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Independen Intervening Dependent

IPO Paradigm

The managers, Manual Low sales
agents, and the processing and performance
employees recording of because of
manually record sales activities manual
prospect and and recording of
client names, appointments prospects,
appointments with the use of clienteles and
and sales traditional pen, a possibility to
activities. pencils, papers forget
and organizers. appointments.


The managers, Automated Sales potential
agents and processing and is maximized
employees input recording of because of
and record sales Computer prospects, sales automated
and activities by activities, future clientele
the use of a appointments database and
computerized with option to online
sales view sales walkthrough to
management history. all the stages
system. of the sales

Paradigm of the Proposed
Review of Related Literature and Studies

In this chapter, the proponents will present the Theoretical Framework of the
study, and the survey of related studies and also the operational definition of
terms that are used in the study.

Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework is a separate chapter consisting of a review of related
literature, the theories that have bearing the problem, the conceptual
framework and the hypothesis.

The study is focused on the System Theory, which states that, "A System
refers to any collection or combination of programs, procedures data and
equipment utilized in processing information". A system is mainly made up of
three components that represent the units of analysis or the variables under
study. As the result of the study, it represents Input as the Independent
Variable (IV), the Process, as the Intervening Variable (ITV), and the
Output as the Dependent Variable (DV).

The upper portion of the paradigm (shown on Figure 2.0) clearly illustrates how the
existing system will be processed. The materials used in the traditional method,
which is a manual way of recording files using the pen, pencils, papers and
columnar notebooks serves as the input; and the manager being able to get the
incoming files of the clients serves as the output.

The lower portion of the paradigm illustrates how the proposed system will be
processed. It illustrates the new method of recording files through the use of a
computer, which serves as the input; the process is automated and is therefore
faster, more efficient and easier to work with. The manager can now get the
recorded files faster by inputting the records.

Related Literature

This section presents both foreign and local related literatures relevant to the study.
This relevance is shown by the proponents in order to give more reason and
understanding of the proposition.

Tom DeMarco & Tim Lister of Peopleware, 2nd Edition, Dorset House (1:58) cited
"Companies that sensibly manage their investment in people will prosper in the long
The authors of the book state that if companies manage investment in people
wisely, it will reap the rewards in the future as the company grows. It will succeed in
the long run because the people within the company are the ones contributing to
the growth of the company. Thus entails the importance of taking care of the people
within the company.

Caper Jones of A Practitioners Approach, Fifth Edition (2:114) cited that:
"Good estimating approaches and solid historical data offer the best hope that
reality will win over impossible demands."

The author of the book stated that in business, good estimating approaches and
solid historical data are beneficial tools to be taken advantage of. As to with
research studies, one does not jump to start right away, but the approach should
start with solid historical data so that awareness of the study be met with a hopeful
result that will win over impossible demands.

Carl P. Zeithami & Thomas S. Bateman of Management Function and Strategy
(3:139) cited that:
"In today's business environment, planning has become a widespread management
function, involving people throughout the organization in the analysis, identification,
and selection of goals and priorities."

Authors of the book state that planning is very important for every individual, work
group, or organization because it helps the systematic process during which
decisions are made about the goals and activities, just like companies using a
manual system method to carefully plan on what would be the possible solution to
make the system work faster so that there shall be lesser errors in making the
activities, and in considering the need for a computerized system in order to better
answer the problem.

Common Problems 5 4 3 2 1
There is no clear sales process to follow and 8 3 1 2
guide the agents in closing every sale.
Keeping track of the prospect and client lists 8 6
are done manually by agents.
Difficult and time consuming in manually 6 7 1
keeping track of all schedules and
Inability of managers to keep track of the 10 3 1
agents’ sales activities.
Storage of files is susceptible to be damaged 9 5
as well as lost of files.