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3, September 1972 Wolters-Noordhoff Publishing- Groningen Printed in the Netherlands

267

**Plane Elastostatic Analysis of V-Notched Plates
**

B. G R O S S A N D A. M E N D E L S O N

Lewis Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio

(Received February 19, 1971 ; in revised form July 9, 1971)

ABSTRACT Solutions are given for several plane elastostatic problems of plates having a V-notch on one edge, and subjected to a variety of boundary conditions. The effect of the magnitude of the V-notch angle and specimen geometry on stress intensity factors K l and K H are obtained for unloaded notch surfaces. There is less than one percent difference in opening mode I stress intensity factor in going from a zero degree notch angle to a 30 degree notch angle. Notch opening displacements at the plate edge were measured experimentally and the results obtained were in excellent agreement with the computed results.

Symbols The following list contains the commonly used symbols and their definitions. In general, all symbols are defined when introduced. coefficients of the stress function series associated with the n th eigen value Ai,n specimen dimensions as shown in figures 1, 2 and 3 a ,b, h, s, w modulus of elasticity E K, KI, KII stress intensity factor at the notch tip, subscript I, II refers to mode of notch extension bending moment M applied load P displacement in y-direction Uy 2 . = q . + i ~ . n th complex eigen value Poissons ratio v equivalent stress (7e components of the stress tensor O'r, O'q~, Trq~ stress function Z 1. Introduction For evaluating the resistance to quasi-brittle fracture of structural materials, many different types of specimens have been used in fracture toughness tests. However, for several reasons connected with optimization of specimen size and load requirements [1] single edge crack plate specimens loaded in tension or bending are of current interest from the standpoint of fracture test method development [2]. An analytical solution for a finite width single edge crack specimen loaded in tension was given by Gross, Srawley and Brown [3], using boundary collocation techniques applied to an appropriate stress function derived by Brahtz [4] and Westergaard [5] and independently by Williams [6, 7]. Solutions for other finite width edge cracked specimens subject to bending or combinations of tension and bending were subsequently obtained by Gross and Srawley [8]. The results are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally [9-12] and analytically by other methods [13-15], as shown in detail in reference 16. The specimens recommended by ASTM Committee E-24 for plane strain fracture toughness tests [2] have machined notches tipped with fatigue cracks, Fig. l(b), which are intended to represent ideal plane cracks, Fig. 1(a). For practical reasons it is desirable to allow considerable

Int. Journ. of Fracture Mech., 8 (1972) 267-276

the only important consideration is that the cracktip stress field should not be significantly different from that of the ideal plane crack which is represented. (1) Int.1. Journ. Mendelson latitude in the form of the machined notch. Gross. 2.. Thus the V-notch angle is useful as a single parameter for characterizing practical crack-notch configurations in relation to ideal crack-tip stress fields. the differential equations of the system for both plane stress and plane strain reduce to the biharmonic equation (0 2 1 0 1 ~ 2 _ ' ~ ~02 Z I~Z 1 ~zZ'~= 0 Assume a complex stress function )~ [6] whose real part satisfies Eq. In practical specimensthe 1dealplane crack (a) is simulated by a machined notch with a fatigue crack extension. A. Plates containing a single edge V-notch are analyzed for symmetric loading (mode I) and antisymmetric loading (mode II). Analysis 2. We take the origin of coordinates at the tip of the notch as shown in figures 2 and 3. of FractureMech. (b) The dashed lines represent a sharp.. The present work is concerned with the analysis of V-notched plates as a function of notch angle. Any crack-notch configuration can be just bounded by a V-notch of some angle which has its apex at the crack tip.. To establish how much latitude in crack-notch configuration can be allowed one must investigate the stress fields of V-notches of various angles. (a) Ideal plane crack. Neglecting body forces.. It applies to a homogeneous isotropic material and is in the class of plane elastostatic problems of the theory of linear elasticity. The Plane Problem (Modes I and II) The solution presented in this paper is for a specimen having a zero radius V-notch on one edge. The first attempt at such an analysis was made in [18] for a restricted geometry.. The configurations are shown in figures 2 and 3 respectively. finite-angle notch which just includes the machined notch and fatigue crack extension. 8]. It is assumed that the deviation of the stress field of that V-notch from the stress field of a zeroangle notch (plane crack) is an upper bound on the deviation of the crack-notch configuration. Figure 1. Fig. $ (1972)267-276 . The present analysis gives the general solution over a broad range of geometries and in particular determines the influence of the notch angle on fracture toughness measurements. The elastic stress solution of a homogeneous isotropic rectangular plate of finite dimensions with a V-notch loaded by either symmetric or antisymmetric loads is given. ~ ./"t'~ crack (b) Machined notch. using the collocation procedures of Gross and Srawley [3.268 B. 1 (b).

(a) Dimensionlessequivalentstress contours for plane stress conditions. ~. The resulting eigenequations are sin ( 2 .1)sin a . Journ. al. Z satisfies identically the conditions of zero notch surface boundary loads with 2. (o) where F(A. .Plane elastostatic analysis of V-notched plates 269 a a ~_ D y 2Yob o Pure tension loading P N Pure bending lhree pointbending loading loading (slw4) : BI 1.. (5) Int. B C A ~ ~l~xjL_ D j (2) L w~l Figure 3. Satisfying the homogeneous boundary conditions leads to and i sin 2 c¢/2 ( 2 . Singleedgenotchedplate sp~cimerisubjectto antisymmetricloading(modeII).2 ) cos(2-2)cq2J 4 0 where A i = 2ai. Figure 2. Doublecantileverbeam specimen. of Fracture Mech. Mode I specimens having a thickness b.1)a = _+(2. a3 and a¢ being complex numbers. ~b)= [al cos 2~b+a2 cos (2-2)q~+aa sin 2q5 + a4 sin(2-2)~b]. havinga thicknessb. 2 ) = rZF(2.. z(r. 8 (1972)267-276 . t¢ w -.2 ) sin (2-2)a/2J A2 (4) cos 2 e/2 ( 2 . a2. (b) Dimensionlessequivalentstresscontourstbr plane strain conditions.

It also follows from Eq.] (6) and Zodd = rZ"[As. sin 2.270 where 2.A3. As originally used by Irwin [19] the stress intensity factor K is always associated with a zero notch angle (crack). they are associated with the real parts of the stress function ~. oo are the complex eigen values. .2)4.(2r0~ i ( . (6) and determining the unknown constants such that the stress function and stress function derivative satisfy the boundary conditions at a finite n u m - Int. cos(2. Problems involving non-homogeneous boundary conditions along the crack surface can be handled by introducing a particular stress function as described in detail in [16].. Journ. Gross. sin(2. 1 . The mode I and II stress and displacement fields are associated with the even and odd solutions respectively. To satisfy the boundary conditions along the rest of the boundary. KI = (2=) ~ lim r 2-"*%(r..1 ) l_("1.Zodd where Zeven = n=l cos 2.= ' cos (2. For the limiting case of a crack (a= 360°). the previous equations reduce to those obtained in [7]. Hence 1 I ( sinthesine ~ ] K I = (2r0~rh(rh-1) .. This can be done by truncating the series as expressed in Eq. Mendelson At. 2. A. (th >-32as shown in table 7)... e/2 A4.e/2 A2..2)e/2 sin 2. 3. 3. t where ql is the real part of 2t. This leads to a square root singularity. = t/. + i~. th =-32. n=l Since the stresses and displacements are real. 0) r--+0 ] t [ (7) K u = (2re)} lira r2-nllzro(r. n = 1.e... ./ + 1 ReA~. 8 (1972)267-276 .c o s e + l + c o s ~ . of Fracture Mech. 0)1 ] r-e-0 The stress intensity factors are thus defined to cancel the singularity. (~..-2)qb]. When the .. The displacement solution is described in detail in [ 16] and [-17].I ~-s t/~ ~ I K n . i..q + &.2)e/2 COS 2. the singularity occurring at the notch tip is less than ½. "~) ~" Zeven 71.. Boundary Collocation Solution The previous solutions satisfy exactly the boundary conditions along the notch surfaces. . one must find appropriate values for the unknown coefficients appearing in the series obtained. (4) that - B. The corresponding stress intensity factors K~ and Ku are obtained as follows.notch angle is no longer zero degrees (crack) but less than 180 degrees. = ' " - sin ( 2 . The stress function Z can be written separating the even functions and the odd functions as follows : Z (/'.2) + q l \(sini----the sine F cos cz)]ReA4..~b+A4.

is 330 or greater the difference in the stressintensity factor KI from that for a crack is very small. it was found that a set of 64 equations and 40 unknowns were sufficient.. and beyond 1. However. The square root singularity associated with the 360 crack changed from 0. a Gauss-Jordan pivotal condensation routine was used. bracketing this value without actually converging. Int. accurate crack surface displacement measurements were made on several V-notched plate specimens of 7075T651 bare aluminum.5000 to 0. 4. The bend specimens were 9-inches long by 2-inches wide by 1-inch thick with a span length-to-width ratio of 4 to 1. subjected to three point bending as shown schematically in figure 6. 0.4 for 300° > ~>240°.4996 in going from 360 (crack) to 330 degrees. Those early results referred to in publications by Gross et al.Tables 1 through 5 contain the nondimensional stress intensity factors for mode I and mode II. 300 and 270 degrees. Table 5 contains the nondimensional mode II stress intensity factors. Nine specimens were tested corresponding to e values of 330. Results and Discussion Preliminary results indicated that for pure tension.6. of selected boundary stations. In doing this. pure bending and three point increasing the height to width ratio h/w beyond 1. Over the range of geometries analyzed it was indicated that an overdetermined system of 52 equations and 40 unknowns were sufficient.4 x 106 psi. small changes in ~ produce large changes in K n. This boundary collocation technique is described in detail in references 3. The truncated stress function series thus obtained is considered to be an accurate representation of the actual stress function when further increase in the number of boundary stations produce no significant change in the first coefficient of the stress function series which represents the dominant term in the vicinity of the crack tip. Clearly. More boundary stations were chosen than unknown coefficients leading to an overdetermined system and the resulting set of simultaneous equations was satisfied in the least squares sense. The value of the first term of the truncated stress function Re (A2.2 (Fig. and 16. The equipment used and the experimental procedures are described in detail in [16]. produced no change in the stress intensity factor. above 300° the above method worked very well. Results are presented in tables 1 through 6. Since the most important quantity to be determined is the stress intensity factor K. 8. 1) f o r . Measurement points were symmetrically located on opposite sides of the edges of the V-notch. 5. For all mode I cases considered the value of K increased a maximum of 1 percent in going from a = 360 (crack) to 330. Journ. All of the results reported herein are based on the solution to such overdetermined systems. This difficulty was overcome in a manner similar to that used by Hulbert [20]. and a/w ratios of 0. of Fracture Mech. In solving the resulting set of n simultaneous equations in n unknowns. For included angles greater than 300 degrees the results of overdetermined systems were the same as for the ordinary system consisting of an equal number of equations and unknowns. Experimental Measurement of Displacement For comparison with the analytical results. For the double cantilever beam antisymmetrically loaded. These h/w values were therefore used in all the subsequent calculations.5. [3 and 8] did not use overdetermined systems as this was unnecessary. The modulus of elasticity of the aluminum was taken as 10.1) is directly proportional to the stress intensity factor KI or K~I. For included vertex angles e.4.1) or Re (A4. 8 (1972) 267-276 .Plane elastostatic analysis of V-notched plates 271 ber m. preliminary trials were made to determine the number of equations necessary for evaluating K with sufficient accuracy for the case of pure tension. > 300°. One can conclude on examining the results of tables 1-4 that as long a s . pure bending and three point loading. as is decreased below 300° the first coefficient of the stress function oscillated about some value. a set of 2m simultaneous algebraic equations is obtained and the first 2m coefficients of the stress function series are determined. and 0.

8 (1972) 267-276 . a/w 0.112 4.777 0.859 6. a = 6P/bw.4 0.272 TABLE 1 B.893 3.085 1.7 K~bw~1/6M 360 330 300 270 240 0.7 Kxbw~r ' /6P 360 330 300 270 240 0.297 5.680 1.877 1.537 5.3 0. A.517 2.389 2.484 1.857 2.6 0. 080 -.860 2.491 9. of Fracture Mech.573 1.515 15.724 1. Gross.146 1.318 1. .6 0.775 1.100 1.218 2.963 1.873 6.630 5. 120 . Fagure 4.984 3.630 1. 0.766 3.395 Stress ratio.736 8.2 0.678 2.578 2.097 1.629 2. Int.978 2. 160 -.041 4.013 1.062 4.5 0.034 1.261 1. Included vertex angle.034 1.250 4.040 0 -.965 2.539 3.072 1. 200 -.7 Ktbw~r ~ p / 360 330 300 270 240 1.934 9.021 1.118 2. M e n d e l s o n Dimensionless stress intensity factors for a single edge notched specimen in pure tension Included vertex angle c~ Notch length to plate width ratio.551 TABLE 2 Dimensionless stress intensity factors for a single edge notched specimen in pure bending Included vertex angle c~ Notch length to plate width ratio. 1 (a) Dimensionless equivalent stress contours for plane stress conditions. 300° .139 4.422 1.504 2.414 1.3 0.979 11.040 2 0 ~" ~.369 2.837 0.5 0. 120 -. 080 .314 1.844 0.346 1.3 0. Poissons ratio.593 2.112 4.888 3.785 0.770 2. 0 ~ .832 0.752 3.756 4.885 1. 0. notch length to plate width'ratio.804 1.895 1.040 . %1o 2.5 0.520 2. 040 0 . 080 P.169 1.2 0.4 0.160 16o f 12o ~ OelO Z5 4.2 0.155 1.569 3.50.736 6.325 1.922 4.636 3. Journ.4 0. 160 Location.30 .366 1. Edge notched beam subjected to three point loading.012 3.579 5.640 2. a/w 0. x/a Ib) Dimensionless equivalent stress conteurs for plane strain conditions.614 t.5 ..422 9.226 1.767 1.390 1.6 0.0 ~ .532 TABLE3 Dimensi~n~essstressintenszty~ct~rs~rasinglee~en~tched~ec~ensu~ectedt~threep~intbendi~l~adi~ Included vertex angle c~ Notch length to plate width ratio a/w 0. ~ i 4.093 1.

5 1.500 0.278 0.040 26.822 5.0 1.456 0.12 20.5 1.787 5.278 0.300 14.781 6.829 22.961 5.984 6.202 9.253 13.612 350 340 330 TABLE 6 Comparison of the experimentally measured and computed plane stress dimensionless displacement values for the three point bendin9 (span to wdth ratio of 4 to 1) tr= 6P Ihw Specimen number Included vertex angle c~ 330° 330 ° 330 ° 300 ° 300° 300 ° 270 ° 270 ° 270 ° Notch depth to plate width ratio a/w 0.17 18.69 11.5 2.5 1.5 1.4 0.695 5.5 0.55 13.454 0.543 0.798 5.46 13.00 Int.0 1.541 11.72 11.124 0.0 1.263 31.705 5.039 6 639 7.320 14.587 5.80 8.6 0.186 0.667 0.4 0.071 6.4 0.124 0.641 5.904 5.5 2.678 5.732 TABLE 5 Dimensionless stress intenstty factors for a single edge notched specimen subjected to antisymmetric loading.222 0.958 6.040 6.278 0.348 0.400 0.200 h/a Kllbh/Pa 2-~1 360 0.636 5. mode II [ncluded vertex angle e M a x i m u m beam depth to notch depth ratio Notch depth to plate width ratio a/w 0.485 5.286 0.085 7.913 6..612 0.01 19.230 9.0 1.353 0.352 0.37 9.775 15.86 8.401 0.612 0.928 13.200 h/a Klbh/Pa 2-~1 360 0.401 0.5 0.560 5.5 0.0 1.904 22.5 2.947 5.0 1.5 0.353 0.509 23.401 0.92 12.0 1.896 13.500 0.654 6.835 6.90 12.454 0.6 Experimental Computed 2E uSaa 2E uy/atr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8.353 0.741 9.500 0.810 6.383 14.19 18.307 6.6 0.426 10.209 29.89 17.565 7.956 5.730 5.5 1.500 0.Plane elastostatic analysis of V-notched plates TABLE 4 '~ 273 Dimensionless stress intensity factors for an edge notched rectangular double cantilever beam subject to spIittino forces Included vertex angle c~ M a x i m u m beam depth to notch depth ratio Notch depth to plate width ratio d/w 0.346 0.0 1.033 6.540 0.614 0.71 8.250 0. Journ.07 9.0 0.767 5.500 0.124 0.139 6.5 1.186 0.86 17.168 7.320 29.122 6.333 0.186 0.0 8. of Fracture Mech.798 5.5 2.5 0.333 0.540 0.333 35.509 7. 8 (1972) 26%276 .689 5.623 8.0 1.881 330 300 270 7.964 6.707 6.346 0.400 0.822 5.

Int. Three-pointloadingelasticnotch edgedisplacementsfor planestress conditions. Figure 4 contains typical dosed contour curves of dimensionless equivalent stress.Includedvertexangle. A typical dimensionless plane stress y displacement curve along the notch surface is plotted in figure 5 for mode I. 50 -.80 -.go -. 20 -. 8 (1972) 267-276 . Schematicof experimentaltest rig. 60 -. One obtains from these contours a semi-qualitative look into possible regions of plastic flow and their shapes. Notch length to plate width ratio a/w 1O 5 ------~--__ ~ ~ ~ -I.70 -. . Corresponding plane strain displacements may be obtained by multiplying the plane stress y displacement by (1 .v2).~Isupplies excitation |voltage and bridge | balance Figure 6. Journ. 40 -. I and 10adcell0utput~--~ . voltage and bridgel I [ ]balance i i i . _•Loading unit I crossarm vertical I displacement I control and I load recorder ] Power supply 1 supplies excitation ~ . Gross. 30 -. A.J g Oisplacement / gage gxcitation voltage ag Su~lpau~eent agde(~ m IDmiigc%volt r t "-t mete Digital printout Standard cell output Load cell bridge excitatation voltage Displacement gage bridge excitation voltage Load ceil output Displacement gage output ~ ? ~ ~__ / Calibrated sensing compressive load unit |Power supply 2 . x/a Figure 5.274 25 B.. Mendelson 20 E~ 15 ~. Straight lines have been drawn between points of constant equivalent stress along rays emanating from the crack tip at 10 degree intervals. 10 0 0 Location.300°. of Fracture Mech. Displacements were computed along the notch at intervals of one-tenth the relative notch depth fla. 00 -.

Results are given for ~ values of 330. A. Bubsey. NASA TN D-2395.6. 4 (1957) 76-96. Plane Strain Crack Toughness Testing of High Strength Metallic Materials. Report. L. Srawley. "Stress Intensity Factors for a Single-edge-notch Tension Specimen by Boundary Collocation of a Stress Function".. [10] J. Journal of Applied Mechanics.H.. 5. [2] ASTM Committee E-24 On Fracture Testing of Metals. 1964. 1970. [11] J. Srawley.4. Jones. H. E. Brown. 1969.. Int. Materials Reserach and Stan. Elastic Displacements for Various Edge Cracked Plate Specimens. Boeing Company Report D2-23551. [14] L. Williams. 1969 Book of ASTM Standards. Gross. Kobayashi.. NASA TN D-2603. The International Journal of Fracture Mechanics. 4. E. "Stress Distribution in a Reentrant Corner". Williams. Journ. Journ. Excellent agreement is obtained over the range of a/w ratios. Brown. and J. (1965). and Bending of Reinforced Concrete".F. Buecker. th. 1.529355 1. Errata relating to this paper Int.544484 1. Jr. Additional verification was obtained when comparisons were made with solutions to several special cases by other investigators using different analytical techniques. Thesis.598192 360° 350° 340° 330° 300° 270° 240° Confidence in the correctness of the results obtained by the method of the present analysis was derived from many comparisons. Jr. F..A.D. 3 (1968) 267-276 . as previously described were therefore made for a three point bend specimen and the results compared with the analysis presented herein for the case of plane stress and are shown in table 6. E. 410.for mode I and mode II. May 12. [15] H. 2 (1933) 93-102. and W.500426 1. Stress Singularities Resulting From Various Boundary Conditions in Angular Corners of Plates in Extension. 19. Journal of Applied Mechanics. ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 1 (1964) 20-24. Experimental Determination of the Dependence of Crack Extension Force on Crack Length for a Single-Edge-Notch Tension Specimen. M. [17] B. Journal of the American Concrete Institute. less than 360 degrees no experimental or analytical data has heretofore been available. Proceedings of the ASTM. Weight Functions for the Notched Bar. F. New Specimen Design for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Tests. 4 (1952) 526-528. Experiments. and B. Journal of Applied Mechanics. R. For included vertex angles e. M. 24. Brown. [9] A. and W.501453 1. Srawley. 2 (1933) 31-38. L. Jones. 6 (1970) 87. Size of the Crack.500000 1.500053 1. [3] B.Plane elastostatic analysis of V-notched plates TABLE 7 275 Table of first eigenvalues. M. 1 (1957) 109-114. also see NASA TN D-4232. Part 31.512221 1. [8] B. Roberts. [12] M.615731 Mode II 1. On the Stress Distribution at the Base of a Stationary Crack. Gross. Mathematika. of Fracture Mech. 300 and 270 degrees and notch depth to plate width ratios a/w of 0. both with the experimental results obtained herein as well as experimental results of other authors for the crack (e = 360°) problem. Lubahn. 4. pp. Experimental Determination of Energy Release Rate for Notched Bending and Notched Tension. H. Jr. F. Westergaard. of Fracture Mech. D. T.. E. NASA TN D-2396. Jr. E. J.500000 1. References [1] W. Proposed Method of Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials. [5] H. Stress Distribution in a Notched Plate. and J. [6] M. Ph. Case Western Reserve University. General Electric Co. Gross.562007 1. [13] A. Some Plane Problem Elastostatic Solutions for Plates Having a V-Notch". Brahtz. 69-LS-45. 1964. 8 (1972) 267-276 . Stress Intensity Factors for Single-Edge-Notch Specimens in Bending or Combined and Tension by Boundary Collocation of a Stress Function. S. Gross and J. [7] M. August. Alpha rh Mode I 1. [4] J. "Stress at a Crack. E. Sullivan.5 and 0. Wiggelsworth. Gross. dards. 1967. 59 (1959) 885-913. (proposed NASA Technical Note). [16] B. 1964. Srawley. A detailed comparison is given in reference 16. Method of Collocation Applied to Edge Notched Finite Strip Subjected to Uniaxial and Pure Bending. 0. 1099-1114. Srawley. for various included vertex angles. (1966).

P. of Fracture Mech. Mendelson [18] A. Des mesures de d6placement d'ouverture d'entaille ont ~t~ effectu&es. Int.. University of Colorado. D . le facteur d'intensit6 des contraintes K I se modifie de moins d'un pour cent. Elastic SZress Fields and Stress Intensity Factor For Finite Bodies. relatifs/t des t61es entaill6es en v6 sur un de leurs bords et soumises/t diverses conditions aux limites. R. Gross. [20] L. Irwin•Ana•ysis •f Stresses and Strains Near End •f a Crack• J•urnal Applied M echani•s• 2 4• 3 (1957) 36 •-364. Moser.. [19] G. P h .276 B. (1963). et les r~sultats obtenus sont en excellent accord avec les r6sultats des calculs. Journ. D . 8 (1972) 267-276 . A. Ohio State Univ. Thesis. Thesis. et l'on conclut que. E. en conditions planes et 61astiques. O n examine l'influence de Fouverture de l'angle de l'entaille et de la g4om6trie de l'6prouvette sur les facteurs d'intensit6 de contraintes K~ et K n darts les cas oit les surfaces de l'entaille ne sont pas sollicit6es. lorsque l'angle de l'entaille passe de z4ro/t 30 degr6s. The Numerical Solution of Two Dimensional Problems of the Theory of Elasticity. RI~SUMI~ On fournit des solutions g divers probt6mes statiques. 1967. P h . Hulbert.

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