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21st Century Literacies


Created By: David Shortreed

Table of Contents The world has changed.... and the way we educate our children should too.
(Ministry of Education, 2011a, p. 1)

1. Introduction 2. TPACK and 21st Century Literacies 3. Experiences from an Educational Technology Teacher 4. Shape Your Thinking 5. Implementing iPads in Your School


Section 2

RESEARCH THAT FRAMES THIS RESOURCE Research shows that integrating digital technology into teacher practice can: positively impact student engagement and motivation improve condence levels improve attitudes toward own learning decrease absenteeism improve behavior (Becta, 2009)
Throughout this resource, you will nd Guiding Questions in each section that I have used to help further my thinking in each area. These Guiding Questions are meant to help identify and dene current assumptions, frame investigations and develop continued inquiry. Good questions often create new spaces for discovery and then lead to better questions. Hopefully this resource will present questions that continue to enhance your journey toward your own discoveries and answers regarding the use of iPads in education.

The purpose of this resource is to support the integration of iPads into classroom literacy

teaching and learning. In Sections 1, 2 and 3 in this book, I will introduce the Technological Pedagogical Content and Knowledge framework, the denition of 21st century literacies, and my personal experiences as an educational technology teacher using iPads in an elementary school setting. In Section 4, I provide specic, key questions for administrators, schools and teachers to help shape the thinking and direction regarding the use of iPads in education. The questions provided in this section are linked to resources that are collected from International, National, and Provincial levels to provide further support for your investigation. In Section 5, I identify the learning stages of implementing iPads in a school, and I provide a few teachercreated blogs to refer to for further experience. Finally, Section 6 contains ideas for the educator. It is here that I talk about digital literacies, how to promote cyber-safety with your students, a list of literacy apps that I have found to be effective, tools for working online, and some specic ways to develop your professional learning network.

Section 2

TPACK and 21st Century Literacies

Guiding Questions
What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and how does this framework impact my professional development? What is the concept of 21st Century Literacies? An introduction to the theoretical framework called Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) that supports the integration of digital technology into literacy and other content areas. The position statement from the NCTE on 21st century literacies that was adopted by the NCTE Executive Committee, February 15, 2008.

In this section, you will nd...

? ??

A denition of Digital Literacy


Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

The framework of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) demonstrates the balance required by teachers to provide effective learning practices that are enhanced by the use of technology.

Hutchinson (2012) shows that when instruction is designed with the components of the TPACK framework in mind, traditional print-based literacy goals are met with opportunities to learn the new literacies needed for the 21st-century. 10.1002/TRTR.01090/abstract


Good but dated

Exciting but disconnected

Modern but limited

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record. 108(6), 1017-1054. 39

21st Century Literacies

If we teach today as we did yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow. -John Dewey
Literacy by denition is the ability to read, write, and effectively communicate with others. Forms of communication, through the inuence of technology, are expanding the landscape for what it means to read and write. 21st century literacies is a term that attempts to identify the literacy skills required to be literate in modern day. In order to integrate 21st century literacies into effective classroom practice, new literacies should be used to support and strengthen old literacies. New literacies are skills developed by engaging with new technologies in a digital context. The old literacy skills include reading, writing, listening, and speaking - all which remain at the core of literacy education. There is an interdependency between the two when the integration of technology can enhance effective learning in the class.


The following skills are associated with 21st century literacies:

Develop prociency with the tools of technology Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems collaboratively and cross-culturally Design and share information for global communities to meet a variety of purposes Manage, analyze and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multi-media texts Attend to the ethical responsibilities required by these complex environments (Position Statement from the NTCE, 2009)

Multimedia Learning Theory

The following are principles to follow with analyzing and evaluating multi-media texts: Multiple Representation Principle: It is better to present an explanation in words and pictures than solely in words. Contiguity Principle: When giving a multimedia explanation, present corresponding words and pictures contiguously rather than separately. Split-Attention Principle: When giving a multimedia explanation, present words as auditory narration rather than as visual on-screen text. Individual Differences Principle: The foregoing principles are more important for low- knowledge than high-knowledge learners, and for high-spatial rather than low-spatial learners. Coherence Principle: When giving a multimedia explanation, use few rather than many extraneous words and pictures. (Mayer & Marino,1998)

Digital Literacy
Teaching 21st century literacies may include literacies and associated skills to be digitally literate, socially literate, media literate, and critically literate. More specically, this resource focusses on the education of digital literacy through the use of technology in the classroom. To be clear, the Ministry of Education in British Columbia denes digital literacy to be... the interest, attitude and ability of individuals to appropriately use digital technology and communication tools to access, manage, integrate, analyze and evaluate information, construct new knowledge, create and communicate with others in order to participate effectively in society. Basic elements of this denition include: Participation Access Integration Analysis Evaluation (British Columbia Ministry of Education- CEET denition)

Management Creation Communication Empowerment


Section 3

Experiences from an Educational Technology Teacher

Guiding Questions
As I think about implementing iPads into my teaching practice, how does the context of my school impact this process?

In this section you will nd... Two of my specic learning experiences as a

educational technology teacher who has implemented iPads into two elementary schools

How can other professionals experiences contribute to my own personal implementation of iPads in my class or school?

Five teaching and learning tips for using iPads in an elementary school

? ??

Five logistical recommendations for iPad implementation


In regards to the stories, tips, and recommendations please note that this is my experience in a specic

school context and does not universally apply. Please frame the following within a school learning environment that has specic needs and inuences.

Story #1
It was day one of the iPads in the hands of the students. I noticed an iPad was missing during during recess. I looked around everywhere, searching the school, staff room, and even made an announcement on the PA. Finally, the iPad was found after school wedged under a separating door between classrooms. A student had tucked it in under a shirt when leaving the computer lab. Lesson learned: Assign numbers to iPads, check the cart before leaving the room, and always be prepared for the possibility.

Story #2
In a rush at the end of the day, a student helped put the iPad back into the cart. Unfortunately, the slots are just a little big to t the iPads standing up and not landscape. A student put one iPad in wrong and ended up breaking the glass on the iPad. Lesson learned: Have a teacher hand out and put away the iPads into the cart.


Five Teaching and Learning Tips for using iPads in an Elementary School
1. Give each teacher an iPad
Allow a few months for teachers to explore the iPad before using it in the classroom. Each iPad should have separate iTunes accounts to allow for teacher exploration and customization.

2. Play Time
Teachers can explore with students and provide play time with the iPad together in the classroom to establish routines and establish a new learning space together.

3. Use a projector
A great way to model the use for students apps, behavior, and tips before handing the iPads out to students is using a LCD projector. Also, check out this link to see how an iPad can be used as a document camera.

4. Student experts
Allow space for students to show you capabilities and possibilities for using the iPad in the classroom.

5. Assign iPads numbers and students

Assign students a number on the iPad to sign out and return. Each student can then leave unnished work on the iPad if it is shared between classes as well.

Five Logistical Recommendations for iPad Implementation

1. Choose a sponsor teacher
One staff member should manage the Apple Laptop, download requested apps from teachers and sync all the iPads.

2. Dene the physical space

Decide where the cart will live and what the physical learning space will look like.

3. Make a placemat
For each iPad a protective mat can prevent sliding, slipping, or scratching of the iPad. Fleece, fabric, or sand mat can work well for students to use the iPad at their desks. Otherwise rest the iPad on the carpet.

4. Consider additional purchases

On top of the purchase of the Bretford Cart, up to 30 iPads, a mac laptop, AppleCare, AppleTV, a projector or projector adaptor should all be considered when purchasing for a school.

5. Establish school wide routines and policies

Behavior, schedule, and management for teachers and students needs to be communicate. Options such as using the iPad as an instructional tool, or small groups of iPads for learning.

Section 5

Shape Your Thinking

Guiding Questions
What are my values and beliefs regarding technology in education?

In this section, you will nd... Questions for the administration, school, and staff as an important pre-planning step towards integrating technology and iPads in education

How can iPads address the skill development needed for 21st century literacies?

Resources and links to use for further investigation based in British Columbia and beyond



What is the Provincial vision for 21st Century teaching and learning?


Premiers Technology Council- A vision for 21st Century Education (2010) %20for_education.pdf Partnership for 21st Century Skills

What is the vision for Information, Communication, Technology (ICT) integration and skill development into teaching in the 21st Century learning? What does the BC Ministry of Education say about learning empowered by technology? What is digital literacy and how does digital literacy t into curriculum? Where does ICT in your school sit in the continuum of integration into teaching and learning?

enGauge 21st century skills: Literacy in the Digital age (2003) International Society for Technology (2012) British Columbia Education Plan- Actions- Learning Empowered by Technology (2012) British Columbia Ministry of Education Digital Literacy Standards (Draft) ICT Capabilities in Teaching Resource from Australia

What steps are needed in the pre-planning of integrating iPad in education regarding digital literacies?



What are the standards for students, teaching, and administrators from the International for Technology in Education?


International Society for Technology in Education

What is a 21st century classroom?

Ontario Public School Boards Association: Technology in the 21st Century Classroom Cognitive theory of Multimedia Theory: Implications for Design Principals

What learning and design principals should be considered when creating or evaluating multimedia text?

How is the school responding to the need for education to change by the Ministry of Education? How is the school using ICTs in education to empower learning? Is the technology being utilized to its fullest potential?

British Columbia Education Plan Video British Columbia Education Plan- Actions- Learning Empowered by Technology

How is your school providing personalized teaching and learning? Should the use of technology look differently in each school and classroom? How is your school providing opportunity in developing 21st century literacies addressed as Digital Literacies at the curriculum level? How is the school educating students to be digitally literate?

Ministry of Education: Personalized Learning in BC British Columbia Ministry of Education Digital Literacy Standards (Draft)


What is the standards for teachers regarding the use and knowledge in technology in education from the International Society for Technology in Education?


Standards for teacher skills and knowledge in technology sfvrsn=2 Professional Development from NETS (free) National US organization for 21s Century Skills in Education Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow-Today Denition of 21st Century Skills and Outcomes

What professional development opportunities are available to me within my building, district and province regarding technology? What are 21st Century literacy skills and how do I organize them into current teaching curriculum in my class?

How am I providing personalized learning for my students?

Personalized Learning Interactive Document

How am I a researching teacher in regards to using digital technology Position statement of New Literacies and Technology of the 21st with my class? century from the International Reading Association (2009) What does current research say from the worlds leading organization Literacy Professionals? resolutions/ps1067_NewLiteracies21stCentury.pdf What does research say about the impact of digital technologies have on formal learning in classrooms? The Impact of Digital Technology: A review of the impact of digital technologies on formal education


Section 6

Implementing iPads in your School

Guiding Questions
What stage of implementation is my school at regarding the use of iPads for learning?

In this section, you will nd... A definition and articulation of stages regarding the implementation of iPads for your school

How will the iPad be implemented in my school?

Resources and blogs from colleagues regarding other implementation experiences


Use this section to:

identify which stage your school is in and seek the appropriate stage for effective professional development reect on the development of student and teacher culture surrounding the use of iPads with 21st century literacy education

Stages of Implementation

1. Pre-planning - shaping your thinking, developing purpose, pedagogy and management surrounding the use of iPads. Begin the conversation regarding using technology in the school with staff and school community 2. Peer-trainers- co-teaching, student experts, and development of Professional Learning Network (PLN) surrounding goals for professional development. Teachers have time with iPads before using them in education and to share explorations with colleagues 3. Play/Informal Learning - time for teachers and students to explore new ways to use iPads in the classroom. Development of student and staff familiarity, school logistics, and learning culture will prepare the educational setting needed to further learn 4. Planned/Formal Learning- adapted teaching, integrated formal teaching program, teacher decisions on classroom framework to reect integration of iPad. Student learning is geared and transitions between spaces of learning is natural 5. Personalized and differentiated learning- learning styles mapped, emotional intelligence considered, student discovery, self-regulation, inquiry base learning (Nadler, Vincent, Maccoll, Iemma, & Duncan, 2011, p. 6)


Additional resources, educators, and blogs regarding iPads Implementation


Educator Twitter Prole



Considerations Before Implementing iPads and iPods

Preparing Your School for an iPad Implementation 10 Steps to a Sucessful School iPad Program


21 steps to 1-to-1 Success


iPad Implementation -


A Quick Guide to Managing a full classroom of iPads



Section 7

Ideas for the Educator

Guiding Questions
How do I safely navigate the Internet space with my students? What are some practical, ageappropriate apps that I can use to support 21st century literacy learning for my students? How can online interactions develop 21st century literacies using iPad? What are some ways to develop my own Professional Learning Network?

In this section, you will nd:

Tips on creating cybersafe classrooms and developing digital citizenship within your school Tried, tested and true literacy Apps for iPads Resources for teaching and learning online Ways to develop a professional learning network

?? ?


Cybersafe Classrooms
Teaching students appropriate cybersafety is an important aspect of implementing any technology program that uses the Internet in a school. As you think about exploring the Internet with your students, you will want to think about what it means to have a cybersafe classroom, and how you can develop digital citizenship in your class and school. Students, teachers and schools can practice cybersafety by: Students: protecting their own privacy and personal information selecting appropriate spaces to work in and contribute to protecting the privacy of others (this can be sharing personal information or images) Teachers: providing safe, protected environments monitoring and maintaining these environments modeling appropriate behavior facilitating space in school for questions Schools: establishing school wide standards of online behavior respecting others property (copyright) providing appropriate places for exploration online

Digital Passport
The useful online resource called Digital Passport offers interactive web-based games and videos engage grade 3-5 students on critical skills related to digital safety, respect and community. The website also provides collaborative classroom activities that reinforce online lessons. The website can manage and keep records on multiple students and classes and is free of charge. Check out for how you can begin to teach your students about online safety at your school.

Literacy Apps for iPads

There are over 250,000 educational apps in the iTunes store. This is a targeted collection of apps that have been useful in developing skills associated with digital literacy as well as 21st century literacies.

I have listed a sampling of apps that I have used in my program. Each app is identied with an image, a title that is linked to the iTunes store, a brief description of how the app works. I have also added a brief video to show a brief tutorial of the app. Some of these apps are free and some cost a small price. I have categorized the apps into three levels for elementary school: kindergarten/grade 1, grade 2/3, and grade 4/5. However, some overlap between levels may be appropriate in some situations.


My Recommended Kindergarten/Grade 1 Literacy Apps


Link to iTunes App Store

Description Word phonics spelling, beginning sound, word family phonics, short vowel sound, and images support young readers with a lot of animations and interactions for each word. This developer offers many different apps for young readers. Consider this app to provide books leveled according to the Reading A-Z levels books. This level AA contains ten books at this level and one free sample book for the next level.

Video Tutorials

Phonics Word Families (free)

Learning A-Z Level AA Library ($6.99)

Rocket Speller (free) Super Why App ($2.99)

Fun and engaging spelling app that contained internal motivators to learn letter sounds, and unscramble words to earn parts of a rocket that you can y at the end. Achieve the Power to Read with this collection of four SUPER WHY interactive literacy games.

PuppetPals HD (free)

Pick out your actors and backdrops, drag them on to the stage, and tap record. Your movements and audio will be recorded in real time for playback later as a digital story.


Grade 2/3 Literacy Apps

Apps Link to iTunes App Store Description A simple doodling board, markers, and oneclick sharing tools make spreading your ideas and knowledge. Record, sketch and share. Video Tutorials

Screen Chomp (Free)

ComicBook! ($1.99) Toontastic (free)

Make comics with a wide selection of: image lters, comic fonts, customizable captions, a library of classic comic graphics and dozens of multi-panel page layouts. This storytelling and creative learning tool enables kids to draw, animate, and share their own cartoons with friends and family around the world through simple and fun imaginative play. A book creation platform that allows kids to create and share their own stories with hundreds of great drawing and writing tools. Download your books instantly to your iBooks library. One of many children book library apps. check out for more information

Scribble Press (free)

MeeGenious (free)


Grade 4/5 Literacy Apps

Apps Links to iTunes App Store Description A recordable whiteboard. Creating a great video tutorial is as simple as touching, tapping and talking. Great for digital stories, you can photograph any student work, type, draw, and record over each slide. Also check out A great brainstorming app, that simple interface allows for quick capturing of ideas, your own photos or photos from the internet to create a mindmap. Video Tutorials

Educreations (free)

Popplet Lite (free)

Book Creator ($4.99)

The simple way to create your own beautiful ebooks on the iPad. Ideal for student picture books, photo books, art books, cook books, manuals, or textbooks for teachers and students.

Voicethread (free)

Ceate and share dynamic conversations around documents, snapshots, diagrams and videos -basically anything there is to talk about. You can talk, type, and draw right on the screen. A log in is required. An easy-to-use design tool that lets you annotate, animate, and narrate explanations and presentations. You can create unique and dynamic presentations with this app.

Explain Everything ($2.99)


Resources for Teaching and Learning Online

ALong with thousands of available educational apps, iPads can be used to incorporate 21st century literacy skills when connected to the internet. IPads can be used to enhance online interactions and collaborations for our students.,

Interact Online - a closed student blog system that offers a monitored online space for students to post and share ideas, and begin to interact online in appropriate ways - a website that can easily be created and edited by teachers and students. Students can create pages for group assignments, create portfolios that include multimedia digital texts, or class activities can be explored on the space (among many other opportunities). Collaborate Online allows multiple student access to one multilayered document allows for group collaboration for brainstorming a topic offers a mobile system for student responses and votes where results can be collaborated on the projector in various representations for assessment for learning or class polls

One advantage of wireless internet existing in schools is

that learning on iPads can take place in any physical space available around the school, such as a classroom, student desk, library, hallway, or conference room.


Developing a Professional Learning Network (PLN)

Personal learning networks are a great way for educators to get connected with learning opportunities, access professional development resources, and to build camaraderie with other education professionals. Although PLNs have been around for years, in recent years social media has made it possible for these networks to grow exponentially.

Developing a Professional/Personal Learning Network is something that can be extremely valuable to your own learning and professional development. Through the use of social media and the internet, it is seamless to connect with fellow educators throughout your province, country and across the world on topics that are current and relevant to your own practice. I have outlined three different aspects of social media that I have used to develop my own PLN: Twitter, Blogs and Catalogues. I have used Twitter to meet colleagues in similar positions across the world, as well as nd connections to many teacher-created blogs that have been impactful to my learning. I have been able to collect and share resources regarding apps, and their use in the classroom. I have included some of the resources and blogs that I found useful in my program.

(Teacher- Keith Rispin, 2012)


Twitter as a Professional Resource

An effective way to collaborate with or nd others who share an
Twitter Feed- tap the logo below to see the current conversation on the hashtag #ipaded.

interest in using iPads within education is Twitter. Conversations surrounding a topic are found by searching Hashtags. The following is a short list of hashtags and colleagues to follow on the topic of iPads in education in British Columbia. A larger categorized list can be found in Edudemics article A-Z Dictionary of Educational Twitter Hashtags

This conversation surrounds the topic of iPads in education


#bced #abed #ettipad #bcedplan #ipaded #edtechbc

@Colleagues @_valeriei @keithrispin @bkuhn @gregkulowiec @bcedplan @jilliannec

#edapp #kinderchat #k12media #edadmin #elemchat #titletalk

@okmbio @verenanz @edtechbc @chrkennedy @edtechteacher21 @bmooreintheloop

#ipaded #edchat #edbc #edu #k12 #ipadchat

@chriswejr @edutopia @davidwees @keithrispin @brholland @ceetb

Additional App Catalogues and Blogs

The following app catalogues and app blogs have been dominantly collected through Twitter. I have found these catalogues and blogs to be useful, as they provide various rating scales, reviews, and categorizations of particular apps.

ERAC Commons Mobile Apps Collection-BC Educational Resource Acquisition Consortium Texas Computer Education Society iPad 4 Learning- Victoria, Australia Teaching Collections - iPads in the primary Classroom Educational App Aggregate Kathy Schrocks Blog- Bloomin Apps Appitic- A directory of apps for education by Apple Distinguished Educators +Taskonomy

About the Author

David Shortreed is an elementary school teacher in the Greater Victoria School District No. 61. David teaches an Educational Technology program at two elementary schools in his school district, and implement iPads in both. David has a passion for effective integration of technology in todays classrooms for literacy learning.

To see what Mr. Shortreed is up to, you can: Follow him on Twitter: @mr_shortreed Read his Blog: http:// Explore his K-5 student website: mrshortreedcomputerlab/


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