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Chapter II


This chapter places the current study into the context of previous, related research. It

consist of both the theoretical and conceptual framework of the present study, the critique of

both related studies and literature that are related to the present study, as well as the

operational definition of terms that are based on observable characteristics and how it is used in

the study.

Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework is a separate chapter consisting of a review of related literature,

the theories that have bearing the problem, the conceptual framework and the hypothesis.

The study is focused on the System Theory, which states that, "A System refers to any

collection or combination of programs, procedures data and equipment utilized in processing

information". A system by definition is an assemblage of inter-related elements comprising a

unified whole. It comprises of a set of information that are collected, stored and manipulated and

changed into a useful form of output producing specific results. It is mainly made up of three

components that represent the units of analysis or the variables under study. As the result of the

study, it represents Input as the Independent Variable (IV), the Process, as the Intervening

Variable (ITV), and the Output as the Dependent Variable (DV).
The upper portion of the paradigm (shown on Figure 2.0) clearly illustrates how the

existing system will be processed. The materials used in the traditional method, which is a

manual way of recording files using the pen, pencils, papers and columnar notebooks serves as

the input; and the manager being able to get the incoming files of the clients serves as the


The lower portion of the paradigm illustrates how the proposed system will be

processed. It illustrates the new method of recording files through the use of a computer, which

serves as the input; the process is automated and is therefore faster, more efficient and easier

to work with. The manager can now get the recorded files faster by inputting the records.

Related Literature

This section presents both foreign and local related literatures relevant to the study. This

relevance is shown by the proponents in order to give more reason and understanding of the


Tom DeMarco & Tim Lister of Peopleware, 2nd Edition, Dorset House cited that,

“Companies that sensibly manage their investment in people will prosper and eventually

succeed in the long run.”

The authors of the book state that if companies manage investment in people wisely, it

will reap the rewards in the future as the company grows. It will succeed in the long run because

the people within the company are the ones contributing to the growth of the company. Thus

entails the importance of taking care of the people within the company.

Caper Jones of A Practitioners Approach, Fifth Edition cited that, “Good estimating

approaches and solid historical data offer the best hope that reality will win over

impossible demands.”

The author of the book stated that in business, good estimating approaches and solid
historical data are beneficial tools to be taken advantage of. As to with research studies, one

does not jump to start right away, but the approach should start with solid historical data so that

awareness of the study be met with a hopeful result that will win over impossible demands.

Carl P. Zeithami & Thomas S. Bateman of Management Function and Strategy cited that,

“In today's business environment, planning has become a widespread management

function, involving people throughout the organization in the analysis, identification, and

selection of goals and priorities.”

Authors of the book state that planning is very important for every individual, work group,

or organization because it helps the systematic process during which decisions are made about

the goals and activities, just like companies using a manual system method to carefully plan on

what would be the possible solution to make the system work faster so that there is less

probability of errors in the activities, and in considering the need for a computerized system in

order to better answer the problem.

Related Studies

This section presents other related studies by the people who conducted studies similar

to the proponents that will also greatly help in the progress of the study. And it will also help the

understanding of the proposition.

Mark Dominic dela Torre stated that, “The concepts of a simple dream, a

determination, quality and perseverance are the forefront to any business that leads to

successful outcome.”

Having the concept of determination and assuring quality service to customers, the
proponents created an online software program to cater to company employees and agents in

making their job easier and more efficient thus delivering quality service and maximizing the

potential of the business.

Gaudelyn C. Pantilo stated that, “The increasing demand gave us the idea how to

deal with our ongoing progress. It motivates us to meet their need efficiently.”

The company needs to continually diversify to meet the ongoing demands of the

business sectors today. Thus, proponents created an online software program for the company

to maximize their work force, easily tack all sales activities and to meet the demands of this ever

changing economy.

Kneener Lim and Antonette Goyenechea stated that, “Records security is also one of

the primary objectives and all the information received from its clients are confidential.”

The proponents created and designed a software program for the company to make the

system perfect where all the sales and client records should be kept, thus giving the assurance

that these files are secured and accessible for the advancement of the company.


The caption that is stated on the related studies by Kneener Lim and Antonette

Goyenechea and the studies that were conducted are related to the proponents' study because

these studies are concerned with the sales history of the company. Both studies are related in

the area of the importance in keeping all the records of sales and files of the clients of a

company and putting into account solid historical data of the company that could be used to
further improve the company’s growth in the future. It will give the assurance that these files are

secured and accessible for the advancement of the company. It also guarantees that people’s

job will be easier, faster and more efficient for the benefit of the company.

Definition of Terms

The following terms below are used verbosely during the study.

Operational Terms

The definition of terms are based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the


Client. A person that can receive services from the employees and agents.

Company. A business enterprise firm.

Employee. A person employed at a wage or salary.

File. A receptacle that keeps loose objects such as papers or any collection of items.

Manager. A person that manages a business.

Record. A document that contains an account particularly in terms of collection.

Services. Non-monetary programs provided by companies that benefits clients.

Conceptual Terms

The definitions of terms are based on concepts or hypothetic ones, which are usually

taken from the dictionary.

Automated. The conversion of the process of automation has been already done.

Computer System. The configuration that includes all functional components of

computer and its associated hardware or software.
Database. An integrated collection of data which provides a more efficient way of

storage and retrieval of data and is capable of processing large portions of data immediately.

Information. Is data that has been changed into a useful form of output.

Process. A series of actions, changes, of functions that bring about an end or a result.

Software. A computer terminology use to describe the unseen programming codes and

running application inside the computer system.

System. A set of related components that produces specific results.

Technology. It is the study of practical or industrial arts.

Technological Advancement. A technical advancement or progress resulting to a

development of another technology.