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People, Culture & Language

About The People
What tribes are based in the Himalayas mountain range? Some of the tribes predominant in this region of North East India and the neighboring the area of Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, parts of West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh (North East India) etc. Only in Arunachal Pradesh itself there are over 80 tribes and sub-tribes of Indo - Mongoloid origin. What food do they live on? They mainly rely on plants and yak. Yak provides meat, which give protein and milk, for calcium and to make other products such as butter. How do they hunt? The Himalayas Mountain is one of the major places in the world with a big endangered species of animals. Hunting is a popular activity in the Himalayas and surrounding regions. A popular hunting site is the Garhwal, where hunting is permitted both inside and outside game reserves. Most other parts are off-limits when it comes to hunting because of shrinkage in the population of animals. Only hunters with permits are allowed to hunt in Garhwal. Shooting of some animals is banned altogether. However, tourists have often turned into poachers, killing musk. Where do they live? There are many people living on the Himalayas from the Sherpas in Nepal to the Kashmirs in India. What medicines do they use? Most medicines are from the roots of different plants. One of the main plants is the root of Rhododendron anthopogon is used for cuts and wounds and also to make juice.

About The Culture

What are the religions? Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism are the main religions that are taught on the Himalayan mountain range. What are the different myths & beliefs? The Himalayan myth is that there is a Yeti on the lurk around the mountain range. It is the size of a man, walks upright, has an ape-like face and head and is covered in reddish-brown hair. It is also known as the "abominable snowman", But the Yeti is neither abominable nor snowbound. There have been sightings above and below the snow line. What are the different costumes they wear? There are many different costumes for many various parts of the Himalayas. Here are the lists of areas that have different costumes: Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Nepal, Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan and Tibet. You can find out more about the costumes at this website.

About the languages

What are the most common languages? The most common languages are the languages from the countries that are in the Himalayas, Pakistan, Indian, Bhutan and Tibet. What are all the languages spoken in the Himalayas? Barm, Black Mountain Mnpa, Bhutan, Bumthang, Byangsi, Chamling, Choyo, Dhimal, Dumi, Dzongkha, Gongduk, Guqing, Hayu, Indian, Jero, Kulung, Lepcha, Lhokpu, Limbu, Lohorung, Manchad, Mangde, Nmy, Nepal, Pakistan, Sampang, Sinhalese, Sulung, Sunwar, Thadou, Thangmi, Tibet, Trung, Tshangla, Tosu, Toto, Wambule, Yamphu & Zaiwa are most of the languages spoke in the Himalayas.

National Anthems of the Himalayas

The national anthems here are from the main countries based on the himalayan mountain range, Bhutan, India, Pakistan & Nepal.

India National Anthem Lyrics jana-gaNa-mana-adhinAyaka, jaya he' bhArata-bhAgya-vidhAtA punjAba-sindhu-gujarAta-marAThAdrAviDa-utkaLa-bangA vindhya himAchala yamunA gangA uchchala jaladhi tarangA tava Subha nAme' jAge' tava Subha ASisha mAge' gAhe' tava jaya-gAthA | jana-gaNa-mangaLadAyaka, jaya he' bhArata-bhAgya-vidhAtA jaya he', jaya he', jaya he', jaya jaya jaya, jaya he' | English Version: Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people, dispenser of India's destiny. Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal; It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise. The saving of all people waits in thy hand, thou dispenser of India's destiny, Victory, victory, victory to thee. Nepal National Anthem Lyrics Latin Transliteration Shri man gumbhira nepali prachanda pratapi bhupati Shri pach sarkar maharajadhiraja ko sada rahos unnati Rakhun chi rayu eeshale praja phailiyos pukaraun jaya premale Hami nepali bhaeesarale. English Version: May glory crown you, courageous Sovereign, You, the gallant Nepalese, Shri Pansh Maharajadhiraja, our glorious ruler, May he live for many years to come And may the number of his subjects increase. Let every Nepalese sing this with joy.

Pakistan National Anthem Lyrics Latin Transliteration Pak sarzamin shad bad Kishware haseen shad bad Tunishane azmealishan arze Pakistan Markazeyaqin shadbad. Pak sarzamin ka nizam quwate akhuwati awam Qaum, mulk, Sultanat Painda ta binda bad shad, bad man zele murad. Parchame sitarao hilat Rahbare tarraqio ka mal Tarjumane mazishane hal jane istaqbal Sayyai, khudae zul jalal. English Version: Blessed be the sacred land, Happy be the bounteous realm, Symbol of high resolve, Land of Pakistan. Blessed be thou citadel of faith. The Order of this Sacred Land Is the might of the brotherhood of the people. May the nation, the country, and the State Shine in glory everlasting. Blessed be the goal of our ambition. This flag of the Crescent and the Star Leads the way to progress and perfection, Interpreter of our past, glory of our present, Inspiration of our future, Symbol of Almighty's protection.

Geography Facts
Height: From ground to Mount Everest (0m, 8848m) Length: the Himalayas is about 2500 kms Width: A rough estimation is 350 kms

Map Of Where The Himalayas Is

Climate & Weather

Climate The two major seasons of the Himalayan region are winter and summer. During the winter the region receives the maximum snow with very icy temperatures. Summer are quiet mild over here, making the places over here quiet good summer holiday hideouts. Weather In the summer in the Himalayas it can get as hot as 15 degrees So there for you should pack Autumn/Spring clothing along with some jumpers. In the winter in the Himalayas it gets very, very cold therefor you should pack jumpers and pants and lost of warm stuff.

Plant's & Nature

There are thousands of beautiful plants growing in the Himalayan Mountain range. Here is two examples of the different plants. Himalayan Balsam Himalayan Balsam (impatiens Glandulifera) is a large annual plant native to the Himalayas. People Introduce its now extant across of the North Hemisphere. The Himalayan Balsam is typically grow to 3.3-6.5 feet high, it a green or restaged stem, and lance late leaves 5 to 23 cm. The flowers are pink, with a hooded shape 3 to 4 cm tall. Fir Tree Another great plant is the Fir Tree. It originates from a village in County Durham, in England. It is situated to the west of Crook, near the River Wear. Fir Tree is a genus of 4855 species of evergreen coniferous tree in the family Pinaceae. It is found through much of North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, occurring in mountains over most of the range.

Bonobo Classification: Primates, Hominidae Scientific Name: Pan Paniscus The Bonobo is a chimpanzee that lives in the jungles of Africa. They are gentle animals with an intelligence level. Unless some action is taken, they may become extinct from hunting and deforestation. Size & Weight Body length: Male 73-83cm / Female 70-76cm Weight: Male 39kg / Female 31kg Where They Live The Bonobo lives in the jungles of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Africa. What They Eat They primarily eat fruits, leaves, and branches. Sometimes, they eat ants and small animals. That They Are Like While there is some resemblance to the Chimpanzee, the Bonobo has slimmer body and long arms and legs. Their hair is parted in the middle, and long and standing at the side of their ears. Can you tell the difference? Dholes Classification: Carnivora, Canidae Scientific Name: Cuon Alpinus The Dhole is a member of the Canidae (dog) family and they take good care of the members of their packs. However some people considered them to be a fierce animal that attacks livestock and killed many of them with guns and traps. Size & Weight Body length: 88-113cm Tail length: 40-50cm Weight: Male 15-20kg / Female 10-17kg Where They Live They live in the forests and grasslands of West Asia, China, India and the Malaysian peninsula. What They Eat

They prey on rabbits and deer, sometimes even bears and tigers. Sometimes they also eat insects and fruits. What They Are Like Dhole adults take good care of the cubs in the pack even if the cubs are not their own kids. They watch out for predators that come near their dens, and carry the cubs away if in danger. Red Pandas Classification: Carnivora Ailuridae Scientific Name: Ailurus Fulgens The Red Panda and Giant Panda have the same "panda" in their name but they come from different families. They are becoming extinct because the forests are becoming smaller. Size & Weight Body length: 50-63.5cm Tail length: 28-48.5cm Weight: 3-6kg Where They Live The Red Panda makes his house in China, Nepal, Myanmar, and other mountain woods. What They Eat The Red Panda loves chomping on bamboo but he also eats plant leaves and fruit. What They Are Like The Red Panda is a super tree climber. He balances with his long tail. And he sleeps in trees! Snow Leopards Classification: Carnivora Felidae Scientific Name: Uncia Uncia Mysterious, fantastic, and amazing!: The Snow Leopard is all of these. The Snow Leopard is being hunted for its rare, beautiful fur, its numbers are now near disappearing. Size & Weight Body length: 100-150cm Tail length: 80-100cm

Weight: Male: 45-55kg / Female:35-40kg Where They Live High mountains, like those in Central Asia and the Himalayan range. What They Eat The Snow Leopard eats goats, sheep, rabbits and birds. It can catch prey over 3 times its own weight! What They Are Like In order to live comfortably in cold and snowy climates, the Snow Leopard grows fur even on the bottom of its feet. It springs upon its prey with a strong, speedy jump! Purple-faced Langur Classification: Primates, Cercopithecidae Scientific Name: Trachypithecus Vetulus The Purple-faced Langur is a monkey that lives only in the forests of Sri Lanka. Their numbers have dropped to a half over the last few decades due to deforestation and hunting. Size & Weight Body length: Male 49.5 to 60.8cm / Female 48.5 to 54cm Tail length: Male 61.8 to 85.3cm / Female 66.6 to 82cm Weight: Male 6.7 to 9.4kg / Female 5.1 to 7.5kg Where They Live The Purple-faced Langur lives only in the forests of Sri Lanka. What They Eat The Purple-faced Langur loves to eat tree leaves. What They Are Like The Purple-faced Langur lives in packs among rival packs within a small area. For this reason, the males engage in fierce territorial bouts to overtake other packs. Sumatran Tiger Classification: Carnivora Felidae Scientific Name: Panthera Tigris Sumatrae On the island of Sumatra where the Sumatran Tigers live, forests are disappearing. Sumatran Tigers need a wider place to live. Forests get smaller,

and the number of Sumatran Tigers is shrinking. Size & Weight Body length: 2.2-2.7m Weight: 100-150kg Where They Live They live only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. What They Eat They hunt animals like deer and wild boar, rabbits, and birds. Sometimes they also eat bugs and fish. What They Are Like They are the smallest kind of tiger. Their sharp claws and fangs take down prey much larger than them. Giant Panda Classification: Carnivora Ursidae Scientific Name: Ailuropoda Melanoleuca The Giant Panda is a superstar in the animal kingdom. The forests where pandas live are becoming smaller and smaller, and they may not be able to find mates or food anymore. Size & Weight Body length: 120-150cm Tail length: 13cm Weight: 80-100kg Where They Live They only live in the forests of China. What They Eat The Giant Pandas' favorite food is bamboo. Sometimes they also eat small animals and insects, as well as fruits.

1. Get chosen from different states of Australia and all meets in Melbourne airport, they fly to china but crash land in the Himalayan Mountains. 2. Salvage six items off the plane. 3. Walk around looking for a good campsite. 4. Build a shelter and set up camp. 5. Foraging for food & first sleep and clothing. 6. First day. 7. Finding water. 8. Hunting & Jolisa rolls her ankle. 9. Finds a snake in the shelter. 10. 11. Anna has a fear of snakes and has nightmares. Jolisa is making rescue plans, while girls are out

hunting, because shes still injured. 12. Rescue copter flies over camp and girls use army

knife to signal that they are down there and alive

Written by Amy M, Jacinta V, Layla S, Susan L & Tahlia S


Annes First Night What a crazy hours it has been. If it hadnt happened to me, I dont think I would have believed it. It all started early this morning, when I boarded a plan bound for China. It was only a smell plan with 7 people on board, including the pilot and co-pilot. At this stage I should introduce the people on the plan. They were Hay lee, Jolisa, Holli, Ashleigh, and me Anne, we all 16 years old and we all chose from different states of Australia and meet up at Melbourne airport, fly to china for a camp. Wed been in the air for about 6-7 hours when I first noticed something was wrong. I could see the plane flying toward the trees, and then the plane nosed down on to the trees. The crash was terrible. Everyone on the plane was screaming. All I can remember is the sound of the screaming and the terrible crash. I was scared, nervous and flustered. I was thinking about how could I get out of here, am I going to die? Are they any snakes around? After the plan-crashed al the passengers had to escape the wreckage, we managed to get out by ourselves, via the back door. Its now late at night. Were not sure where we are and were all scared. Im feeling exhausted and hungry too, and sad knowing the pilot and co-pilot both died in the crash.

Ashleigh Salvages Items I decided to go into the wreckage of the plane and salvage as many items as I could. I couldnt be in there very long because of the flames; I was worried the flames would reach the fuel tank and if there was a leek that the plan would explode! I managed to save an army knife that could help us with building shelter, cutting up firewood, cutting up our food and signalling planes and helicopters to be rescued, I had also seen a hand gun down the back of the plane and so I ran down the back and grab that to. I had remembered over hearing one of the airhostesses talking to another trainee hostess about an emergency package in the front cupboard in case there was a crash so I ran down the front to grab that. After we had all safely got away from the wreckage we opened the emergency package there was a first aid kit, 10 warm jumpers (because the plane only seated 10 we had assumed they had aloud 1 for each person) 10 bottles of water (all 1litre) and a mountaineering book the last thing I herd the airhostess say was that we were about to fly over the Himalayas there was a map in the book and tips for keeping warm and staying safe.

Haylee Has A Look Around From the plane wreckage, north looked the worst to head off into. Towards south we could see a little bit of a slope. East and west just kept getting me confused because it looked all the same, tall trees, damp ground and noisy animal calls. So far I have discovered that it is really cool and full of trees everywhere! From where we were at the wreckage to where we are now, around about 20-30 metres away, is pretty different. Looking up there is barely any sunlight and looking around it just looks like we have been walking in circles. All the trees are seriously tall and the ground is really damp. I hear all different noises from animals while we are looking through the intense jungle. I soon hit a steep slope, which has lots of rocks on it. We all decide to go down it but seeing all the broken branches and dangerous grounding, I kept saying to myself how are we going to survive here?! Most of the food will come from down there because when theres a slope theres a river, Anne said while reading out of the Mountaineering book that we salvaged off the wreckage. I thought to myself even though I am pretty athletic, that that was way too dangerous. While I was slowly going down the slope I also heard the animal noises getting louder. Uh what sort of food is down here Anne? I asked her with a frightened voice. Im not too sure but we will find out soon. The more we walk the denser the jungle gets. We soon find some flat ground. It looked all right to build camp but all the frightening noises and the strong smell that was coming through I was hoping we would get out of here soon.

Ashleigh Builds Shelter We have been busily setting up camp today. The area weve decided to set up camp in is close to a good area about 20metres away from a sparkling river. We chose this place because it is a good source of water to keep us hydrated. There is also fish in the river there for we didnt have to go far to hunt. There were some other good places near by that we couldve chosen, such as a cave but that was a bit of a hike away for the river and there was also a good clearing up a bit further near a waterfall but it was a bit loud there but we think weve made the right choice by moving down the river a little further where it is a bit quieter! Last night we slept outside. But we have decided we need to build a shelter to protect us from the wind a bit. We didnt have a lot to work with just a few leaves and vines and we also thought this might be a good time to use the army knife to help us cut some sticks off the trees. We all helped build the shelter. It was difficult but we worked together and got it finished!

Jolisas Hunt For Food So far we have been able to get lots of fruit and berries and that kind of food from the trees. We havent needed to cook so far because we all have been eating fruit. We are getting a bit sick of fruit but thats all we have so far. We dont have set meals we just go out hunting for food and whatever we find we divide it equally around the group and make sure no one misses out or gets less. We are starving because its the first few days.

Jolisa Gets Warmth From Ashleigh It is spring in the Himalayas so its not extremely cold but it can get quite cold so we had to go back to the plane to get any clothes left on the plane that we could wear. Ashleigh went back to the plane to get the clothes while we waited back at camp. She arrived back about 20 minutes later with lots of jumpers and coats for us so we wouldnt be freezing at night time. She also had two pairs of boots and beanies which was great.

Haylees First Day My eyes open slowly, not believing what just happened to me yesterday. It takes me a minute to realise that I still wasnt alone. I had Jolisa, Ashleigh, Holli and Anne with me from the wreckage. I feel very confused and itchy from the mosquitos bitting me all night. I hope all the others didnt have the same problem as me. Everyone is still sleeping when I hear a screech from what I thought was an eagle or something. Looking around I see the same thing I saw yesterday, just tall trees, damp ground and branches everywhere. Then I looked above me and I could see a little figure coming towards me. Oh my god! I shrieked really fast, oh my god. I shrieked a bit louder. Jolisa wakes up to see that a monkey was coming towards us in the treetops. Ahhhhhhhhhhhh! Jolisa screams thinking it were a big animal that was about to fall onto her. Everyone wakes up. What now? Holli says while yawning, thinking that she was still at home in her bed. We all look up but I knew exactly what it was, it was a spider monkey. I think at this rate it will be very difficult trying to get help at this rate!

Holli Searches For Water We have just crash landed in the Himalayas, we have found water in a running creek nearby the creek is about a 10 minute walk from camp. We believe that the water is safe to drink because, we boil the water to make sure that it is okay to drink. We also wash ourselves with the water as well. When we run out of water we fill our 1L bottles up so we make ourselves hydrated by drinking 1L each day. When we run out of water we go back to the running creek. Then we boil the water again so we can use it when we need to anywhere at any time.

Annes Hunt For Food Today all of us went hunting, but I wasnt very happy, because I decided to become vegetarian and I dont like killing animals for foods. We went hunting nearby our camp. We were hunting for monkeys and insects, because the other animals are too smell, too high, or some are too quick and flexible. We were using handgun and Swiss Army Knife to help with the hunting. We got this from the plane before it blew-up. During the hunt, we were feeling very tired and thirsty. I didnt enjoy hunting, because it is absolutely disgusting. At the end of the day we had caught one monkey four big spiders and some big insects, we ate them for dinner, they tasted terrible, shocking and disgusting, and so I decided to drink water.

Haylees Fright We caught a spider monkey, a bird and some insects when we went hunting. Jolisas ankle still hurts from her tumble; we are heading back to camp so we can put a bandage on from our first aid kit. I am walking ahead of everyone when I see something in our campsite. Its a snake. It is pretty long with a yellowish-brown or orange kind of coloured with its underside of rose pink. There are also irregular black markings on the back and the head and neck are black. Holli was flicking through the pages of the mountaineering book to find out which snake it was while the others and I stood still around about four metres away from it. Around about five minutes of Hollis examination and Ashleigh, Anne, Jolisa and I standing still she found out it was a Royal Snake. It is non-venomous snake. It only eats rodents, lizards, insects and small birds. We all breathed a sigh of relief. I wasnt holding Jolisa up with Ashleigh and Anne so I decided to grab two long sticks and move it away. When it was gone I turned to face Jolisa and it looked like Anne just had a massive panic attack. Are you ok Anne? I asked. No reply. I waved my hand in her face when she said I have a major fear of snakes. In a robotic, hypnotic voice. Well its gone now so can you help get Jolisa down so we can put a bandage on her at least? Okay, she replied still in shock. We start a fire to cook the monkey with two sticks and leaf litter that wasnt so wet. We enjoyed having a proper meal for once after all the trauma we have been through. From having a

plane crash, to Jolisa roll her ankle, to having a snake in our camp, whats next? I wondered. Never to be found at all!?

Annes Night Thoughts We have now been here for two days. Im really scared of this place, because there are bugs everywhere, snakes, less food and water. Im really scared Im going to die. The group is working well together, but Lay lee and Ashleigh are starting to squabble at each other. We try to think of a way to help them to stop fighting. I hope tomorrow someone comes and rescues us, and we get out of here I miss my family, my school, and my friends. I wish I was at home, not coming to the camp. I enjoy here, with m new friends, I get along with them, but is little bit uncomfortable. I think its because is, unsteady with new friends.

Jolisa Makes Plans I am still injured so while the girls went out hunting I decided to stay back at camp and make some rescue plans. I came up with the idea that we could find and open area and light a fire to try and signal a helicopter or we could all get a partner and go for a long walk to try and see if anybody was around camping or for some help if anybody was around. We havent yet decided on a plan we are still discussing which would be the best.

Holli Sees Signs of Being Rescued Our plan worked! Were on our way home right now, I cant wait! We put our plan into action, and first saw our rescuers when a helicopter flew above us. I started waving our Swiss Army knife around to give signal, which would let the people know that we are down here and that we are alive. They looked like it was policemen and they were flying slower and slower. We were so excited to see them, but we were worried they might not have seen us. Once we knew theyd seen us, we were all so happy. The rescuers arrive and asked us how long we were there for and we said 3 days and 2 nights. Then they took us to the helicopter and we then started to head back home. When we arrived at Melbourne our parents come and picked us up. Im now feeling relieved that we are home safe and sound and I am also looking forward to learn again.


Top Story: Plane Crashes in Himalayan Mountain Range. Two confirmed dead but five are missing. 12 December 2012 TWO FOUND DEAD, FIVE MISSING A plane crashes in the Himalayan mountains south from Sikkim in Nepal. Two conrmed dead but ve are missing from the wreckage. Fears for their survival in the mountains. Massive man hunt underway to nd them. Yesterday a plane carrying ve different parts of Australia to meet up and students from different parts of Australia to y to China. The ight tower manager go to China for a camp, when the plane noticed that the plane was losing contact and was soon wiped off their screens. crashed just south from Sikkim, Nepal. We are not too sure where it ended up The ight had two hours before they reached their destination when connection crashing in the mountains, but we knew it was lost in the mountain range. It was would be around south from Nepal. Flight unknown what took the plane down, all we Tower Manager Robert told us. know now is that the pilot and the teacher We think the girls wouldve wandered supervising the students are conrmed off towards steep slopes and dense jungle dead and the ve student taking the trip areas. Detective Percy exclaimed. But it are missing in the mountains. would be hard to tell. It is not known what made the plane There are many doubts that they will crash but us detectives are looking into the nd the girls alive but they will search until they nd some sort of evidence of their situation, Detective Percy told WIN News last night, We are also having a massive appearance in the mountains. They are Five Missing man hunt to nd the ve girls. missed by their family and friends and they Ashleigh, Haylee, Anne, Holli and Jolisa are missing in the Ashleigh, Haylee, Anne, Holli and all hope for the search squad to nd them Himalayan Mountain Rage just Jolisa are the ve girls that are missing in alive.


the mountains. They took the trip for their study at school. They were chosen from

south from Sikkim, Nepal.


Stuck In The Himalayas

Haylee: I dont want to go out hunting yet I am too tired. Ashleigh: Haylee, we need food. We have to go out hunting. Haylee: Why cant the rest of you go out and hunt while I stay back at camp? Ashleigh: Because we need as many people as possible to go out hunting. Just come with us, Haylee and you can sleep later. Haylee: Fine, but I wont be any good while hunting. Ashleigh: Thats all right. As long as you come with us and help out.

Himalayas Susan Liu

A mystery from five teenager girls and two adults they were chosen going to a camp for a week in China. They are missing for, three days now, we think they are lost in somewhere or, the plane crashed on the way to china. The Chinese people are looking for them as well but, they dont have much information about them Family really need help, so please help them and us to find them. Where do you think the girls are? Are any confirmed dead? Where you think they have headed off? Do you think the girls will survive?