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**A Brief Introduction Cahlen Humphreys
**

Department of Mathematics Boise State University Boise, ID 83725, USA

December 20, 2012

What do they look like?

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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What do they look like?

Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + b0 b1 b2 a3 + b3 .. .

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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What do they look like?

Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + b0 b1 b2 a3 +

b3 .. . a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . and b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . may be real or complex numbers, and may be ﬁnite or inﬁnite.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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What do they look like?

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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**What do they look like?
**

Finite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + .. 1 1 1 1 .+ 1 an−1 + 1 an

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**What do they look like?
**

Finite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + .. 1 1 1 1 .+ 1 an−1 + a0 may be positive, negative, or zero. 1 an

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**What do they look like?
**

Finite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + .. 1 1 1 1 .+ 1 an−1 + a0 may be positive, negative, or zero. a1 , a2 , . . . , an are all positive. 1 an

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**What do they look like?
**

Finite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + .. 1 1 1 1 .+ 1 an−1 + a0 may be positive, negative, or zero. a1 , a2 , . . . , an are all positive. Finite - rational number.

C. Humphreys (BSU) Continued Fractions December 20, 2012 3 / 47

1 an

What do they look like?

Inﬁnite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + 1 1 1 a3 + 1 ..

.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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What do they look like?

Inﬁnite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + 1 1 1 a3 + a0 may be positive, negative, or zero. 1 ..

.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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What do they look like?

Inﬁnite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + 1 1 1 a3 + a0 may be positive, negative, or zero. a1 , a2 , . . . , an are all positive. 1 ..

.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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What do they look like?

Inﬁnite Simple Continued Fraction: a0 + a1 + a2 + 1 1 1 a3 + a0 may be positive, negative, or zero. a1 , a2 , . . . , an are all positive. Inﬁnite - irrational number. 1 ..

.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Compact notation

We can write, a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + .. 1 1 1 1 .+ 1 an−1 + much more eﬃciently as [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ] 1 an

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Continued Fractions

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Partial Quotients

Given the continued fraction [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ] we call a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an partial quotients.

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Continued Fractions

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Even and Odd Continued Fractions

We deﬁne even and odd continued fractions by how many partial quotients they have. Let α = [a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , an ] and if n is even, then we have that α is an even continued fraction. Similarly if n is odd, then we have that α is an odd continued fraction.

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Continued Fractions

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Example

We want to represent the rational number 28/5 as a simple continued fraction. We begin by utilizing the Euclidean Algorithm.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example

We want to represent the rational number 28/5 as a simple continued fraction. We begin by utilizing the Euclidean Algorithm. 28 = 5 · 5 + 3

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Continued Fractions

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Example

We want to represent the rational number 28/5 as a simple continued fraction. We begin by utilizing the Euclidean Algorithm. 28 = 5 · 5 + 3 Now we divide by 5

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Continued Fractions

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Example

We want to represent the rational number 28/5 as a simple continued fraction. We begin by utilizing the Euclidean Algorithm. 28 = 5 · 5 + 3 Now we divide by 5 28 3 =5+ 5 5

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Continued Fractions

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Example

We want to represent the rational number 28/5 as a simple continued fraction. We begin by utilizing the Euclidean Algorithm. 28 = 5 · 5 + 3 Now we divide by 5 28 3 =5+ 5 5 Are we done?

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example

We want to represent the rational number 28/5 as a simple continued fraction. We begin by utilizing the Euclidean Algorithm. 28 = 5 · 5 + 3 Now we divide by 5 28 3 =5+ 5 5 Are we done? No.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Example

We want to represent the rational number 28/5 as a simple continued fraction. We begin by utilizing the Euclidean Algorithm. 28 = 5 · 5 + 3 Now we divide by 5 28 3 =5+ 5 5 Are we done? No. We can write 5 + 3/5 as 1 28 =5+ 5 5 3

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

We rinse and repeat. We take 5/3 and use the Euclidean Algorithm again. 5=3·1+2

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

We rinse and repeat. We take 5/3 and use the Euclidean Algorithm again. 5=3·1+2 Now we divide by 3 and get 1 5 2 =1+ =1+ . 3 3 3 2

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

We rinse and repeat. We take 5/3 and use the Euclidean Algorithm again. 5=3·1+2 Now we divide by 3 and get 1 5 2 =1+ =1+ . 3 3 3 2 We are again in the same position.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

We rinse and repeat. We take 5/3 and use the Euclidean Algorithm again. 5=3·1+2 Now we divide by 3 and get 1 5 2 =1+ =1+ . 3 3 3 2 We are again in the same position. We repeat the process with 3/2 3 = 2 · 1 + 1 =⇒ 1 3 1 =1+ =1+ 2 2 2 1

**Are we done? Almost!
**

C. Humphreys (BSU) Continued Fractions December 20, 2012 9 / 47

Example (cont.)

We take 2/1 and again use the Euclidean Algorithm to get 2 = 1 · 2 + 0. Since our remainder is 0, we are indeed done.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

The ﬁnal product: 1 3 28 =5+ =5+ 5 5 5 3

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Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

The ﬁnal product: 1 3 28 =5+ =5+ 5 5 5 3 and we substitute 5/3 with 1 5 2 =1+ =1+ . 3 3 3 2

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

The ﬁnal product: 1 3 28 =5+ =5+ 5 5 5 3 and we substitute 5/3 with 1 5 2 =1+ =1+ . 3 3 3 2 and get 28 3 =5+ =5+ 5 5 1 1+ 1 3 2

December 20, 2012 11 / 47

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

Example (cont.)

Now we substitute 3/2 with 3 1 =1+ . 2 2

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Example (cont.)

Now we substitute 3/2 with 3 1 =1+ . 2 2 Finally, we have 28 =5+ 5 1 1+ 1 1+ 1 2 = [5, 1, 1, 2]

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Intermission

Continued Fractions by C.D. Olds

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Continued Fractions

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Intermission (cont.)

Prices of textbooks in 1963

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Continued Fractions

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Intermission (cont.)

Pro Tip: Steps to succeeding in life after college: Step 1. Collect math books

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Intermission (cont.)

Pro Tip: Steps to succeeding in life after college: Step 1. Collect math books Step 2. ?????? (not sure about this step yet)

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Intermission (cont.)

Pro Tip: Steps to succeeding in life after college: Step 1. Collect math books Step 2. ?????? (not sure about this step yet) Step 3. PROFIT!

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Overview of proof

Theorem (C.D. Olds)

Any ﬁnite simple continued fraction represents a rational number. Conversely, any rational number p/q can be represented as a ﬁnite simple continued fraction.

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Continued Fractions

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Overview of Proof (cont.)

Going from a ﬁnite simple continued fraction to rational number is simple through basic substitutions, so we omit that.

We want to show that any rational number can be represented as a ﬁnite simple continued fraction. We take the rational number p/q where q = 0. Dividing p by q we get p r1 = a0 + q q 0 ≤ r1 < q

If r1 = 0, then we are done. If r1 = 0 then we continue.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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**Overview of Proof (cont.)
**

The equation r1 p = a0 + q q 0 ≤ r1 < q

**can be rewritten as 1 p = a0 + q q r1 We can write q/r1 as q = r1 · a1 + r2 and dividing by r1 we get 1 r2 q = a1 + = a1 + r1 r1 r1 r2
**

C. Humphreys (BSU) Continued Fractions

0 ≤ r1 < q

0 ≤ r2 < r1

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Overview of Proof (cont.)

If r2 = 0, then we stop. If r2 = 0 then we continue. At this point we are at, p = a0 + q 1 a1 + r2 r1

and this process will continue until rn = 0.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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**Overview of Proof (cont.)
**

General stucture: r1 p = a1 + , q q q r2 = a2 + , r1 r1 r1 r3 = a3 + , r2 r2 ............... rn−3 rn−1 = an−1 + , rn−2 rn−2 rn−2 0 = an + = an + 0, rn−1 rn−1 0 < r1 < q, 0 < r2 < r1 , 0 < r3 < r2 , ......... 0 < rn−1 < rn−2 , rn = 0

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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**Overview of Proof (cont.)
**

Once we get to the point where rn = 0 then we will have the expansion p = [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ] q The uniquness of the expansion comes from the way that the ai ’s are constructed. However we can modify the last partial quotient an to make the continued fraction either even or odd. Observe that if an > 1 we can write, 1 1 = . an 1 (an − 1) + 1 So we can write p = [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ] q instead as p = [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an−1 , an − 1, 1] q

C. Humphreys (BSU) Continued Fractions December 20, 2012 23 / 47

Overview of Proof (cont.)

If an = 1 then we simply have p = [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an−2 , an−1 , an ] q

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Convergents

Lets take the continued fraction below α = [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ]. We can take a segment of this continued fraction as ck = pk = [a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , ak ] qk

where k < n. This is what we call a kth-order convergent of α. We can use these convergents to approximate irrational numbers to a more precise value.

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Continued Fractions

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Convergent (cont.)

Theorem (C.D. Olds 1.3)

The numerators pi and the denominators qi of the ith convergent ci of the continued fraction [a1 , a2 , . . . , an ] satisfy the equations pi = ai pi−1 + pi−2 , qi = ai qi−1 + qi−2 , where (i = 3, 4, 5, . . . , n), with the initial values p 1 = a1 , q1 = 1, p2 = a2 a1 + 1, q 2 = a2 .

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Continued Fractions

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Convergents (cont.)

Theorem (C.D. Olds 1.4)

If pi = ai pi−1 + pi−2 and qi = ai qi−1 + qi−2 are deﬁned as in the previous theorem, then pi qi−1 − pi−1 qi = (−1)i , where i ≥ 0.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Convergents (cont.)

Theorem (C.D. Olds 1.4)

If pi = ai pi−1 + pi−2 and qi = ai qi−1 + qi−2 are deﬁned as in the previous theorem, then pi qi−1 − pi−1 qi = (−1)i , where i ≥ 0.

Corollary (C.D. Olds 1.5)

Every convergent ci = pi /qi , i ≥ 1, of a simple continued fraction is in its lowest terms, that is, pi and qi have no common divisors other than +1 or −1.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Inﬁnite Continued Fractions and Approximations
**

Theorem (C.D. Olds 3.5)

Every inﬁnite simple continued fraction converges to a limit l which is greater than any odd convergent and less than any even convergent.

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Continued Fractions

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**Inﬁnite Continued Fractions and Approximations
**

Theorem (C.D. Olds 3.5)

Every inﬁnite simple continued fraction converges to a limit l which is greater than any odd convergent and less than any even convergent.

Theorem (C.D. Olds 3.7)

Each convergent is nearer to the value of an inﬁnite simple continued fraction than is the preceding convergent.

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Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Inﬁnite Continued Fractions and Approximations
**

Theorem (C.D. Olds 3.5)

Every inﬁnite simple continued fraction converges to a limit l which is greater than any odd convergent and less than any even convergent.

Theorem (C.D. Olds 3.7)

Each convergent is nearer to the value of an inﬁnite simple continued fraction than is the preceding convergent.

Theorem (C.D. Olds 3.9)

If x is irrational, there exists an inﬁnite number of rational fractions p/q, q > 0, (p, q) = 1, such that x−

C. Humphreys (BSU)

1 p < 2 q q

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Continued Fractions

Convergents (cont.)

Consider the irrational number π. The ﬁrst theoretical calculation of π came from Archimedes of Syracuse (287-212 BC). He approximated 22 22 <π< 71 7 and for many years 22/7 was considered a decent approximation for π.

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Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Convergents (cont.)

The simple continued fraction expansion for π is π = [3, 7, 15, 1, 292, 1, 1, . . . ] where the partial quotients go on inﬁnitely.

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Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Convergents (cont.)

The 1st-order convergent is 1 22 = 3 + ≈ 3.142857 . . . . 7 7

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Convergents (cont.)

The 1st-order convergent is 1 22 = 3 + ≈ 3.142857 . . . . 7 7 The 2nd-order convergent is 333 =3+ 106 1 1 7+ 15 ≈ 3.141509 . . . .

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Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Convergents (cont.)

The 1st-order convergent is 1 22 = 3 + ≈ 3.142857 . . . . 7 7 The 2nd-order convergent is 333 =3+ 106 The 3rd-order convergent is 355 =3+ 113 1 7+ 1 15 +

C. Humphreys (BSU)

1 1 7+ 15

≈ 3.141509 . . . .

≈ 3.141592 . . . . 1 1

December 20, 2012 31 / 47

Continued Fractions

Convergents (cont.)

The fraction

355 = 3.14159292035 . . . 113 approximates π with an error of at most 3 units in the 7th decimal place. So we can see that we are getting better and better approximations.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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Irrational Numbers

We can ﬁnd the continued fraction representation for an irrational number pretty much the same way that we ﬁnd them for rational numbers.

Lets ﬁnd the continued fraction representation of

√

3.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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**Example Irrational Number
**

We begin by observing that √ 3 ≈ 1.73205 · · · = 1 + a for some a < 1.

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Continued Fractions

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**Example Irrational Number
**

We begin by observing that √ 3 ≈ 1.73205 · · · = 1 + a for some a < 1. But this implies a= for some x2 > 1. 1 x2

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Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Example Irrational Number
**

We begin by observing that √ 3 ≈ 1.73205 · · · = 1 + a for some a < 1. But this implies a= 1 x2

for some x2 > 1. Now we simply solve for x2 and get √ √ 1 1 3+1 3+1 x2 = √ =√ ·√ = 2 3−1 3−1 3+1

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Example Irrational Number (cont.)
**

Since we have that 1< we must have x2 = 1 + b where 0 < b < 1.

√

3+1 <2 2

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Example Irrational Number (cont.)
**

Since we have that 1< we must have x2 = 1 + b where 0 < b < 1. Then b= 1 . x3

√

3+1 <2 2

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Example Irrational Number (cont.)
**

Since we have that 1< we must have x2 = 1 + b where 0 < b < 1. Then b= So we now have that x3 = √ 1 2 1 =√ = 3+1=2+ x2 − 1 x4 3−1 1 . x3

√

3+1 <2 2

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Example Irrational Number (cont.)
**

(cont.) where x4 = and we continue on this way. 1 1 =√ x3 − 2 3−1

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Example Irrational Number (cont.)
**

(cont.) where x4 = 1 1 =√ x3 − 2 3−1

and we continue on this way. We end up getting, √ 3=1+ 1 =1+ x2 1 1 1+ x3 =1+ 1+ 1 1 2+ 1 x4 =1+ . 1 √ 1+ 2 + ( 3 − 1) 1

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Example Irrational Number (cont.)
**

(cont.) where x4 = 1 1 =√ x3 − 2 3−1

and we continue on this way. We end up getting, √ 3=1+ 1 =1+ x2 1 1 1+ x3 =1+ 1+ 1 1 2+ 1 x4 =1+ . 1 √ 1+ 2 + ( 3 − 1) 1

**Observe that if we subtract 1 to the left hand side we get √ 3−1= 1+ 1 1 √ 2 + ( 3 − 1)
**

December 20, 2012 36 / 47

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

**Example Irrational Number (cont.)
**

So if we keep substituting we get √ 3−1= 1+ 1 1 √ 2 + ( 3 − 1) 1 1+ 2+ 1+ 1 1 1 √ 2 + ( 3 − 1)

=

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Example Irrational Number (cont.)

So what we end up with is √ 3 = [1, ¯ ¯ 1, 2]

where the partial quotients 1 and 2 repeat inﬁnitely many times.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Classical Expansions

Lambert, 1770. tan x = 1− 3− 5− x x2 x2 x2 . 7 − ..

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Classical Expansions (cont.)

Lord Brouncker, around 1658. 4 =1+ π 1 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 9 25 49 81 . 2 + ..

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Classical Expansions (cont.)

Euler, 1737. e =2+ 1+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 4+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 + ..

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Inﬁnite Continued Fractions and Prime Convergents

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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**Inﬁnite Continued Fractions and Prime Convergents
**

Deﬁnition (Liouville Number)

A real number x with the property that, for every positive integer n, there exist integers p and q with q > 1 and such that 0< x− 1 p < n q q

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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**Inﬁnite Continued Fractions and Prime Convergents
**

Deﬁnition (Liouville Number)

A real number x with the property that, for every positive integer n, there exist integers p and q with q > 1 and such that 0< x− 1 p < n q q

Theorem

For almost all inﬁnite continued fractions, the greatest prime factor of the denominator of the n-th convergent, An /Bn , increases rapidly with n. a , Some Arithmetical Properties Of The Convergents Of A Continued Fraction, London Math. Soc., (1939) , 12-18.

a

P. Erdos and K. Mahler

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Inﬁnite Continued Fractions and Prime Convergents

Theorem

There are Liouville numbers for which the denominator of all convergents are prime numbers. a , Some Arithmetical Properties Of The Convergents Of A Continued Fraction, London Math. Soc., (1939) , 12-18.

a

P. Erdos and K. Mahler

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Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Future Work

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Future Work

Are there any irrational numbers that have inﬁnitely many convergents for which the numerators are primes?

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

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References I

Olds, C.D., Continued Fractions, Random House, Stanford, CA, 1963. Erdos, P., Mahler, K., Some Arithmetical Properties Of The Convergents Of A Continued Fraction, London Math. Soc., 1939, pg 12-18.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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Thank You

End.

C. Humphreys (BSU)

Continued Fractions

December 20, 2012

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BoiseCrypt Conference Fall 2012 Presentation by Cahlen Humphreys on Continued Fractions

BoiseCrypt Conference Fall 2012 Presentation by Cahlen Humphreys on Continued Fractions

- Continued Fractions
- Prove Square Root of 3 is Irrational
- Section 15A
- Prove Root 2 is Irrational
- MATH 10 Module 4 (Rational Exponents and Radical Expressions)
- Rational and Irrational Numbers
- Unit 2 Powers and Radicals
- Arithmetic.pdf
- ne_N5
- Lecture Outline 0310 - Calculus
- Unit 2 Powers and Roots _4º ESO_
- Arithmetic by sandy
- Adding Algebraic Fractions
- W4 Solutions
- Arithmetic Final 2
- Addition and Subtraction on Rational Algebraic Expressions
- Untitled
- Solve the Following Problems
- PROVE NON-EXISTENCE OF ANY K-PERFECT ODD NUMBERS
- Arithmetic Material
- Quant Tips on Pagalguy
- ZacharyMetzel Project Unit1
- The Golden ratio, Fibonacci series and Continued fractions
- Fraction CuisenRod
- Egyptian Fractions HW
- Dividing Fractions
- The Sum of Two Irrational Numbers is Irrational
- Concept - Exponents and Roots
- 7-4A Partial Fraction Decomposition
- 2_6_limits_at_infinity
- Crypt Presentation

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