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Applications of

Hydraulics &

General Concept

By: Alireza Safikhani


Directional Control Valve

Directional Control Valves

Identification of the component parts of a typical solenoid valve with spring return: (1) Solenoid (15mm) (2) Piston (3) Spool with disc seals (4) Valve body (5) Return spring (6) Alternative ports 2, 4 (7) Pressure indicator (8) Manual override (9) Electric connectors
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Directional Control Valves



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Directional Control Valves

change, open or close flow paths in hydraulic and pneumatic systems. They are used to control the direction of motion of power components and the manner in which these stop. Directional control valves are shown as defined in DIN ISO 1219.

Representation of DCV
The following rules apply to the representation of directional control valves (DCV): Each different switching position is shown by a square. Flow directions are indicated by arrows. Blocked ports are shown by horizontal lines. Ports are shown in the appropriate flow direction with line arrows. Drain ports are drawn as a broken line and labeled (L) to distinguish them from control ports.

2/2 DCV

kind of Connections


Representation of DCV


4/2 DCV
The left box of the symbol shows the connections for the normal position. The right box shows the connections when the spool is moved to the left. The identification tags A, B, P and T are placed against the normal position of the valve. Note this particular valve has a push button to operate it and a spring to return it to the normal position.


Types of directional control valve

Continually operating In addition to two end positions, these valves can have any number of intermediate switching positions with varying throttle effect. Proportional and servo valves which are discussed later are examples of this type of valve. Digitally or Binary operating These always have a fixed number (2, 3, 4, ...) of switching positions. In practice, they are known simply as directional control valves.


Classifications of DCV
Number of spool positions. positions. Two Position Three Position Number of flow paths in the extreme positions. 2,3,4,5


Position type
Flow pattern in the center or crossover position.


Type of Actuatoin
Method of shifting a spool Method of providing spool return


Manual Actuation


Pilot-Operated, three and Four-Way Valve

The pressure port (1) is normally open to the cylinder port (2) and the valve must be operated to turn the pressure off. This valve is said to be Normally Open.


A solenoid is a coil with an iron plunger inside it. When current flows in the coil, the plunger becomes magnetized and tries to move out of the coil. If a spring is used to resist the movement, the distance moved is directly proportional to the current in the coil.

By simply reversing ports (1) and (3) the pressure port is normally closed and the valve is operated to obtain pressure at port (2). This valve is Normally Closed.


Solenoid-Operated, Four-Way Valves

When a solenoid is energized, it forces a push rod against the energized, end of a spool. A spool shifts away from the solenoid and toward the opposite end of the valve body.


Solenoid-Operated, Four-Way Valves

In a spring-offset model, a single solenoid shifts a springloaded spool. When a solenoid is deenergized, a spring returns a spool to its original position.



Solenoid and pilot operated valve

X and Y are the pressure and tank connections for the pilot valve which valve are brought through the main body to the underside. The pilot connections are made via end plates. The pilot valve is most likely to be likely solenoid operated with solenoid assemblies on one or both ends.


DCV Applications: 2/2 way

Triggering a single acting cylinder


DCV Applications: 2/2 way


DCV Applications: 2/2 way

As a by-pass, e.g. rapid traverse byfeed circuit, pressurizes pump by-pass; by-

Switching on or off various flow or pressure valves;(pressure stage circuit)


DCV Applications: 2/2 way

Triggering a motor in a single direction.


DCV Applications: 3/2 way

Triggering a single acting cylinder.


3/2 way: Use as Shunt


DCV Applications: 4/2 way

Triggering a double acting cylinder

Possible applications of the 4/2-way 4/2valve: Triggering of double-acting cylinders; double Triggering of motors with either clockwise or anti-clockwise rotation; anti Triggering of two circuits.


DCV Applications: 4/3 way


DCV Applications: 4/3 way

Triggering a double acting cylinder


Functional Symbols



Mechanical overrides enable the valve to be operated without electrical switching. This is useful in fault tracing switching. as makes it possible to tell straight away whether the fault is electrical or mechanical. On direct operating solenoids this may take the form of pushing the plunger with a screw driver. driver.


Valve Bases
Directional and other valves are usually designed to be mounted on a separate base. The external pipe work is connected to the base. The advantage of this is standardization of designs and it allows the valve to be removed without disconnecting the pipe work. Hydraulic bases to ISO size 6 and 10 are shown below.


Valve sizes
size_ 1/8 3/8 1/2 3/4 11/4 CETOP 3 5 7 8 10 _ISO_ 03 05 07 08 10 _NFPA_ D03 D05 D07 D08 D10

CETOP (Comite Des Transmissions Oleohydrauliques et Pneumatiques or European Hydraulic and Pneumatics Committee).


Selector Valves
(1) directional control devices to insure the movement of the hydraulic fluid flow in the proper direction, (2) stop-locks to lock the stopselector switch in a certain position.


Cartridge Valves
These are forms of poppet valve designed to fit into a manifold block. The basic function of a cartridge valve is to open or close the connection between it's A & B ports Just about all valve types can be designed as a cartridge to fit into a block specially machined to accept it. In this way a bank of valves may be built into one block. The block. block might contain directional valves, relief valves, flow valves, dividers, one way valves


Cartridge Valves


Cartridge Valves


Short switching times - 20% lower because of smaller parts and smaller stroke. Gentle operation - operates without pressure peaks hence low noise. Substantially reduced valve leakages. Low electrical power, low voltage peaks. Reduced sensitivity to contamination. Low thermal losses because of larger flow cross section. Compact in size because number of different functions can be combined in single cartridge valve and monoblock becomes the housing for number of cartridge valves. High flexibility. Ease of maintenance and servicing.


With out training it is difficult to maintain. Trouble shooting becomes difficult.


Proportional Hydraulics
Proportional Solenoid gives displacement of spool proportional to the current through the solenoid. As the spool moves the flow path between P & A gradually opens allowing flow to take place. To get good metering characteristics, notches are machined into edges of the spool lands. Therefore, it is able to control direction as well as flow to the circuit.


Proportional Hydraulics
Proportional solenoid gives variable force to hold the poppet against a seat. Force would be proportional to the current passing through solenoid. Therefore, varying current through solenoid can vary pressure setting.


Proportional Solenoid
A current through coil generates magnetic force which pulls armature towards pole piece. magnitude of force transmitted through pin to spool/poppet is proportional to the current.


Proportional Valves


Servo Valves


Servo Valves

Control motor: Change signal current to distance. Hydraulics Amplifier: Change distance to Pressure drop. Second Stage: Changes pressure drop to Flow


Parameter Proportional Valves Overlap spool, causing a dead zone on either side of the null point 40- 60 ms 40Servo Valves Zero or underlap valve spool. No dead zone 5-10 ms


Close Loop Example

Valve lap Response time for valve spool to move fully over Maximum operating frequency Hysteresis

10 Hz 1-5 %

100 Hz .1 %


Close Loop Example