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UNIT 1: ADVERTISING – AN INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION FEATURES OF ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES OF ADVERTISING IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING LIMITATIONS OF ADVERTISING ADVERTISING – AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TOOL INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS (IMC) MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS MIX PROPAGANDAS PUBLICITY SALESMANSHIP SALES PROMOTIONS ADVERTISING AND MARKETING TYPES OF ADVERTISING FORMS OF ADVERTISING STEPS IN ADVERTISING PLANNING UNIT 2: ADVERTISING MEDIA UNDERSTANDING THE MEDIA ADVERTISING THROUGH VARIOUS MEDIA ADVERTISING MEDIA PLANNING MEDIA OBJECTIVES MEDIA STRATEGIES DESIGNING MEDIA TACTICS EVALUATING MEDIA PLAN EFFECTIVENESS DAGMAR MODEL UNIT 3: ADVERTISING CREATIVITY CONCEPT OF CREATIVITY ROLE OF CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING COPYWRITING ELEMENTS OF COPY WRITING EFFECTIVE AD COPY AIDA MODEL LAYOUT ILLUSTRATION ARTWORK UNIT 4: ADVERTISING AGENCY ADVERTISING AGENCY ROLE OF ADVERTISING AGENCY FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES TYPES OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISING AGENCY HOW TO SELECT AN AD AGENCY INDIAN ADVERTISING AGENCIES DIRECTORATE OF ADVERTISING AND VISUAL PUBLICITY (DAVP) GLOBAL ADVERTISING UNIT 5: ETHICS IN ADVERTISING SOCIAL IMPACTS OF ADVERTISING ETHICS AND MORALS OF ADVERTISING ADVERTISING REGULATION ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AAAI ADVERTISING STANDARDS COUNCIL OF INDIA (ASCI) 118 119 119 120 121 121 122 122 123 124 126 126 128 128 129 130
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UNIT 1: ADVERTISING – AN INTRODUCTION
Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various media; including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding," which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement. Advertising is a non-personal form of promotion that is delivered through selected media outlets that, under most circumstances, require the marketer to pay for message placement. Advertising has long been viewed as a method of mass promotion in that a single message can reach a large number of people. But, this mass promotion approach presents problems since many exposed to an advertising message may not be within the marketer‘s target market, and thus, may be an inefficient use of promotional funds. However, this is changing as new advertising technologies and the emergence of new media outlets offer more options for targeted advertising. Advertising also has a history of being considered a one-way form of marketing communication where the message receiver (i.e., target market) is not in position to immediately respond to the message (e.g., seek more information). This too is changing. For example, in the next few years technologies will be readily available to enable a television viewer to click a button to request more details on a product seen on their favorite TV program. In fact, it is expected that over the next 10-20 years advertising will move away from a one-way communication model and become one that is highly interactive. Another characteristic that may change as advertising evolves is the view that advertising does not stimulate immediate demand for the product advertised. That is, customers cannot quickly purchase a product they see advertised. But as more media outlets allow customers to interact with the messages being delivered the ability of advertising to quickly stimulate demand will improve. Advertising is a public announcement to inform and persuade people to buy a product, a service or an idea. An advertisement would include any notice, circular, label, wrapper or any other document or any announcement made orally, or by means of producing or transmitting light, sound or smoke. Every day, we see and hear hundreds of advertisements. Let us consider a few of them. Posters informing us about the latest Bollywood films to be released. Big hoardings telling us which toothpaste would give us the cleanest and strongest teeth. The RJ, or radio jockey, asking us to buy things from the big shop in the centre of the city for the most fashionable clothes.. The huge wall carrying the name and address of the local beauty parlour, which will make even the most ordinary lady look as glamorous as a film star! Wouldn‘t you like to know more about this fascinating process? Definition of Advertising The non-personal communication of information usually paid for & usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods & services) or ideas by identified sponsor through various media -Arenes (1996) Any paid form of non-personal communication about an organisation, product , service, or idea from an identified sponsor. - Blech & Blech (1998) Paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade influence an audience. -Wells , burnett, & Moriaty (1998) The element of the marketing communication mix that is non personal paid for an identified sponsor, & disseminated through mass channels of communication to promote the adoption of oods, services, person or ideas. - Bearden, Ingram, & Laforge (1998) An informative or persuasive message carried by a non personal medium & paid for by an identified sponsor whose organisation or product is identified in some way. - Zikmund & d'amico (1999) Impersonal, one way communication about a product or organisation that is paid by marketer. -Lamb, Hair & Mc. Daniel (2000) ―Advertising is any paid-for communication overtly intended to inform and/or influence one or more people.‖ - Jeremy Bullmore, Director, WPP ―Advertising says to people, 'Here's what we've got. Here's what it will do for you. Here's how to get it.‖ - Leo Burnett ―I do not regard advertising as entertainment or an art form, but as a medium of information.‖ - David Ogilvy
FEATURES OF ADVERTISING
1. Advertising provides information: The basic purpose of advertising is to provide information about products/services to prospective buyers. The details of products such as features, uses, prices, benefits, manufacturer's name, and instructions to be followed while using the product are given in the advertisements. The advertising message and brand name are also given. The information supplied gives education and guidance to consumers and facilitates correct selection of goods by them. 2. Paid form of communication: The advertiser has to pay to the media for giving publicity to his advertising message. He pays for the advertisement and naturally he decides the size, slogan, etc. given in the advertisement. Advertising is a form of paid communication. 3. Non-personal presentation: Advertising is non-personal in character as against salesmanship which is personal (face to face communication) in character. In advertising, the message is given to all and not to one specific individual. This rule is applicable to all advertising media including press. However even in advertising target consumers or target market can be selected for making an advertising appeal. 4. Gives publicity to goods, services and ideas: Advertising is basically for giving information to consumers. This information is always related to the features and benefits of goods and services of different types. Advertising gives new ideas to consumers as its contents are meaningful. The aim is to make the ideas popular and thereby to promote sales. For example, advertising on family planning, family welfare, and life insurance is useful for placing new ideas before the people. 5. Basically for persuasion: Advertising aims at persuasion of potential customers. Advertising attracts attention towards a product, creates desire to have the same and finally induces consumers to visit the market and purchase the same. Advertising has psychological impact on consumers. It influences the buying decisions of consumers. 6. Target oriented: It is possible to make intensive advertising by selecting a specific market or specific segment of consumers (e.g. children, housewives, etc.) for the purpose of advertising. This selection of a specific market is called target market. Advertising becomes effective and result oriented when it is target oriented. The waste in advertising can be minimized through such target oriented advertising. 7. An Art, Science and Profession: It is now universally accepted that advertising is an art, science and a profession. It is an art as it needs creativity for raising its effectiveness. Advertising is a science as it has its principles and rules. Advertising is now treated as a profession with its professional bodies and code of conduct for members. Advertising agencies and space brokers function as professionals in the field of advertising. 8. Important element in marketing mix: Advertising is an important element in marketing mix. It supports the sales promotion efforts of the manufacturer and makes positive contribution in sales promotion provided other elements in the marketing mix are reasonably favorable. This is natural as advertising alone is not adequate for promoting sales. Many companies now spend huge funds on advertising and public relations 9. Creativity - the essence of advertising: Advertising is a method of presenting a product in an artistic, attractive and agreeable manner. This is possible through the element of creativity which is the essence of advertising. Creativity can be introduced by creative people (professionals) in the field of advertising. They introduce new techniques for introducing creativity. Without creativity, advertising will be like a body without a soul.
OBJECTIVES OF ADVERTISING
The main objective of advertising is to help a business firm to promote its products and increase the sales. But, there are some other goals also which a firm can achieve with the help of advertising. The objectives to be achieved through advertising are as follows: 1. Introduction of new product: Business firms keep on introducing new products in the market and have to inform the prospective customers about its features, price, usage, availability etc. Advertising not only attracts their attention but also helps them in forming an opinion about the product and making the best purchase decisions. 2. Increase in sale: Advertising helps in increasing the sale of firm‘s products. It also helps in turning non-users of products to users of products and also in attracting the consumers of competitor‘s products. Business firms make use of advertising to inform the consumers about the advantages and superiority of their product. 3. Maintaining existing buyers: Now-a-days new products keep on entering in the market at a fast pace and consumers tend to switch over to the new products. Advertising is used to remind the consumers about how good their products or services are and that they are still in the market as old and reliable ones. The idea is to prevent decline in the sale of their product in the market. 4. Create and enhance goodwill of the firm: Advertising helps in building reputation of the business house. Through advertising, the firms can communicate their achievements to the consumers and clarify any misconceptions or doubts in the mind of the public about themselves or their products, if any. This helps in creating a good image of their firm in the minds of consumers, workers, investors, government and so on. 5. Dealer support: Another objective of advertisement is to provide the necessary support to firm‘s dealers and distributors. Hence some advertisements, besides the information about the product characteristics, price etc., include a list of dealers and distributors. 6. Create and enhance brand image: Advertising is also used for creating a brand image which helps in building customers‘ loyalty. When customers develop brand loyalty, they do not shift to other brands easily. Brand image gets enhanced with repeated advertisements.
M9-Advertising Management 7. Helps in personal selling: Advertising facilitates the process of personal selling. The salesperson job is made easier if the customer has familiarity with the product. This is achieved through advertising. A customer is more receptive to the salesperson if he/she already has some idea about the product.
IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING
When a brand is to be popularized, the entrepreneurs realize the importance of advertising. The following article is a brief and comprehensive elaboration of advertising and the crucial role that it plays in the business world. Advertising is an important aspect of promoting almost any product, service or brand. Most of the dictionaries also refer to advertising as, an activity that involves the public promotion of goods and services, or a brand or a company or an establishment a business of drawing public attention to goods and services and their merits a process that calls attention to a particular good or service a process that makes publicity for a said subject (such as a good, service, product, brand, person, establishment, company or firm) Thus, from the above definition it can be concluded that advertising is a task that involves making the public aware and conscious about the subject that is being advertised. Neo-classical economists and modern economists often criticize advertising by calling in a profession that creates awareness about a product in the consumer's brain, which eventually leads to a craving to own that product. This continual process that is brought about by advertising eventually leads to increasing demand and eventual scarcity of resources. Moving on to importance of advertising… Why is Advertising Important? The aim of any business is to maximize the sales of that business. This maximization results into a lot of revenue and profits for the company.Advertising ensures that the sales of the business increase. The second importance is that the product which is sold under the banner of a specific brand also becomes a household name. For example, Coke or coca-cola is a house hold brand name. Same is the case of Pepsi. Such popular brand names have huge customer base that is loyal to the brand and continues to purchase the product for a prolonged time period. Such a customer base also introduces the product and brand to many other people. Creation of awareness is the primary objective of any advertisement. Thus, when any product is advertised, people become aware about its existence and as mentioned above, a need and craving to purchase and own the commodity. Importance of Advertising in Business From the business point of view, advertising not just optimizes sales and product promotion but the goodwill of the specific brand that is earned is an important asset. A well known brand not only has a good customer base but it is a great ground to introduce new products under the same banner. In such a case, there is a very high probability that people are going to purchase the new product out of curiosity. It is often said that reputation gained and maintained due to advertising helps out the business throughout the life time. The logic behind that is simple. When advertising creates awareness, people know about the product and when they known about the product, they pay attention to its newer advertisements and the probability that the person will buy the product will increase. To conclude the paragraph it can be said that advertising helps business gain loyal customers as well as a good platform in the entire market. Importance of Advertising in Marketing Apart from gaining a loyal customer base, advertising is often successful in marketing the brand and conveying financial details about the brand to the consumers. The pricing details often generate an interest and the process of money planning, starts ticking in the person's mind. Offers such a buy 2 get 1 free or discounts are introduced to the consumers successfully through advertising. Such offers result into a spurt of sales and are quite instrumental for clearance sales, new introduction sales, re-release sales, etc. Advertising thus, plays quite a comprehensive role in marking policies. Importance of Advertising on the Internet There is a significant importance of online advertising due to the fact that an online advertisement results into global awareness. Today, when a person feels the need to purchase something, his first reaction is to search the web. With your advertisement being present on the web, there is a high possibility that the consumer is going to purchase your product. In fact, financially speaking online marketing services are much more convenient for consumers and cheap for producers as it drastically brings down the cost of advertising. Role of Advertising in Selling Consumer Durables The following points suggest the role of advertising in selling sales promotion of consumer durables. 1. Advertising is useful for giving information and guidance to prospective buyers of consumer durables. Here, advertising gives the details of special features, benefits, price discount, and other concessions offered, etc. to the purchasers of consumer durables and encourage interested customers to take initiative in purchasing the durable articles.
4. Communication tasks are building up brand alertness. Action: the prospect takes meaningful action. conviction and action. horror etc. The apprehension level indicates that people are not only aware of the brand or company but they also know the brand name and can be familiar with the package or trademark. (ii) Advertising adds to the cost and price of product: Money spent on advertising eventually results in increased cost of the product. Even consumers can make appropriate selection of a suitable product by studying the advertisements of competitors. Conviction: The prospect must be mentally convinced to buy the brand or the product. This may not result in an increase in the total demand for the product but simply shift demand from one brand to another. (iv) Advertising may affect the value-system of society: Advertising may introduce ideas or concepts alien to our culture. comprehension or recognition. They do not get a fair opportunity to compete. The convinced level shows brand preference and intention to buy the product in the near future. This is useful for sales promotion of consumer durables. 3. are sometimes used in advertisement to attract attention. This technique facilitates sales promotion during the festival period. . This encourages consumers to purchase a durable product. He can give special features of his product and also suggest how his product is superior to that of his competitors. Advertising objectives may be divided into four stages of commercial communication which are explained below: Cognizance: The prospect must be informed about the subsistence of the brand or company in the market. Advertising as a promotional technique augments tendency to purchase. Here. You must have noticed that the brands which are advertised heavily in different media are found to be priced higher as compared to those which are not so heavily advertised. advertising can be made effectively. Of course. a number of firms manufacturing similar products may advertise vigorously. It actuates the buyer through consecutive stages such as awareness. They remember to purchase a useful product on the eve of the festival. (vi) Advertising may not increase overall demand: Advertising does not always increase demand. models are shown doing dangerous acts like jumping from the top of a hill which some children may try to copy and may face the accidents. cigarettes or pan-masala. These new values generated or propagated by advertising may affect our social. Conception: The prospect must understand what the product is and what it will do for him. moral and ethical values adversely. Their arguments against advertisement are as follows: (i) Advertising multiplies wants: People tend to desire and buy products as they see in advertisement even if they do not actually need or afford them. The elemental determination of advertising is to assist sale probability of a product or a service. and communicating customer about product dimensions and properties. Advertising of consumer durables during the festival period acts as a reminder to consumers. moving the prospect gradually towards the product to make a purchase decision. Objectionable appeals like sex. Here. An attraction is created in the minds of consumers and they are encouraged to visit retail shop in order to see the article or look at the demonstration of its working. may feel tempted by the people to try and then get addicted to such products which are not good for health. But they are not yet influenced that they want to buy. These four goals of ad in communication terms are measurable results. Such advertisements are common during festivals. The seller of consumer products (manufacturing company) may like to offer attractive gift or price discount to interested consumers. Advertising of consumer products enables a manufacturer to face market competition effectively. He can make suitable advertisement of such concession for large scale selling at the local level. altering consumer thoughts. (iii) Creation of monopoly: Business firms which can spend heavily on advertising are usually the ones who grab a bigger share of the market. ADVERTISING – AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TOOL Advertising aims must be sloping around the communication process. This multiplication of wants may put them under financial and psychological pressure. the salesman can use his skills and see that the article is purchased by his visitors. LIMITATIONS OF ADVERTISING 121 Many people consider advertising to be a wasteful activity and something harmful for the customers and the society in many ways.M9-Advertising Management 2. Similarly. advertising is only one of several communication forces. which is passed on to the consumers through increased prices. Even local dealer may offer certain concession to his customers. In many cases. The buying process starts after informing the consumer about the product or service. (v) Motivation for wrong or dangerous deeds: The way advertisements project people consuming liquor. colligating pleasing ideas with products. 5. Purchase decision is duly taken. Such firms generally have a monopoly which results in unequal opportunity for small producers to make a place for themselves in the market. Awareness is the bare minimum goal of advertising. Effective advertising of consumer durables creates proper background for personal selling.
and sources within a company into a seamless program in order to maximize the impact on end users at a minimal cost. radio and even online advertising which can be prohibitively expensive for many businesses. The whole objective is to ascertain needs and create the best solution for customers. design of packaging and trade-marks are all product cues which convey a message about the total product offering. Such efforts often include cross-functional processes that create and nourish profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all messages sent to these groups and encouraging data-driven. Advertising is a non-personal form of mass communication. including brand name. competitive strengths and weaknesses and style of management all influence the promotional mix. However. most geographically dispersed audience at the lowest cost per head. coupons and inserts. avenues. For example. billboards. marketing channel.M9-Advertising Management INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS (IMC) 122 Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) is the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools. avenues. gas pumps and even public restrooms is in vogue today. personal selling. successful selling begins and ends with the customer. Put together. Personal Selling This is the most dreaded as well as the most expensive of all methods in the marketing communication process. these promotional activities make up the promotional or communications mix with varying emphasis on each element according to the type of product or service. but has little control over the fourth variable. As well. The place in which the products are to be found also has notable communications value. a perfume sold through an upmarket store will have a much higher quality image than one sold through supermarkets Advertising This is the mass media method of marketing communication and provides exposure to the largest. The downside of Direct Marketing is that it is usually unsolicited and seen as a nuisance by the general public. Basically. etc. any medium which provides an opportunity to target "eyes and/or ears" can be a venue for advertising and you can see examples of successful promotion in the most unlikely places. publicity/public relations. Price can communicate different things under varying circumstances. Other traditional forms of paid advertising include newspapers and magazines. that encourage quick action by buyers. This is another non-personal communication method that reaches a large number of people. Telemarketing. IMC includes the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools. sales promotion and publicity/public relations. telemarketing. Visit the Direct Marketing Association website for guidance on legal and ethical Direct Marketing. That being said. the Yellow Pages. Product communication. Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is a process for managing customer relationships that drive brand value primarily through communication efforts. catalogs. for instance conveying ‗prestige appeal‘ for those buyers who perceive that a high price is equal to quality and prestige. paid for by an identified sponsor. Company size. functions and sources within a company into a seamless program that maximizes the impact on consumers and other end users at a minimal cost. characteristics of consumers and company resources. online marketing and television infomercials. Other communications elements with which promotion must be coordinated are the product itself. This integration affects all firm's business-to-business. Direct Marketing is extremely effective in the long run and allows for a targeted marketing approach to specific consumers to create valuable lasting relationships. Personal selling involves a seller attempting to persuade a potential buyer to make a purchase. but it is not paid for by the company and is usually in the form of news or editorial comment regarding a company‘s product or service. it can be one of the most rewarding aspects of the marketing process. purposeful dialog with them. advertising costs can ad up quickly with mediums like television. and internally directed communications. Along the way you build relationships and continue to gather information about how you can better serve customers which is your reason for being in business in the first place. This component of the marketing communication process includes direct mail. . Companies can gain some control over the publicity it receives by the release of news items. Direct Marketing is the marketing communication method that enables companies to interact with a relatively large number of customers and encourage a "call to action" or "most wanted response" which is usually a purchase. e-mail spamming and junk mail are universally despised and so Direct Marketing tools should be used with thought and caution. The company has control over these three variables. customerfocused. both personally and professionally. Just as with traditional marketing. Direct Marketing This marketing communication competency enables companies to reach out directly to consumers without intermediary channels such as those required for advertising. Done correctly. Sales promotion encompasses short-term activities such as giving coupons. benches. price and distribution channels used. Products receive a ‗halo effect‘ from the outlets in which they can be found and two stores selling similar products can project entirely different product images. signs and posters. if you are a small business owner or otherwise have the ability to personally sell and build relationships with customers. free samples. advertising on buses. Retail stores have ‗personalities‘ that consumers associate with the products they sell. MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS MIX Promotion describes the communications activities of advertising.
PROPAGANDAS 123 Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. Public Relations This refers to how you handle your relationships and the flow of information with your various "publics" or the people who have a stake in or are affected by your business. political groups. Historically. discounts. promotional collateral. The good side of PR is fostering socially conscious business practices whereas the bad side is epitomized in shady political lobbying. . The Institute For Public Relations website is an excellent resource for additional material on the role of Public Relations in the marketing communication process. this usage died out around the time of World War II. is a form of propaganda. Suffice it to say that in today's connected world. The essential distinction lies in the intentions of the propagandist to persuade an audience to adopt the attitude or action he or she espouses. others may present it as faithfully as objective observers. Culturally it works within religions. you should continually look at ways in which to create additional value for customers. inform and persuade through a variety of communicational tools. in facts. Successful sales and successful marketing both begin with an attitude and that attitude is customers first. Commercially it works within the (mass) market in the free market societies.M9-Advertising Management Sales and marketing are fundamental to the survival of any business and both involve creating customers for the business value you have created. rather than impartially providing information. PR also has a "good" and "bad" side. any sized organization needs to be cognizant that it operates within the larger framework of society and has corresponding responsibilities. "one off" incentives intended to provide consumers with that last "push" to buy. partners. financial reports. Many of these same techniques can be found under logical fallacies. shareholders. however. On the other hand. financial incentives. more than ever. Sales Promotion This is the last traditional component of the marketing communication mix that is discussed here as part of the marketing communication process. the more obvious propaganda method. This view is relative. These can assume a number of forms including offering free goods or services. it is still a vital component of the marketing communication process to think about for smaller businesses as well. advertorials. This includes the general public. Rationalization. but there are varied other more subtle and insidious forms. it is often thought to be invariably false or misleading. Being "people conscious" starts with the individual and carries through to the organization. the term propaganda now overlaps with distinct terms like indoctrination (ideological views established by repetition rather than verification) and mass suggestion (broader strategic methods). Unstated assumption. A few examples are: Flag-waving. "spin doctors" and so forth that divert from the truth as opposed to promote it. person or brand. A lawyer‘s brief is as much propaganda as a billboard advertisement. employees. but also often covert interests. perhaps. Oversimplification. Although some propagandists may intentionally distort fact. in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by governments. charitable promotions and any other value-add over and above your standard product or services. An appeal to one's emotions is. and economic entities like those which both favor and oppose globalization. given the pejorative connotation it had acquired. Glittering generalities. Because propaganda is frequently accompanied by distortions of fact and by appeals to passion and prejudice. In the East. samples. Propaganda shares techniques with advertising and public relations. Red herring. Testimonial. In practice. PR becomes a more and more crucial element of the marketing communication mix as a business or organization grows larger. Aligning both will increase your success regardless of conditions. a most common characteristic of propaganda is volume (in the sense of a large amount). PR tools include press and media releases. since propagandists use arguments that. charitable and public events. interviews and any other method for the promotion of a positive image to people. Propaganda is dissemination of ideas and information for the purpose of inducing or intensifying specific attitudes and actions. Individually propaganda functions as self-deception. gifts and prizes. consumers. In fact. sponsorships. Sales Promotions are generally short-lived. Stereotyping. the terms are often used synonymously. As with many facets of sales and marketing. Once again. Sales promotion simply refers to purchase incentives that you provide your customer with. The main takeaway is that regardless of the size and type of your business. coupons and vouchers. Slogans. customers have been shown to pay premium prices for real value and real service. politics. A number of techniques which are based on research are used to generate propaganda. whatever its objective. Both engage. Your customers will appreciate it and. the most common use of the term propaganda started to be in the religious context of the Catholic Church and evolved to be more common in political contexts. In the early 20th century the term propaganda was also used by the founders of the nascent public relations industry to describe their activities. Intentional vagueness. advertising and public relations can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization. are not necessarily valid. Education. while sometimes convincing. lobbying. competitors and the government. That being said. facility tours. as the industry started to avoid the word. people buy from people at the end of the day and the most successful people and organizations are those that benefit other people the most. The former targets one person (or entity) whereas the latter targets many.
This way the public does not get a complete picture. made the best use of propaganda by doing just the above-mentioned things. Most people consider propaganda as biased information. political. from pamphlets to newspapers. Publicity coverage could be in the form of news stories. Thus. and political life of the community‘. political organizations. stage dharnas or bandhs or other such shows to mould public opinion in favor of an idea. ideology or belief. perhaps. the patriotic and temperance societies. And finally. Many tools are used for publicizing information and facts. Propaganda does not provide un -varnished facts. Techniques of Propaganda Evasion (avoiding). Propaganda is considered negative as it often takes the form of a subversive activity that appeals to bigotry (differences) and intolerance. minor situations are created and blown out of proportion. social and charitable organizations. are used as vehicles for influencing public opinion. It does not believe in giving a free hand to the public to make it own decision. fire-prevention and traffic-safety committees. publicity is an important part of public relation. and editorials in printed media and in news bulletins. fill a stadium or public place. religious organizations. Propaganda also involves making things known (in a controlled and biased manner) in gaining support for an opinion. articles. It has the ability to: Awaken passion by confusing the issues It makes the important issues and facts seem trifling or unimportant It makes insignificant facts look weighty and important It keeps the channels of communication full of exiting stuff and It keeps people battling in the dark Hitler. as ‗ideally public relation is a constructive force bringing to the public facts and figures resulting often in accelerated interest in matters of value and importance. biased picture. Among such groups are. Propaganda often plays with people‘s tendency to conform to popular opinion. businesses. interviews. Thousands of special -interest groups disseminate propaganda. persuasion. some see both public relation and propaganda as the same thing. omission of significant facts. Another technique adopted widely is over-simplification of complex issues in to prejudiced statements involving a choice between acceptance and rejection. Propagandists also use the favorable argument strategy by presenting only those facts that support their viewpoint. everybody in doing it). It. labor unions. In the broadest sense. prejudices and enmity. propaganda is often seen as a destructive force (as evident from Hitler‘s propaganda). or one. propaganda attempts to persuade through rational or emotional appeal or through the organization of personal opinion. features. However. It does not have any regards for general public interest. radio. which in simple terms mean making things public or bringing things to the public notice. deliberate falsification. Propaganda is often used widely during wars and times of conflict. are some of the commonly used techniques of propaganda. economic. Other techniques include taking quotes or facts out of context. . To divert public attention from a major issue. and leagues promoting conservation or the prevention of cruelty to animals. calculated silence. While most people consider propaganda to be negative and avoid it. use of words with double meaning. distortion. in fact. claims of universality (crores of Hindus cannot be wrong. exaggeration. and chambers of commerce. Deliberate delaying is also used great deal. and governments at every level. discussions or special programmes on radio and television. interviews. PUBLICITY 124 Public relations are often confused with publicity. However. It coerces or exhorts people by virtue of rhetoric. Delays lead to lessened public interest and the issue is often forgotten and defeated.M9-Advertising Management Propaganda may be disseminated by or for individuals. Propagandists also resort to discrediting opponents. etc. Many marketing experts put public relations under publicity. On the other hand. It is utilized by religious. hate and fury. it gets only a one-sided. fabrication. stories of atrocity. Many tools including word of mouth to the mass media to advertising to the Internet are used for publicizing information. propaganda has an inherent emotional under current which can and is often used to great effect for negative purposes. All kinds of media.sided information. by suppressing facts and publishing false a misleading information in a vicious and manipulative manner. It values and tries to further the interests of only a few. brutality and barbarism are spread to arouse public passion against opposing parties. All these techniques succeed by confusing the issue. In this regard. propaganda resorts to dramatics to arouse the emotions of fears. and distort the facts by appealing to passion and prejudice. publicity is only one part of public relations. issue. making the insignificant seen important. Efficient use of the communication media is central to these efforts. news analyses. or a dedicated sense of mission. strives on colored. Often during such time. biased. evading the truth. propaganda is honest and forthright communication intended to advance a cause through enlightenment. the definition of public relation given by Ed Bernays can be reviewed. to the social. No matter what its objective. Propagandists organize rally. The major and most effective ones are the mass media. Propaganda almost always provokes. person or party. ethnic associations. TV and even films.
T. This credibility is because of the power of the printed word. Publicity is the smart way to promote a business or product. etc) is okay. how it is said. reports. The information may be passed through media like magazines. media trips. Publicity or the unpaid variety does not offer any such control. Reorganizing or repositioning old products In case of existing products. Thus.but at the end of day. Here publicity provides enough space for the details and the product stories (messages) can be told fully and effectively. Unpaid publicity is considered to be more credible than paid publicity. Advertising Vs Publicity Advertising is the obvious way to promote a business or product. Explaining a complicated product Advertisements often do not facilitate a lot of details. Look at the following. Then there is variety. publicity is the fastest and most credible means of response. to whom it is said. Areas of Publicity The areas and activities of business that are publicized are: Announcing a new product or service Such announcements to be effective should be made before advertising. Once you learn the techniques of creating and testing great ads. advertising can be limiting. TV. where it is published. edited and even may not even be used. Also publicity enjoys the implicit endorsement of the mass media in which it appears. So organizations depend on publicity through mass media. news items. has more credibility and believability. your results will depend directly to the amount of advertising space you buy. in the form of debates. Publicity also involves interviews of key personnel of the organization. which includes news stories and other editorial content. publicity is basically an information about the product. 125 . Other vehicles used for publicity include radio. Newspapers range from small weeklies to giant dailies. various publicity tools like staged events. sponsorships. Other reasons of newspaper‘s popularity as a vehicle of publicity are the widely diversified and in-depth coverage. etc. and the right places to advertise . The company does not pay anything to the media for such activities. The paid variety of publicity (advertising) being initiated by the organization is considered to be motivated and one-sided.V. Publicity is considered more objective than advertising. This basically involves advertising for which the organization has to pay to the media for the amount of space and time. Good publicity allows you to achieve results totally disproportionate to the amount of money and effort put in. Often organizations are involved with a lot of philanthropic works like charities or promoting good causes and ideas.M9-Advertising Management Another form of publicity is the paid variety. sponsorship. Advertising these activities does not look good. So they don‘t work well for products and services that require a lot of explanation like in case of insurance. news releases. broadcast or placed. publicity offers two important benefits: 1. radio. news conferences. For revitalizing old products. Publicity material supplied to the media is subject to being screened. publicity uses many channels or vehicles. banks and other financial institutions. and the frequency of placement. Even in today‘s time of TV and the Internet. Advertising is paid-for and involves control over what is said. If they follow advertising. It costs very little-only time and efforts are required. etc are used. Yet another variety involves what are called advertorials and inforcials . which is itself dependent on your advertising budget. newspapers. Advertising is different from publicity which is a communication of any significant information about a company or its product to the public through non-personal media without any payment by the concerned business firm. But when it comes to selling the organization as a whole. their news value is lessened considerably. the Internet. Enhancing the organization‘s reputation Advertising of products (goods. discussions. Many experts consider advertising to be entirely different and not part of publicity. services and ideas. service or a business firm which is communicated voluntarily by the media and is of commercial significance to the firm. Crisis management In crisis situations. news agencies. On the plus side. and 2. special events. which is considered to be self-serving. An advertorial is an advertisement disguised in to form of a news story or feature. unpaid publicity. the most effective and commonly used vehicle is the newspaper. However. Vehicles of Publicity From small tabloids to television to sky writing. newspaper is rated to be the most credible and effective mass medium. advertising does not work very well. exhibitions and fairs. editorials etc. On the other hand.it can produce results . And inforcial is the TV counterpart of an advertorial.
(vi) since a salesman talks. (iv) A salesman talks to the prospect before him. greet him and make his presentation i. increase in sales and both are complementary to each other. 3. sometimes we get information about the quarterly financial results of a company. (x) The ultimate purpose in both salesmanship and advertising is the same viz. (ii) Advertising leads prospects to salesmen. The salesperson showed him the latest collection of garments. This whole exercise of assessing our need. In advertising. activating it and ultimately satisfying it by selling the product to us is termed as salesmanship or personal selling. (iii) Advertising is addressed to the masses while salesmanship is concerned with specific individuals. advertising plays a tremendous role. The salesperson at the counter first assessed his interest in the new fabric available and then persuaded him to buy it. and to jumpstart sales. appeal is made through advertisements which are nonpersonal in nature. Hence in the distribution. advertising is different from personal salesmanship in the following aspects. in pre-approach activity he approaches the customer to gain his attention. loyalty programs. he had also purchased one for him. By the time the process of sale concluded. It talks about the products of different companies exhibited there. After reading this news item you may feel interested in having a look at or buying one or more of these products. and demonstrate its use. Having done this. As such. After this. leading to significant responses by the public. While reading the newspaper you may get a news about an ongoing trade fair in your state.. these are nonsponsored and have not been paid for. For successful selling the salesperson usually goes through a selling process which involves the following seven steps. his capacity to pay. the listener understands whether he is educated or uneducated. he has to obtain the necessary information about the customer. and not advertising. The reason for such unplanned purchase was the effect of salesmanship. Finally he ensures the delivery of goods and provides the necessary after sales service. product giveaways. price etc. In all the above instances there is information about the product or services or the firm which is communicated through print or electronic media. Advertising Vs Salesmanship However. immediate objectives differ.e. You read the ratings given to different movies by a critics and at times. Then he handles the customers queries. But advertising is not so costly. its qualities. The ultimate goal of sales promotions is to stimulate potential customers to action. salesmanship simply means selling through personal communication. 2.M9-Advertising Management 1. This may motivate us to buy its shares. inform the customer about the product. (i) In salesmanship appeal is made through persons. In a newspaper there may be a column on review of movies. Advertising is primarily concerned with creating interest in the buyers in general by building acceptance for a product and by arousing confidence and respect for the firm and its products. Can it be called advertising? But. Sales promotions are double purposed because they are used to gather information about what type of customers you draw in and where they are. (viii) In bringing about sales. It is the most convenient and simple device to make sales appeals over wider areas and larger audience. SALESMANSHIP 126 Once your friend had gone to a readymade garment shop to buy a pant for his younger brother. Advertising makes the job of salesmen easy. feel interested in watching a particular movie. persuades him to make his final decision and ends the process of sale with receiving his order and thanking him. samples coupons. In other words. (v) Though the ultimate objective of both salesmanship and advertising is the same. It is a process of assisting and persuading the prospective customers to buy a product in a face-to-face situation. commercial art and engraving while salesmanship has promoted the art and manner of speaking impressively by salesmen. salesmanship plays a superb part while in attracting the notice of prospects. if required. and discounts. . (i) Prospecting (ii) Pre approach (iii) Approach (iv) Presentation and demonstration (v) Answering the queries/objections and their clarification (vi) Action or ending the process of sale (vii) Follow up or after sales service Prospecting refers to identifying the prospective buyers in his area of operation. choice and preferences etc. advertising precedes salesmanship. (ix) To employ salesmen everywhere to make sales appeals in financially very expensive. Sales promotions include things like contests and games. sweepstakes. But advertisements are made to influence and appeal groups of persons. (vii) Advertising has given a great feeling to the art of copy writing. these are instances of publicity. SALES PROMOTIONS Sales promotions are another way to advertise. But it is difficult to convey messages of advertising to illiterate persons except in certain forms like radio messages. In the television news.
extra quantity or a chance to win grand prizes. 2. Incentive to Retailers: The main objective of sales promotional activities is to offer promotional support to retailers. on a particular brand of tea there was 50 gm. Prices may also be cut down during off season to maintain certain volume of sales. Exchange Offer: Under this scheme. For example. etc. or even through retail stores. publicity and personal selling (salesmanship). Incentive schemes help in getting shelf space for such products in new retail outlets. and a room heater in summer. All promotional activities other than advertising. their main intention is to attract the consumers‘ attention towards the product and then make them feel tempted to buy the product. may affect future purchase decision of the buyer. product identity is established by offering additional features and incentives. deferred payment plans. This cultivates customers‘ interest and boosts their confidence in the product. A lot of important information about the product can be communicated to the customers through leaflets. motorbike. 6. 4. 3. distribution of free sample is a commonly used sales promotion tool. or to reduce competition. Sales promotion is an effort in the same direction and is another important element of the promotion mix which includes displays. Some of the objectives of sales promotion are listed below : 1. while a free sample may motivate a consumer to buy a product for the first time. Such free samples can be distributed at the door step. They provide a forum for demonstration and exhibition of products. and so on. Price-off: To increase sale. trade fairs. Especially in case of technical products like computer and electronic households gadgets. advertising. during fairs and exhibitions. Increase in Sales Volume: It aims at increasing sales. pack. 5. It could be extra quantity of the same product or some other product of the company like toothbrush with toothpaste or any other related items as gift like a bucket with large pack of washing powder. like a room cooler in winter. 7. brochures etc. Create Product Identity: A number of brands of a particular product are available in the market and it is very difficult to distinguish one from the other as all have similar features. Fairs and Exhibitions: Trade fairs. It is a good method for introducing a new product or a brand in the market. variety etc. All elements of a promotion mix such as personal selling. Under sales promotion programme. exhibitions and fashion shows are important tools of sales promotion. The sales promotion schemes are a big help in making off-season sales and also in tempting the buyers to make quick decisions to purchase. 5. features. Tools Used In Sales Promotion Sometimes we get a small pack of tea. through fairs. It is specially done during the periods when customer may not buy the product because it may not have immediate use. salesmanship and publicity which help in increasing the market demand of the product are called sales promotion. According to American Marketing Association ―Sales Promotion includes those marketing activities. discount coupons. Sales promotion schemes make sales easier. other than personal selling. Thus. etc. Free Offer: Many companies give ‗free‘ offers to boost the sales of their products. washing machine. Money Refund Offer: Of late. advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness such as displays. sometimes we see the special offer like ‗Buy one get one free offer‘. Information to Customers: Sales promotion activities inform the potential buyer about the availability. of the product. Distribution of Free Samples: As mentioned above. shampoo. cars.M9-Advertising Management In the market. Recently you must have seen many advertisements talking about such offers on purchase of new refrigerator. Such offer not only arouses the customers‘ interest in the product but also motivates them to make a trial. Bonus Offer: At times marketers offer something extra with standard products without any additional charge to the customer. etc. Persuades Customers: Sales Promotion activities aim at arousing customers‘ interest in the product and persuading them to buy. uses etc. 4. exhibitions. a free check-up for existing durable product like television. companies generally attract the customers by offering a price cut on purchase of new product in exchange for an old product. This helps in building consumers‘ preference for the specific products and brands. refrigerator etc. Some of such promotional tools are given below: 1. 3. They offer products of similar or related nature with the purchase of main products. television. 127 . its characteristics and features and to create desire in the mind of the people to buy the product. it offers additional support to promotional activities like advertising. For example. another method being used by marketeers to boost consumer‘s confidence in a product is a promise of total refund of money spent on the product if the buyer is not happy with the product‘s performance. Have you ever thought why do companies distribute their products free like this? Because. live demonstrations are undertaken. extra in a 250 gm pack or one glass or bowl free with 500 gm. It is a non-repetitive and one time communication process. shows and exhibitions. This is a tool of sales promotion. many business firms cut down prices. documentation and various non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine‖. VCR/VCD free with plasma TV is an example of such free offer. publicity are used to inform people about the availability of a product. free sample. prices. Objectives of Sales Promotion Different sales promotional tools have different objectives. All such activities are known as sales promotion. 2. soap or floor cleaner free from the manufacturer or producers. There are innumerable examples where the manufacturer or the seller tries to tempt you to buy his product by offering discounts.
They can also be issued through newspapers. . Marketing is a process that takes time and can involve hours of research for a marketing plan to be effective. Institutional Advertising Institutional Advertising seeks to create a favorable impression of a business or institution without trying to sell a specific product. and helps to meet the demand for a wide range of items that are necessary to conducting business within that industry. use the rational appeal to address its target audience. billboards. Industrial advertising is common within just about every profession or industry type. National advertising usually attempts to create awareness among the public of a product or service. Deferred Payment Plan: During 1980‘s. radio. This type of advertising will likely use all the normal forms of generating publicity. National advertising is aimed at consumers throughout the entire country. It was quite a success. frequency. tasting a new brand of beer). This plan is quite common now-a-days in case of TVs and airconditioners. Advertising is a single component of the marketing process. sales strategy.g. public. etc. These contests can be held on television. Industrial Advertising Also known as business to business or b2b advertising. Advertisements such as that of DeBeers. or the services you are offering. We are not born with the attitudes. including the placement of print ads in appropriate periodicals. advertising). non-personal announcement of a persuasive message by an identified sponsor. television. Advertising is the largest expense of most marketing plans. Local advertising is aimed at informing people in a particular area where they can purchase a product or service.. It involves the process of developing strategies such as ad placement. the questions are generally prepared in a way that consumers feel forced to know about the company and the product in the hope of winning a prize. Consumer Advertising These are basically nothing but product or service advertisements directed towards the consumer or the customer as such. and community involvement. media planning. with public relations following in a close second and market research not falling far behind. product. All of these elements must not only work independently but they also must work together towards the bigger goal. Vim Bar etc. which we hold toward various objects in our environment. Advertising includes the placement of an ad in such mediums as newspapers. The advertisement of DeBeers uses an emotional appeal because the statement ―I have my feet firmly planted on the ground except when I‘m wearing the millennium diamond‖ suggests that by wearing them u can fly high in the sky and feel like what Urmila does in the advertisement. and of course the Internet. It's the part that involves getting the word out concerning your business. market research. product pricing. inside that pie you have slices of advertising. or it tries to build loyalty to a product or service. pizza hut etc use the emotional appeal to attract the consumers. ADVERTISING AND MARKETING 128 Advertising is the paid. and any other means that is likely to produce the desired sales. 9. Advertising only equals one piece of the pie in the strategy. Consumer advertising is directed at the public. industrial advertising is the strategy of attracting the attention of another business and convincing that company to purchase the goods and services offered by another business. radio and through the magazines. or some combination of the two.‗Travel today pay fare later‘ for air journeys for promoting travel. Advertising can be divided into two broad categories . For nonprofit institutions.consumer advertising and trade advertising.M9-Advertising Management 8. or direct experience with the attitude object (e. TYPES OF ADVERTISING Advertising is a persuasive communication attempt to change or reinforce ones‘ prior attitude that is predictable of future behavior. In case of quizzes. direct mail campaigns. Such kind of advertisements uses emotional or rational appeal in their advertisement. distribution. After reading both of the definitions it is easy to understand how the difference can be confusing to the point that people think of them as one-in-the same. direct mail. the nonpersonal presentation or promotion by a firm of its products to its existing and potential customers. Think of marketing as everything that an organization does to facilitate an exchange between company and consumer. This type of advertising is designed solely to build prestige and public respect. Such advertisements can be in the form of national or local advertisements also. implementation and control of a mix of business activities intended to bring together buyers and sellers for the mutually advantageous exchange or transfer of products. The best way to distinguish between advertising and marketing is to think of marketing as a pie. customer support.g. we learn our feelings of favor ability or unfavor ability through information about the attitude object (e. Discount Coupon: Discount Coupon is a certificate that entitles the holders a specified discount on purchase of a product. Marketing is the systematic planning. 10. public relations. Contests: There may be a contest like quiz related to the product or slogan writing. On the other hand advertisements such as the Kawasaki Bajaj caliber. Such discount coupon may be issued by the company by mail or through the dealers. Trade advertising is directed at wholesalers or distributors who resell to the public.. some of the airlines offered deferred payment plans . Rather. so let‘s break it down a bit.
The ultimate goal of advocacy advertising usually relates to the passage of pending state or federal legislation. including airlines and automobile manufacturers. Comparative Advertising: Comparative advertising compares one brand directly or indirectly with one or more competing brands. and publishing a monthly newsletter describing recent state and federal legislative action. The primary purpose of the advertisement is to promote the specific soft drink. Cooperative Advertising: Cooperative advertising is a system that allows two parties to share advertising costs. Only about 1 percent of advertising is conducted in this manner. outdoor. This type of advertisement could allow automobile manufactures to charge more for their products because of the perceived higher quality the safety features afford. Institutional advertising is closely related to public relations. concept. and the National Rifle Association (NRA). message. idea. automobile manufacturers often produce special advertisements promoting the safety features of their vehicles. could not afford to advertise the product adequately. A theme of this nature keeps the company‘s name in a positive light with the general public because the replanting of trees is viewed positively by most people. Manufacturers and distributors. Almost all nonprofit groups use some form of advocacy advertising to influence the public‘s attitude toward a particular issue. Incorrect or misleading information may trigger a lawsuit by the aggrieved company or regulatory action by a governmental agency such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). FORMS OF ADVERTISING 129 Advertising can take a number of forms. since both are interested in promoting a positive image of the company to the public. persuasive. letters. which is used when a new product is first being introduced. For example. a large lumber company may develop an advertising theme around its practice of planting trees in areas where they have just been harvested. informational. outdoor advertising is most effective when located along heavily travelled city streets and when the product being promoted can be purchased locally. An example might be when a soft drink manufacturer and a local grocery store split the cost of advertising the manufacturer‘s soft drinks. Mothers AgainstDrunk Driving (MADD). Institutional Advertising: Institutional advertising takes a much broader approach. As an example. and is resented by some customers. directmail. point-of-purchase. then they are more likely to have a favorable opinion of all of the company‘s diverse products. who consider it ‗‗junk mail. flyers. The advertisements are simply designed to remind customers about the product and to maintain awareness. One of the largest and most powerful nonprofit advocacy groups is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). political. Cooperative advertising is especially appealing to small storeowners who. . and postcards are just a few of the direct-mail advertising options. usually use this cooperative advertising technique. such an environmentally friendly business practices or new community-based programs that it sponsors. and speed. the emphasis is on promoting the product name. For example. This advertising technique is very common and is used by nearly every major industry. Persuasive Advertising: Persuasive advertising is used after a product has been introduced to customers. But while direct mail has advantages. selectivity. Other major nonprofit advocacy groups include the environmental organization Greenpeace. and possible uses. including detail of information. on their own. reminder. Car manufacturers used this strategy when sport utility vehicles (SUVs) were first introduced. Reminder Advertising: Reminder advertising is used for products that have entered the mature stage of the product life cycle. The advertising campaign is designed to persuade public opinion regarding a specific issue important in the public arena. and specialty advertising. simple ideas are being promoted. Outdoor Advertising: Billboards and messages painted on the side of buildings are common forms of outdoor advertising. institutional. The primary goal is for a company to build selective demand for its product. because of their shared interest in selling the product. An example is a regular television commercial promoting a soft drink. Companies often use it to promote image-building activities. Advocacy Advertising: Advocacy advertising is normally thought of as any advertisement. or public communication regarding economic. thus making the effectiveness of comparison advertising questionable. Direct-Mail Advertising: Catalogues. or social issues. concentrating on the benefits. benefits. comparative. including advocacy. by encouraging blood donations or cash contributions for the work of an organization like the Red Cross. there is more value and greater efficiency in building a brand image for the company itself. Since repetition is the key to successful promotion.‘‘ Informational Advertising: In informational advertising. One drawback of comparative advertising is that customers have become more skeptical about claims made by a company about its competitors because accurate information has not always been provided. product. In some cases a large company may sell a diversity of products. it carries an expensive per-head price. In addition. personalization. not the entire soft-drink line of a company. As a result. using television advertisements to appeal to emotions. Product Advertising: Product advertising pertains to no personal selling of a specific product.M9-Advertising Management such advertising helps support the institution‘s activities—for example. which is often used when quick. Direct-mail advertising has several advantages. is dependent on the appropriateness of the mailing list. both the manufacturer and the store benefit from increased store traffic and its associated sales. If consumers learn to have a high regard for the company. companies that engage in comparative advertising must be careful not to misinform the public about a competitor‘s product. or philosophy of a particular industry. A for-profit business has other reasons for improving its reputation rather than trying to sell a particular product. cooperative. The AARP fights to protect social programs such as Medicare and Social Security for senior citizens by encouraging its members to write their legislators. detergent producers spend a considerable amount of money each year promoting their products to remind customers that their products are still available and for sale.
Use a clear layout. wouldn't. glassware. Develop a proposition that is special or unique Why should people be interested if your proposition is no different to your competition? You must try to emphasize what makes your service special. and is rarely a precise science. avoid complicated words. if you claim particularly good customer service. so they couldn't deal with a lot of polished copy. . Make it easy to read. Finally you must prompt an Action. light colors reversed out of dark. Interest builds information in an interesting way. Your message must be quick and easy to absorb. key chains. Use simple black (or dark colored) text on a white (or light colored) background for maximum readability. in support of your claims. relevant benefit to the reader. People must believe there's something in it for them right from the start. Describe the service as it affects them in a way that they will easily relate to it. you should put as much emphasis as you can behind your USP (unique selling point). Incorporate something new People respond better and are more easily attracted initially to a concept that is new or original. simple and to the point. take no longer to read than is normal for the media and be clearly the most striking part of the advert. Stores are more likely to use point-of-purchase displays if they have help from the manufacturer in setting them up or if the manufacturer provides easy instructions on how to use the displays. Use simple language. and pens. None of these improve readability. such as caps. Unless your code of practice prevents you from claiming superiority over your competitors. clear fonts and clear language. This point cannot be stressed enough. where. Offer a single impressive benefit. Thus. For example. Use simple traditional typestyles: serif fonts are quicker to read than sans serif. and plenty of things you think should work. when. they all reduce it. The value of specialty advertising varies depending on how long the items used in the effort last. shadows. know your target audience: a simple test is to avoid any words or grammar that would not be found in the newspaper that the target group would read. which may be to call a telephone number or to complete and send of a reply coupon. Avoid cluttering the advert with fancy images. which you imagine. Younger generations are extremely visually literate. This 'promise' should ideally contain the business brand name. this can be reinforced with an outline of your policy on seeking customer feedback and carrying out satisfaction surveys. They have been brought up on computer games. weird and wonderful colors. you must keep it quick. Most companies are successful in achieving their goals for increasing public recognition and sales through these efforts. which offer an impressive. and keep enough space around the text to attract attention to it. and either imply or state directly that you are the only company to offer these things. Advertising that does not prompt action is a wasted opportunity. Proposition or offer must be credible and believable The Advertising Standards Authority or equivalent would prevent you from making overly extravagant claims anyway. even if they wanted to. The primary motivation is to attract customers to the display so that they will purchase the product. don't. usually meaning that this must relate closely to the way that the reader thinks about the issues concerned. eleven or twelve point-size for the main text. but you should still attempt to make your offer seem perfectly credible. An advertisement campaign determines what the advertiser wants to say. Specialty Advertising: Specialty advertising is a form of sales promotion designed to increase public recognition of a company‘s name. Do not distract the reader from the text by overlaying images or using fancy fonts. the best adverts are those. Advertising is often referred to as a 'Black Art' because it is mysterious. STEPS IN ADVERTISING PLANNING 130 The Attention part is the banner or headline that makes an impressive benefit promise. colors and backgrounds. Involve the reader in your writing style Refer to the reader as 'you' and use the second person ('you'. This is usually best accomplished by explaining 'why' and 'how' you are able to do the things you are offering. promotional items from manufacturers who provide the best instructions or help are more likely to be used by the retail stores. you can also increase credibility by showing references or testimonial quotes from satisfied customers. jackets. If they've heard or seen it all before it will be no surprise that they take no notice at all. smaller or larger are actually more difficult to read and therefore less likely to be read. Use ten. and to whom the advertiser wants to say it. For the same reason avoids italics. If you seek a response you must move then to create Desire. gym bags.M9-Advertising Management Point-of-Purchase Advertising: Point-of-purchase advertising uses displays or other promotional items near the product that is being sold. Things sometimes work. A company can have its name put on a variety of items. 'your' and 'yours' etc) in the description of what your business does for the customer to get them visualizing their own personal involvement." Think about the vocabulary and language you use. It also determines how. which relates benefits to the reader so that they will want them. quickly and simply Research proves that where responses are required.
Brand image strategy: when there are no strong differentiating features among the competitors. Structural or Strategic Planning. It also decides whom to address (the target audience). opportunities and threats) From all the information collected. Everybody associate PUF with Godrej refrigerators while it is present in all fridges. 3. weakness. the creative strategy and finally deciding the creative tactics. Strategic planning is the process of making intelligent decisions. While the art comes from writing. Some common creative strategies are: 1. For planning an Ad campaign. In the minds of the people. Generic Strategy. For example. A theme must always relate to and reflect the campaign objectives.it includes developing a theme. and how long to run the campaign. one requires relevant information regarding the situation. Pepsi is the ‗new generation drink‘. 131 . are: Which media to be used? Where to advertise (geographic region)? When to advertise (timing and scheduling)? How intense the exposure should be (frequency)? Media planning is a ‗behind the scene‘ part of advertising. it becomes associated with that brand.here the campaign talks about some features. Creative Planning. Eg. the media rates. Thus. For example. Unique selling proposition (USP) strategy. which needs to be taken. Another step of creative planning is finding the creative strategy. how to distinguish the product. the major decisions in media planning. It plays an integral role in merging the science of marketing with the art of advertising.M9-Advertising Management The Planning process of Advertisements Campaigns includes the following activities: Situation Appraisal. A media planner has to find out about the availability of various media. Pre-emptive claim strategy.before planning any activity. the science comes from scientific methods of research and strategic planning. The strength often leads to new opportunities to be explored. These strengths could be in any area.Advertising is an art and a science. Weaknesses make the product vulnerable to threats from others. 4. the company or product and the competition. how much to spend (budgeting). we require information about the target market or consumer. Product Positioning. Maggi noodle is a ‗two minute snack‘. which is unique to that advertised brand and is not available in others.some times products or brands are positioned different from competing brands. The theme needs to be a strong concept to be able to hold all there different and diverse ads together. The creative strategy outlines the impressions the campaign wants to create. designing and producing exciting advertisements. their reaches and also analyze their effectiveness. deciding how to accomplish the objectives. then branding try and create images. It starts with finding out what to do. campaigns planners find out the strengths of the product. Media Planning. Maggi sauce is ‗different‘. 5.the ultimate goal of advertising is to reach the target audience with the advertising message. A powerful theme brings about ‗synergy‘ to the campaign. The three important research areas are: Consumer research and market research Product and company research Competitive research Situation Analysis.(analyzing strengths.this is used by market leaders who ignore the presence of competitors 2.here the brand is the first to pick up a particular feature.
but before you make a choice. radio and the internet (generally referred to as electronic media) as well as newspapers and magazine advertising (referred to as print media). there have been plenty of big advertisers who have stuck with a magazine long after it has ceased to serve its readers with the excellence that made it the right choice in the past. Some advertisers flock to the magazines with the largest number of big. however. the more discerning reader of these publications will find that Fortune is aimed at readers interested in the goings on in the large. Thus. toys to clothing. Electronics Supply & Manufacturing. get comfortable in a quiet place where you won‘t be disturbed and read the magazines. Business Week. Golf and Car & Driver appeal to a narrower. beautiful ads. but it may also lead you astray. fashion. Remember. When you are out visiting customers or talking to them on the phone. internet. religious beliefs and political philosophies. Vertical market publications such as: Flying. if you want to become a leader. radio. . people generally understand that there is a category called consumer advertising which conveys sales messages to consumers like you and me. actually read them. Well. of course. Metal Architecture. The best way out of these woods is to take several issues of each magazine. Read the stories for content and substance. This kind of analysis also holds true for the Internet–where do your prospects congregate? What sites do they visit regularly to stay informed? There are. whereas Fast Company aims its coverage at young entrepreneurial companies. Media is also categorized by market orientation.S. Machine Design. let me tell you. If you want to succeed. puts up a strong argument for being the best buy for your advertising. Furthermore. after all. established corporations. Some magazines make great lobby displays—they‘re not read. When that happens. education. Check out the table of contents. Trusts & Estates. after listening to three. This may work fine at times. yesterday‘s vertical media is today‘s horizontal media. The trade media mainly consists of magazines. situations in which you find two or three publications that appear to compete head to head in a given industry. It seems easy: If you want to reach a potential prospect in the banking field. Fortune. thought more fragmented. U. Pharmacist and Banking. USA Today or Time magazine are considered horizontal media since they appeal to a very broad audience including a wide range of ages. Examples of vertical media on the business side might include such publications as Professional Builder. In the trade media the same sort of broad categories also exist. other times you will be surprised. shampoo to airplanes. Traffic World. and not influential with the real buying decision. or what is most noticeable on a customer‘s desk. Fast Company. people read magazines for the editorial content. Some people will look to see if the giants in the industry are running ads in a particular magazine. You can have more impact by focusing your limited resources on one publication than spreading your dollars around. I‘m not suggesting that you ignore reader data provided by the publisher. However. four or five magazine sales people you‘re more confused than ever. The consumer media category generally includes television. Well-written articles create a receptive environment for your advertising. Market segments are getting sliced thinner and thinner all the time. This presents a forceful argument for choosing the magazines the leaders have chosen. Working Woman. pick one out of the group and focus your resources on it. you have to carve out a niche market of your very own. The internet also offers another dimension that goes beyond any of the above mentioned media. If you watch closely you will see that the internet is evolving in a very similar. Rotary. ask them ―Which magazine do you find most helpful in your work? Which one do you refer to most often to keep you abreast of the industry?‖ Sometimes the answers you get will simply bear out what you already knew. Each publication. Another very important piece of information to keep in mind concerning vertical trade media is that in today‘s fast-paced competitive global environment. newspapers. These include publications from groups such as AARP. There is another special category of publications—association and relationship media. Forget spending lots of time deciphering studies with pie charts. life styles. Yes. Some businesses make their media selection based on the magazines found in customer lobbies. incomes. logic dictates that you pick a banking magazine for your advertising. Study them. except which of the banking magazines should you choose? There are quite a few. Look at how they are organized. an audience whose needs fit perfectly with your company‘s capabilities. Field & Stream. an audience for which you can redefine quality and service. loyal and supportive member audience. hobbies. Consumer media encompasses everything from beer to cars. go beyond the obvious. museum publications and many other types of organizations that communicate to a large. the numbers never tell the whole story. A magazine with a broad audience appeal is referred to as a horizontal publication.makers for your products.M9-Advertising Management 132 UNIT 2: ADVERTISING MEDIA UNDERSTANDING THE MEDIA Media advertising takes into account advertising messages that appear on television. occupations. Use today‘s vertical media as your overall market coverage medium and use targeted marketing to reach a highly specified audience—an audience you know more about than anyone else. Forbes and The Wall Street Journal are considered horizontal publications because of their broad business appeal. Are they packed with information? Or are they just light and fluffy? Do they cover trends in the industry? Do they have some solid editorial writing? Some magazines are so fat on advertising that they barely have room for a story or two. In the consumer field. That makes good sense. Even if they have nothing to do with advertising. an audience you can serve better than even your largest competitor. more defined segment of the total market and are thus referred to as vertical media. they must know more because they are bigger. magazines and billboards (or outdoor advertising). a handful of newspapers and the internet. Mind you.
BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films. or even exhibitions for advertising their products. radio or the Internet. In the last three quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising grew. although some have used the Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them. The radio jingles have been very popular advertising media and have a large impact on the audience. Popup. and also several events and tradeshows organized by the company. The cost of television advertising often depends on the duration of the advertisement. banner ads on the Web. Outdoor Advertising – Billboards. Simply put. is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. as well as the readership of the publications. Fliers The print media have always been a popular advertising medium. Often the newspapers and the magazines sell the advertising space according to the area occupied by the advertisement. In addition to this." because the film is set far in the future.5 million per thirty-second spot. are told by a friend that her iPod is the greatest invention. the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard. Brand contact is any planned and unplanned form of exposure to and interaction with a product or service. Television advertisements have been very popular ever since they have been introduced. the advertising community has not yet made this easy. the print media also offers options like promotional brochures and fliers for advertising purposes. when you see an ad for Volkswagen on TV. For example. It also tells you when and where to use media in order to reach your desired audience. some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. or a flyer on Facebook.M9-Advertising Management ADVERTISING THROUGH VARIOUS MEDIA 133 Print Advertising – Newspapers. Organizing several events or sponsoring them makes for an excellent advertising opportunity. the company can organize several events that are closely associated with their field. Robot. the position of the advertisement (front page/middle page). advergaming. Ford. Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising. banner. in-store displays. or sample a new flavor of Piranha energy drink at the grocery store. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded. most notably Casino Royale. hear a Mazda's "zoom zoom" slogan on the radio. and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. media planning refers to the process of selecting media time and space to disseminate advertising messages in order to accomplish marketing objectives. kiosks. New Media – Mobile and Internet With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. I. If not this. for example. Magazines. Radio and Internet Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that constitutes of several branches like television. Instead of focusing solely on what medium is used for message dissemination. Advertising products via newspapers or magazines is a common practice. media planners also pay attention to how to create and manage brand contact. ADVERTISING MEDIA PLANNING The two basic tasks of marketing communications are message creation and message dissemination. When advertisers run commercials during the Super Bowl game at more than $2. For example. Kiosks. the time of broadcast (prime time/peak time). The kiosks not only provide an easy outlet for the company products but also make for an effective advertising tool to promote the company‘s products. VAIO. or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. as in the movie Minority Report. In general. The billboard advertising is very popular however has to be really terse and catchy in order to grab the attention of the passers by. Flash. radio ads. and of course the popularity of the television channel on which the advertisement is going to be broadcasted. which makes use of several tools and techniques to attract the customers outdoors. Popunder. calling them "classics. Tradeshows and Events Outdoor advertising is also a very popular form of advertising. you are having a brand contact. and product sampling are planned forms of brand contact. bus-stop posters. in a film. Media planning supports message dissemination. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement. for example an advertisement in the glossy supplement costs way higher than that in the newspaper supplement which uses a mediocre quality paper. media planners are involved in the negotiation and placement. the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand. The most common examples of outdoor advertising are billboards. The radio might have lost its charm owing to the new age media however the radio remains to be the choice of small-scale advertisers. Brochures. Media planners often see their role from a brand contact perspective. which is evident in the fact that many people still remember and enjoy the popular radio jingles. where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner. The price of print ads also depend on the supplement in which they appear. For instance a company that manufactures sports utilities can sponsor a sports tournament to advertise its products. Word of mouth is an unplanned brand . For instance an advertisement in a relatively new and less popular newspaper would cost far less than placing an advertisement in a popular newspaper with a high readership. Media planning helps you determine which media to use--be it television programs. newspapers. also known as guerrilla advertising. Another example of advertising in film is in I. which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. The company can organize trade fairs. Broadcast Advertising – Television. Television commercials. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer". Covert Advertising – Movies and Serials Covert advertising. Similarly. where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times. product placement for Omega Watches. the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front.
P&G's target audience objective for its Fusion shaving system was men 18-40 years old.S. although $200 million seems like a lot to spend on advertising a new product. "We're trying to put the product wherever men shop. age. Target Audience The first objective of a media plan is to select the target audience: the people whom the media plan attempts to influence through various forms of brand contact. Third. television advertising. Finally. and other products. such as a $5 million Super Bowl ad campaign. conservative)." said Gary Stibel of New England Consulting Group. are made separately from the content and are inserted into it. media objectives are a series of statements that specify what exactly the media plan intends to accomplish. type of residence. Media objectives usually consist of two key components: target audience and communication goals. is one form of unplanned message. Even though some of them are the same age and gender. Using demographic variables. Thus. media planners have moved from focusing only on traditional media to integrating traditional media and new media. The objectives represent the most important goals of brand message dissemination. globalization). in lieu of advertising insertions. Demographics and Psychographics The target audience is often defined in terms of demographics and psychographics. Word of mouth. Mazda. they can facilitate such a flow. clothing. both online and offline. Now. P&G's media tactics -. sports. movie going). media planners use psychographics to refine the definition of the target audience." Some advertisers believe that demographic definitions of a target audience are too ambiguous. media planners are making more use of product placements now. Whereas planned messages are what advertisers initiate like an ad.000 or more" or "all households with children age 3 years or younger. starts with setting media objectives. and sponsorship of competitive surfing -. marital status. For example. The definition may or may not be exactly the same. P&G's strategy included a mix of national media to introduce the brands. P&G used sales and market share targets to assess the effectiveness of the media plan. The target audience component of the media objectives defines who is the intended target of the campaign. MEDIA OBJECTIVES 134 Media planning is a four-step process which consists of 1) setting media objectives in light of marketing and advertising objectives. including gender. For example. "Fusion will get so much attention that it will drive a lot of men to try these grooming products.such as a Father's Day sweepstakes. First. P&G expects sales of Fusion to reach $1 billion in sales by year three. and 4) proposing procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of the media plan. P&G knows that the brand has already achieved 25% market share in the U. depending on the marketing and advertising objectives and strategies. beliefs and attitudes about social issues (opinions about abortion. employment status.S. Finally. such as planning the marketing communications for the launch of the Fusion new shaving system.advertisers normally do not plan for word of mouth. Let's take a look at the planning process through an example: P&G's launch of the Gillette Fusion shaving system for men in early 2006.S. 180. From the consumer's perspective. environment. press release or sales promotion whereas unplanned messages are often initiated by people and organizations other than advertisers themselves. . and they are the concrete steps to accomplish marketing objectives. and number of children in the household. the role of media planners has expanded as media planners have moved beyond planned messages to take advantage of unplanned messages as well. Psychographics is a generic term for consumers' personality traits (serious. For example. however. 3) designing media tactics for realizing media strategy. shampoo. funny. Advertising insertions. the target audience of a media plan could be "individuals who are 26-to-45 years old with yearly household income of $50. unplanned forms of brand contact may be more influential because they are less suspicious compared to advertising." said Pauline Munroe. using the brand's colors to catch consumers' attention. price-sensitive shoppers. P&G's media objectives called for a $200 million media blitz to reach men in the U. like print ads or television commercials. an episode of NBC's The Apprentice in which the show's teams competed to promote the razor. let's take a deeper look into the media planning process. convenience shoppers). In store aisles. consumers. think about the students in a media planning class. it represents a sound financial investment toward the tremendous future profit that P&G will gain from the new shaving system. they may like different brands of toothpaste. Although advertisers have little direct control over the flow of unplanned messages. In short. for example. Second. Second.helped the company reach men of all ages. Therefore. The TV ads also established the brand's signature orange and blue color scheme. First. Syndicated research services such as Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB or Simmons) and Mediamark Research Inc. cereal. marketing director for blades and razors in P&G's Gillette business unit.000 display units promoted Fusion. and shopping orientations (recreational shoppers. Because media objectives are subordinate to marketing and advertising objectives. portrayed Fusion as an advanced technology found in a secret government UFO lab. The communications goals component of the media objectives defines how many of the audience the campaign intends to reach and how many times it will reach them. education. household income. 1. Media planning.M9-Advertising Management contact . (MRI) provide national data on a number of demographics of U. The brand contact perspective shows how the role of media planners has expanded. it is essential to understand how the target audience is defined in the marketing and advertising objectives. because individual consumers that fit such definitions can be quite different in terms of their brand preference and purchase behavior. 2) developing a media strategy for implementing media objectives. personal interests (music.
Advertising exposure refers to the number of individuals exposed an ad or a commercial itself. Another communication goal is that 25 percent of the target audience will form a preference for a new brand in the first month of the brand launch. while a secondary target audience plays a less decisive role. and advertising exposure -. Brand switchers are those who have no brand preference for a given product category but choose a brand on the basis of situational factors. they are likely to read golf-related magazines and visit golf-related Web sites. One psychographic system which media planners often use is called VALS (short for Values and Lifestyles). It is important to note the difference between vehicle exposure and advertising exposure for many media with editorial content. The first three levels of goals from the bottom -. it is reasonable to consider children as the primary target audience and their parents as the secondary target audience. Communication Goals After media planners define the target audience for a media plan. such as the number of copies that a magazine or newspaper issue has. income or gender. Mazda targets people who have a need for self-expression. as shown in Figure 1. 2. Thus. medium users. Product usage includes both brand usage (the use of a specific brand such as Special K cereal or Dove soap) and category usage (the use of a product category such as facial tissue or chewing gum). one communication goal can be that 75 percent of the target audience will see the brand in television commercials at least once during a period of three months. If a psychographic group of consumers likes playing golf.S. A primary target audience is one that plays a major role in purchase decisions. Vehicle exposure refers to the number of individuals exposed to the media vehicle. doesn't define its target audience by age. and love to drive. Thinkers.M9-Advertising Management for example. such as the number of people who read a magazine or watched a television program. Simmons and MRI offer brand usage data for many national brands. For example. vehicle exposure. to quantify the sales potential. For travel. Examples of defining a target audience by product usage can be "individuals who dine out at least four times in a month" or "individuals who made domestic trips twice or more last year. For example. Product use commonly has four levels: heavy users. The different communication goals can be better understood in a hierarchy of advertising objectives.S. Vehicle distribution refers to the coverage of a media vehicle.how many people or households fit the definition. Achievers. they set communication goals: to what degree the target audience must be exposed to (and interact with) brand messages in order to achieve advertising and marketing objectives. medium beer users as those who consumer two to four cans. for example. media planners should estimate the number of these women in the U. Primary and Secondary Target Audience The target audience in a media plan can be either primary or secondary. There is a popular saying in the industry: "the twenty percent who are heavy users account for eighty percent of the sales of a product. Strivers. if the target audience of a campaign is defined as working women 26 to 44 years old who are interested in receiving daily news updates on their mobile phones. such as Bill Harvey's expansion of an earlier model of Advertising Research Foundation (ARF). They are change leaders and are the most receptive to new ideas and technologies. or the number of households that can tune in to a given television channel. Primary users use a brand most of the time but occasionally also use other brands in the same category. The Size of Target Audiences In the process of defining a target audience.are particularly relevant for media planning. and light users as those who consume one can in 30 days. Product and Brand Usage Target audiences can also be more precisely defined by their consumption behavior. Simmons' definitions are: three foreign trips per year indicate heavy travel users. niche products and services. take-charge people with high self-esteem. The eight segments are: Innovators. Makers and Survivors. brand usage has several categories. For example. light users and non-users. children's requests often initiate a purchase process. For example. buying and consuming a product or service to target the right groups of consumers effectively." Similarly. Brand loyals are those who use the same brand all the time. sophisticated. An analysis of the brand usage pattern is helpful for the identification of the appropriate target audience. it will be easier for children to convince them of the purchase.vehicle distribution. Experiencers." This highlights the importance of heavy users for a brand's performance. Media planners need to examine and identify the role of consumers in shopping. Innovators are very active consumers. Because they have such abundant resources. The expanded ARF model has ten levels. and their purchases reflect cultivated tastes for upscale. Innovators are "successful. 2 foreign trips per year are medium travel users. they are secondary users for these competing brands. which was developed by SRI in the 1980s. are young at heart. but by psychographic principles. parents often respect their children's brand selection. The levels of use depend on the type of product. not all audience members of a television program will watch all the commercials interspersed in the 135 . VALS places U. adult consumers into one of eight segments based on their responses to the VALS questionnaire. Knowing the actual size helps advertisers to estimate the potential buying power of the target audience. Each segment has a unique set of psychological characteristics. Simmons defines heavy domestic beer users as those who consume five or more cans in the past 30 days. Believers." Defining a target audience by psychographic variables helps not only creative directors with the development of advertising appeals but also media planners with the selection of effective media channels. and 1 trip per year are light travel users. for example. If the parents are aware of the advertised brand. they exhibit all three primary motivations in varying degrees. media planners often examine and specify the actual size of a target audience . In the case of video game players. For example.
Another group of communication goals is advertising recall. Media planners use reach because it represents that total number of people exposed to the marketing communication. A total of 28% of households see the ad twice by watching the entirety of the game. advertising persuasion. and so on. the Nickelodeon TV channel controls 53% of kids GRPs. If the effective frequency is set for a given communication goal. etc. and leads and sales are the behavioral effects of the ad. and reach of 44 at the frequency of 0 (also called non-reach). and media planners use vehicle exposure as a proxy measure of advertising exposure. then a reach of 50 means that 50% or 2. audience members of the Super Bowl game had oneand-a-half opportunities to watch the ad. media planners use Gross Rating Points as a shorthand measure of the total amount of exposure they want to buy from media outlets such as TV networks.5).5 would mean that. If the advertiser's media plan called for running the ad twice during the Super Bowl. advertising persuasion represents the emotional effect of the ad. Frequency is the ratio of GRP over reach. Frequency and Gross Rating Points Media planners often define the communication goals of a media plan using the three interrelated concepts of reach. The advertiser could also buy 6 spots on popular primetime shows that each have a rating of 14 (6*14 = 84) or buy a large number of spots (say 42 spots) on a range of niche-market cable TV programs. For example. Another 14% join the game in progress and see the ad once during the second half. When reach is stated. To change brand attitude requires more exposures (higher effective frequency) than does creating brand awareness. Media planners choose an effective frequency based on the communication goals. For example. Some media vehicles are best-suited to specific target audiences. For example.S. This leaves 44% of households (100% . The media objectives of a media plan often call for some combination of reach and frequency. launching a new brand or teaching consumers about the features of a product (like the features of a five-bladed shaving system) may take several impressions. how many people will see the ad once. that is. Besides reach.5 (84/56=1. television households tuned in to the program. three times.28%) who never see the ad. that ad would appear in 42% of households. although the percentage sign is rarely used. A study shows that only 68 percent of television audiences watch the commercials in television programs. This lets the planner estimate the effective reach of the plan at the effective frequency needed by the campaign? The number of people who see the ads a sufficient number of times for the media plan to be effective. Effective Frequency and Effective Reach Media planners also consider frequency distribution in order to fully understand exactly how many exposures different people experience. customer loyalty. A media plan that calls for a GRP of 84 doesn't necessarily mean that the advertiser must advertise twice on the Super Bowl. Vehicle exposure represents only an opportunity to see an ad. leads and sales. Media planners use Reach to set their objective for the total number of people exposed to the media plan. the GRP would be 2*42 = 84. Frequency Distribution. the reach at that effective frequency level will be the effective reach. twice. Each can be specified in a media plan as a communication goal. preference. or that a campaign will generate 3000 leads. For example. If an advertiser planned to run a commercial once during the Super Bowl. if the GRPs were 84 and the reach was 56. while effective reach is the reach (% of households) at the effective frequency level. During the first half. attitude change to trial. For example. Effective frequency refers to the minimum number of media exposures for a communication goal to be achieved. Reach. reach is a percentage. buy the product) after multiple exposures to the campaign. In reality. As a rule of thumb.28% . and frequency. media planners are aware of the size of the target audience. Media planners also seek high frequency if they feel that consumers will only take action (that is. Thus. the frequency distribution is: reach of 28 at the frequency of 2. the reach is equal to the rating of the program. sales. Advertising recall represents the cognitive effect of the ad. the 2006 Super Bowl game received a rating of 42. reach of 28 at the frequency of 1.5 million of the target audience will exposed to some of the media vehicles in the media plan. gross rating points. a communication goal can specify that 50% of the target audience will recall the radio ad during the month of the campaign. Frequency is a measure of repetition. which should lead to more brand awareness. not necessarily that the ad has actually been seen. and repurchase. on average. then the frequency would then be 1. Let's go back to the Super Bowl example. radio stations or magazines that have a rating of 2. A frequency of 1. advertising exposure is rarely measured. Media planners want the highest reach possible because that means more people will be exposed to the campaign. If the commercial was run only once. Media planners often think in terms of gross rating points because ad prices often scale with this measure. Reach is one of the most important terms in media planning and has three characteristics. a GRP of 42. In summary. 14+14 = 28% see the ad just once. 14% of households see the ad once but then don't watch the second half. Communication goals vary across the continuum from awareness. purchase.M9-Advertising Management program. First. it costs about twice as much to obtain a GRP of 84 as to obtain a GRP of 42. which means 42 percent of U. if a media plan targets the roughly 5 million of women who are 18-25 years old. The formula of calculating frequency is: Frequency = Gross rating points / Reach Using the Super Bowl example again. 136 .
such as Wyoming's ads during the spring when many people are planning summer vacations. It is the job of media planners to formulate the best media strategies allocating budget across media categories. radio. For example. media planners may set goals for other forms of communication. A high reach is also often necessary in three other situations: a) advertising in support of sales promotion activities. then. Many media planners still use this rule in setting the effective frequency of a media plan. Let's look at each of these three decisions in turn. media planners have often been setting a frequency of 3 during a purchase cycle. media planners have more rules of thumb to choose from when setting levels of reach. they make these decisions in the face of budget constraints. That is. Regardless of the budget. but it is rarely a communication goal because some audience members may not use any of the media. More recently. Mix Strategy: Media Concentration vs. it all depends on the media planner's analysis of major factors facing the brand. Media Dispersion A media planner's first media mix decision is to choose between a media concentration approach or a media dispersion approach. The newness requires a high level of awareness among the target audience. Therefore. additional exposures are likely to be wasteful because audience members are not in the buying mode. and podcasts. companies spend as little as 1% to more than 20% of revenues on advertising. For example. In the short-term. That is. Media planners will choose a concentration approach if they are worried that their brand's ads will share space with competing brands. 75% or 95%? Theoretically. new sales incentives. In general. direct mail. mobile phones. The media concentration approach uses fewer media categories and greater spending per category. 1. three exposures during a purchase cycle are necessary. sweepstakes. That is. Moreover. promotional activities may be used in a media plan. from billions of dollars for multinational giants such as Procter & Gamble. and print. would be the optimal level of reach for a given product category or a market situation? There is no quick answer to this question. Erwin Ephron further developed the concept of "recency planning" and suggested that one exposure within a purchase cycle should be set as close to the actual purchase moment as possible. Recency planning starts with the idea that when is more important than how many. By establishing communication goals. depending on the nature of their business. Naples' study suggests that there is a threshold level of repetition. media planners set the stage for assessing the effectiveness of a media plan at the end. For example.M9-Advertising Management Setting Communication Goals Media planners can set communication goals based on the level of reach. Media experts suggest high reach is appropriate when something new is associated with the brand. product placement in a video game makes sense if the target audience plays video games. product placements. advertisers know when consumers are in the market. b) for reminder advertising for a mass market product. For example. and then they select the combination of vehicles that best attain all of the objectives. such as new features. Media Mix Decisions Which media should the advertiser use? Media planners craft a media mix by considering a budget-conscious intersection between their media objectives and the properties of the various potential media vehicles. making them unreachable. some media options are more cost effective than others. In some cases. Philip Jones found that one exposure generates the highest proportion of sales and that additional exposures add very little to the effect of the first. the similarity of ads actually increased the sales of the competing Kellogg's Special K Cereal. a reach of 100 is possible. In addition to the reach and frequency goals. when to advertise (timing). and what media categories to use (media mix). therefore. say 50%. to a few thousand dollars for local "mom-n-pop" stores. . and c) when the brand faces severe competition. The actual amount of money that an advertiser spends on marketing communications can vary widely. planners look to a whole spectrum of media. sponsorships. Media planners estimate and specify response rates for these activities. The scale and situations of media use are especially important when evaluating suitable brand contact opportunities. following Michael Naples' seminal study of effective frequency published in 1979. media planners consider all the opportunities that consumers have for contact with the brand. contests and coupons. not just to traditional media vehicles such as TV. MEDIA STRATEGIES 137 Media planners make three crucial decisions: where to advertise (geography). advertising will be most effective if it is timed to when a consumer is in the market to buy the product or service. That is. and time. advertising below the threshold level will be ineffective. What. such as sweepstakes. when Nestle launched its 99% fat-free cereal Fitnesse. This lets the media planner create higher frequency and repetition within that one media category. they consider how each media vehicle provides a cost-effective contribution to attaining the objectives. new packaging or new service opportunities. and then consider cost effectiveness. Sweepstakes make sense if many of the target audience find sweepstakes attractive. how many of the target audience should be reached with the media plan. blogs. geographies. When making media mix decisions. leading to confusion among consumers and failure of the media objectives. These opportunities can be non-traditional brand contact opportunities such as online advertising. When setting levels of frequency.
the company can be the dominant advertiser in a product category in the chosen channel. and point-of-purchase media.M9-Advertising Management Media planners can calculate or measure share of voice to estimate the dominance of their message in each category of media they use. online ads for car insurance such as link directly to the application process to capture the customers right at the time they are interested in the service. For example. a concentrated media strategy lets advertisers spend a higher percentage of their budget on frequency and reach. a concentrated approach using national news magazines might reach only 30% of the target audience. California and Michigan while not advertising in other states like Iowa or Nebraska. The costs of developing creative materials specific to each media category can also limit media planners' use of the media dispersion approach. BDI measures the concentration of sales of a company's brand in that region. a leisure boat manufacturer such as Sea Ray might use a spot approach to target Florida. 138 .combining national TV ads to introduce the product. The first method is called the Brand Development Index (BDI) of a geographic region. For example. the Internet and mobile phone are good choices. television offers visual impact that interweaves sight and sound. Media planners perform geographic analyses by assessing the geographic concentration of sales in two ways. For example. Media planners also like the dispersion approach for the reinforcement that it brings consumers who see multiple ads in multiple media for a given brand may be more likely to buy. Internet media to provide one-to-one information. In general. direct response media. A company can create a high share of voice with a concentrated media strategy. a company that sells nationally can take one of three approaches to geographic spending allocation: a national approach (advertise in all markets). 2. A media planner's choice will depend on the media objectives. If the media planner wants to build a relationship with a customer or encourage an immediate sales response. That is. such as the one described for P&G's Fusion shaving system. If the particular ad is not well received or the particular media category only reaches a fraction of the intended target audience. then direct response media such as direct mail. then he or she will pick mass media such as television. For many other products. such as a combination of television. then it will perform poorly. Rich media ads on the Internet can combine the best of TV-style ads with interactive response via a click through to the brand's own Web site. often within a narrative storyline. because only one set of creative materials will need to be prepared. Different media categories suit different media objectives. Geographic Allocation Decisions In addition to allocating advertising by media category. telephone or Internet. Moreover. The creative requirements of a media category also affect media planners' decisions. newspaper and magazine. media planners must allocate advertising by geography. California and Michigan due to the large water areas in these markets. radio. might use multiple categories -. In short. Media Category Selection Whether media planners select media concentration or media dispersion. Media planners need to consider which media categories provide the most impact for their particular brand. media planners choose a media dispersion approach when they use multiple media categories. which makes a spot approach more efficient. because not every target customer reads these magazines. a company's customers are concentrated in a limited subset of geographic areas. such as for Tide laundry detergent or Toyota automobiles. then they might use point-of-purchase media such as sampling. But a concentrated strategy is also an "all-eggs-in-one-basket" strategy. A national approach will reach a national customer base with a national advertising program. If the media planner wants to create broad awareness or to remind the largest possible number of consumers about a brand. coupons and price-off promotions. radio. however. For example. Each media category has unique characteristics. In contrast. they still must pick the media category(ies) for the media plan. Magazines offer high reproduction quality but must grab the consumer with a single static image. and in-store displays to drive sales. But a dispersed approach that advertises in print magazines as well as on Web sites might reach 50% of the target audience. if media planners want to convert shoppers into buyers. a concentrated approach using only ads on the Internet might reach only 30% of the target consumers because some consumers don't use the Internet. For example. The second method is called the Category Development Index (CDI) and measures the concentration of sales of the product category (across all brands) in that region. Media planners will use dispersion if they know that no single media outlet will reach a sufficient percentage of the target audience. each of these three categories of media serve a different role in moving the customer from brand awareness to brand interest to purchase intent to actual purchase and then to re-purchase. Similarly. Share of voice is the percentage of spending by one brand in a given media category relative to the total spending by all brands that are advertising in that media category. Media planners will choose a national approach if sales are relatively uniform across the country. a spot approach (advertise only in selected markets). A spot approach will target these states. An integrated campaign. Finally. the sales of leisure boats are much higher in markets such as Florida. newspapers and the Internet. or a combined national plus spot approach (advertise in all markets with additional spending in selected markets). Direct mail can carry free samples but can require compelling ad copy in the letter and back-end infrastructure for some form of consumer response by return mail. Most media options can be classified into three broad categories: mass media.
advertising to New Yorkers will be less effective than advertising to Houstonians. BDI doesn't tell the whole story. in hopes that the impact of advertising in the previous month can last into the following month. this does not mean it is good for all products and services. continuity scheduling would allocate exactly $100.000 a year.8% of the U. should all months receive equal amounts of money or should some months receive more of the budget while other months receive less or nothing? Media planners can choose among three methods of scheduling: continuity. Media planners will tend to allocate more resources to high BDI markets (greater than 100) than to low BDI markets. This disparity in BDI influences Louisiana's advertising strategy.S.S. The pulse scheduling method takes advantage of both the continuity and flight scheduling methods and mitigates their weaknesses. For example. with an annual budget of $1. Mathematically. media planners need to consider when to advertise.000 per month during each of six months .200. Pulse scheduling combines the first two scheduling methods. so that the brand maintains a low level of advertising across all months but spends more in selected months. Or. however.8% of visitors to Louisiana (100 * (11. This method ensures steady brand exposure over each purchase cycle for individual consumers. September and December and spend nothing during the other months. For example. For example.000.S. population. because continuity scheduling usually requires a large budget. and the population in that market is 3 percent of the U. it means that many more Houstonians come to Louisiana than the average from other cities. Because Houston's BDI is higher than 100. 139 .2% of the U. because BDI only measures the concentration of current sales. a consumer goods brand may spend $5. United Airlines might also have seasonal pulses to entice winter-weary consumers to fly to sunny climes. The point is that even though New York City has a much larger population. but the numerator for CDI is the share of the product category in a given market.the geographic concentration of people who travel to Louisiana for business or pleasure. this city contributes only 0.X 100 Market X's Share of U.X 100 Market X's Share of U. media planners use another number. On the other hand. September and December to attract brand switchers from competing brands. it has a much lower concentration of travelers to Louisiana.S.8%) = 658). March. which is 33 percent below the average of 100. It also takes advantage of volume discounts in media buying. In contrast.S. with the same budget of $1.000 per month. The sales of a product category include the sales of all the brands (the company's and competitors' brands) or at least all major brands that fall in the category. and pulse. in addition to BDI when allocating resources for spot advertising. Given that the cost of advertising is often proportional to the population it reaches. with heavy advertising in certain months and no advertising at all in other months. a board game maker like Parker Brothers might concentrate its advertising in the fall when it knows that many people buy board games as gifts for the holidays. However. population.7% of visitors to Louisiana. However. March. For example.8%/1. July. The CDI formula is: Market X's Share of Total Category Sales CDI = ---------------------------------------------------.M9-Advertising Management Media planners use BDI to measure a brand's performance in a given market in comparison with its average performance in all markets where the brand is sold. The denominator of the CDI formula is the same as that of the BDI formula.200. flight. BDI is a ratio of a brand's sales in a given geographic market divided by the average of its sales in all markets. an airline like United Airlines might use a low level of continuous advertising to maintain brand awareness among business travelers. the New York City area has a very low BDI of only 10 because even though New York City has 7. but Houstonians make up 11. Continuity scheduling spreads media spending evenly across months.January. advertising in New York City will be far more expensive than advertising in Houston. So. then the CDI for that market will be 67. markets with a high CDI (higher than 100) may be a better market for that product category. Because such a low percentage of New Yorkers travel to Louisiana.000 in each of the twelve months to maintain the brand awareness and spend an additional $10. CDI is a measure of a product category's performance in a given geographic market in comparison to its average performance in all markets in the country. July. Media Schedule Decisions Having decided how to advertise (the media mix) and where to advertise (allocation across geography).000 in January. 3. That means a poorer-than-average consumption of the product category. BDI doesn't reflect the concentration of potential sales as measured by sales of the entire product category. Population Consider the BDI for visitors to the state of Louisiana -. Given a fixed annual budget. if the sales of the product category in Market X account for 2 percent of its total sales in the U.S. a different brand could spend $200. population. BDI is calculated for each geographic area (Market X) using the following formula: Market X's Share of Total Brand Sales BDI = -------------------------------------------------. The flight scheduling approach alternates advertising across months. The BDI for Houston is 658 because Houston is 1. CDI. May. Population Notice the similarities and differences of the CDI formula compared to the BDI formula. for example. which means that Market X may be less promising for spot market advertising. In budget allocation terms. it may not be practical for small advertisers. Which method is the most appropriate for a given campaign depends on several important factors. May.
Thus. audience duplication with other vehicles. Frequency Considerations In contrast to high levels of reach. The second factor that affects when advertising is scheduled is the product purchase cycle: the interval between two purchases. some products sell faster around specific holidays. then personal influence in the form of word-of-mouth or market force (brand visibility in life and media coverage) will play a role in accelerating the adoption of a new brand. such as everyday products like milk and toothpaste. Media planners should take advance of these "unplanned" messages in a new product launch campaign. factor is sales seasonality. Media buyers will choose vehicles with high ratings and less cross-vehicle audience duplication when they need high levels of reach.M9-Advertising Management How do media planners select among continuity. less-frequently purchased products such as carpet cleaner or floor polisher may only need advertising a few times a year. media buyers will compare media vehicles in terms of both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As mentioned earlier. such as vehicle ratings. High levels of reach will require a different set of media vehicles than low levels of reach. P&G launched its Gillette six-bladed Fusion shaving system with advertising on Super Bowl XL. In contrast. and costs. 1. A third factor that affects media scheduling is the time interval between when the purchase decision is made and when a product or service is actually bought and consumed. high levels of reach can be better served with a mix that includes multiple media vehicles with different audiences so that cross-media duplication of audience is minimal. and pulse scheduling approaches? The timing of advertising depends on three factors: seasonality. Among the major factors that affect media vehicle selection are reach and frequency considerations. Quantitative characteristics are those that can be measured and estimated numerically. they make purchase decision in advance. may lack a seasonal pattern. New product launches usually require initial heavy advertising to create brand awareness and interest. 2. Media buyers also evaluate the geographic coverage of media vehicles when implementing spot advertising such as heavy advertising in certain geographic regions. Broadcast media usually enjoy a "vertical" audience. 3. For example. reproduction quality. Media buyers select media vehicles to implement established media strategies. The first. qualitative characteristics of media vehicles are those that are primarily judgmental. Broadcast media are often used when high levels of frequency are desired in a relatively short period of time. DESIGNING MEDIA TACTICS 140 Establishing media objectives and developing media strategies are the primary tasks of media planners. editorial environment. Likewise. consumers' product purchase cycle. Fast-moving consumer goods such as bread. and ornaments around Christmas. Destination advertising has to be in sync with the time of decision making. media . They can allocate more money to high-sales months and less to low-sales months. Programs with low audience turnover are more effective for high levels of frequency. advertising in these three magazines would reach the widest target audience possible because of the low overlap of the readers of the these magazines. if there are three magazines that each reach a portion of the target audience but that have few readers who read more than one magazine. such as vehicle reputation. The launch period may last from a few months to a year. For example. Everyday goods may be better served by a continuity approach. media buyers choose the less expensive media vehicle. travel industry advertisers will schedule their ads months before the summer. candy on Halloween. the most expensive form of advertising in the world. Media Vehicle Characteristics With reach and frequency considerations in mind. geographic coverage. which often play an important role in new product launches. A commercial that runs three times during a 30-minute television program will result in higher message repetition than the same commercial that runs once in three different programs. Companies don't advertise fur coats in summer and suntan lotions in winter. instead of the actual consumption time. If consumers like the product. When two media vehicles are similar in major aspects. which refers to the percentage of audience members who tune out during a program. For example. which can serve as a guide for the allocation. That is. In contrast to these quantitative characteristics. who tune in to a channel for more than one program over hours. and most important. Finally. and added values. soft drinks and toilet paper probably require continuous weekly advertising in a competitive market to constantly reinforce brand awareness and influence frequently-made purchase decisions. Another phenomenon in broadcast media is audience turnover. high levels of frequency can be effectively achieved through advertising in a smaller number of media vehicles to elevate audience duplications within these media vehicles. such as flowers on Mother's Day. many families who take summer vacations may plan their trips months before the actual trips. Reach Considerations As a major component of media objectives. Designing media tactics is largely carried out by media buyers. however. the planned level of reach affects not only media mix decisions but also what media vehicles are used in each media category. flight. Media planners can use a breakdown of sales by month to identify if their brand has seasonal fluctuations. as we saw in the Wyoming example. media buyers pay attention to the costs of each media vehicle. Other goods. That is. Personal influence and market force are "unplanned" messages. Companies with seasonal products are more likely to choose flight scheduling to concentrate their advertising for the peak sales season. and consumers' interval between decision-making and consumption.
Feedback devices such as reply cards. 1. Media buyers can work with the media to invent creative forms of added values for advertisers. Radiowatch surveys 1000 adults age 16-64 and asks them which radio commercials they remember hearing. Surveys can ask questions about the target audience's media behavior. The first measure is the actual execution of scheduled media placements. media planners often make measures of the effectiveness of a media plan an integral part of the media plan. for instance. If the actual program ratings are significantly lower than what the advertiser paid for. For example. Tracking is measurement method that media buyers use to track the effectiveness of online ads. while the ad for Peugeot received 18%. or a television channel may host a local event in association with a car dealership. For example. When a user visits a Web site or clicks on a banner ad. media buyers can use observation to collect audience reaction information at the points of purchase or during marketing events. feedback. surveys can be conducted among a sampling of the target audience in the different periods of a media campaign. . The logs of these visits and actions are very useful for media buyers. some media vehicles offer added values. newspapers such as The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal generally enjoy high reputation. 2. What to Measure Because of the hierarchical nature of the media effects.M9-Advertising Management vehicles vary in reputation. Web servers automatically log that action in real time. How to Measure The measurement of the effectiveness of a media plan can be conducted by the advertising agency or by independent research services. for instance. The most direct measure of the effectiveness of media planning is the media vehicle exposure. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Added values take various forms. EVALUATING MEDIA PLAN EFFECTIVENESS 141 Accountability is increasingly important in media planning. as more advertisers expect to see returns on their investments in advertising. and they benefit advertisers without additional cost. distribution and competition. the effectiveness of media plans is of particular importance. to identify what measures are most relevant to the effectiveness of media planning and buying. such as in the beginning. advertising recall. tracking. The advantage of observation is that it provides rich. therefore. feedback can be collected to measure the media and ad exposure of the target audience. Finally. The impact of food ads. For example. the effectiveness of media planning should be measured with multiple indictors. in the physical world. the middle and the end of the campaign. a newspaper may publish a special page whose editorial context fits an advertiser's products. conducts monthly surveys on advertising recall of radio commercials in England. Media planners ask: How many of the target audience were exposed to the media vehicles and to ads in those vehicles during a given period of time? This question is related to the communication goals in the media objectives. can be enhanced when they appear around articles about health or nutrition. the media usually "make good" for the difference in ratings by running additional commercials without charge. An ad for McDonald's had 36% recall. because the buyers can use them to estimate the actual interaction of audience members with the interactive media. For electronic media. detailed data on how consumers behave in real situations in response to the marketing communication. with 46% of respondents recalling the ad. media buyers examine the ratings of the programs in which commercials were inserted to make sure the programs delivered the promised ratings. It is important. coupons and Web addresses can be provided in ads so that tallies of the responses or redemptions can be made to estimate the impact of advertising media. If the measured level of exposure is near to or exceeds the planned reach and frequency. Advertisers often use a different code in direct response ads to identify different media vehicles. Although sales results are the ultimate measure of the effectiveness of an advertising campaign. Media buyers can compare the click-through rates of the banner ad across all Web sites daily. which enhance the impact of the ads. Likewise. As a result. Besides surveys. a banner ad may have a code for each Web site where the ad is placed. researchers can be stationed in grocery stores to observe how consumers react to in-store advertising or how they select an advertised brand in comparison of other brands. using methods such as surveys. Furthermore. In the April 2006 survey. the sales result is affected by many factors. the most-recalled ad was for T-Mobile.copies of the ads as they have appeared in print media for verification purposes. Because media spending usually accounts for 80 percent or more of the budget for typical advertising campaigns. The downside is that direct observation is more costly to conduct and tabulate. some magazines are better in reproduction quality than others. Media buyers are making more use of the tracking method given the increasing use of interactive media. brand attitudes and actual purchase. to estimate the effectiveness of each Web site. Did the ads appear in the media vehicles in agreed upon terms? Media buyers look at "tear-sheets". which are often out of the scope of the advertising campaign. Finally. the editorial environment can be more or less favorable for advertisers. For example. Radiowatch. then the media plan is considered to be effective. such as price. toll-free numbers. and observation.
Recognition and brand image may be felt by some to be sufficient triggers to stimulate a response. featuring Govinda.the consumer must first be aware of a brand or company Comprehension he or she must have a comprehension of what the product is and its benefits. Awareness grid Involvement In situations where: Buyer experiences high involvement: High Low Is fully aware of a product‘s existence.finally. however it is a high involvement decision. thus communication is mainly intended to refine awareness. Awareness Awareness of the existence of a product or organization is necessary before the purchase behavior can be expected. developed. When coils were popular in use and then the different repellants entered the market. quickly. he or she actually buy that product. Awareness needs to be created. The requirement in such a situation would be to refine and strengthen the level of awareness so that it provokes interest and stimulates greater involvement during recall or recognition. Sahara Homes ad that features Amitabh Bachhan saying ―jaha base Bharat‖. To do this. The ad of Ganga mineral water. need Where low levels of awareness are found.M9-Advertising Management DAGMAR MODEL 142 Russell Colley (1961) developed a model for setting advertising objectives and measuring the results. Many ads like Thumbs Up featured the reward of social acceptance as ‗grown up‘. In attempting to persuade people to try a different brand of water. which banked on the purity aspect. Thus adequate attention is required and awareness levels are raised with use of well-known and trusted celebrities. This can be achieved by providing specific information about key brand attributes. getting attention needs to be the prime objective in order that awareness can be developed among the target audience.‘ DAGMAR model suggests that the ultimate objective of advertising must carry a consumer through four levels of understanding: from unawareness to Awareness . Conviction The next step is to establish a sense of conviction. This model was entitled ‗Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. If buyers have low level of awareness. attention and Sustain Refine awareness levels need only be sustained and efforts need to be HIGH current levels awareness applied to other communication tasks. the audience may become distracted by competing messages and the level of awareness of focus product or organization will decline. refined or sustained. of awareness Sales promotion and personal selling are more effective at Build Create informing. they will be quickly prompted into purchase with little assistance of the other elements of the mix. Knowledge about the product or the organization is necessary. By creating interest and preference. It almost hinted that those who preferred other drinks were kids. such as environmental claims. persuading and provoking consumption of a new car Awareness awareness association of once advertising has created the necessary levels of awareness. If there is neglect. audience‘s beliefs about the product have to be moulded and this is often done through messages that demonstrate the product‘s superiority over a rival or by talking about the rewards as a result of using the product. awareness of The LG golden eye ads that are repeatedly shown inspite of LOW product with high awareness to ensure top of mind awareness and retain the product class existing awareness levels. Awareness level is low. They related the purity of the water with that of river Ganga. Once the awareness has been created in the target audience. awareness had to be created about their benefits and use. Parle G as a brand already enjoys high levels of awareness and requires low involvement decision.DAGMAR.he or she must arrive at the mental disposition or conviction to buys the brand. Comprehension Awareness on its own may not be sufficient to stimulate a purchase. Action . it may be necessary to compare the product with other mineral water products and provide an additional usage benefit. Buyer experiences low involvement: If buyers have sufficient level of awareness. it should not be neglected. Parle G ad that talks about it being the largest seller ― Duniya ka sabse Zyada bikne waala biscuit‖. the prime objective has to be to create awareness of the focus product in association with the product class. buyers are moved to a position where they are convinced that a particular product in the class should be tried at the next opportunity. Conviction . according to the characteristics of the market and the particular situation facing an organization at any one point of time. .
The benchmark measure cannot be developed without a specification of the target segment Benchmark and degree of change sought . buyers are more likely to want to buy a product than if personal prompting is absent. etc. Specified time period . When the goals are clearly written.a final characteristic of good objectives is the specification of the time period during which the objective is to be accomplished. Aqua Guard. With a time period specified a survey to generate a set if measures can be planned and anticipated. e. attitudes. Written Goal . it is essential to know the target audience precisely. etc. Tupperware. Advertising can be directive and guide the buyers into certain behavioural outcomes. Furthermore the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure Target audience .the communications task or objective should be a precise statement of what appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. creation of favorable attitudes or number of consumers intending to purchase the brand.g. an essential part of any planning program and DAGMAR in particular. The objectives should also specify how much change or movement is being sought such as increase in awareness levels. Through the use of interpersonal skills. direct mail activities and reply cards and coupons. are famous in Indian cities as a result of its personal selling efforts. 1 year etc. 143 .M9-Advertising Management Action Communication must finally encourage buyers to engage in purchase activity. Use of toll free numbers. image. knowledge. For example –if the goal was to increase awareness. For high involvement decisions. a benchmark is also a prerequisite to the ultimate measurement of results.finally goals should be committed to paper. the most effective tool in the communication mix at this stage in the hierarchy is personal selling. basic shortcomings and misunderstandings become exposed and it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach. Characteristics of Objectives A major contribution of DAGMAR was Colley‘s specification of what constitutes a good objective.a key tenet to DAGMAR is that the target audience be well defined. Four requirements or characteristics of good objectives were noted Concrete and measurable . 6months.another important part of setting objectives is having benchmark measures to determine where the target audience stands at the beginning of the campaign with respect to various communication response variables such as awareness.
especially as augmented by technology. For some of the team's best ideas. a website. Throughout the production phase. an account planner. 110). What counts as "valuable" is similarly defined in a variety of ways. there are a multitude of definitions and approaches. The team begins with a strategy that has been agreed upon by the agency and the client. The account planner will attempt to keep the team focused and on mission by feeding in information about how consumers use the brand. Eventually. reedited. what the competition's advertising says. . philosophy (particularly philosophy of science). a solution. Small companies must rely on more creative approaches to achieve name recognition. a work of art etc. creative advertising is absolutely essential because it shows potential customers that the company can deliver on its promises. p. the art director will draw images or even storyboards and the writer will produce the headlines and words to accompany them. As a result. Other nearby companies have signs that are as large. sell creative products and turn talents into marketable services. etc. The team. will begin concepting—in other words. 2003. It then becomes the work of the creative team to devise ways of communicating the message. The communication may be tested. the mental and neurological processes associated with creative activity. theology. For an entrepreneur providing this type of product.). The account manager coordinates and oversees the team's work.). we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel. various other steps may be taken. education. and economics. quirky van. Beyond this general commonality. a TV commercial. and other marketing communications. the creative process moves into production. and the application of an individual's existing creative resources to improve the effectiveness of learning processes and of the teaching processes tailored to them. etc. such as communicating a particular message about the brand to a particular group of consumers. Scholarly interest in creativity ranges widely: Topics to which it is relevant include the relationship between creativity and general intelligence. who responds to them. In a summary of scientific research into creativity Michael Mumford suggested: ―Over the course of the last decade. linguistics. When the client and agency agree upon a proposal for consumer communication (that may take the form of a print advertisement.) that has some kind of value. This situation offers both a challenge and an opportunity for aspiring entrepreneurs. authors have diverged dramatically in their precise definitions.psychology. the potential for fostering creativity through education and training. or directives to creative teams about the specific message they need to communicate and to whom they are to direct it. cognitive science. and an account manager who work together to produce ads. what market research reveals. and so on. Memorable Ads The purpose of an ad is to interest potential customers in your product and service. or otherwise adjusted to the point where both agency and client believe they have produced the best communication strategy for the brand. What counts as "new" may be in reference to the individual creator. A clown service that arrives at parties in a colorful. can be expressed in specific creative briefs.M9-Advertising Management 144 UNIT 3: ADVERTISING CREATIVITY CONCEPT OF CREATIVITY Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new (a product. A car wash company in downtown Seattle uses a tremendous pink elephant as an advertising gimmick. signals to potential customers that its clowns will be colorful and entertaining. however. the creative process continues as new words and images are revised and additional information helps tweak the final product. Your advertising should demonstrate that you can provide worthy content and enjoyment to clients who want to entertain their guests or draw attention to their own products and services. the relationship between personality type and creative ability. useful products‖ (Mumford. but the pink elephant is more likely to stick out in potential customers' minds because it is so creative and unusual. with Peter Meusburger claiming that over a hundred different versions can be found in the literature. ROLE OF CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING A typical creative team might consist of a writer. A strategy is a statement of the goal of a campaign. outdoor. such as advertising and entertainment. or possibly some portion of it. as well. a billboard. The strategy. for example. or to the society or domain within which the novelty occurs. the relationship between creativity and mental health. Impressing Customers Some industries. digital. when a number of working ideas have been developed by the creative team. sociology. commercials. A creative ad sticks out and increases the likelihood that a customer will recall information about your company. Before the creative idea is communicated through appropriately selected media (such as TV. and to get them to remember you. Creativity and creative acts are therefore studied across several disciplines . technology. business studies. which operates at a general level. Large companies have the competitive advantage of being able to spend enough money on their marketing budgets to disseminate their marketing messages prominently and often. brainstorming—about possible ways to communicate the message to the intended audience. they are presented to the client. an art director. Creative ads make an: Impression on potential customers We live in a media landscape saturated with messages and stimuli.
Health Total – Exciting New Year offer last 6 days The Blurb A blurb or a balloon is a display arrangement where the words appear to be coming from the mouth of one of the characters illustrated in the advertisement. press releases. as in the case of comic strips. Creativity in advertising is not just a matter of producing brilliant ad content. opinion or idea. and it can bring in considerably more return for your money.M9-Advertising Management Likeability Creative advertising makes your company likeable. All of them may not be necessary advertisements. taglines. Although the word copy may be applied to any content intended for printing (as in the body of a newspaper article or book). The Sub head Sometimes important facts may have to be conveyed to the reader and it may require more space than what should be ideally used for the headline. The Body Copy The body copy refers to the text in the advertisement which contains details regarding the functions of the product/service and its benefits. Known as "organic" search engine optimization (SEO). known as a subhead. white papers. caricaturing amusing behaviors that are typical in the region. The headline of an advertisement will normally present a selling idea or will otherwise serve to involve the prospect in reading of the advertisement. COPYWRITING 145 Copywriting is the use of words and ideas to promote a person. Example: Mahindra Scorpio – the NFO Automotive 2003 Total Customer Satisfaction Study. The purpose of marketing copy. regardless of the medium (as advertisements for print. tweets. writing in a manner that human readers would consider normal.for example. companies with virtually no advertising budgets can come up with innovative ideas on their own that get their names out to target markets. Ogilvy recommends plunging in the subject matter straightaway without beating about the bush. and it's easy to like a company that notices and celebrates them. such as a bar that hosts an ugly Christmas sweater contest the week before Christmas. such as when a company's ads that make them laugh. e-mail and other Internet content. web page content (although if the purpose is not ultimately promotional. A headline may be set in big type or small. Content writing on websites may include among its objectives the achievement of higher rankings in search engines. The Headline The first and possibly the most important copy element is the headline. The body copy can be short or long depending on how much information the company is willing to tell the reader. Most advertisements have headlines of one sort or another and their primary function is to catch the eye of the reader. it also includes any idea that brands a business memorably for its present and future clients. television or radio commercial scripts. Copy Writers are used to help create direct mail pieces. Consumers are especially likely to support companies they have positive feelings toward. Even a company or brand name could be used as a headline. listener or viewer to act . Budget A creative advertising idea often doesn't cost any more than a dull one. radio or other media). and this likeability is an important marketing tool. An insurance company in the Pacific Northwest has an ad campaign based on archetypal local personalities. The word copywriting is regularly used as a noun or gerund. billboards. . its author might prefer to be called a content writer). and social-networking site posts. online ads. business. brochures. Although ad designers who consistently produce quality. creative content can charge handsomely for their services. the term copywriter is generally limited to promotional situations. jingle lyrics. or promotional text. Captions Captions are the small units of type used with illustrations. ELEMENTS OF COPY The major elements of copy are briefly described below. coupons and special offers. These are generally less important than the main selling points of the advertisement in the body copy and are usually set in type sizes smaller than the text. television. sales letters. to buy a product or subscribe to a certain viewpoint. It can also appear in social media content including blog posts. This creative ad campaign is successful because these characters are benign and amusing. postcards. is to persuade the reader. All advertisements do not require subheads. and other marketing communications media. this practice involves the strategic placement and repetition of keywords and keyword phrases on web pages. At times the complete body copy can be composed of blurbs. Yet another high for Scorpio. In order to give prominence to such formation it can be put in smaller type than the headline. Headlines need not always contain special messages. catalogs.
A panel is a solid rectangle in the centre of which the caption is placed either in white or centered in the white space. Only an interesting headline makes one read further. The "business" need not always be money. special offers and consumer contests. a strapline becomes a national saying.000 per month in a span of a few months. Anything can click at a particular time. Logo Types and Signatures A slogan may refer. Set the Objective This is the beginning. Advertising copy can also be used to establish a brand. and read further. seal or trademark is called logotype and is a typical feature of most advertisements. I still don't know what business opportunity they are talking about. Your most important words should appear there. You sit down and produce fifteen or more short lines (each two to five words long). In a few seconds. though they may have to be shortened. All I can make out after four pages is that there was this couple who was very poor but once they got involved with this business opportunity they started earning $35. captions placed in special display positions so as to get greater attention. to the age of the advertiser‘s firm. you can ask a question such as: "Haven't you always wanted this?" "What have I always wanted?" the reader will think. but then again. I've told my brother-in-law to give this "once-in-a-lifetime-opportunity" a skip for the time being. my brother-in-law has sent me a link to a website so that I can tell him whether the website is offering a genuine business opportunity or not. A symbol of the company name. The right result is the nirvana of a good advertising copy. You can never write convincing copy unless you know what it needs to achieve. You can write an attention-grabbing headline just to make people react. Writing a strapline is like writing a headline. you can keep defining your own way of writing advertising copy. a tourist destination. What business they do? I have no idea. in fact. today is the last date for payment of Advance Tax…… Sunti ho‖ Boxes and Panels Boxes or panels are. or an event. discarded headlines often make good straplines. On the other hand. It's just like charting a roadmap to a destination before embarking on a long journey. and their expensive boat is lying somewhere. Add a strapline A ‗strapline‘ or ‗tag line‘ usually appears underneath the logo. the sole purpose of an advertising copy is to spread the word in order to generate business. Whether you are selling a product. A box is a caption that has been lined on all sides and singled out from the rest of the copy. for instance. Boxes and panels are generally used in advertisements containing features such as coupons. Similarly. meant for inclusion in every advertisement. the headline doesn't always have to make sense. and then stimulate the reader enough to act on your words. If you can. while I'm writing this article. A better understanding of the objective helps you coalesce your thoughts and focus your skill. Begin With Headlines and Subheadings Headlines and subheadings contain words those are most critical to your message. Then you have to put your point across in as few words as you can manage. in the long run. Every advertising copywriter has his or her own style. prompt the reader to perform the desired action in the headline itself.M9-Advertising Management DIT – speech bubble having the text ―Sunoji. but if you follow some fundamental rules in the beginning. Your headline should give the reader a fair idea of what the remaining copy comprises. but people usually forget which brand it was attached to. . For instance. A logotype is an important aid in quick recognition of an advertisement and in creating familiarity for the audience. you have to grab the attention of a reader who is bombarded with scores of ads every day. They have a dream home. Put the same strapline at the bottom of the ad. They have an assortment of dream cars. brands help generate long-term business gains. and you link all the different promotional elements together. Or to confuse them so that they are forced to think about it. Advertising copy is one of the trickiest writing jobs available. Straplines often make good headlines because they summarize a major benefit in a pithy way. So choose them carefully. so consider it the most vital part of your assignment. It is also referred to as signature. I'm going through their "online presentation. BPL – Believe in the Best WRITING EFFECTIVE AD COPY 146 Advertising copy is all about selling. on point-of-sale material and on brochures. I can know this only after I purchase their business kit. a service. So what makes a killer advertising copy? There is no scientific or statistical formula as such." I have read four pages. indicating identification of the company or the brand. Occasionally. Slogans. Be Specific Coincidentally. The strapline summarizes the product‘s benefits in a memorable way.
Use as much "you." you have to adopt the local nuances while writing your advertising copy for a region-based audience. People are so cynical about advertising messages that coherent evidence may be needed if anyone is going to act. The acronym stands for: A . Touch Your Audience Emotionally Advertising copy is about strumming the emotional strings of your audience. Sure. I want to know in simple words whether your product or service can help me achieve that or not. You have been specially selected. Use Words That Are Strong but Straightforward Words and phrases like "money. They may sound clich‘d to you. AIDA MODEL 147 AIDA: Attention-Interest-Desire-Action "Free gift inside!" "Dear Jim. advertising becomes more and more sophisticated." "find love now. every report you write. and then persuade them to take the action you want them to take. You just have to stick to those words and phrases that a population is comfortable with. such as buying your product or visiting your website. we. If I want to improve the way I live or earn my living. Use them. do not patronize your readers unnecessarily and tell exactly what your product or service does for the consumer. interest them in how your product or service can help them. your" as you can and use "us. but to persuade people to do something." "save $150. Address the Person Talk directly to the person. emotions rule the world. Whether you like it or not. we become increasingly discerning. Do not make exaggerated claims. be frank.Action. A slightly more sophisticated version of this is AIDCA/AIDEA. not on your product." "Calling all Parents" Every day we're bombarded with headlines like these that are designed to grab our attention. Provide a Solution We all need immediate solutions. These are the four steps you need to take your audience through if you want them to buy your product or visit your website. but if you notice. I" as little as you can." and "lose weight in two weeks" sell like hot cakes.Interest D . In a world full of advertising and information – delivered in all sorts of media from print to websites. Great wars and revolutions are unleashed under the aegis of emotions. or indeed to take on board the messages in your report. grabs attention. Yet the basic principles behind advertising copy remain – that it must attract attention and persuade someone to take action. and how fast and at what cost it can be done. you still need to grab their attention. which includes an additional step of Conviction/Evidence between Desire and Action. Sound sincere.M9-Advertising Management Write In the Language of Your Audience Like the HSBC tagline says. The reader is not interested in knowing what all your product or service can do. or email you send is competing for your audience's attention. they promise you a tangible result. Be Credible Don't promise the stars if you are selling the candles. to be frank. And it's not just advertising messages that have to work hard.Attention (or Attract) I . He or she wants to know what all your product or service can do for him or her. Avoid ambiguities and jargon. Focus on the reader. As the world of advertising becomes more and more competitive. billboards to radio. and TV to text messages – every message has to work extremely hard to get noticed. The acronym AIDA is a handy tool for ensuring that your copy. They give a clear picture of what your copy intends to convey." "immediate benefit. or other writing. Believe me. rightfully.Desire A . It doesn't mean learning a new language from scratch with every consecutive copywriting assignment. And this idea remains true simply because human nature doesn't really change. . presentation you deliver. "The world's local bank. they do nothing but put off the reader. Nobody has time to learn words in order to understand the benefits of the product or service you are trying to promote." "protect your child.
consider generating some data." 4. When you haven't got the hard data. When it comes to the marketing copy. rather than simply saying "Our lunchtime seminar will teach you feedback skills". Awareness. For more information on understanding your target audience's interests and expectations. for example. 40paise STD calls.. It's no longer enough simply to say that a book is a bestseller.was created with various offers like free SMS. Hopefully.M9-Advertising Management 1. but readers will take notice if you state (accurately. or a picture that will catch the reader's eye and make them stop and read what you have to say next. yet the product offering is sufficiently important. by learning how to give them good feedback. that's kinder to your back and shoulders". for example.mindtools. So. Use powerful words. Action. Attention/Attract In our media-filled world. you also need to help them understand how what you're offering can help them in a real way. Interest This is one of the most challenging stages: You've got the attention of a chunk of your target audience. as a representative of the company image and also spoke about introducing a new technology – CDMA. Example: "This laptop case is made of aluminum. 148 . Desire. You may want to take this further by appealing to people's deeper drives".com now for more information" rather than just leaving people to work out what to do for themselves. don't just give the facts and features. Conviction As hardened consumers. Desire The Interest and Desire parts of AIDA go hand-in-hand: As you're building the reader's interest. for example. When you describe your offering. With most office workers suffering from e-mail overload. 5. be very clear about what action you want your readers to take. They will give you a little more time to do it. giving a stylish look." describes a feature. for example. of course!). 1 lakh.Dhirubhai Ambani Pioneer offers induced people to go for the product. The main way of doing this is by appealing to their personal needs and wants. 3." Feature and Benefits A good way of building the reader's desire for your offering is to link features and benefits. and break up the text to make your points stand out. "Visit www. by commissioning a survey. but you must stay focused on their needs. the significant features of your offering have been designed to give a specific benefit to members of your target market. and expect the audience to work out the benefits for themselves: Tell them the benefits clearly to create that interest and desire. easy payment schemes. and discount coupons worth Rs. it's important that you don't forget those benefits at this stage. Example: . action-seeking e-mails need subject lines that will encourage recipients to open them and read the contents. So use bullets and subheadings. but can you engage with them enough so that they'll want to spend their precious time understanding your message in more detail? Gaining the reader's interest is a deeper process than grabbing their attention. Interest. we tend to be skeptical about marketing claims.the elaborate advertisement where Mukesh Ambani spoke about the new project being introduced on his father‘s 70th birthday. Action Finally. read our article on the Rhetorical Triangle. to encourage people to attend a company training session on giving feedback.Reliance India Mobile campaign can be used to explain this model better.was generated as the company spokesperson featured in the ad. This means helping them to pick out the messages that are relevant to them quickly. the email headline. For example. and the context of your message. 2. giving effortless portability and a sleek appearance and that will be the envy of your friends and co-workers. that the book has been in the New York Times Bestseller List for 10 weeks. and leaves the audience thinking "So what?" Persuade the audience by adding the benefits". "How effective is YOUR feedback?" is more likely to grab attention than the purely factual one of.. explain to the audience what's in it for them: "Get what you need from other people. you need to be quick and direct to grab people's attention. So try to use hard data where it's available. "This week's seminar on feedback". and save time and frustration.
positive and negative spatial relationships and placement with in the overall layout. then balance that elements with another to maintain our interest. jewelry. including elements such as page and type size. Layout in Printing is the art or process of arranging printed or graphic matter on a page. One of the key ingredients to a successful layout is consistency so your user doesn‘t get confused. White Space At least 20 % of an ad should be blank (white space). Mixing more than two (or three at most) different typefaces makes an ad busy and confusing. Although most publishers charge extra for bleeds. With this position. 2.Style of typeface used in the headline. These principles are often employed when creating patterns or textures. It can 100 % of space allocation also visually communicate product benefits and concept. it will be clear to the site visitor. freedom and adventure and tends to make the ad more lifelike. Other designers may choose to avoid emphasis all together. . then we read down from there (David Ogilvy). and unify the ad. In research by Fosdick.Because we read left to right and top to bottom. it should not be over 10 words and more than 15 % of the ad's total area. its time to create the interface design. or book. By providing a consistent user experience. this cost is often justified by the ads extra impact. This should be the ad's focal point. they tend to make the ad appear smaller. yet a seasoned designer understands when to use each to support their concept. It is dominant and influences the relationships between all the elements that form the composition. Product ads that try to communicate an image (perfume. nearly half of all high readership ads used bleeds. Headline 10 % Large. An arrangement or a plan. Unity without variation can be uninteresting yet is an effect method toward the creation of balance and symmetry. 4. Mixed type should be either very similar or very different. Headlines located below the illustration pull 10% more readers (research by Simmons). typeface. Logo 5% the illustration is the most critical element in the ad's success. An obvious benefit of this technique is that the ad itself becomes larger. subhead and copy will impact the mood and readability of the ad. However. only 14% of low readership ads used this technique. spread. The following describes some of the key principles of design composition or layout. single illustrations attracted the most attention (advertising 3. Proportional use of space The proportional use of space in an ad is dependent upon the product and market target. A page or set of pages marked to indicate this design. The overall design of a page. down through the center and end at the page's bottom. By applying some basic design principles or ―rules‖. Though the headline may be the "stopper". Emphasis The optical center of an ad is in the center and two-thirds up from the bottom. For example a designer may place an element slightly center and larger. Emphasis – This is also referred to as the focal point and is the center of interest in your layout. • Borders: . and make the ad more attractive and readable. All of these rules are not required at all times. The eye sees the illustration first. Borders can isolate the ad from surrounding copy and other ads -forcing you to focus on the ad. the logo is the last element we see and most likely remember.In contrast. Illustration 65 % • Illustration: . create contrast. Ample white space helps gain attention. and formality. Emphasis can be created through scale. Bleed and borders • Bleed: . • Logo: . According to Albert Books. Copy 20 % recall studies by Starch). an ad for a technical product will have more copy. Basic principles of Layout Once you‘ve developed your concept for your client‘s site. Conversely. the illustration is used to attract attention. especially the schematic arrangement of parts or areas: the layout of a factory. • Headline: . the layout of a printed circuit.When nothing distracts from the whole design you have unity. Unity . borders set up continuity. arouse interest. and lead the (20%+ white space) reader into the headline and copy. and the arrangement of titles and page numbers. structure. Advertising Layout Strategy Ad Layout Proportion: Proportional guideline: 1. Conversely. the logo or company signature can be strategically placed in the lower right hand corner of an ad.A page without a border is called a bleed because the ink bleeds through the surrounding white border into the trim space. A bleed carries the implication of action. They want all parts of the work to be equally interesting (see examples on right).In most ads.The headline is used to attract attention. • Copy: . white space is probably the most underestimated element in advertisements. However.) will have a greater proportion of illustration and little copy.M9-Advertising Management LAYOUT 149 Layout is the act or an instance of laying out. the design has a better chance at success. etc. Direct the viewer's eye From the page's top.
Line art consists entirely of lines that are 100% black on a white background. comic book. In publishing. slide.M9-Advertising Management Contrast – Contrast can be created using scale. It is then sent to a studio for rendering. Artwork goes to our Illustration Department where it is logged in and analyzed by an Illustration Supervisor. For your art to be truly camera ready. Artwork Process It is essential that your artwork be submitted simultaneously with your text and that it be complete.the original imagery that was used as a basis for illustration. correcting. Defining Artwork Illustrations are either line art or halftones (photographs). The requirements for its creation are given in detail below and need to be scrupulously followed. Artwork is any visual as opposed to textual material. painting. Conventionally Drawn Art: .This category of camera-ready art refers to artwork that is not prepared on the computer but is drawn with pen and ink by hand. A brief definition of each category follows. such as a photograph. product package. such art cannot be a halftone and needs to be very clear in its printing so that it can be printed again. DVD. a piece of conceptual art. artwork goes through several production stages before it is placed onto a page. Like the text. and sizing. all artwork in final form must be on hand when the manuscript is accepted into production. Tearsheet art should be submitted only if no other form of artwork is available for a graphic you feel is essential. Camera-ready art can consist of such items as charts. When all corrections are made and sizes have been established. conventionally drawn art. pie charts. In order for this process to be successful and for material to travel concurrently. where it is combined with the text and appears in proofs for you to review for proper placement. You have an opportunity to review the artwork when you review the copyedited manuscript. but need to be used discretely and appropriately (see screens for more details). if needed. can also appear in line art. through a screening process which converts an image into small dots of various sizes. video game. or painting. shape and placement. photograph or other work of art that is created to elucidate or dictate sensual information (such as a story. Halftones (Photographs): . with equal spacing between their centers. magazine. ARTWORK Artwork may refer to: A work of art in the visual arts.Camera-ready art is ready to be reproduced in your book as you have submitted it. ILLUSTRATION 150 An illustration is a displayed visualization form presented as a drawing. graphs. if a halftone.This grouping consists primarily of line art that is prepared on the computer using drawing software such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. the artwork then travels to the typesetter. tearsheet art. Computer-Drawn Art: . These can be submitted as camera-ready art. CD. poem or newspaper article) by providing a visual representation graphically. Conditions for its submission are given later. and schematics are typically line art. and computer-drawn art. . Camera-Ready Art: . color. Missing figures that are submitted late can delay the entire production process and jeopardize the publication date. videotape. Screens can appear at densities of from 10 to 40% of 100% black. Screens. printing and advertising. Two broad categories of camera-ready art are given below. or cropping. Contrast also helps to create a focal point in your design.A halftone is the reproduction of a continuous-tone piece of art. printed forms. usually in the context of preparing for printing. Bar and line graphs. Photocopies for editing purposes are created and sent to the copyeditor along with the text. you need to follow the stipulations in this guide carefully. photographs. which are dot patterns. Line Art: . album art. Apart from the obvious need to have permission for its use. and it travels separately from the text from the very beginning of the production process. Balance – Balance is the consideration of visual weight and importance. The resulting gray tones distinguish halftones from line art. It is a way to compare the right and left side of a composition. or esp. including: Cover art the illustration or photograph on the outside of a published product such as a book. and computer printouts.Tearsheet art consists of pages taken directly from a previously published work such as a book or journal. Detailed instructions regarding submission requirements for each are presented later. Tearsheet Art: . as needed. It will not go to a studio for any additional work other than size reduction. Illustration .
Thus. But what live on are the brands. visualization. why hire an advertising agency? The reason can be enlisted as follows: Expertise and experience. the agency must first know all that it can about the product. giving music. powerful and compelling advertising that can be created by using the expertise. are clearly differentiated entities with which consumers can and do form a mutually beneficial relationship over time. In short its role is to provide meaningful differentiation via the consumer connection. ―Buildings age and become dilapidated. While they take up advertising for others. The agency makes the best use of their talents and experience to deliver rapidly. And the fact that 98% of advertisers the worlds over hire as agencies is proof enough about the cost effectiveness of the agencies. objectivity and professionalism of ad agencies cannot be measured economically. planners and people who get business and deal with clients working in ad agencies.M9-Advertising Management 151 UNIT 4: ADVERTISING AGENCY ADVERTISING AGENCY An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating. Agencies may be hired to produce an advertising campaign. copy or script writing. it has the copywriters.Advertising agencies are highly professional. etc. planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. editing. To understand advertising. because of the values – rational and emotional. experience. creative personal can be hires. along with other parts of what we call the marketing mix. Cost effective. Objectivity and professionalism. Brands. it cannot provide them work all through the year. People die. layout. They thus will offer independent and detached viewpoints and suggestions based on objective analysis. And the advertiser for placing the ads can buy media space or time. visualizes. They operate in a strange way. Typically advertising is playing this role. are just a few examples of the many abilities of Ad Agency personal have to offer. charge huge amounts and are often not affordable. hiring. a brand is unique. A competitor can copy a product. A product can be quickly out-dated. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. directors. Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations. This also includes planning creative strategies.An advertising agency brings together people with the required expertise and experience of the various sub-disciplines of advertising. A business organization or person will contract the services of an ad agency to help market a product. the advertising agencies plan. physical and aesthetic – that consumers derive from them. organizing and managing all talents required to produce advertising campaigns is not an easy thing. For preparing ads.If an organization wants to hire people to do its advertising. One of the first jobs is to research the product and the . ―nothing kills a bad product faster than good advertising‖. photographers. shooting of films. if successful. prepare and place ads in the media. designing. in a factory: a brand is something that is bought. An agency moulds all these people into a team and gives them a highly conducive work atmosphere. These are: Talent & Creative productions: The basic function of an Ad Agency is providing talent. a successful brand is timeless. Most advertisers assign this job of informing the target audience and creating images to advertising agencies. The creative efforts of the art director. musicians. through consumer understanding and insight and through creative and media delivery skills to provide best advice and the best execution thereof to those clients for the advertising of those brands.‖ Brands are much more than mere products and services. In order to distribute the message to the public successfully. Moreover. the detailed analysis of the research director and the political understanding of the campaign director.‖ The role of advertising and the advertising agency is to help effect this transformation from product or service to brand by clearly positioning the offering to the consumer – its role and its benefits – and by communicating the brand‘s own personality. Also the kind of consistent. So. Ad agencies being outside intermediaries can be objective. photographers. But even an advertiser can do all these things. The management can do planning of ad campaigns. by a customer. efficiently and in greater depth than a company or organization could do on its own. Thus. Machines wear out. we need to examine the functions of an Ad Agency. agencies hardly advertise themselves. Also most experts in the fields of advertising like directors. non-profit organizations and government agencies. The importance can be summed up as follows: ‖ A product is something that is made. Research: The second function of an Ad agency is research. researchers. Objectivity is a major virtue of ad agency. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES Today advertising agencies are found in virtually every major city on the world and their role in stimulating economic growth is solidly established. in highly competitive market places. This function involves processing the information collected from the client and through research and designing communication material in the form of advertisements and other publicity material. ROLE OF ADVERTISING AGENCY The major role as advertising agency is to work alongside the clients to develop and sustain the brands that they mutually serve. As one wise head in advertising once said.
Such agencies have a lot of contacts in the media and offer very low commission on media rates. In addition. In-House Agencies. Some companies solely depend on their in-house agencies for their advertising needs. the market situation and trends. its competitors. Some other companies allow their agencies to take outside jobs. Accordingly. social advertising. which take up only specialized advertising jobs. media planners keep track of the viewer ship. exhibits. One major point that differentiates a full service agency from other is that the personal work full time and the services provide are extensive. agency people prepare a media plan. In general.it is an organization that specializes in the actual creation of advertisements.there are many agencies. buying and administrative functions connected with advertising. etc. listener ship and readership of all kinds of media. In house agencies are organized according to the needs and requirements 9of the company and are staffed accordingly. it might provide other marketing services such as sales promotion. These agencies are usually small in size. a full service agency is one that handles all phases of advertising process for its clients: it plan. In short a full service agency will provide four major functions: account management. As information is the backbone of all advertising. Also large companies use their specialized negotiating talents for buying media space and time. Full service ad agency studies the product or service and determines its marketable characteristic and how it relates to the competition.M9-Advertising Management company. Creative Boutiques. a decision on whether to revise the message. Creative boutiques are different from freelancers. media planning and buying and research services. preparing and producing the ads.as the name implies. The research must even take one close to the heart of the firm‘s inner operations. verifying the advertisements appearance (publication. This plan includes which media to be used. In addition. The services usually provided by a full service agency include collecting and analyzing market data. Ad agencies are developing to reach the target audience. placing the ads in approved media. Ad agencies use research as a tool to test consumer reactions to products and services. These include: Merchandising Public relations Organizing exhibitions and fairs Preparing all kinds of publicity material Planning and organizing special events (event management) Direct marketing 152 TYPES OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES Agencies can be classified by the range of services that they offer. advertising agencies range in size from one man shows to large firms that employ thousands of people. All of these specialized campaigns are creating new demands on agencies and are requiring new talents for people who work in advertising. The organizational structure and functioning of in-house agencies are similar to full service agencies in most cases. Specialized Agencies. orders the spots on the various stations involved and monitors the stations to see if the ads actually run. broadcasting. which part of the media to be used. creates. Following this. The clients also hire creative boutiques. which concentrate only on areas and employ people with the required talents. The services sells time to the advertisers. A company that uses a creative boutique would have to employ another agency to perform the planning. 4. Media buying agencies complement the creative boutiques. etc). Clients or agencies hire these from time to time. newsletters and annual reports. 3. Full-Service Agencies. invoice the client.such agencies are owned and supervised by advertisers or the client organizations. the target audience or all of them can be made. require specialized knowledge. Here you decide what type of message you will create for the company and what media will be most helpful in sending this message to the public. 2. information about the audiences (their likes and dislikes and media habits) also need to be collected. one possibly can about both. Some of the most effective advertising includes advertisement written in their native language. This trend for special media buying agencies started in the 1970s. many agencies also offer a variety of allied services. one requires information about the product. Media Buying Agencies-it is an organization that specializes in buying radio and television time and reselling it to advertisers and advertising agencies. Certain fields like medicine. different types of advertising agencies are: 1. On the basis of the media habits (access and exposure) of the target audience. Monitoring Feedback: By monitoring consumer feedback. . boutiques create imaginative and interesting advertising themes and produce innovative and original advertisements. The advertising director of the company usually heads an in-house agency. finance. Others depend both on their in-house agency and outside agencies. collect the bills and pay the media and other suppliers. At the same time the agency studies the potential market. Distribution & Media planning: The third important function of an ad agency is distribution. when to place the ads and for how long to place the ads. So there are agencies. it‘s finding about the product and its recommendation for an advertising strategy. the agency makes a formal presentation to the client deadlines. 5. proposing strategy. Freelancers are individuals who work on their own with out any formal attachment with any agency. produces and places advertisements for its clients. the medium. to prepare ads. one must learn. trade shows. outdoor advertising. possible distribution plans and likely advertising media. Also. etc. creative development and production.
ad agencies perform a lot of internal services like financial services. Then they get the media people to prepare the media plan. often production work is done by outside organizations.Full service agencies usually have a research department. and new business opportunities. Next comes the account supervisor or Account Manager. Art directors and visualizers come up with the visual ideas. The research department collects relevant and reliable information and screens all research findings. There is. and also nurtures and inspires them. He also is the agency‘s spokesperson. they get the research done. It tries to ensure that the agency focuses its resources on the jobs on hand. creative plan and media plan approved by the client. Media Department. accounts executives or client service personnel. The media department prepares the media plan by trying to match the audience and the media. He deals with the strategy development. It then buys the media space and time.This department has the following personnel. Next comes the Assistant Account Executive. This kind of pre -research about consumer reactions to creative alternatives helps in increasing the effectiveness of the ads. thus defined division of labor. And he keeps in touch with the client on a day-to-day basis keeping them informed about the developments. Research Dept Administrative Dept Like most big organizations. The media department negotiates about the media rates. Most of the big agencies employ specialists who provide specific talents and expertise and do different functions. This is an entry-level position. The accounts department has account mangers. He assigns jobs to copywriters and visualizers and then mould and improves their work. Research Department. The accounts department looks after these aspects. They also do copy testing i. Account Manager works on a single major brand or a few smaller brands. He is a key person and the primary liaison between the client and the agency and provides working contact. personnel management and traffic management etc. the creative director is the agency‘s creative conscience. He is responsible for day-to-day activities. The next in the line is the Account Executive.creative director.M9-Advertising Management STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISING AGENCY 153 BOARD OF DIRECTORS MANAGING DIRECTORS A/C DIRECTOR OR A/C MANAGEMENT GROUP ACCOUNT EXECUTIVE Creative Dept. Creative Department. The account department works at different levels. Account management department. Production Dept. The Assistant Account Executive helps the Account Executive and mostly do leg work and rarely are involved in planning or strategy development. Thus. He stimulates the creative team to come up with better work. and get the creative people working on idea generation and execution. evaluating the effectiveness of copy before ads are released. It has become more complex as the computer has replaced printed schedules and media rate cards. He sees to it that thee agency team is on schedule and deliver things on time. art directors. It also works as a liaison between the client and the agency. planning. The creative department sometimes has an art studio to look after the print production. These days the account management department is designated as the client service department. This way the message becomes focused and appropriate to the target audience. Marketing Dept.The main job of an ad agency is to get business and maintain it. It also prepares the schedules for the appearance of the ads and sees the ads appear accordingly. Most of the research in the field of advertising concentrates on consumer attitudes and behavior. Then there are directors and producers who translate these ideas into radio and TV ads by writing the script and preparing the storyboard. At the top level is the management supervisor who reports to the management of the agency. However. etc. all these are performed by the administration . This department has to recommend the most efficient means of delivering the message to the target audience. Media Dept. They get the business. It supervises the day-to-day development of the account (business). He approves all creative work. Administration Department. Research department helps in collecting and analyzing relevant information that helps in developing strategy and the advertising message. He ensures that all assignments are completed on time. copywriters. visualizers. Also they have to get the strategy.the function of this department is a highly complex one.e. The copywriter writes copy and scripts. advertising agencies also deal with many disciplines.other than the four basic functions or services. the basic requirements for these people are strong communication skills and effective man management skills.
The account department works in close coordination with the traffic department to review deadlines and monitor progress. Tour the offices of the agencies you are interested in. See if the staff looks upbeat and excited about their job. Ask to see their work for other accounts. Humor is an important element of advertising but the agency you select should also be able to take a modest position with their clients. . The use of Internet for advertising is yet another trend. Another visible trend is the increasing use of television as an advertising medium. It's easy to be dazzled by their stellar presentations but there is more to advertising than just aesthetics. One such trend is the extensive market services. Gauge the size of the agency against the size of your company. advertisement agencies in India have a bright future considering the ever expanding Indian market and its dependence on advertisement. Write down some key words or ideas about your business that you would like an ad agency to build a campaign around. The larger the company. and with an increasing number of channels. they advise the manufactures. HOW TO SELECT AN AD AGENCY 154 A great advertising campaign can transform your company by turning on new audiences and keeping your name in the forefront of their everyday lives. promotions. 6. Going ahead. 2. Advertising agencies in India service their client by preparing slogans. It's a good sign if you can sense the enthusiasm emanating from the group. brochure and logos in a way that the brand connects well with the consumers and attracts their attention. you can choose an ad agency that is committed to your company's success. Focus on the total package that the agencies are offering during the meeting. Assess their interest in landing an account with you. too. and ethical issues in marketing research. studies and research conducted by these agencies. With its advantage of creating visual and emotional appeal. With mobile phones and FM climbing the popularity chart. These include a redefinition of the marketing researcher. The agency you ultimately decide on should understand how your company fits into the marketplace and the various ways they can address each facet of that presence to maximize revenue. qualitative research. international marketing and ethical issues. for example. Constructive criticism is healthy but if you find yourself getting bullied in the meeting. Send out a request for proposals to multiple ad agencies in your area and request a face-to-face meeting with a select few that catch your attention based on their financial speculations and brainstorms. With cable television reaching to millions of homes. one can hardly imagine the survival of a brand without advertisement. then you will probably develop a healthy (and profitable) working relationship with your team. any openly sponsored offering of goods. as well as products. 7. Before throwing a bunch of creative ideas at you. if you can picture yourself fitting into their work environment. It sends the invoices to clients and collects the payments. etc. quantitative research. With increasing competition in the market. Be on the lookout for campaigns that are campy or gimmicky in nature. it is time to move on to another prospect. more than 40 percent of total money spend on advertising is consumed by this medium. a good ad agency will have done some background research into your company and be eager to discuss it. From building a brand to promoting it advertisement agencies in India have been providing its services to its clients all over. Advertising in general means. 1. Have a discussion about your expectations and see how they respond. entrepreneurs in ancient Egypt used criers to announce ship and cargo arrivals. With about 25 million users. 4. INDIAN ADVERTISING AGENCIES In today‘s modern world of cutthroat competition and survival for fittest.M9-Advertising Management department. services. The administration department has a financial division. At its inception advertising was merely an announcement. Based on their findings. Selecting an ad agency that is in tune with your vision can be an overwhelming task at first. international marketing research. This is where advertisement agencies in India come into the picture. but by asking the right questions and staying involved in the creative process. advertising material. 5. the less likely your needs will be adequately addressed since their focus will be on more prominent accounts. It looks after prompt payment of bills and salaries. They come up with descriptive copy for sales materials. telecom firms and FM radios have joined hands with advertising agencies in India. hoarding have also become a reckoning force. technological changes. events. or ideas through any medium of public communication. advertising agencies in India is undergoing many changes. Internet marketing research. they also issues press releases for upcoming programs. Select an ad agency that is small enough to make you feel like a priority. This may well explain the growth of Graphic Design & Advertising Agencies servicing their clients with high quality professional graphics. the on-going nature of marketing research. Better yet. television is clearly the favorite medium among advertising agencies and their clients. Personal management is also an important aspect of agency and deals with recruitment. Likewise outdoor advertising like billboards. retirements and retrenchments. Internet advertising in India is increasingly on the rise. 3. The broad scope this marketing research includes quantity and quality. Apart from these activities.
business publications and billboards. When the war ended. Outdoor Publicity Wing. need. export. that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. Market research measures. automobiles. there are four. put out messages about black-outs and handle recruitment to the armed forces. tackle rumour mongering. McCann Ericsson. not create values. Indian companies need to pay attention to characteristics of the new economy like open standards.advertising agencies are precisely taking care of consumer needs and provide creative designs with concept & ideas." This also requires Indian advertising agencies to pay attention to the importance of online market research.M9-Advertising Management The invention of printing. as Internet-based communication offers "tremendous new opportunities for Indian companies via media convergence and re-intermediation. and global. international. BBDO. GLOBAL ADVERTISING Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic. Young & Rubican. Research Wing. After the influence of salesmanship began to insert itself into public notice in the 18th cent. The challenge for Indian advertising agencies in the coming years is to be able to target the rural market as well as the sophisticated urban market who may have Internet access. television and radio. magazines. the present elaborate form of advertising began to evolve. and oil products. multi-national. that it can create a new market for products that fill a genuine.with growing business competition it has become necessary to ensure right media mix to each target audience. The largest group of advertisers are the food marketers. elements of the ad. Leo Burnett and a host of others all have a major presence in the Indian market. the Government of India asked the leading advertisement agencies to form a consortium and set up a publicity unit in Shimla to handle war propaganda. soaps. tobacco. Distribution Wing and Language Wing in addition to the Audio Visual Publicity Cell. however. developing economies of scale in the creative process. IT came into being in 1955. The Indian viewership exhibits a brand name recognition of both foreign and domestic products and services. Advertising in India is a highly competitive business. audience profiles. Once one knows what works in an ad. Advertisers in India reach about 75 per cent of the population through television. may be actually harmful (such as cigarettes). followed by marketers of drugs and cosmetics. Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions. Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. Its work is further facilitated by two regional distribution centres at KOLKATA and CHENNAI. and that it furthers product improvement through free competition.. J W Thompson. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies of scale are maximised. maximising local effectiveness of ads. At the time of the Second World War. and almost the entire population through radio. its defenders say that advertising is meant to sell products.IT has its headquarters and regional offices in DELHI and Regional offices in Bangalore and Guwahati. and opinion polls available to marketers. and importing ideas that travel. may be said to have ushered in modern advertising. not verbal.Indian advertising agencies need to wake up to the challenges posed by global economic trends and emerging interactive technologies like the Internet. appliances. the sophistication of advertising in India is at par with world standards. has been chiefly responsible for this evolution. this consortium was converted into its present form. DIRECTORATE OF ADVERTISING AND VISUAL PUBLICITY (DAVP) 155 The Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) is the nodal agency of the Government of India for advertising by various Ministries and organisations of Government of India including public sector undertakings and autonomous bodies. producing local executions. in fact. Today. Lintas. Mass Mailing Wing. The major criticisms of advertising are that it creates false values and impels people to buy things they neither need nor want and that. In reply. since new media like the Net are bound to affect people's perceptions of advertising. With value added information such as television rating points. Advertising on the internet is the most cost-efficient way of reaching customers all over the world including ones own country. such as Flow of Attention. Certain televised programs enjoy a viewership of more than 100 million. The DIRECTORATE includes an Exhibition Wing. and volatility. For global advertisers. The advertising agencies. though latent. Today with the increasing consumer awareness no business can survive for long without advertising . The major Indian advertising media are newspapers. . The world's leading advertising agencies Ogilvy & Mather. and increasing the company‘s speed of implementation. potentially competing. working on a commission basis. business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice. Flow of Emotion and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual. digitalization.
wе саn see a major economic infrastructure based around advertising. Sο. Fοr instance. subsidize advertising bу compensating a grossly increased price fοr heavily advertised goods аnd services. And all these credits goes to proper advertising. funding fοr thе media аnd stimulating аn active аnd competitive nation. thе impact οf advertising οn οur society іѕ іn a muddle form. Without advertisement not a single farm or company can grow in this world of competition. Our society аnd thе marketing οf products depend very tеrrіblу upon advertising. Charities can use media to advertise about the illnesses and encourage people for donations. whеn organizations subsidize thе mass media wіth advertising. An simple example οf thіѕ іѕ thаt a box οf Omo washing powder generally expenditure around two tο three dollars whіlе thе promote price οf thе product wοuld bе seven tο eight dollars. which consumer will get from that product. TB.Its Impact on Society Every time you switch on the TV and you will see some products being pushed on you with some assurance. іn whісh thе hugе companies fund аnd subsidize thе commercial media bу thе way οf advertisements. etc. It can also be used to educate people about certain diseases or danger (example: . rather than the product itself. Thе chief unfavorable judgment fοr advertising іѕ thаt іt hales thе public tο buу things thаt thеу аrе nοt thеіr real want. but іt аlѕο hаѕ ѕοmе economic advantages. This is advertising. In οthеr words. If it has some positive aspect of social and economical impact on society then it do have some negative impact also.). Advertising has clear аѕ well аѕ negative. They can decide which product they need and why. Social organizations and NGOs can use the mean of advertisement for promoting their campaigns. mοѕt lіkеlу concentrates thе exhilaration. Thеrе аrе nοt οnlу social benefits οf advertising. wе.AIDS. Thе fact behind thіѕ іѕ thаt thе remaining proportion goes іn heavy advertising іn television аnd print media. Diseases like Polio could never been controlled if the timings for polio drops aren‘t advertised regularly. Fοr example. Seeking help through advertisement during epidemics or natural calamities can help a lot. products can be known to public easily. Advertising. Advertising can also be used to generate awareness among public that which product they use and to which product they can say no. Thе source οf thіѕ contention іѕ thаt. It іѕ arrogated thаt advertising plays wіth emotions аnd encourages people tο rесkοn thаt buying аnd depleting аrе thе activities οf life. reputation аnd social progression іt mау bring tο thе buyer. This gives companies a way to expose their products to people and hence maximize their sales. Without advertising. Advertising can also be used to inform public about social events like concerts and performances. аn automobile advertisement adverting thе mechanical attributes οf a vehicle. thе purchaser. Advertising is a mass marketing technique. іt саn bе used tο generate awareness amongst thе public thаt whісh product іѕ OK οr tο whісh thеу ѕhοuld ѕау NO. οr involving thе opposite gender tο attract thе consumers wіth thе ехсеllеnt-looking women/men‘s fancy car. They focus more on the benefits. Thеѕе techniques usually give attention tο thе benefits thаt wοuld bе brought tο thе consumers very thаn focusing οn thе real products. television аnd radio wοuld never bе much strong. Aѕ far аѕ economic factors аrе concerned. Through advertising. . Thіѕ swarming advancement іѕ habitually sexual. Advertising provides revenue fοr commercial mediums whісh wοuld otherwise need tο bе funded bу thе real consumer οf thеѕе mediums. Advertisers аlѕο rесk οn thаt thеrе аrе clear impacts οf advertising οn οur society аnd culture. thеу state thаt people аrе competent enough tο set thеіr mind аnd nο one саn force thеm tο buу anything whісh thеу dislike οr whісh thеу rесkοn іѕ not a necessity. thе media. Assorted techniques are used for advertising which persuades the consumers that why they need the product which is being advertised. including newspapers. Even the backward people are now aware of many diseases and their problems. Sο. social аnd economic impacts οn οur society. According tο advertisers. Like every other thing it has also some positive as well some negative points. Advertising a public welfare program has positive social impact whereas exposing woman in an advertisement has negative impact on society. the word ‗Advertising‘ has be converted into a fiercely mooted topic. аrе thе major examples. Advertising is the promotion of product or services. Thе companies hаνе bе converted іntο much dependent οf advertising thаt even іtѕ negative impacts саn never outweigh thе many clear social аnd economic effects. Advertising is the mostly debated topic now. depending οn thе functions аnd implementations οf numerous campaigns. viral diseases. Thus increasing the consumption and as a result also increasing the demand of the product. advertising аlѕο acts аѕ аn educator іn thе sense thаt іt educates people whаt іѕ ехсеllеnt аnd whаt іѕ tеrrіblе fοr thеm аnd puts a ceiling οn thе harmful products lіkе smoking аnd drinking etc. Thеrе аrе various blames thаt advertising іѕ causing a negative social impact οn thе lives.M9-Advertising Management 156 UNIT 5: ETHICS IN ADVERTISING SOCIAL IMPACTS OF ADVERTISING In recent times. Considering advertising аѕ a public welfare іѕ a clear social impact whereas exposing women аѕ a sex tool comes аt thе negative side. Thе major economic negative aspect οf advertising іѕ thаt іt boosts thе price οf goods аnd services. Assorted techniques аrе enforced fοr persuading consumers thаt thеу want thе product whісh іѕ being advertised. Your mind is being sold to these advertisers.
advertisers naturally seek to reach audiences. for example. or entity). and — while these purposes are distinguishable — both very often are simultaneously present. Advertising also has an indirect but powerful impact on society through its influence on media. They condemn advertising as a waste of time. But. that is ice-cream. does act as a mirror. shown below. because we always just want to have more. especially among those neglected. ETHICS AND MORALS OF ADVERTISING 157 The field of advertising is extremely broad and diverse. can divert the society a lot. Advertising is not the same as marketing (the complex of commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producers and consumers) or public relations (the systematic effort to create a favorable public impression or image of some person. must shape their content so to attract audiences of the size and demographic composition sought. where sexuality is shown much than the actual theme of the movie. advertising has two basic purposes: to inform and to persuade. The balance. like the media of social communications in general. We are starving for material goals. For example. advertising itself is of several different kinds: commercial advertising for products and services. but with different forms. For their part. of what is necessary and what really not needed should be focused more. Materialism is being much glorified through advertisements. It is true that advertising increases consumption. The Benefits of Advertising Enormous human and material resources are devoted to advertising. and the almost inevitable impression in commercial advertising that an abundance of possessions leads to happiness and fulfillment can be both misleading and frustrating. Products which are heavily advertised are expensive due to the cost spent on advertising. . because if demand increases production also increases." Even people who are not themselves exposed to particular forms of advertising confront a society. Advertising can be very simple — a local. it is a mirror that helps shape the reality it reflects. though. So. Here are some of the ways that happens. Many publications and broadcasting operations depend on advertising revenue for survival. "No one now can escape the influence of advertising. Not only are many different media and techniques employed in advertising. of course. Thus the need of raw materials also increases. Some critics view this state of affairs in unrelieved negative terms. the more we destroy the environment. It differs according to its intended audience. but it‘s also true that the more we consume. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture. Advertising posters of modern films.an essentially parasitic activity. One can judge from them that which one have positive and which one can have negative impact on society. as Pope Paul VI remarked. group. Even if advertising has a vast good impacts on society. Both of them are of same products. public service advertising on behalf of various institutions.M9-Advertising Management There are also various blames that advertising is causing negative social impact on lives. promoting some while ignoring others. This often is true of religious media as well as commercial media. it is a technique or instrument employed by one or both of these. We want to earn more and more money so that we can buy happiness in forms of products. not only does advertising have no value of its own. even neighborhood. affected for good or ill by advertising messages and techniques of every sort. Our society and the marketing of products depend so badly on advertisement that even its negative impact on society can‘t outweigh the many positive social and economical effects. No doubt advertising. In this view. we can say that advertising has positive as well as negative impact on society. so that. and the media. Advertising is everywhere in today's world. talent and money . and sometimes it is realized. an advertisement is simply a public notice meant to convey information and invite patronage or some other response. There are two advertisements. and sometimes it presents a distorted image of reality. the absence from advertising of certain racial and ethnic groups in some multi-racial or multi-ethnic societies can help to create problems of image and identity. which can again have dangerous consequences Society is becoming ignorant towards social or world issues because we are too obsessed to satisfy our newly created needs. This economic dependency of media and the power it confers upon advertisers carries with it serious responsibilities for both. As that suggests. being advertised as they can bring all the happiness in our lives. it can be ruled out that is has bad impact also. programs. striving to deliver audiences to advertisers. also like media in general. involving sophisticated research and multimedia campaigns that span the globe. a culture. so that. In general terms. It plays with the emotions of general public and encourages them to think that buying and depleting are the activities of life. But advertising also has significant potential for good. and causes. other people. advertising aimed at children raises some technical and moral issues significantly different from those raised by advertising aimed at competent adults. In many cases. Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be fostered and encouraged.' phenomenon — or it can be very complex. but also its influence is entirely harmful and corrupting for individuals and society. and — a phenomenon of growing importance today — political advertising in the interests of parties and candidates. Advertisement can create contentment but can also simultaneously create discontentment.
If it can have. of charity toward the needy. In such a system.provided they conform to moral standards based upon integral human development. fashion. helping them to make informed. c) Cultural Benefits of Advertising Because of the impact advertising has on media that depend on it for revenue. compassion and neighborly service. b) Harms of Political Advertising Political advertising can support and assist the working of the democratic process. prudent consumer decisions. it also can. and particularly by encouraging and making possible media presentations which are oriented to minorities whose needs might otherwise go unserved. and often does. which today either exist or are emerging in many parts of the world and which . higher incomes and a more decent and humane way of life for all. advertising is used not simply to inform but to persuade and motivate — to convince people to act in certain ways: buy certain products or services. This happens when.messages of faith. benevolent social institutions. the costs of advertising limit political competition to wealthy candidates or groups. Advertising can brighten lives simply by being witty. Often there are only negligible differences among similar products of different brands. and the like. tasteful and entertaining. but it also can obstruct it. instead of being a vehicle for honest expositions of candidates' views and records. It happens when advertising appeals more to people's emotions and base instincts — to selfishness. including those of a religious nature. d) Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising In many cases. advertising can be a useful tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth in the service of authentic human development. of patriotism. have a negative. too. More often. The harm done by Advertising There is nothing intrinsically good or intrinsically evil about advertising. patronize certain institutions. All of these can contribute to the creation of new jobs. and it can be used badly. Political advertising can make its contribution by informing people about the ideas and policy proposals of parties and candidates.) instead of presenting differences in product quality and price as bases for rational choice. a) Economic Harms of Advertising Advertising can betray its role as a source of information by misrepresentation and by withholding relevant facts. c) Cultural Harms of Advertising Advertising also can have a corrupting influence upon culture and cultural values. political advertising seeks to distort the views and records of opponents and unjustly attacks their reputations. constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in a variety of beneficial ways. beneficial results such as those just described. It is a tool. aesthetic and moral quality presented with the public interest in view." status. use advertising to communicate their messages . messages concerning health and education. by informing people about the availability of rationally desirable new products and services and improvements in existing ones. for example. or require that office-seekers compromise their integrity and independence by over-dependence on special interests for funds. bias and hostility toward others. It is a necessary part of the functioning of modern market economies. advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to act in ways that benefit themselves and others. the information function of media can be subverted by advertisers' pressure upon publications or programs not to treat of questions that might prove embarrassing or inconvenient. and sometimes does have. though. b) Benefits of Political Advertising Political advertising can make a contribution to democracy. Advertising does this. In the competition to attract ever-larger audiences and deliver them to advertisers." etc.M9-Advertising Management a) Economic Benefits of Advertising Advertising can play an important role in the process by which an economic system guided by moral norms and responsive to the common good contributes to human development. This is where particular abuses can occur. to racial and ethnic prejudice and the like — rather than to a reasoned sense of justice and the good of all. Moreover. "sex appeal. to its contribution to economic well being in a market system guided by moral norms. Such obstruction of the democratic process also happens when. This they do by supporting material of excellent intellectual. The practice of "brand"-related advertising can raise serious problems. contributing to efficiency and the lowering of prices. The indirect but powerful influence exerted by advertising upon the media of social communications that depend on revenues from this source points to another sort of cultural concern. subtly or not so subtly — to set aside high artistic and moral standards and lapse into superficiality. of tolerance. harmful impact on individuals and society. and advertising may attempt to move people to act on the basis of irrational motives ("brand loyalty. 158 . and stimulating economic progress through the expansion of business and trade. too. including new candidates not previously known to the public. an instrument: it can be used well. Sometimes. communicators can find themselves tempted — in fact pressured. We have spoken of the economic harm that can be done to developing nations by advertising that fosters consumerism and destructive patterns of consumption. advertisers have an opportunity to exert a positive influence on decisions about media content.
c) Advertising and Social Responsibility Advertising that fosters a lavish life style which wastes resources and despoils the environment offends against important ecological concerns. too.. some of the comparatively little advertising directed specifically to the elderly or culturally disadvantaged seems designed to play upon their fears so as to persuade them to allocate some of their limited resources to goods or services of dubious value. We note. People take for granted some rhetorical and symbolic exaggeration in advertising. We shall speak briefly of three: truthfulness. advertising sometimes is used to promote products and inculcate attitudes and forms of behavior contrary to moral norms." Advertising can violate the dignity of the human person both through its content — what is advertised. some advertising is simply and deliberately untrue. based on the dignity of the person and on the proper identity of each community." Ethical Advertising Standard Definitions For the purpose of this standard: • The term "advertisement" is taken in its broadest sense. status seeking and lust. too. destructive vision of the human person harmful to individuals and society alike. This problem is especially acute where particularly vulnerable groups or classes of persons are concerned: children and young people. This often is true of the way advertising treats women. the manner in which it is advertised — and through the impact it seeks to make upon its audience. d) Moral and Religious Harms of Advertising Advertising can be tasteful and in conformity with high moral standards. perverse. like other forms of expression. Within this very general framework. When people fail to practice "a rigorous respect for the moral. or his capacity to reflect and decide compromised. Also. both in and by advertising. but it also can be vulgar and morally degrading. • The term "consumer" refers to any person to whom an advertisement is addressed or who can reasonably be expected to be reached by it whether as a final consumer or as a trade customer or user. Much advertising directed at children apparently tries to exploit their credulity and suggestibility. and the culturally disadvantaged. and occasionally even morally uplifting. some advertisers consciously seek to shock and titillate by exploiting content of a morbid. and social responsibility. a) Truthfulness in Advertising Even today. In cases of the second sort. commercial advertisers sometimes include religious themes or use religious images or personages to sell products. but that it can distort the truth by implying things that are not so or withholding relevant facts. and means any form of advertising for goods or services. cultural and spiritual requirements. In cases of the first sort. b) The Dignity of the Human Person There is an "imperative requirement" that advertising "respect the human person. this can be allowable. 159 . certain special problems relating to advertising that treats of religion or pertains to specific issues with a moral dimension. we can identify several moral principles that are particularly relevant to advertising. acceptable ways. regardless of the medium used. Advertising like this offends against the dignity and rights of both children and parents. is a frequent. but the practice is obnoxious and offensive when it involves exploiting religion or treating it flippantly. • The term "product" refers to any good or service. in the hope that they will put pressure on their parents to buy products of no real benefit to them. deplorable abuse. and these must be taken into account when discussing truthfulness. his interior freedom. man consumes the resources of the earth and his own life in an excessive and disordered way. the problem of truth in advertising is somewhat more subtle: it is not that advertising says what is overtly false. all these goods would be violated if man's lower inclinations were to be exploited. the dignity of the human person. has its own conventions and forms of stylization. Today. Frequently it deliberately appeals to such motives as envy. Man thinks that he can make arbitrary use of the earth" Advertising that reduces human progress to acquiring material goods and cultivating a lavish life style expresses a false. "In his desire to have and to enjoy rather than to be and grow.M9-Advertising Management All too often. advertising contributes to the invidious stereotyping of particular groups that places them at a disadvantage in relation to others.. the poor. the elderly. To be sure. though. It is possible to do this in tasteful. . advertising. Generally speaking. and the exploitation of women. beginning with the family and religious societies. within the limits of recognized and accepted practice." then even material abundance and the conveniences that technology makes available "will prove unsatisfying and in the end contemptible. pornographic nature. his right duty to make a responsible choice. it intrudes upon the parent-child relationship and seeks to manipulate it to its own base ends.
160 . trade marks. • Advertisements should not (without justifiable reason) play on fear. quantity." Testimonials: Advertisements should not contain or refer to any testimonial or endorsement unless it is genuine. trade name or other intellectual property.. it should be so presented that it will be readily recognized as an advertisement. Decency: Advertisements should not contain statements or visual presentations. which offend prevailing standards of decency. e. decent. or to encourage unlawful or reprehensible behavior. Honest: Advertisements should be so framed as not to abuse the trust of consumers or exploit their lack of experience or knowledge. Identification of advertisement: Advertisements should be clearly distinguishable as such. Points of comparison should be based on facts that can be substantiated and should not be unfairly selected. • Terms of guarantee. etc. • Official recognition or approval. nor should advertisements without prior permission depict or refer to any person's property in a way likely to convey the impression of a personal endorsement. prizes and diplomas. • Advertisements should not play on superstition. efficiency and performance. visual presentation. No advertisement should be such as to impair public confidence in advertising. sex or age.g. 2. nor should advertisements take advantage of the goodwill earned by other advertising campaigns. range of use. Safety and health: Advertisements should not without reason. Comparisons: Advertisements containing comparisons should be so designed that the comparison is not likely to mislead. which show a disregard for safety or health. religion. thus preventing them from extending their campaigns within a reasonable period of time to such countries. Inexperience and Credulity • Advertisements should not exploit the inexperience or credulity of children and young people. • Advertisements should not understate the degree of skill or age level generally required to use or enjoy the product. nor should they in any way undermine human dignity. logo and/or trademarks of another firm. company or institution nor should advertisements in any way take undue advantage of another firm. "unassembled. Testimonials or endorsements that have become obsolete or misleading through passage of time should not be used. commercial or geographical origin or environmental impact. • Delivery. • Copyright and industrial property rights such as patents.. Imitation: Advertisements should not imitate the general layout. Where advertisers have established distinctive advertising campaigns in one or more countries. unless prior permission has been obtained. repair and maintenance. Portrayal or imitation of personal property: Advertisements should not portray or refer to any persons. ambiguity or exaggerated claim is likely to mislead the consumer. designs and models and trade names. other advertisers should not unduly imitate these campaigns in the other countries where the former may operate. Social Responsibility: • Advertisements should not condone any form of discrimination. Children and young people: The following provisions apply to advertisements addressed to children and young people who are minors under the applicable national law. music and sound effects. person or institution's goodwill in its name. omission. exchange. national origin. awards of medals. • Advertisements should not appear to condone or incite violence. return. the advertising should disclose that fact. composition. text. Exploitation of goodwill: Advertisements should not make unjustifiable use of the name. contain any visual presentation or any description of dangerous practices or of situations. honest and truthful. whatever their form and whatever the medium used. Truthful presentation: Advertisements should not contain any statement or visual presentation. and should comply with the principles of fair competition. slogan. Unassembled Merchandise: When advertised merchandise requires partial or complete assembly by the purchaser.M9-Advertising Management Basic Principles 1. including that based upon race. as generally accepted in business. initials. Scientific terms should not be used to falsely ascribe scientific validity to advertising claims. method and date of manufacture. justifiable on educational or social grounds. • The extent of benefits for charitable causes. which directly or by implication. Every advertisement should be prepared with a due sense of social responsibility and should conform to the principles of fair competition. Advertisements should not misuse research results or quotations from technical and scientific publications. of any other advertisements in a way that is likely to mislead or confuse the consumer. relevant and based on personal experience or knowledge. whether in a private or a public capacity. verifiable. All advertising should be legal. • The value of the product and the total price actually to be paid. in particular with regard to: • Characteristics such as: nature. when an advertisement appears in a medium which contains news or editorial matter. Statistics should not be so presented as to exaggerate the validity of advertising claims." "partial assembly required.
. or are available to the purchaser in writing at the point of sale. Commonly known abbreviations may be used in advertising. Advertisers should have such substantiation available so that they can produce evidence without delay to the self-regulatory bodies responsible for the operation of the Code. or come with the goods. including testimonials and statements or visual presentations originating from other sources. or descriptions should not be so placed in an advertisement as to give the impression that the price or terms of featured merchandise apply to other merchandise in the advertisement when such is not the fact. Guarantees: Advertisements should not contain any reference to a guarantee. nature. Responsibility: Responsibility for the observance of the rules of conduct laid down in the Code rests with the advertiser. so arranged as to give the impression that the lower price or more favorable terms apply to the other merchandise. who publish.. or given the impression that they are obliged to accept and pay for these products. • If extra items are needed to use it (e. • Publishers. media owner or contractor. paint) this should be made clear. transmit or distribute advertisements should exercise due care in the acceptance of advertisements and their presentation to the public. Alarmist Marketing: An advertiser should not engage in speculation or provide information intended to cause alarm and force action. Such actions include overstating the legal implications of a non-defined action. No advertisements should imply that the advertised product is immediately within reach of every family budget. or of encouraging them to consort with strangers or to enter strange or hazardous places. • Price indication should not be such as to lead children and young people to an unreal perception of the true value of the product. • Advertisers should take the overall responsibility for their advertising. efficacy. Claimed Results: Claims as to energy savings. for instance. durability and performance of the advertised product. An advertisement should not be used which features merchandise at a price or terms boldly displayed. "warranty" or "warranted" or words having the same meaning only if the full terms of the guarantee as well as the remedial action open to the purchaser are clearly set out in the advertisements. Layout and Illustrations: The composition and layout of advertisements should be such as to minimize the possibility of misunderstanding by the reader.g. performance. • Advertising practitioners or agencies should exercise every care in the preparation of advertisements and should operate in such a way as to enable advertisers to fulfill their responsibilities. publishing or transmitting of an advertisement have a degree of responsibility commensurate with their positions for ensuring that the rules of the Code are observed and should act accordingly. batteries) or to produce the result shown or described (e. morally or physically or of bringing them into unsafe situations or activities seriously threatening their health or security. the advertisement should represent what is reasonably attainable by the average child or young person in the age range for which the product is intended. abbreviations not generally known to or understood by the general public should be avoided. selfregulating codes or generally accepted standards of environmentally responsible behavior. which is not in itself inherently deceptive. • A product that is part of a series should be clearly indicated. The fact that the content or form originates wholly or in part from other sources is not an excuse for nonobservance of the rules. safety. engineering or other objective data. results. "guaranteed". etc. and the publisher. The asterisk or other reference symbol should not be used as a means of contradicting or substantially changing the meaning of any advertising statement. However. which will be obtained by or realized from a particular product or service should be based on recent and competent scientific. • Where results of product use are shown or described. Information referenced by asterisks should be clearly and prominently disclosed. when such is not the fact. illustrations. which contravene the law. they cannot excuse the original contravention of the Code. claims or illustrations relating to verifiable facts should be capable of substantiation. 161 .g. Substantiation: Descriptions. together with illustrations of higher-priced merchandise. Effect of subsequent redresses for contravention: While an advertiser's subsequent correction and appropriate redress for a contravention of the Code is desirable. medium-owners or contractors. by using the word 'only'. Environmental behavior: Advertisements should not appear to approve or encourage actions. Asterisks and Abbreviations: An asterisk may be used to impart additional information about a word or term. the advertising practitioner or agency. For example. creation. Unsolicited products: Advertisements should not be used to introduce or support the practice whereby unsolicited products are sent to persons who are required. value. Rules apply to entirety of advertisement: The responsibility for observance of the rules of the Code embraces the advertisement in its entire content and form. Avoidance of Harm: Advertisements should not contain any statement or visual presentation that could have the effect of harming children and young people mentally.M9-Advertising Management • Special care should be taken to ensure that advertisements do not mislead children and young people as to the true size. Those employed within a firm. as should the method of acquiring the series. company or institution coming under the above three categories and who take part in the planning. Advertisements may contain the word "guarantee". prices. which does not provide the consumer with additional rights to those provided by law.
feeding bottle or infant food Some Advertising Regulations: • Advertising minutes per hour: 12 minutes including 2 minutes of programme promos. Advertisements which do not comply with these rules or which offend morality. and there can be no advertisements five minutes before or after a children‘s program is aired. reference should also be made to ‗the laws of the country‘. Indecent. timing. the Consumer Protection Act. sale or consumption of the following products are explicitly forbidden: Cigarettes. caste. false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. the Constitution of India. Some European countries don‘t allow sponsorship of children‘s programs. colour. and content.‘ Claims relating to special.M9-Advertising Management Advertising is rated on the following 10 attributes: • Being likeable • Being believable • Being easy to understand • Being unique & distinctive • Providing new information • Having appetite appeal • Offering good deals • Motivating purchase interest • Improving the chain's image • Overall basis ADVERTISING REGULATION 162 Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. There are many regulations throughout the rest of Europe as well. Advertisements which promote the production. Advertisements wholly or mainly of a religious or political nature are explicitly disallowed. Many communities have their own rules. vulgar. In many non-Western countries. In the United States. in most instances therefore choosing to focus around the brand image and associative benefits instead of those aligned with consumption. creed. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. decency and religious susceptibilities of subscribers will not be allowed. No portrayal of violating traffic rules must be made. For a full understanding of the regulatory issues. no advertisement can be aimed at children under the age of twelve. breach the law or glorify violence or obscenity in any way. As such. • Tobacco: Prohibited • Alcohol: Prohibited • Contraception: Not mentioned explicitly. Similarly alcohol advertisers in the United Kingdom are not allowed to discuss in a campaign the relative benefits of drinking. advertisers are encouraged to depict advertisements in a manner which promotes safe practices. Regulations such as those relating to motoring advertising are relevant across several general categories: ‗Advertisements have a significant influence on people‘s behaviour. 1994‘ and no programme is allowed to carry advertisements exceeding 10 minutes per hour in addition to two minutes per hour of a channels selfpromotional programmes. Sweden and Norway prohibit domestic advertising that targets children. In the United Kingdom advertising of tobacco on television. such as placement. repulsive or offensive themes or treatment shall be avoided in all advertisements. Care must be taken not to incite people to crime. any part of the Constitution. Criminality must not be presented as desirable. alcohol. . particularly for outdoor advertising. 1986 and also the standards of practice for advertising agencies as approved by the Advertising Agencies Association of India. The national emblem. or the person or personality of a national leader or a State dignitary must not be exploited. based in Mumbai. • Advertising revenue restrictions: No limitations. In addition. The most explicit guidelines relate to food and beverage advertising targeting children (see below). Rules can define a wide number of different aspects. miraculous or super-natural properties or qualities that would be difficult to prove must not be included in advertising. women and children are all protected. tobacco products Wine. Advertising Regulations in India General principles and some specific rules are given in the ‗Cable Television Network Rules. liquor or other intoxicants Infant milk substitutes. cause disorder or violence. Religion. the picture and the audible matter of the advertisement shall not be excessively ‗loud‘. Social evils such as dowry or child marriage must not be exploited. billboards or at sporting events is banned. Safe practices such as the wearing of helmets and fastening of seatbelts and not using mobiles/cell phones when driving should be depicted. nationality. • Food and Beverage: All nutritional claims in food and beverage advertisements need to be substantiated scientifically. Unless a food product has been nutritionally designed as a meal replacement. it should not be portrayed as such. suggestive. race. a wide-variety of linguistic and non-linguistic strategies are used to mock and undermine regulations.
The AAAI also established the "AAAI Press" in association with the MIT Press in 1979 to produce books of relevance to artificial intelligence research. It has in excess of 6. Ads should not encourage pester power nor imply duty or obligation. The CCC‘s decision on complaint against any ad is final. The previous president is Eric Horvitz. the complaint is upheld or not upheld and if upheld then the ad is voluntarily either withdrawn or modified. . and is within the well established norms of good taste and decency. advertising agencies. ADVERTISING STANDARDS COUNCIL OF INDIA (ASCI) Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) is a self-regulatory voluntary organization of the advertising industry. improve the teaching and training of AI practitioners. Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy. which is written in such a way that it allows researchers to broaden the scope of their knowledge beyond their sub-fields. and the president elect is Manuela Veloso. the president is Henry Kautz. journalists. safe for consumers . the Government of India amended the Cable TV Network Rules‘ Advertising Code by which ads which violate ASCI code cannot be permitted on TV. Ads for food should not show or encourage over-consumption. submissive qualities and encourages them to play a subordinate. lawyers. the Consumer Complaints Council (CCC) and its Secretariat. ASCI founded in 1985. scientific society devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines.especially children and last but not the least. four each representing the key sectors such as Advertisers. There is no other non governmental body in India which regulates the advertising content that is released in India. consulting. In 2007. Additionally. The AAAI sponsors many conferences and symposia each year as well as providing support to 14 journals in the field of artificial intelligence. Their mandate is that all advertising material must be truthful. static or moving alongside the programme. AAAI also aims to increase public understanding of artificial intelligence (AI). Women must not be portrayed in a manner that emphasises passive. Visual representation of foods and beverages should be true to fact. If an ad that is released in India seems objectionable. in the programmes carried in his cable service. ASCI also has its own independent Secretariat of 5 members which is headed by the Secretary General. consumer activists. The organization was founded in 1979 under the name "American Association for Artificial Intelligence" and changed its name in 2007 to "Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence". AAAI organises the "AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence". the AAAI produces a quarterly publication. which is considered to be one of the top conferences in the field of artificial intelligence. The CCC currently has about 21 members: 9 are from within the industry and 12 are from the civil society like well-known doctors. academicians. The three main constituents of advertising industry viz advertisers. sugar and salt. fair to their competitors. advertising agencies and media came together to form this independent NGO. ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AAAI) 163 The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence or AAAI is an international. The cable operator shall ensure that the portrayal of the female form. Edward Feigenbaum. Care needs to be taken in the advertising of food and beverages to children under 13 especially ones containing relatively high levels of fat. Members of ASCI ASCI‘s team consists of the Board of Governors . media and allied professions such as market research. • Women: No advertisement will be allowed which in its depiction of women violates the constitutional guarantees to all citizens. India too has a self regulatory organization (SRO) for advertising content – The Advertising Standards Council of India. nonprofit. business education etc. secondary role in the family and society. AAAI works with other AI organizations worldwide to put together the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI). This magazine was first published in 1980. Advertising to children should portray accurately the products in a way that is in keeping with their ability to understand. is tasteful and aesthetic. legal and honest. No advertisement shall be permitted which projects a derogatory image of women.000 members worldwide. the organization was presided over by notable figures in computer science such as Allen Newell.M9-Advertising Management • Children: Any advertisement which endangers the safety of children or creates in them any interest in unhealthy practices or shows them begging or in an undignified or indecent manner shall not be carried in the cable service. decent and not objectify women. AI Magazine. ASCI has 12 members in its the Board of Governors. The AAAI provides many services to the Artificial Intelligence community. a person can write to ASCI with their complaint. and provide guidance for research planners and funders concerning the importance and potential of current AI developments and future directions. Parental guidance in ensuring proper food choices for children should not be undermined. This complaint will be deliberated on by the CCC after providing due process to advertiser to defend the ad against the complaint and depending on whether the ad is in alignment with the ASCI code and law of the land. etc. Every other year. In its early history. The aim of ASCI is to maintain and enhance the public's confidence in advertising. • Product Placement: All advertisement should be clearly distinguishable from the programme and should not in any manner interfere with the programme such as the use of lower part of screen to carry captions. Like other countries around the world.
It will also ensure the protection of consumer interests and the all concerned with the ad industry . Need for ASCI When an advertiser is creating an ad. If a consumer feels that a particular advertisement is in bad taste or is false in its claims. if necessary. it will result in fewer false claims. In 1985. This led to consumers losing faith in advertising and hence resenting it. 164 .advertisers. ASCI as a self regulatory body governing advertising content is the ideal medium as its purpose is to serve both the advertisers as well as the consumers. the aim is to promote honest and decent advertising and fair competition in the industry. the consumer is his audience. fewer unfair advertisements and increased respect for advertisers. It was decided that if this continued it would not take time for statutory regulations such as censorship to be imposed on advertising content. This would make fair. ASCI to be imposed on advertisers and advertising agencies. until 1985 there was none. media. advertising agencies and others who help in the creation or placement of advertisements. Due to this there was a lot of false. For the advertising fraternity.M9-Advertising Management Self-Regulation Almost all professional fields have self regulatory bodies governing their activities. With the introduction of the code. they need a body or council to whom they can air their grievances and who will take any appropriate action. misleading and offensive advertising. the ASCI adopted a Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising. The feedback from a consumer is important to the advertiser so he can be assured if his message has been correctly conveyed. As the fraternity starts accepting the code. In 1985. truthful and decent advertising almost impossible which would in turn hinder the industry‘s ability to compete and grow.