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Elements of the concept of urban space Definition of the concept “urban space” aestheticeriteria, we are compelled to designate all types of space ‘between buildings in towns and oiher localities as urban space ‘This space is geomenically bounded by variety of elevations. is only the clear legibility ofits geometrical charactetistics and aesthetic ualities which allows us consciously ro perceive exterual space a3 urban space. | f we wish to clacify the concept of urban space without imposing ‘The polarity of internal-external space is constantly in evidence in this article since both obey very similar laws not only in funetion but also in form. Internal space shielded front weather and enviconment {s an effective symbol of privacy; external space is seen as open, ‘unobstructed space for movement in use open air, with public, semi public and privare zones. ‘The basie concepts underlying the aesthetic characteristics of urban space will be expounded below and systematically lasified by type. tn che process, an atempt wll be mace to draw a clea distinction between precise aesthetic and confused emotional factors, Every asthete analysis cus the risk of foundering on subjective questions ‘fast. Visual and sensory habits, which vary from one individual to the next, are augmented by a vast numberof socio-political and Cultural attitudes, which are taken to represent aesthetic truths. Accepted styles in art history—for example, barogue town plans, ‘evolutionary architecture, ex.—are both useful and necessae. However, my abservations indicave that they ace almost always ‘identified with che social structure prevailing at the time in question. Certainly it can scarcely be proved that, because ofthe wishes ofthe tuling classes and cheir artist, che stylistic canons of the period in European art history between 1600 and 1730 appeared almost 10 be determined by fate, OF course for the historian every period of history foums a unit with its own internal logic, which cannot be feagmented sand interchanged with elements of other periods ae wil. The ceativepeson, suc asan artis, may nse «completly dferene method of approach The decisions he makes in ceployng his aesthetic skills are not alway based on asurptions which can be unequitoclly explained. The artistic libido is of enormous importance her. The ultarlcoutriborion ofan age devsfops onthe has of highly com plex patern of related phenomena hich must subsequendy be the subjes of laborious research on che part historians. This example ‘hows us righ nie a comple problem which apoeacs che same in “whichever period of history we consider We must discus his example #ehaatvely before We tare constructing our cational sytem Each petod in art history develops geadelly out of the assimilated fun sioral and local elements which precede The more conscious a society is of ts history the more efforts and thorough i handles histocieal elements on syle. This eum is important ina far ns i degmies the artists lationship with the universally aezpred wealth a formal vocabulary ofall preceding ages-thin sa applicable the 20d in the 17sh centr edits: This ate an except rom "Typolegal and Morphological Elements ofthe Concept of Urban Space” Chapler tof Uhen Design (Sradbaum)pubiad a {German (1975) and n Engl by Academy Eetions (1978, reprinted he Time Saver Standards for Urban Design by kind permion of he suthr. 2m Elements of the concept of urban space 1 do noc wish to rally support for eclecticism, but simply to warn against an all too naive understanding of history, which bas heen auiy ofsuch misludgments as representing urban architectre amongst the Romans as markedly inferior to that ofthe Greeks, which from an historical point of view is simply sot true. The same mistake persists today, as can beseen from arvtudes tothe architecture of the 13th century ‘Our age has a remarkably distorted sense of hiscory, which ean only be characterized as irational. Le Corbusier's apparent battle against Academic was not so much a revolt against an exhausted, aging school asthe assumption of a pioneering stand in which he adopted its ideals and imbued them with a new and vigorous content, ‘This so-called “pioneering act” was pretended break with history, ‘bution reaicy was an artistic falsehood. The facts were these: he abun ddoned the tradition current until then that art supported by the ruling