1
i
n

( )
7
5
0
10 2
10 109 . 6
2
÷
÷
×
= =
t
W

so
13 13
2
10 50 . 2 10 9528 . 3
10 0545 . 3
÷ ÷
× + ×
×
=
i
n

14
10 734 . 4 × = cm
3 ÷

Then

29 2
10 2407 . 2 × =
i
n
( )( )
3
19 19
300
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2 |
.
|

\
|
× × =
T

( )( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
|
.
|

\
|
= ×
÷
T
T
0259 . 0
300 12 . 1
exp
300
10 6947 . 7
3
10

By trial and error,
567 ~ T K
We have

0
2t
W Aen
I I
i
gen s
= =
( )( )( )( )
( )
7
5 14 19 4
10 2
10 109 . 6 10 734 . 4 10 6 . 1 10
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
× × ×
=
Then

gen s
I I +
6
10 314 . 2
÷
× = A
or µ 314 . 2 = =
gen s
I I A
(b) From Problem 8.28

15
10 323 . 2
÷
× =
s
I A

11
10 331 . 7
÷
× =
gen
I A
So
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
gen
t
a
s
V
V
I
V
V
I I
2
exp exp
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
t
a
V
V
exp 10 323 . 2
15

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
t
a
V
V
2
exp 10 331 . 7
11

15
11
10 323 . 2
10 331 . 7
2
exp
exp
÷
÷
×
×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
a
t
a
V
V
V
V

4
10 1558 . 3
2
exp × =
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
a
V
V

( )
4
10 1558 . 3 ln 2 × =
t a
V V
5366 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

8.30
( )( ) 5500 0259 . 0 = · |
.
|

\
|
=
n n
e
kT
D µ
5 . 142 = cm
2
/s
( )( ) 70 . 5 220 0259 . 0 = =
p
D cm
2
/s

(a)
(i)
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
0 0
2
1 1
p
p
d n
n
a
i s
D
N
D
N
Aen I
t t

( )( )( )
2
6 19 4
10 8 . 1 10 6 . 1 10 2 × × × =
÷ ÷

(
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+
× ×
×
÷ ÷ 8 16 8 16
10 2
70 . 5
10 7
1
10 2
5 . 142
10 7
1

22
10 50 . 1
÷
× =
s
I A

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(ii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
s D
V
V
I I exp
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
6 . 0
exp 10 50 . 1
22

12
10 726 . 1
÷
× = A
(iii) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
8 . 0
exp 10 50 . 1
22
D
I

9
10 896 . 3
÷
× = A
(iv) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
0 . 1
exp 10 50 . 1
22
D
I

6
10 795 . 8
÷
× = A
(b)
0
2t
W Aen
I
i
gen
=
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
6
16 16
10 8 . 1
10 7 10 7
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
263 . 1 = V

( )( )( )
¹
´
¦
×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
3 263 . 1 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
W

( )( )
2 / 1
16 16
16 16
10 7 10 7
10 7 10 7
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
× + ×
×

5
10 201 . 4
÷
× = cm
(i)Then
( )( )( )( )
( )
8
5 6 19 4
10 2 2
10 201 . 4 10 8 . 1 10 6 . 1 10 2
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
×
× × × ×
=
gen
I

14
10 049 . 6
÷
× = A
(ii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
a
ro rec
V
V
I I
2
exp
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0 2
6 . 0
exp 10 6
14

9
10 436 . 6
÷
× = A
(iii) ( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0 2
8 . 0
exp 10 6
14
rec
I

7
10 058 . 3
÷
× = A
(iv) ( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0 2
0 . 1
exp 10 6
14
rec
I

5
10 453 . 1
÷
× = A
_______________________________________

8.31
Using results from Problem 8.30, we find
4 . 0 =
a
V V,
16
10 64 . 7
÷
× =
d
I A,

10
10 35 . 1
÷
× =
rec
I A,
10
10 35 . 1
÷
× ~
T
I A
6 . 0 =
a
V V,
12
10 73 . 1
÷
× =
d
I A

9
10 44 . 6
÷
× =
rec
I A,
9
10 44 . 6
÷
× ~
T
I A
8 . 0 =
a
V V,
9
10 90 . 3
÷
× =
d
I A

7
10 06 . 3
÷
× =
rec
I A,
7
10 10 . 3
÷
× =
T
I A
0 . 1 =
a
V V,
6
10 80 . 8
÷
× =
d
I A

5
10 45 . 1
÷
× =
rec
I A,
5
10 33 . 2
÷
× =
T
I A
2 . 1 =
a
V V.
2
10 99 . 1
÷
× =
d
I A

4
10 90 . 6
÷
× =
rec
I A,
2
10 06 . 2
÷
× =
T
I A
_______________________________________

8.32
Plot
_______________________________________

8.33
Plot
_______________________________________

8.34
We have that

( ) ( ) p p n n
n np
R
nO pO
i
' + + ' +
÷
=
t t
2

Let
O nO pO
t t t ÷ = and
i
n p n = ' = '
We can write

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
n n
Fi Fn
i
exp
and

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
n p
Fp Fi
i
exp
We also have
( ) ( )
a Fp Fi Fi Fn
eV E E E E = ÷ + ÷
so that
( ) ( )
Fi Fn a Fp Fi
E E eV E E ÷ ÷ = ÷
Then

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E eV
n p
Fi Fn a
i
exp

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
E E
kT
eV
n
Fi Fn a
i
exp exp

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Define

kT
eV
a
a
= q and
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
kT
E E
Fi Fn
q
Then the recombination rate can be written as

( )( )
| |
i i i i O
i i i
n e e n n e n
n e e n e n
R
a
a
+ · + +
÷ ·
=
÷
÷
q q q
q q q
t
2

or

( )
| |
q q q
q
t
÷
· + +
÷
=
e e e
e n
R
a
a
O
i
2
1

To find the maximum recombination rate, set
0 =
q d
dR

( )
| |
1
2
1 ÷
÷
· + + ·
÷
=
q q q
q
q t
e e e
d
d e n
a
a
O
i

or

( )
( )| |
2
2 1
1
0
÷
÷
· + + ÷ ·
÷
=
q q q
q
t
e e e
e n
a
a
O
i

| |
q q q ÷
· ÷ × e e e
a

which simplifies to

( ) | |
| |
2
2
1
0
q q q
q q q q
t
÷
÷
· + +
· ÷
·
÷ ÷
=
e e e
e e e e n
a
a a
O
i

The denominator is not zero, so we have

q q q ÷
· ÷ = e e e
a
0
or

a
e e
q q
=
2

2
a
q
q = ¬
Then the maximum recombination rate
becomes

( )
| |
2 2
max
2
1
a a a
a
e e e
e n
R
O
i
q q q
q
t
÷
· + +
÷
=

( )
| |
2 2
2
1
a a
a
e e
e n
O
i
q q
q
t + +
÷
=
or

( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
max
+
÷
=
a
a
e
e n
R
O
i
q
q
t

which can be written as

(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
exp 2
1 exp
max
kT
eV
kT
eV
n
R
a
O
a
i
t

If ( ) e kT V
a
>> , then we can neglect the (-1)
term in the numerator and the (+1) term in the
denominator, so we finally have

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
eV n
R
a
O
i
2
exp
2
max
t

Q.E.D.
_______________________________________

8.35
We have

}
=
W
gen
eGdx J
0

In this case,
19
10 4× = ' = g G cm
3 ÷
s
1 ÷
and is
a constant through the space charge region.
Then
W g e J
gen
' =
We find

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
ln
i
d a
t bi
n
N N
V V
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 15
10 5 . 1
10 5 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
or
659 . 0 =
bi
V V
Also

( )
2 / 1
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| + + e
=
d a
d a R bi s
N N
N N
e
V V
W

( )( )( )

¸

×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
10 659 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

( )( )
2 / 1
15 15
15 15
10 5 10 5
10 5 10 5
(
(
¸
(
|
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
× + ×
×
or

4
10 35 . 2
÷
× = W cm
Then
( )( )( )
4 19 19
10 35 . 2 10 4 10 6 . 1
÷ ÷
× × × =
gen
J
or

3
10 5 . 1
÷
× =
gen
J A/cm
2

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.36

(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
pO
p
d nO
n
a
i S
D
N
D
N
en J
t t
1 1
2

( )( )

¸

×
× × =
÷
÷
7 16
2
10 19
10
18
10 3
1
10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1

(
(
¸
(
+
÷7 18
10
6
10
1

or

11
10 638 . 1
÷
× =
S
J A/cm
2

Now

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
D
S D
V
V
J J exp
We want

D G
J J J ÷ = = 0
or

|
|
.
|

\
|
× ÷ × =
÷ ÷
t
D
V
V
exp 10 638 . 1 10 25 0
11 3

which can be written as

9
11
3
10 526 . 1
10 638 . 1
10 25
exp × =
×
×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
t
D
V
V

We find
( )
9
10 526 . 1 ln × =
t D
V V
or
548 . 0 =
D
V V
_______________________________________

8.37
(a) O =
×
= =
÷
6 . 21
10 2 . 1
0259 . 0
3
DQ
t
d
I
V
r

( )( )
( ) 0259 . 0 2
10 5 . 0 10 2 . 1
2
6 3
0
÷ ÷
× ×
= =
t
DQ
d
V
I
C
t

8
10 16 . 1
÷
× = F
or 6 . 11 =
d
C nF
(b) O =
×
=
÷
216
10 12 . 0
0259 . 0
3
d
r

( )( )
( ) 0259 . 0 2
10 5 . 0 10 12 . 0
6 3 ÷ ÷
× ×
=
d
C

9
10 16 . 1
÷
× = F
or 16 . 1 =
d
C nF
_______________________________________

8.38
(a)
V
Q
C
d
A
A
= , For 2 . 1 =
D
I mA
( )( )
3 8
10 50 10 158 . 1
÷ ÷
× × = A · = A V C Q
d

10
10 79 . 5
÷
× = C
(b) For 12 . 0 =
D
I mA
( )( )
3 9
10 50 10 158 . 1
÷ ÷
× × = A · = A V C Q
d

11
10 79 . 5
÷
× = C
_______________________________________

8.39
For a n p
+
diode

t
DQ
d
V
I
g = ,
t
pO DQ
d
V
I
C
2
t
=
Now

2
3
10 86 . 3
0259 . 0
10
÷
÷
× = =
d
g S
and

( )( )
( )
9
7 3
10 93 . 1
0259 . 0 2
10 10
÷
÷ ÷
× = =
d
C F
We have

2 2 2
1 1
d d
d d
d d
C g
C j g
C j g Y
Z
e
e
e +
÷
=
+
= =
where f t e 2 =

We obtain
10 = f kHz , 0814 . 0 9 . 25 j Z ÷ =
100 = f kHz , 814 . 0 9 . 25 j Z ÷ =
1 = f MHz , 41 . 7 6 . 23 j Z ÷ =
10 = f MHz , 49 . 7 38 . 2 j Z ÷ =
_______________________________________

8.40
Reverse bias

( )( )
2 / 1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
e
· = ' =
d a R bi
d a s
j
N N V V
N N e
A C A C
( )
( )( )
( ) (
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
2
10
15 17
10 5 . 1
10 8 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
bi
V
790 . 0 = V
( )
( )( )( )
( )
¹
´
¦
+
× ×
× =
÷ ÷
÷
R bi
j
V V
C
2
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10 2
14 19
4

( )( )
2 / 1
15 17
15 17
10 8 10 5
10 8 10 5
¦
)
¦
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
× ×
×

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

r bi
j
V V
C
+
×
=
÷12
10 1078 . 5
F

R
V (V)
j
C (pF)
10 1.555
5 2.123
3 2.624
1 3.818
0 5.747
20 . 0 ÷ 6.650
40 . 0 ÷ 8.179

Forward bias
For
no po d a
I I N N >> ¬ >>
Then

( )
( )
( )
po
po
t
p po
d
I
I
V
I
C
6
8
0
10 544 . 1
0259 . 0 2
10 8
2
÷
÷
× =
×
= =
t

|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
t
a
d
i
p
p
po
V
V
N
n
D
Ae I exp
2
0
t

( )( )
( )
15
2
10
8
19 4
10 8
10 5 . 1
10 8
10
10 6 . 1 10 2
×
×
·
×
× × =
÷
÷ ÷

|
|
.
|

\
|
×
t
a
V
V
exp
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
t
a
po
V
V
I exp 10 006 . 1
14
A

a
V (V)
d
C (F) +
j
C (F) =
Total
C (F)
0.20
12 17
10 650 . 6 10 51 . 3
÷ ÷
× + ×

12
10 650 . 6
÷
× ~
0.40
12 14
10 179 . 8 10 92 . 7
÷ ÷
× + ×

12
10 258 . 8
÷
× =
0.60 ... 10 79 . 1
10
+ ×
÷

10
10 79 . 1
÷
× ~
_______________________________________

8.41
For a n p
+
diode,
nO pO
I I >> , then
( )
pO pO
t
d
I
V
C t
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1

Now

6
10 5 . 2
2
÷
× =
t
pO
V
t
F/A
Then

( )( )
6
10 5 . 2 0259 . 0 2
÷
× =
pO
t
or

7
10 3 . 1
÷
× =
pO
t s

At 1 mA,
( )( )
3 6
10 10 5 . 2
÷ ÷
× =
d
C
or

9
10 5 . 2
÷
× =
d
C F
_______________________________________

8.42
(a)
no po d a
I I N N >> ¬ >>
(i)
t
p po
d
V
I
C
2
0
t
=
or
( ) ( )( )
7
9
0
10
10 0259 . 0 2 2
÷
÷
= =
p
d t
po
C V
I
t

4
10 18 . 5
÷
× = A
or 518 . 0 =
po
I mA
(ii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
t
a
d
i
p
p
po
V
V
N
n
D
Ae I exp
2
0
t

( )( )
7
19 4 3
10
10
10 6 . 1 10 5 10 518 . 0
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
× × = ×

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
×
t
a
V
V
exp
10 8
10 5 . 1
15
2
10

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
14
3
10 25 . 2
10 518 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
618 . 0 = V
(iii) O =
×
= =
÷
50
10 518 . 0
0259 . 0
3
D
t
d
I
V
r
(b)
(i)
( ) ( )( )
7
9
0
10
10 25 . 0 0259 . 0 2 2
÷
÷
×
= =
p
d t
po
C V
I
t

4
10 295 . 1
÷
× = A
or 1295 . 0 =
po
I mA
(ii) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
14
3
10 25 . 2
10 1295 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
5821 . 0 = V
(iii) O =
×
=
÷
200
10 1295 . 0
0259 . 0
3
d
r
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.43
(a) p-region:

( )A N e
L
A
L
A
L
R
a p p
p
p
µ o
µ
= = =
so

( )( )( )( )
2 16 19
10 10 480 10 6 . 1
2 . 0
÷ ÷
×
=
p
R
or
O = 26
p
R
n-region:

( )A N e
L
A
L
A
L
R
d n n
n
n
µ o
µ
= = =
so

( )( )( )( )
2 15 19
10 10 1350 10 6 . 1
10 . 0
÷ ÷
×
=
n
R
or
O = 3 . 46
n
R
The total resistance is
3 . 46 26 + = + =
n p
R R R
or
O = 3 . 72 R
(b)
( ) 3 . 72 1 . 0 I IR V = ¬ =
which yields
38 . 1 = I mA
_______________________________________

8.44

( )
( )
( )
( ) p A
p L
n A
n L
R
p
n
µ
µ
+ =

( )( ) ( )( )
5
2
5
2
10 2
10 1 . 0
10 2
10 2 . 0
÷
÷
÷
÷
×
+
×
=
or
O =150 R
We can write

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
S
D
t D
I
I
V R I V ln
(a) (i) For 1 =
D
I mA,
( )( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
÷
÷
÷
10
3
3
10
10
ln 0259 . 0 150 10 V
or 567 . 0 = V V
(ii) For 10 =
D
I mA,
( )( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
÷
÷
÷
10
2
2
10
10
ln 0259 . 0 150 10 V
or 98 . 1 = V V

(b) Set 0 = R
(i) For 1 =
D
I mA,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
÷
10
3
10
10
ln 0259 . 0 V
or 417 . 0 = V V

(ii) For 10 =
D
I mA,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
÷
10
2
10
10
ln 0259 . 0 V
or 477 . 0 = V V
_______________________________________

8.45
(a)
32
0259 . 0
= = ¬ =
d
t
D
D
t
d
r
V
I
I
V
r
or
4
10 09375 . 8
÷
× =
D
I A

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
D
t a
I
I
V V ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
12
4
10 5
10 09375 . 8
ln 0259 . 0
4896 . 0 =
a
V V
(b)
4
10 3167 . 4
60
0259 . 0
÷
× = = =
d
t
D
r
V
I A
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
12
4
10 5
10 3167 . 4
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
4733 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

8.46
(a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
t
a
t
S
a
D
d
V
V
V
I
dV
dI
r
exp
1 1

or
|
.
|

\
|
· =
÷
0259 . 0
020 . 0
exp
0259 . 0
10 1
13
d
r

which yields
O × =
11
10 2 . 1
d
r
(b)
|
.
|

\
| ÷
· =
÷
0259 . 0
02 . 0
exp
0259 . 0
10 1
13
d
r

which yields
O × =
11
10 6 . 5
d
r
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.47
(a) If 2 . 0 =
F
R
I
I

Then we have

2 . 0 1
1
1
1
+
=
+
=
+
=
F
R R F
F
pO
s
I
I I I
I t
erf
t

or
833 . 0 =
pO
s
t
erf
t

We find
956 . 0 978 . 0 = ¬ =
pO
s
pO
s
t t
t t

(b) If 0 . 1 =
F
R
I
I
, then
50 . 0
1 1
1
=
+
=
pO
s
t
erf
t

which yields
228 . 0 =
pO
s
t
t

_______________________________________

8.48
(a) erf
R F
F
p
s
I I
I t
+
=
t

erf 3 . 0 = erf ( ) 5477 . 0
~ erf ( ) 56332 . 0 55 . 0 =
Then
F
R
I
I
+
=
1
1
56332 . 0
775 . 0 1
56332 . 0
1
= ÷ =
F
R
I
I

(b) erf ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
F
R
p
p
p
I
I
t
t
t
1 . 0 1
exp
0
2
0
2
0
2
t
t
t
t

( )( ) 775 . 0 1 . 0 1+ =
0775 . 1 =
By trial and error, 80 . 0
0
2
~
p
t
t

_______________________________________

8.49
18 =
j
C pF at 0 =
R
V
2 . 4 =
j
C pF at 10 =
R
V V
We have

7
10
÷
= =
pO nO
t t s , 2 =
F
I mA
and
1
10
10
= = ~
R
V
I
R
R
mA
So
( ) |
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
÷
1
2
1 ln 10 1 ln
7
R
F
pO s
I
I
t t
or

7
10 1 . 1
÷
× =
s
t s
Also
1 . 11
2
2 . 4 18
=
+
=
avg
C pF
The time constant is
( )( )
12 4
10 1 . 11 10
÷
× = =
avg S
RC t

7
10 11 . 1
÷
× = s
Now, the turn-off time is
( )
7
10 11 . 1 1 . 1
÷
× + = + =
S s off
t t t
or

7
10 21 . 2
÷
× =
off
t s
_______________________________________

8.50
( )
( )
( )
136 . 1
10 5 . 1
10 5
ln 0259 . 0
2
10
2
19
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
bi
V V
We find

( )
2 / 1
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| + ÷ e
=
d a
d a a bi s
N N
N N
e
V V
W

( )( )( )

¸

×
÷ ×
=
÷
÷
19
14
10 6 . 1
40 . 0 136 . 1 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2

( )
2 / 1
2
19
19 19
10 5
10 5 10 5
(
(
¸
(
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
× + ×
×
which yields

7
10 17 . 6
÷
× = W cm
o
A 7 . 61 =
_______________________________________

8.51
Sketch
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 8
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

8.53
From Figure 7.15,
15
10 9× ~
d
N cm
3 ÷

Let
17
10 5× =
a
N cm
3 ÷

( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= × = =
t
a
no d n n
V
V
p N x p exp 10 9 1 . 0
14

( )
4
15
2
10 2
10 5 . 2
10 9
10 5 . 1
× =
×
×
= =
d
i
no
N
n
p cm
3 ÷

Then ( ) 6295 . 0
10 5 . 2
10 9
ln 0259 . 0
4
14
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
a
V V

|
.
|

\
|
×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
0259 . 0
6295 . 0
exp
10 50
exp
3
t
a
s
V
V
I
I

12
10 389 . 1
÷
× = A

0
2
p
p
d
i
p
no p
s
D
N
Aen
L
p AeD
I
t
= ~

12
10 389 . 1
÷
×

( )( )
7 15
2
10 19
10 2
10
10 9
10 5 . 1 10 6 . 1
÷
÷
× ×
× ×
=
A

( )
11 12
10 828 . 2 10 389 . 1
÷ ÷
× = × A
or
2
10 91 . 4
÷
× = A cm
2

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 9

9.1
(a) We have

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
t n
N
N
eV e ln |
( ) 206 . 0
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
16
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
= eV
(c)
01 . 4 28 . 4 ÷ = ÷ = _ | |
m BO

or
27 . 0 =
BO
| V
and
206 . 0 27 . 0 ÷ = ÷ =
n BO bi
V | |
or
064 . 0 =
bi
V V
Also

2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸
e
=
d
bi s
d
eN
V
x

( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
16 19
14
10 10 6 . 1
064 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷

or

6
10 1 . 9
÷
× =
d
x cm
Then

s
d d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
6 16 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 ` 1 . 9 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
=
or

4
max
10 41 . 1 × = E V/cm
(d)
Using the figure, 55 . 0 =
Bn
| V
So
206 . 0 55 . 0 ÷ = ÷ =
n Bn bi
V | |
or
344 . 0 =
bi
V V
We then find

5
10 11 . 2
÷
× =
n
x cm
and

4
max
10 26 . 3 × = E V/cm
_______________________________________

9.2
(a)
n B bi
V | | ÷ =
0

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
t n
N
N
V ln |
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
15
19
10 5
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
=0.2235 V
4265 . 0 2235 . 0 65 . 0 = ÷ =
bi
V V
(b) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
16
19
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
n
|
2056 . 0 = V
4444 . 0 2056 . 0 65 . 0 = ÷ =
bi
V V

bi
V increases,
0 B
| remains constant
(c) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
15
19
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
n
|
2652 . 0 = V
3848 . 0 2652 . 0 65 . 0 = ÷ =
bi
V V

bi
V decreases,
0 B
| remains constant
_______________________________________

9.3
(a) 09 . 1 01 . 4 1 . 5
0
= ÷ = ÷ = _ | |
m B
V
(b)
n B bi
V | | ÷ =
0

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
t n
N
N
V ln |
( ) 2056 . 0
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
16
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
= V
8844 . 0 2056 . 0 09 . 1 = ÷ =
bi
V V
(c)
( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸
+ e
=
d
R bi s
n
eN
V V
x
(i)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
16 19
14
10 10 6 . 1
1 8844 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

5
10 939 . 4
÷
× = cm
or µ 4939 . 0 =
n
x m

s
n d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
5 16 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 939 . 4 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
=

4
10 63 . 7 × = V/cm

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(ii)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
16 19
14
10 10 6 . 1
5 8844 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

5
10 727 . 8
÷
× = cm
or µ 8728 . 0 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
5 16 19
max
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 727 . 8 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
= E

5
10 35 . 1 × = V/cm
_______________________________________

9.4
(a) 03 . 1 07 . 4 1 . 5
0
= ÷ = ÷ = _ | |
m B
V
(b) ( ) 1177 . 0
10 5
10 7 . 4
ln 0259 . 0
15
17
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
n
| V
(c) 9123 . 0 1177 . 0 03 . 1 = ÷ =
bi
V V
(d)
(i)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
15 19
14
10 5 10 6 . 1
1 9123 . 0 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

5
10 445 . 7
÷
× = cm
or µ 7445 . 0 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
5 15 19
max
10 85 . 8 1 . 13
10 445 . 7 10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
= E

4
10 14 . 5 × = V/cm
(ii)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
15 19
14
10 5 10 6 . 1
5 9123 . 0 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

4
10 309 . 1
÷
× = cm
or µ 309 . 1 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 15 19
max
10 85 . 8 1 . 13
10 309 . 1 10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
= E

4
10 03 . 9 × = V/cm
_______________________________________

9.5
(b) 1177 . 0 =
n
| V
(c) 7623 . 0 1177 . 0 88 . 0 = ÷ =
bi
V V
(d)
(i)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
15 19
14
10 5 10 6 . 1
1 7623 . 0 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

5
10 147 . 7
÷
× = cm
or µ 7147 . 0 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
5 15 19
max
10 85 . 8 1 . 13
10 147 . 7 10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
= E

4
10 93 . 4 × = V/cm

(ii)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
15 19
14
10 5 10 6 . 1
5 7623 . 0 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

4
10 292 . 1
÷
× = cm
or µ 292 . 1 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 15 19
max
10 85 . 8 1 . 13
10 292 . 1 10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
= E

4
10 92 . 8 × = V/cm
_______________________________________

9.6
(a)
( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

+
e
= '
R bi
d s
V V
N e
C
We have 88 . 0
0
=
B
| V
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
15
19
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
n
| 265 . 0 = V
615 . 0 265 . 0 88 . 0 = ÷ =
bi
V V

(i)
( )
( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
15 14 19
4
1 615 . 0 2
10 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10
(
¸
(

¸

+
× ×
=
÷ ÷
÷
C

13
10 16 . 7
÷
× = F
or 716 . 0 = C pF
(ii)
( )
( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
15 14 19
4
5 615 . 0 2
10 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10
(
¸
(

¸

+
× ×
=
÷ ÷
÷
C

13
10 84 . 3
÷
× = F
or 384 . 0 = C pF
(b) ( ) 206 . 0
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
16
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
n
| V
674 . 0 206 . 0 88 . 0 = ÷ =
bi
V V
(i)
( )
( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
16 14 19
4
1 674 . 0 2
10 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10
(
¸
(

¸

+
× ×
=
÷ ÷
÷
C

12
10 22 . 2
÷
× = F
or 22 . 2 = C pF
(ii)
( )
( )( )( )( )
( )
2 / 1
16 14 19
4
5 6745 . 0 2
10 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1
10
(
¸
(

¸

+
× ×
=
÷ ÷
÷
C

12
10 21 . 1
÷
× = F
or 21 . 1 = C pF
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

9.7
(a) From the figure, 90 . 0 =
bi
V V
(b) We find

( )
15
15
2
10 034 . 1
90 . 0 2
0 10 3
1
× =
÷ ÷
÷ ×
=
A
|
.
|

\
|
'
A
R
V
C

and

d s
N e e
= ×
2
10 034 . 1
15

We can then write
( )( )( )( )
15 14 19
10 034 . 1 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 10 6 . 1
2
× × ×
=
÷ ÷
d
N
or

16
10 04 . 1 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

(c)

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
t n
N
N
V ln |
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
16
17
10 04 . 1
10 7 . 4
ln 0259 . 0
or
0986 . 0 =
n
| V
(d)
0986 . 0 90 . 0 + = + =
n bi Bn
V | |
or
9986 . 0 =
Bn
| V
_______________________________________

9.8
From Figure 9.5, 63 . 0 ~
BO
| V
(a) ( ) 224 . 0
10 5
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
15
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
n
| V
406 . 0 224 . 0 63 . 0
0
= ÷ = ÷ =
n B bi
V | | V
(i)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
15 19
14
10 5 10 6 . 1
1 406 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

5
10 033 . 6
÷
× = cm
or µ 6033 . 0 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
5 15 19
max
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 033 . 6 10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
= E

4
10 66 . 4 × = V/cm
(ii)
( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
15 19
14
10 5 10 6 . 1
5 406 . 0 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
+ ×
=
÷
÷
n
x

4
10 183 . 1
÷
× = cm
or µ 183 . 1 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 15 19
max
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 183 . 1 10 5 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× × ×
= E

4
10 14 . 9 × = V/cm
(b)
(i)
s
e
e
E
= A
t
|
4

( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
14
4 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 4
10 66 . 4 10 6 . 1
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
=
÷
÷
t

0239 . 0 = V

E e
=
s
m
e
x
t 16

( )
( )( )( )
2 / 1
4 14
19
10 66 . 4 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 16
10 6 . 1
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
×
=
÷
÷
t

or

m
x
7
10 57 . 2
÷
× = cm
(ii)
( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
14
4 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 4
10 14 . 9 10 6 . 1
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
= A
÷
÷
t
|
0335 . 0 = V

( )( )( )
2 / 1
4 14
19
10 14 . 9 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 16
10 6 . 1
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
×
=
÷
÷
t
m
x

7
10 83 . 1
÷
× = cm
_______________________________________

9.9
We have
( ) x
x
e
x
s
E ÷
e
÷
= ÷
t
|
16

or
( ) ex
x
e
x e
s
E +
e
=
t
|
16
2

Now

( ) ( )
e
x
e
dx
x e d
s
E +
e
÷
= =
2
2
16
0
t
|

Solving for x, we find

E e
= =
s
m
e
x x
t 16

Substituting this value of
m
x x = into the
equation for the potential, we find

E e
E +
E e
e
= A
s
s
s
e
e
e
t
t
t
|
16
16
16

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
which yields

s
e
e
E
= A
t
|
4

_______________________________________

9.10
From Figure 9.5, 88 . 0 ~
BO
| V
(a) ( ) 0997 . 0
10
10 7 . 4
ln 0259 . 0
16
17
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
n
| V
780 . 0 0997 . 0 88 . 0
0
~ ÷ = ÷ =
n B bi
V | | V

( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
16 19
14
10 10 6 . 1
780 . 0 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
n
x

5
10 362 . 3
÷
× = cm
or µ 3362 . 0 =
n
x m

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
5 16 19
max
10 85 . 8 1 . 13
10 362 . 3 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
= E

4
10 64 . 4 × = V/cm
(b) ( )( ) 044 . 0 88 . 0 05 . 0 = = A| V

s
e
e
E
=
t 4

( )
( )
( )( )
14
19
2
10 85 . 8 1 . 13 4
10 6 . 1
044 . 0
÷
÷
×
E ×
=
t

( ) ( )( )( )
19
14 2
10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 1 . 13 4 044 . 0
÷
÷
×
×
= E
t

5
10 763 . 1 × = V/cm
Now

( )( )
( )( )
14
16 19
5
10 85 . 8 1 . 13
10 10 6 . 1
10 763 . 1
÷
÷
×
×
= × = E
n
x

4
10 277 . 1
÷
× = ¬
n
x cm
And
( )
2
4 2
10 277 . 1
÷
× =
n
x

( )( )( )
( )( )
16 19
14
10 10 6 . 1
780 . 0 10 85 . 8 1 . 13 2
÷
÷
×
+ ×
=
R
V

5 . 10 = ¬
R
V V
_______________________________________

9.11
Plot
_______________________________________

9.12
(a) 07 . 4 2 . 5 ÷ = ÷ = _ | |
m BO

or
13 . 1 =
BO
| V

(b) We have
( )
Bn O g
e e E | | ÷ ÷
( )
n Bn d s
it
N e
eD
| | ÷ e = 2
1

( ) | |
Bn m
it
i
eD
| _ |
o
+ ÷
e
÷
which becomes
( )
Bn
e | ÷ ÷ 60 . 0 43 . 1
( )( )( ) |
14 19
13
10 85 . 8 1 . 13 10 6 . 1 2
10
1
÷ ÷
× ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
e
e

( )( )|
2 / 1
16
10 . 0 10 ÷ ×
Bn
|

( )
( )
( ) | |
Bn
e
e
| + ÷
×
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
÷
÷
07 . 4 2 . 5
10 25
10
10 85 . 8
8
13
14

or

Bn
| ÷ 83 . 0
( )
Bn Bn
| | ÷ ÷ ÷ = 13 . 1 221 . 0 10 . 0 038 . 0
We find
858 . 0 =
Bn
| V
(c)
If 5 . 4 =
m
| V, then
07 . 4 5 . 4 ÷ = ÷ = _ | |
m BO

or
43 . 0 =
BO
| V
From part (b), we have

Bn
| ÷ 83 . 0
( ) | |
Bn Bn
| | + ÷ ÷ ÷ = 07 . 4 5 . 4 221 . 0 10 . 0 038 . 0
We then find
733 . 0 =
Bn
| V
With interface states, the barrier height is less
sensitive to the metal work function.
_______________________________________

9.13
We have that
( )
Bn O g
e e E | | ÷ ÷
( )
n Bn d s
it
N e
eD
| | ÷ e = 2
1

( ) | |
Bn m
it
i
eD
| _ |
o
+ ÷
e
÷
Let
it it
D eD ' = (cm
2 ÷
eV
1 ÷
)
Then we can write

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
( ) 60 . 0 230 . 0 12 . 1 ÷ ÷ e
( )( )( ) |
14 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 10 6 . 1 2
1
÷ ÷
× ×
'
=
it
D

( )( )|
2 / 1
16
164 . 0 60 . 0 10 5 ÷ × ×

( )
( )
( ) | | 60 . 0 01 . 4 75 . 4
10 20
10 85 . 8
8
14
+ ÷
× '
×
÷
÷
÷
it
D

We then find

11
10 97 . 4 × = '
it
D cm
2 ÷
eV
1 ÷

_______________________________________

9.14
(a) ( ) 224 . 0
10 5
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
15
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
n
| V
(b) 666 . 0 224 . 0 89 . 0 = ÷ = ÷ =
n Bn bi
V | | V
(c)
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
-
kT
e
T A J
Bn
sT
|
exp
2

( )( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0259 . 0
89 . 0
exp 300 120
2

8
10 29 . 1
÷
× =
sT
J A/cm
2

(d)
( ) |
.
|

\
|
×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷8
10 29 . 1
5
ln 0259 . 0 ln
sT
t a
J
J
V V
512 . 0 =
a
V V
_______________________________________

9.15
(a) 63 . 0
0
~
B
| V
( )( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0259 . 0
63 . 0
exp 300 120
2
sT
J

4
10 948 . 2
÷
× = A/cm
2

( )( )
8 4 4
10 948 . 2 10 948 . 2 10
÷ ÷ ÷
× = × =
sT
I A
(i)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
sT
t a
I
I
V V ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
8
6
10 948 . 2
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
151 . 0 = V
(ii) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
8
6
10 948 . 2
10 100
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
211 . 0 = V
(iii) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
÷
÷
8
3
10 948 . 2
10
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
270 . 0 = V

(b) ( ) 030217 . 0
300
350
0259 . 0 = |
.
|

\
|
= kT eV
( )( )( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
÷
030217 . 0
63 . 0
exp 350 120 10
2 4
sT
I

6
10 296 . 1
÷
× = A
(i)
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp
t
a
sT
V
V
I I
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
×
×
=
÷
÷
1
10 296 . 1
10 10
ln 030217 . 0
6
6
a
V
0654 . 0 = V
(ii) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

+
×
×
=
÷
÷
1
10 296 . 1
10 100
ln 030217 . 0
6
6
a
V
1317 . 0 = V
(iii) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
~
÷
÷
6
3
10 296 . 1
10
ln 030217 . 0
a
V
201 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

9.16
(a) 88 . 0 ~
Bn
| V
(b) ( )( ) |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
0259 . 0
88 . 0
exp 300 12 . 1
2
sT
J

10
10 768 . 1
÷
× = A/cm
2

(c) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
×
=
÷10
10 768 . 1
10
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
641 . 0 = V
(d) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ln 0259 . 0 2 ln = = A
t a
V V
0180 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

9.17
Plot
_______________________________________

9.18
From the figure, 68 . 0 =
Bn
| V

|
|
.
|

\
| A
·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
t t
Bn
ST
V V
T A J
| |
exp exp
2 *

( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
| A
· |
.
|

\
| ÷
=
t
V
|
exp
0259 . 0
68 . 0
exp 300 120
2

or

|
|
.
|

\
| A
× =
÷
t
ST
V
J
|
exp 10 277 . 4
5

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
We have

s
e
e
E
= A
t
|
4

Now

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
t n
N
N
V ln |
( ) 2056 . 0
10
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0
16
19
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
= V
and
4744 . 0 2056 . 0 68 . 0 = ÷ = ÷ =
n Bn bi
V | | V
(a) We find for 2 =
R
V V,

( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸
+ e
=
d
R bi s
d
eN
V V
x

( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
16 19
14
10 10 6 . 1
4744 . 2 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷

or

4
10 566 . 0
÷
× =
d
x cm µ 566 . 0 = m
Then

s
d d
x eN
e
= E
max

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 16 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 566 . 0 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
=
or

4
max
10 745 . 8 × = E V/cm
Now

( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
14
4 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 4
10 745 . 8 10 6 . 1
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
= A
÷
÷
t
|
or
0328 . 0 = A| V
Then
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
0328 . 0
exp 10 277 . 4
5
1 ST
J
or

4
1
10 52 . 1
÷
× =
ST
J A/cm
2

For
4
10
÷
= A cm
2
, we find

8
1
10 52 . 1
÷
× =
R
I A
(b) For 4 =
R
V V, then

( )( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
16 19
14
10 10 6 . 1
4744 . 4 10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
d
x
or

4
10 761 . 0
÷
× =
d
x cm µ 761 . 0 = m

Also

( )( )( )
( )( )
14
4 16 19
max
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 761 . 0 10 10 6 . 1
÷
÷ ÷
×
× ×
= E
or

5
max
10 176 . 1 × = E V/cm
and

( )( )
( )( )
2 / 1
14
5 19
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 4
10 176 . 1 10 6 . 1
(
¸
(

¸

×
× ×
= A
÷
÷
t
|
or
03803 . 0 = A| V
Then
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
03803 . 0
exp 10 277 . 4
5
2 ST
J
or

4
2
10 86 . 1
÷
× =
ST
J A/cm
2

Finally,

8
2
10 86 . 1
÷
× =
R
I A
_______________________________________

9.19
We have that
dn J
c
E
x m s
}
·
÷
÷
= u
The incremental electron concentration is
( ) ( )dE E f E g dn
F c
=
where
( )
( )
c
n
c
E E
h
m
E g ÷ =
3
2 / 3
*
2 4t

and assuming the Boltzmann approximation
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
kT
E E
E f
F
F
exp
Then

( )
c
n
E E
h
m
dn ÷ =
3
2 / 3
*
2 4t

( )
dE
kT
E E
F
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
×exp
If the energy above
c
E is kinetic energy, then

c n
E E m ÷ =
2 *
2
1
u
We can then write

2
*
n
c
m
E E u = ÷
and

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
u u u u d m d m dE
n n
* *
2
2
1
= · =
We can also write
( ) ( )
F c c F
E E E E E E ÷ + ÷ = ÷

n n
e m | u + =
2 *
2
1

so that

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
e
h
m
dn
n n
|
exp 2
3
*

u u t
u
d
kT
m
n 2
2 *
4
2
exp ·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
We can write

2 2 2 2
z y x
u u u u + + =
The differential volume element is

z y x
d d d d u u u u u t =
2
4
The current is due to all x-directed velocities
that are greater than
Ox
u and for all y- and
z- directed velocities. Then

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
÷
kT
e
h
m
J
n n
m s
|
exp 2
3
*

x
x n
x
d
kT
m
Ox
u
u
u
u
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
}
·
2
exp
2 *

y
y n
d
kT
m
u
u
}
·
· ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
2
exp
2 *

z
z n
d
kT
m
u
u
}
·
· ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
×
2
exp
2 *

We can write
( )
a bi Ox n
V V e m ÷ =
2 *
2
1
u
Make a change of variables:

( )
kT
V V
kT
m
a bi x n
÷
+ =
2
2
2
2 *
o
u

or

( )
(
¸
(

¸
÷
+ =
kT
V V e
m
kT
a bi
n
x
2
*
2
2
o u
Taking the differential, we find
o o u u d
m
kT
d
n
x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
*
2

We may note that when
Ox x
u u = , 0 = o .
We may define other change of variables,

| u |
u
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬ =
2 / 1
*
2
2 *
2
2
n
y
y n
m
kT
kT
m

¸ u ¸
u
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬ =
2 / 1
*
2
2 *
2
2
n
z
z n
m
kT
kT
m

Substituting the new variables, we have

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
÷
kT
e
m
kT
h
m
J
n
n
n
m s
|
exp
2
2
2
*
3
*

( )
( ) o o o d
kT
V V e
a bi
}
·
÷ ·
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
×
0
2
exp exp
( ) ( ) ¸ ¸ | | d d
} }
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
÷ · ÷ ×
2 2
exp exp
_______________________________________

9.20
For the Schottky diode,
( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× = ×
÷ ÷ ÷
t
a
V
V
exp 10 6 10 10 80 . 0
8 4 3

(a) ( ) ( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷
8 4
3
10 6 10
10 80 . 0
ln 0259 . 0 SB V
a

4845 . 0 = V
Then
( ) 7695 . 0 285 . 0 4845 . 0 = + = pn V
a
V
(b) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
= ×
÷ ÷
0259 . 0
7695 . 0
exp 10 10 80 . 0
11 3
pn
A

5 5
10 10 998 . 0
÷ ÷
~ × = ¬
pn
A cm
2

_______________________________________

9.21
For the pn junction,
( )( )
16 13 4
10 4 . 6 10 8 10 8
÷ ÷ ÷
× = × × =
s
I A
(a) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
16
6
10 4 . 6
10 150
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
678 . 0 = V
(b) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
16
6
10 4 . 6
10 700
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
718 . 0 = V
(c) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
16
3
10 4 . 6
10 2 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
732 . 0 = V

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
For the Schottky junction,
( )( )
12 9 4
10 8 . 4 10 6 10 8
÷ ÷ ÷
× = × × =
sT
I A
(a) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
12
6
10 8 . 4
10 150
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
447 . 0 = V
(b) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
12
6
10 8 . 4
10 700
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
487 . 0 = V
(c) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
÷
÷
12
3
10 8 . 4
10 2 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
501 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

9.22
(a) (i) 80 . 0 = I mA in each diode
(ii)
( ) ( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷
9 4
3
10 6 10 8
10 8 . 0
ln 0259 . 0 SB V
a

490 . 0 = V
( ) ( )
( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

× ×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷
13 4
3
10 8 10 8
10 8 . 0
ln 0259 . 0 pn V
a
721 . 0 = V
(b) Same voltage across each diode

pn SB
I I I + = × =
÷3
10 8 . 0
( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× × =
÷ ÷
t
a
V
V
exp 10 6 10 8
9 4

( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× × +
÷ ÷
t
a
V
V
exp 10 8 10 8
13 4

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
× + × =
÷ ÷
t
a
V
V
exp 10 4 . 6 10 8 . 4
16 12

Then
( )
(
¸
(

¸

× + ×
×
=
÷ ÷
÷
16 12
3
10 4 . 6 10 8 . 4
10 8 . 0
ln 0259 . 0
a
V
49032 . 0 =
a
V V
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
49032 . 0
exp 10 8 . 4
12
SB
I
7998 . 0 = ¬
SB
I mA
( ) |
.
|

\
|
× =
÷
0259 . 0
49032 . 0
exp 10 4 . 6
16
pn
I
µ 107 . 0 ~ ¬
pn
I A
_______________________________________

9.23
(a) For 8 . 0 = I mA, we find
143 . 1
10 7
10 8 . 0
4
3
=
×
×
=
÷
÷
J A/cm
2

We have

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
t a
J
J
V V ln
For the pn junction diode,
( ) 6907 . 0
10 3
143 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
12
= |
.
|

\
|
×
=
÷
a
V V
For the Schottky diode,
( ) 4447 . 0
10 4
143 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
8
= |
.
|

\
|
×
=
÷
a
V V
(b) For the pn junction diode,

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
|
· ·
kT
E
T
n J
g
i S
exp
300
3
2

Then

( )
( )
3
300
400
300
400
|
.
|

\
|
=
S
S
J
J

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
×
0259 . 0 300 400 0259 . 0
exp
g g
E E

(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
03453 . 0
12 . 1
0259 . 0
12 . 1
exp 37 . 2
or

( )
( )
5
10 17 . 1
300
400
× =
S
S
J
J

Now
( )( )( )
12 5 4
10 3 10 17 . 1 10 7
÷ ÷
× × × = I
|
.
|

\
|
×
03453 . 0
6907 . 0
exp
or
120 = I mA
For the Schottky diode,

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
·
kT
e
T J
BO
ST
|
exp
2

Now

( )
( )
2
300
400
300
400
|
.
|

\
|
=
ST
ST
J
J

( )( )
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
×
0259 . 0 300 400 0259 . 0
exp
BO BO
| |

(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
03453 . 0
82 . 0
0259 . 0
82 . 0
exp 778 . 1

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
or

( )
( )
3
10 856 . 4
300
400
× =
ST
ST
J
J

Then
( )( )( )
8 3 4
10 4 10 856 . 4 10 7
÷ ÷
× × × = I
|
.
|

\
|
×
03453 . 0
4447 . 0
exp
or
3 . 53 = I mA
_______________________________________

9.24
Plot
_______________________________________

9.25
(a) O = = =
÷
÷
1 . 0
10
10
3
4
A
R
R
c

(b) O = = =
÷
÷
1
10
10
4
4
A
R
R
c

(c) O = = =
÷
÷
10
10
10
5
4
A
R
R
c

_______________________________________

9.26
(a) O =
×
= =
÷
÷
5
10
10 5
5
5
A
R
R
c

(i) ( )( ) 5 5 1 = = = IR V mV
(ii) ( )( ) 5 . 0 5 1 . 0 = = = IR V mV
(b) 50
10
10 5
6
5
=
×
=
÷
÷
R O
(i) ( )( ) 50 50 1 = = = IR V mV
(ii) ( )( ) 5 50 1 . 0 = = = IR V mV
_______________________________________

9.27

2
exp
T A
V
V
R
t
Bn
t
c
-
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|

or
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
-
t
c
t Bn
V
T A R
V
2
ln |
(a) ( )
( )( )( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
÷
0259 . 0
300 120 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
2 5
Bn
|
258 . 0 = V

(b) ( )
( )( )( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
=
÷
0259 . 0
300 120 10 5
ln 0259 . 0
2 6
Bn
|
198 . 0 = V
_______________________________________

9.28
(b) We need 20 . 0 0 . 4 2 . 4 = ÷ = ÷ = _ | |
m n
V
And

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
t n
N
N
V ln |
or
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
d
N
19
10 8 . 2
ln 0259 . 0 20 . 0
which yields

16
10 24 . 1 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

(c)
Barrier height = 0.20 V
_______________________________________

9.29
We have that
( ) x x
eN
n
s
d
÷
e
÷
= E
Then

2
2
2
C
x
x x
eN
dx
n
s
d
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ·
e
= E ÷ =
}
|
Let 0 = | at 0 0
2
= ¬ = C x , so

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ·
e
=
2
2
x
x x
eN
n
s
d
|
At
n
x x = ,
bi
V = | , so

2
2
n
s
d
bi
x eN
V ·
e
= = |
or

d
bi s
n
eN
V
x
e
=
2

Also

n BO bi
V | | ÷ =
where

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
t n
N
N
V ln |
Now for
35 . 0
2
70 . 0
2
= = =
BO
|
| V
we have

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

( )
( )( )
( ) |
8
14
19
10 50
10 85 . 8 7 . 11
10 6 . 1
35 . 0
÷
÷
÷
×
×
×
=
n
d
x
N

( )
(
(
¸
(
×
÷
÷
2
10 50
2
8

or
( )
8 14
10 25 10 73 . 7 35 . 0
÷ ÷
× ÷ × =
n d
x N
We have

( )( )
( )
2 / 1
19
14
10 6 . 1
10 85 . 8 7 . 11 2
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
=
÷
÷
d
bi
n
N
V
x
and

n bi
V | ÷ = 70 . 0
By trial and error, we find

18
10 5 . 3 × =
d
N cm
3 ÷

_______________________________________

9.30
(b)
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
a
t p BO
N
N
V
u
| | ln
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
=
16
19
10 5
10 04 . 1
ln 0259 . 0
or
138 . 0 =
BO
| V
_______________________________________

9.31
Sketches
_______________________________________

9.32
Sketches
_______________________________________

9.33
Electron affinity rule
( )
p n c
e E _ _ ÷ = A
For GaAs, 07 . 4 = _ and for AlAs, 5 . 3 = _ .
If we assume a linear extrapolation between
GaAs and AlAs, then for
Al
3 . 0
Ga
7 . 0
As 90 . 3 = ¬ _
Then
17 . 0 90 . 3 07 . 4 = ÷ = A
c
E eV
_______________________________________

9.34
Consider an n-P heterojunction in thermal
equilibrium. Poisson's equation is

( )
dx
d x
dx
d E
÷ =
e
÷ =
µ |
2
2

In the n-region,

( )
n
dn
n
n
eN x
dx
d
e
=
e
=
E µ

For uniform doping, we have

1
C
x eN
n
dn
n
+
e
= E
The boundary condition is
0 = E
n
at
n
x x ÷ = , so we obatin

n
n dn
x eN
C
e
=
1

Then
( )
n
n
dn
n
x x
eN
+
e
= E
In the P-region,

P
aP
p
eN
dx
d
e
÷ =
E

which gives

2
C
x eN
P
aP
P
+
e
÷ = E
We have the boundary condition that
0 = E
P
at
P
x x = , so that

P
P aP
x eN
C
e
=
2

Then
( ) x x
eN
P
P
aP
P
÷
e
= E
Assuming zero surface charge density at
0 = x , the electric flux density D is
continuous, so ( ) ( ) 0 0
P P n n
E =e E e , which
yields

P aP n dn
x N x N =
We can determine the electric potential as
( ) dx x
n n
}
E ÷ = |

3
2
2
C
x x eN x eN
n
n dn
n
dn
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

e
+
e
÷ =

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4
th
edition Chapter 9
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
Now
( ) ( )
n n n bin
x V ÷ ÷ = | | 0

(
(
¸
(

¸

e
+
e
÷ ÷ =
n
n dn
n
n dn
x eN x eN
C C
2 2
3 3
2

or

n
n dn
bin
x eN
V
e
=
2
2

Similarly on the P-side, we find

P
P aP
biP
x eN
V
e
=
2
2

We have that

P
P aP
n
n dn
biP bin bi
x eN x eN
V V V
e
+
e
= + =
2 2
2 2

We can write

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
aP
dn
n P
N
N
x x
Substituting and collecting terms, we find

2
2
2
n
aP P n
dn n aP dn P
bi
x
N
N e N N e
V ·
(
(
¸
(

¸

e e
e + e
=
Solving for
n
x , we have

( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

e + e
e e
=
dn n aP P dn
bi aP P n
n
N N eN
V N
x
Similarly on the P-side, we have

( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

e + e
e e
=
dn n aP P aP
bi dn P n
P
N N eN
V N
x
The total space charge width is then

P n
x x W + =
Substituting and collecting terms, we obtain

( )
( )
2 / 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

e + e
+ e e
=
dn n aP P aP dn
dn aP bi P n
N N N eN
N N V
W
_______________________________________