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Chapter III

RESEARCH AND SOFTWARE DESIGN

This chapter deals with the methods of research used whether it may be

historical, descriptive, and experimental or a case study. The techniques used under

Descriptive Research Method as well as the data gathering tools and analytical tools

used will be further explained in this chapter as well as the methods used in developing

the software and for evaluation.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Methods of Research Used

The proponents have used the Descriptive Research Method wherein the study

is focused on present situations. It involves the recording, description, analysis and the

presentation of the present system, composition or processes of phenomena.

Under the Descriptive Research Method, the technique used is the Survey

Method, which is otherwise known as normative survey. The results and findings of the

study should always be compared with the standards. With the survey method,

researchers are able to statistically study the specific areas where the proponents must

concentrate. Findings regarding the common practices being done and the methods

which are commonly adopted by the employees are obtained with the use of the survey

method.
RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY

The respondents of the study include the employees wherein the proponents

prepare a set of carefully prepared and logically ordered questions. This respondent

focuses on the company’s employees for they are very important in a sense that this

study is all about them. (See Table 1.)

Table 1.0

Respondents Distribution

N = 61

Position / Status No. of Respondents Percent

Managers 7 11%

Staff 8 13%

Agents 46 76%

Total 61 100%

The questionnaires are being answered accordingly to the priority of concern by

using predetermined sets of questions with predefined ranges of answers so as to avoid

any conflicting series of response.

Data Gathering Tools

These are the instruments or tools for gathering data in research used as basis

for drawing conclusions or making inferences. Some of these tools are questionnaires,
interviews, empirical observations, research and analysis used by the proponents as

they conduct the proposed study.

Interview. An Interview is defined as a meeting of two people face to face to

confer about something or an act of questioning to receive a desired answer that is

necessary in solving a specific problem. This is where data gathering occurs by asking

questions for much needed information from the interviewee verbally and directly.

Observation. This technique is used when the researcher cannot secure

adequate or valid data through the use of the questionnaire or some other technique. It

is considered to be the most direct means of studying people in so far as their overt

behavior is concerned. Observation of a current operating procedure is another data

gathering tool seeing the system in action gives you additional perspective and better

understanding of system procedures.

Research. Research is simply, the systematic search for pertinent information on

a specific topic or problem. It is systematic study or investigation or something for the

purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher. It includes reviewing journals,

periodicals, and books to obtain background information, technical material, and news

about industry trends and developments.

Questionnaire. A pre-written series of questions used in gathering important

information’s from one or more persons. This will be given to the individual who have a

direct bearing of the study and in order to satisfy the proponent’s goal that is to get and

measure the opinions, polls and attitude of the respondents of the study.
Analysis. Analysis is the process of breaking-up the whole study into its

constituent parts of the categories according to the specific questions under the

statement of the problem. This is to bring out into focus the essential feature of the

study.

Statistical Tools

Statistics is one way of getting the information’s organized. To have a general

view of the whole scenario of the study, statistical tool is used. This also includes the

scaling system, which is used by the proponents as a technique to monitor the

respondent’s interpretation of facts. (See Table 2.0 & Table 3.0)

Table 2.0

Scaling Systems of Existing and Proposed System

Rating Scale Interpretation

5 Excellent

4 Very Good

3 Good

2 Fair

1 Poor
Table 3.0

Scaling Systems of Problems in the Existing System

Rating Scale Interpretation

5 Strongly Agree

4 Agree

3 Undecided

2 Disagree

1 Strongly Disagree

Below are the Formulas used to arrive to the computation used by the Statistical

Tool:

1. Mean. The proponents used the mean to be able to identify the range of

interest.

The proponents obtained the Degree of Efficiency by using the formula:

Mean ( ) = f (X1 + X2 + ... Xn)

n

Where:

f = frequency that a given X was chosen by the respondents

X = represents any of the numerical ratings 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, representing

Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor respectively.

n = total number of respondents
2. Weighted Mean. The proponents also used the weighted mean in order to

weight the value of information according to its importance.

Weighted mean (x) = f (X1 + X2 + ... Xm)n

N

Where:

n = total number of criteria

3. T-Test. The proponents then used the T-Test in order to determine and

compare the means of the two populations.

T-Test = t computed = WMP – WME

∑MP² + ∑ME²

n (n-1)

Where:

WMP = weighted mean of the proposed system

WME = weighted mean of the existing system

∑MP² = square of the summation of all ratings for proposed system

∑ME² = square of the summation of all ratings for existing system

n = total number of respondents
4. CBA (Cost Benefit Analysis)

P = F / ( 1 + i )n

Where:

P = present value

F = total savings

i = bank interest rate

n = number of years

5. FD (Frequency Distribution). The number of observation for each of the

possible categories in a data sheet.

FD = n x 100%

N

Where:

n = number of cases

N = total population of respondents

SYSTEM DESIGN

Analytical Tools

The analytical tools used in conducting the proposed study are the System

flowchart, IPO (Input Process Output) and HIPO (Hierarchical Input-Process-Output),
which are precisely discussed in this section for the development of the system.

System Flowchart. It is formalized graphic representation of a program logic

sequence, work or manufacturing process, organizing chart, or similar formalized

structure.

IPO or the Input Process Output. These are the components or elements that

make up the system. It is also described as tools on the design of the entire software.

HIPO or Hierarchical Input-Process-Output. A high-level view of the functions

performed by a system as its functions and software implementation.

Data Flow Diagram. This is a graphic illustration that shows the flow of data and

logic within the system.

Context Diagram. This is an overview of the organizational system that shows

the system boundary, external entities that interact with the system, and the major

information flows between the entities and the system.

Methods Used in Developing the Software

At this point, the work of the system analyst will be tested to its fullest ability. This

is the part where the system analyst must be able to determine and explain the methods

that will be used throughout the entire project.

Software Development is a tedious task not only for the programmer but also for

the system analyst, because they will decide on the type, size and creativeness of the
system. At this juncture, the methods used in developing the software must be

explained and defined. The following are the system development methods, namely,

software planning, software analysis, software design, software testing and software

implementation.

Software Planning. This software development method designates a plan in

which a system analyst must first identify. Identify meaning, to identify the product goals

and requirement of the system. System analyst must also put into consideration the

capabilities of the programmer before deciding the product itself.

Software Analysis. It can be considered as the most difficult phase because in

this phase raw materials or information’s must first examine thoroughly before

converting it into a software design.

Software Design. Design is a visualization of the outcome of a product but then

in software design phase, time is very essential because designing software is not an

overnight job. It takes a long period of time to ensure efficiency, maintainability and

reliability if the software.

Software Testing. A stage or phase where the proposed system will be given to

a panel of critics and end-users for testing. In this way, the developer can determine the

response of the user whether the system works or not.

Software Implementation. The phase of the software development method

where software has already been debugged documented and tested. The objective of

the implementation phase is to deliver a completely functioning and documented

information system.
Software Operation and Maintenance. Maintenance keeps the system

functional at an acceptable level, correct errors and adapts changes in the new

environment to provide new features and benefits.

Methods Used for Product Evaluation

This part consists of the methods used in evaluating the proposed system in

terms of accuracy, efficiency, reliability, speed, portability and user friendliness which

lead to the integrity of the proposed system.

Technical Feasibility. The proposed system is technically flexible since

computerization of the existing data is possible and the components needed for the

system are widely sold in the market.

Market Feasibility. The proposed system of the proponents is market feasible

since the respondents will be able to save time in tallying and recording the files of

clients. They will also be able to save time and money by not purchasing a lot of papers

for paper works and documentations.

CBA (Cost Benefit Analysis). This estimates and totals up the equivalent

money value of the benefits and costs to the community about whatever projects to

establish are worthwhile. Evaluating hardware and software, identifying and forecasting

cost and benefits and performing cost benefit analysis are all necessary activities the

system analyst must accomplish in preparing material for the systems proposal.
Operational Feasibility

To determine if the proposed system is operationally feasible to apply or

implement. Below are the given criteria, which serve as a basis to test the proposed

system if it really works.

Accuracy. The ability to be precise and avoid errors and the correctness or

truthfulness of something especially in the mathematical computation of sales so that

the business will not suffer from any losses.

Efficiency. The ability to do something well or achieve a desired result without

wasted energy or effort, or the degree to which this ability is used in the system.

Reliability. The ability to be trusted to do what is expected or has been promised.

The ability to be trusted, to be accurate or correct to provide result.

Speed. To reach the maximum or desirable rate of movement or progress. To be

or become fully informed about the latest developments, to accomplish things in a

manner that consumes less time. Speed is the main concern of the proponents so that

the proposed system will be implemented successfully. In using computer based

program and the idea of automation, speed requirement should be satisfied.

User-Friendliness. Understandable software applications. Easy access and

easy to use Windows based system.

Portability. The ability to transfer software application to another computer. The

proposed system is hosted online so that users can easily access the system wherever

they are as long as there is internet access.